Middle School Science

Miss Sprague

7th Grade Unit 2 Study Guide: Answers

Study Guide Unit 2 1.What is the principle of uniformitarianism? • The principle of uniformitarianism states that geologic processes that happened in the past, can be explained by current geologic processes. 2. What are two examples of surface changes that occur today that also occurred in the past? • volcanic eruptions and erosion 3. What are five ways an animal or plant can become a fossil? • trapped in amber • trapped in asphalt, as in a tar pit • buried in rocks • frozen • become petrified 4. What are three types of trace fossils and what can they reveal about the past? • tracks, or footprints left in soft sediment • burrows, pathways or shelters made by animal • animal dung or coprolites • These trace fossils leave clues about how animals behaved in the past. 5. What was Pangaea? What happened to it? • Pangaea was a single landmass or supercontinent • It broke up 200 million years ago 6. What are three ways besides fossils that we can learn about Earth’s past climate? • Tree rings • Sea floor sediments • ice cores 7. What is relative dating? • Determining the order of events, whether an object is older or younger 8. What is the law of superposition? • Principle that states the younger rocks lie above older rocks if the layers have not been disturbed. 9. Are intrusions older or younger than the rocks that contain them? How do you know? • Intrusions are younger according to the law of cross-cutting relationships. 10. What do we call a missing layer of rock? What are two ways this can happen? • Unconformities can happen when rock layers are eroded or sediment is not deposited for a long period of time. 11. What is the difference between absolute and relative dating? • Absolute dating gives the exact age of a rock or fossil as measured in years • Relative age tells us the order that events happened in and whether an event or object is younger or older 12. What is radioactive decay? • The breakdown of an unstable isotope into a stable isotope by shedding particles. 13. What is half life? How do we use half life to calculate absolute age? • Half life is the amount of time it takes for the unstable parent isotope to break down into the stable daughter isotope. • We can find out the number of half lives that have occurred in a sample by looking at the ratio of parent to daughter isotopes. • We then multiply the number of half lives by the number of years per half life to get absolute age. 14. What are three types of radiometric dating and what age range can each be used for? • Radiocarbon dating: up to 45,000 years old • Potassium-argon dating: 100,000 years- a few billion years old • Uranium-lead dating: 100 million years to billions of years old 15. What kind of radiometric dating do we use on fossils? • Radiocarbon dating or C14 dating 16. How old is the earth? How do we know? • 4.6 billion years old • We know from uranium-lead dating performed on meteorites and moon rocks 17. What are the four characteristics of an index fossil? • Must be present over a wide region • Must have clearly distinguished features • Only lived a short period of time • Found in large numbers within the rock numbers 18. What are the four divisions of the geologic time scale? • Eon, era, period, epoch 19. What is Precambrian time? How much of Earth’s history does this represent? • 4.6 billion years-540 million years ago, represents 90% of Earth’s history 20. What eon, era, period, and epoch do we live in? • Phanerozoic Eon • Cenozoic Era • Quaternary Period • Halocene Epoch 21. During which era did the dinosaurs live? When did they go extinct? • Mesozoic Era • 66 million years ago 22. How did oxygen enter the Earth’s atmosphere? • cyanobacteria released oxygen into the air through photosynthesis 23. What kinds of changes did the Earth experience multiple times over its history? • mass extinctions, continental drift warming and cooling periods, and life becoming more and more complex

Grade 7 ​Science

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7.5 Ecosystem Dynamics

How does changing an ecosystem affect what lives there?

7th science assignment answers unit 2

Unit Summary

This unit on ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity begins with students reading headlines that claim that the future of orangutans is in peril and that the purchasing of chocolate may be the cause. Students then examine the ingredients in popular chocolate candies and learn that one of these ingredients--palm oil--is grown on farms near the rainforest where orangutans live. This prompts students to develop initial models to explain how buying candy could impact orangutans.

Students spend the first lesson set better understanding the complexity of the problem, which cannot be solved with simple solutions. They will figure out that palm oil is derived from the oil palm trees that grow near the equator, and that these trees are both land-efficient and provide stable income for farmers, factors that make finding a solution to the palm oil problem more challenging. Students will establish the need for a better design for oil palm farms, which will support both orangutans and farmers. The final set of lessons engage students in investigations of alternative approaches to growing food compared to large-scale monocrop farms. Students work to design an oil palm farm that simultaneously supports orangutan populations and the income of farmers and community members.

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Simulations

7th science assignment answers unit 2

Unit 7.5 Lesson 7: Orangutans in Protected Areas StoryMap

7th science assignment answers unit 2

Unit 7.5 Lesson 15: Diversified Farming Storymap

7th science assignment answers unit 2

Unit 7.5 L8 Orangutan Energy Model 1 – Classroom Use

7th science assignment answers unit 2

Unit 7.5 L8 Orangutan Energy Model 2 – Remote or Absent Students

7th science assignment answers unit 2

Unit 7.5 L9 Orangutan Population Model – Classroom and Remote Use

Unit examples, additional unit information, next generation science standards addressed in this unit.

Performance Expectations

  • MS-LS2-1: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.
  • MS-LS2-4: Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.
  • MS-LS2-2: Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.
  • MS-LS2-5: Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.
  • MS-ESS3-3: Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.
  • MS-ETS1-1: Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

  • LS2.A: Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with non-living factors. Students investigate how organisms (see Lessons 8) and populations of organisms (Lessons 7, 9-12) depend on interactions with other populations particularly as they search for food resources. Students focus on plant interactions with non-living factors in Lesson 3.  
  • LS2.A: In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction. Students investigate competition between orangutans in a simulation in Lesson 8 and circle back to competition in Lesson 13.
  • LS2.A: Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources. Students build these ideas through simulations and additional case studies across Lessons 8-11.
  • LS2.A: Similarly, predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and non-living, are shared. Students model different interactions in the rainforest and oil palm systems, including predation, competition, and mutualism between orangutans and fruit tree populations (see Lessons 11-13).
  • LS2.C: Ecosystems are dynamic in nature; their characteristics can vary over time. Disruptions to any physical or biological component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all its populations. Students model different disruption scenarios and predict how those disruptions would shift populations. Students hear from farmers about the strategies they employ to protect themselves from disruptions (see Lessons 13, 15, 16).
  • LS2.C: Biodiversity describes the variety of species found in Earth’s terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. The completeness or integrity of an ecosystem’s biodiversity is often used as a measure of its health. Students compare rainforest systems to oil palm systems in terms of the biodiversity found in each system (see Lesson 13). Students learn that farmers are interested in supporting biodiversity in Lesson 14.
  • LS4.D: Changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on—for example, water purification and recycling. Students figure out that people engage with different ways to grow food compared to monocrop in order to obtain different benefits, or services (see Lessons 15-16).
  • ESS3.C: Human activities have significantly altered the biosphere, sometimes damaging or destroying natural habitats and causing the extinction of other species. But changes to Earth’s environments can have different impacts (negative and positive) for different living things. Students focus on understanding the problem, which involves humans altering the biosphere in ways that negatively impact orangutans (Lessons 2-4) and alterations in their own communities (Lessons 5). Students also encounter ways humans farm for food that positively support biodiversity in Lesson 14.
  • ETS1.A: The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that are likely to limit possible solutions. Students use criteria and constraints, based on the science and engineering ideas developed in the unit, with a particular attention to what land-use strategies work for different stakeholders and the limits of their application. Students make their first pass at criteria and constraints in Lesson 6 and revisit them to make them more precise in Lesson 17. Students evaluate design based on criteria and constraints in Lesson 18.

Science & Engineering Practices

  • Asking Questions and Defining Problems:  This unit is anchored by a complex socioscientific issue. Students’ initial questions on the DQB lead them to investigate simple fixes to a complex problem. The first lesson set serves to complicate the problem for them, culminating in defining it more clearly later in Lesson 6. Students define a design problem that can be solved through the development of a system , but a designed system that is limited by both scientific and social factors.
  • Developing and Using Models: Students develop new understandings about how to use a computer model to generate data to test ideas about population dynamics in the rainforest and farm designs. They evaluate the limitations of the computer model in comparison to the complex real-world systems the model is representing.
  • Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Students engage in planning and carrying out investigations with independent and control variables in a computer simulation. They use the simulation in the unit as a way to collect data and produce data about design solutions and proposed systems under a range of conditions. Mathematics and Computation Thinking: Students calculate ratios of orangutans to land area to understand population density. They characterize and use graphical representations of populations over time to draw conclusions about resource availability and farm designs. The lesson 10 assessment on Monarch butterflies allows for assessment of this practice.

Crosscutting Concepts

  • Cause and Effect: Cause and effect is a lens students apply throughout the unit, focusing on establishing cause and effect relationships in order to predict phenomena. Students use cause and effect in the context of natural systems and in their designs land-use systems.
  • System and System Models: Students develop system models to allow them to understand the different components and interactions occurring within the system. They discuss limitations of their system models for representing the complexity of the real-world systems (e.g., simulations representing limited components and interactions).
  • Stability and Change:  Stability and change is a consistent lens students apply throughout the unit as they make sense of small changes in the system that have large impacts, as well as sudden and gradual changes over time. They look to stabilize orangutan populations and farmers income in their final designs.

Nature of Science Connections

Which elements of the Nature of Science are developed in the unit?

  • Science investigations use a variety of methods and tools to make measurements and observations. (NOS-SEP)
  • Science is a way of knowing used by many people, not just scientists. (NOS-CCC)
  • Men and women from different social, cultural, and ethnic backgrounds work as scientists and engineers.(NOS-CCC)
  • Scientists and engineers rely on human qualities such as persistence, precision, reasoning, logic, imagination and creativity. (NOS-CCC)
  • Scientific knowledge can describe the consequences of actions but does not necessarily prescribe the decisions that society takes. (NOS-CCC)

How are they developed?

  • Students observe different ways scientists count orangutans using their nests. They analyze different sources of real data from scientists studying orangutans to count how they disperse fruit seeds in the forest.
  • Students hear from and read texts by scientists, farmers, and local Indigenous researchers and educators from both the US, Indonesia, and Costa Rica. They learn that much of this science research occurs over years to decades of time.
  • Scientists of different genders and cultural and ethnic groups are profiled in videos and texts. Students hear from scientists working with communities in Indonesia to study orangutans and generate solutions for protecting the rainforest and the many populations that depend on this ecosystem.
  • Students encounter different images of scientists who persist at their work in difficult circumstances to advance our collective understanding of ecosystem change, such as the work by researchers at GPOCP, who develop creative ways to gather data and measure changes in the rainforest ecosystem in order to monitor orangutan populations. They view a video of scientists working in Costa Rica to re-imagine the palm industry as an intercropping system. They hear from farmers who are iteratively improving their practices to benefit the environment and improve their efficiency.
  • Human activities to grow food require alterations in land resources, which ultimately has positive and negative consequences for other living things and the people who depend on the resources before the land was altered and after. Students consider different stakeholders in the palm oil problem to help make decisions about how land can be used to maximize financial and ecosystem benefits. They use their understanding of population dynamics, biodiversity, and ecosystem services as part of their design solutions, but they also consider what makes sense to support communities that depend on agriculture for their financial security.

Unit Placement Information

What is the anchoring phenomenon and why was it chosen?

The anchoring phenomenon, or problem, for the unit is the decline of orangutan populations in Indonesia that is linked to the use of palm oil in food and household products we use everyday. Students encounter this problem through videos, short readings, and headlines. Over the course of 3 class periods they develop an initial understanding that the ingredient palm oil is produced on oil palm plantations in Indonesia, where tropical rainforests are cleared to make space for the plantations. The palm oil problem is a global one, but also connects well to individual consumer choices. The root of this problem is not the palm oil itself, but rather the tension that occurs between large-scale industrial agriculture and the biodiversity that humans want to maintain and protect in ecosystems. This problem provides a rich context in which to investigate population dynamics, biodiversity, resilience, and human impacts in the context of natural and designed systems. The problem also represents a real-world system that farmers, scientists, community members, governments, and consumers are part of, and a context for thinking about how people can design better systems that work for humans and other living things.

The palm oil problem was chosen for this unit after reviewing interest survey results from middle school students, consulting with several external advisory panels, and piloting in middle school classrooms. It was chosen for the following reasons:

  • The palm oil problem provides a rich context for students to engage with all the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) that are bundled with the Performance Expectations of the unit, and to do so in compelling ways.
  • Agricultural practices and biodiversity are not always at odds with each other, but there is a real tension between the monocrop farming methods today and maintaining biodiverse systems. This tension sets students up for authentic problem-solving and design tasks, keeping in mind different perspectives on the issue and different possible solutions.
  • Protecting the rainforest and the orangutan is a natural inclination for young people. Beginning with a charismatic system and species opens the door for students to notice examples in their own communities in which humans have altered the land in ways that work for people and not other living things. The underlying mechanisms to explain the palm oil problem are broadly applicable to many contexts, including our own backyards and schoolyards.
  • The palm oil problem sets the stage for designing and evaluating solutions from different perspectives, including farmers who want to maximize profits and protect important ecosystem services they rely upon, and the orangutans who need to meet their needs for growth and reproduction to maintain their population.

How is the unit structured?

The unit is organized into four lesson sets.

  • Lesson set 1 consists of Lessons 1-5. The focus of this lesson set is to investigate a good portion of our initial questions that are rooted in “simple” fixes to the problem (e.g., Can we use something else? Can we grow it somewhere else?). We end this lesson set with a realization that the problem is more complicated than it initially appears.
  • Lesson set 2 consists of Lessons 6-10. The focus of this lesson set is to define the problem and criteria and constraints for solutions, one of which is to maintain orangutan populations. This motivates a series of lessons to explore the connection between resource availability and population size.
  • Lesson set 3 consists of Lessons 11-13. This short lesson set picks up with resource availability but in the context of systems, namely the rainforest system and oil palm system. Students consider how disruptions to key resources in these systems (i.e., fruit trees, oil palm) impact other populations in the system and develop ideas about biodiversity, disruptions, and monocrop agriculture.
  • Lesson set 4 consists of Lessons 14-20. In this lesson set students investigate better ways to grow food that support both farmers and other living things. They apply these ideas to design and evaluate palm oil farm designs. Lessons 19-20 are two pathways to extend the unit to communicate about the problem to one’s community (Lessons 19) or to apply ideas to a local problem (Lesson 20).

7th science assignment answers unit 2

Where does this unit fall within the OpenSciEd Scope and Sequence?

This unit is designed to be taught after OpenSciEd Unit 7.4: Where does food come from, and where does it go next? (Maple Syrup Unit) in the OpenSciEd Scope and Sequence. As such, it can leverage ideas about food webs, producers, consumers, and interactions between these organisms in an ecosystem. Other prior engineering design focused units, such as OpenSciEd Unit 6.2: How can containers keep stuff from warming up or cooling down? (Cup Design Unit) , OpenSciEd Unit 6.5: Where do natural hazards happen and how do we prepare for them?(Tsunami Unit) , and OpenSciEd Unit 7.2: How can we use chemical reactions to design a solution to a problem? (Homemade Heater Unit) , will allow students to leverage what they know about criteria, constraints, iterative design cycles, stakeholders, and optimizing designs.

This unit is designed to be taught prior to OpenSciEd Unit 7.6: How do changes in Earth’s system impact our communities and what can we do about it? (Droughts and Floods Unit) , which focuses on natural water resources, changing precipitation and climate, and human impacts. The two units together share Performance Expectation MS-ESS3-3 and its corresponding DCIs (ESS3.C Human Impacts on Earth Systems). There are no modifications to make to this unit but an awareness that the Palm Oil Unit and Droughts and Floods Unit are closely connected is important.

What modifications will I need to make if this unit is taught out of sequence?

This is the fifth unit in 7th grade in the OpenSciEd Scope and Sequence. Given this placement, several modifications would need to be made if teaching this unit earlier or later in the middle-school curriculum. These include:

  • If taught before the OpenSciEd Unit 7.1: How can we make something new that was not there before? (Bath Bombs Unit) or at the start of the school year, supplemental teaching of classroom norms, setting up the Driving Question Board, and asking open-ended and testable questions would need to be added. (These supports are built into the Bath Bombs Unit )
  • If taught before the Maple Syrup Unit , supplemental teaching of matter cycling between organisms and food webs would be required. In particular, students having experienced the Maple Syrup Unit  will want to immediately investigate the ingredients in candy during the anchor lesson because students traced many ingredients back to plants in that unit. This may not be the case for students who have not experienced the Maple Syrup Unit , so the motivation to look at candy ingredients on day 1 of Lesson 1 may need additional support from you. The unit also relies on students having a recent learning experience around producers and consumers and the interconnection between the two in a food chain. This is particularly important for Lessons 11-13. Food webs are taught in 5th grade and students can work from this level of understanding, if needed. Lastly, Lesson 3 expects that students can readily identify the conditions that plants need to grow. The lesson has students briefly articulate these conditions so that students use most of the instructional time to identify growing conditions for oil palm plants. Additional time may need to be spent in this lesson if students have not learned about plant growth (MS-LS1-6).
  • This unit is highly dependent on 6th-grade math concepts. If this unit is taught in 6th grade, it is suggested to work very closely with a 6th grade math teacher to understand when students will learn the mathematical concepts and process (listed below) so that this unit can reinforce those concepts in a real-world problem context but not come before students have developed these ideas in their math classes (or working in conjunction with math and science simultaneously).

What mathematics is required to fully access the unit’s learning experiences?

During Lesson Set 2, students will engage in population thinking, rate and ratio reasoning, and encounter many graphical representations of data (e.g., line graphs, histograms) that they will need to interpret. They will calculate ratios in Lesson 7, create histograms together in Lesson 8, and interpret single data points in a distribution during both Lessons 8 and 9. Students will also work with the concept of “trend” in Lessons 9 and 10. Prerequisite math concepts that may be helpful include:

  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.RP.A.1 Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.RP.A.2 Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.RP.A.3 Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.RP.A.3.c Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.RP.A.3.d Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.B.2 Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.B.3 Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.5 Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.SP.A.1 Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.SP.A.2 Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution, which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.
  • CCSS.Math.Content.6.SP.B.5.c Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern, with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.

What additional strategies are available to support equitable science learning in this unit?

OpenSciEd units are designed to promote equitable access to high-quality science learning experiences for all students. Each unit includes strategies which are integrated throughout the OpenSciEd routines and are intended to increase relevance and provide access to science learning for all students. OpenSciEd units support these equity goals through several specific strategies such as: 1) integrating Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Principles during the unit design process to reduce potential barriers and provide more accessible ways in which students can engage in learning experiences; 2) developing and supporting classroom norms that provide a safe learning culture, 3) supporting classroom discourse to promote students in developing, sharing, and revising their ideas, and 4) specific strategies to supporting emerging multilingual students in science classrooms.

Many of these strategies are discussed in the teacher guides in sidebar callout boxes titled “Attending to Equity” and subheadings such as “Supporting Emerging Multilingual Learners” or “Supporting Universal Design for Learning.” Other callout boxes with strategies are found as “Additional Guidance”, “Alternate Activity,” and “Key Ideas” and various discussion callouts. Finally, each unit includes the development of a Word Wall as part of students’ routines to “earning” or “encountering” scientific language.

For more information about each of these different strategies with example artifacts, please see the OpenSciEd Teacher Handbook.

How do I shorten or condense the unit if needed? How can I extend the unit if needed?

The following are example options to shorten or condense parts of the unit without eliminating important sensemaking for students:

  • Lesson 5: If your students live in communities in which it is safe to make observations outdoors, you can shift some of the in-class observations to a home learning activity.
  • Lesson 19 and 20:  End the unit at Lesson 18. This will satisfy most students’ understanding of the palm oil problem and close out the Driving Question Board. This decision will eliminate 5 class periods. Lessons 19 and 20 are intended to offer meaningful, community-based application of learning for students.

The following are example options to extend parts of the unit to deepen students’ understanding of science ideas in the context of complex socioscientific issues:

  • Lesson 1: An extension opportunity is offered to support your students in better understanding plantation systems over time compared to farms, with a particular look at labor practices and the enslavement of people.
  • Lesson 3: An extension opportunity is offered to explore the financial costs of design and building greenhouses to grow oil palm. This extension allows you to engage your students in understanding limitations of designs, as well as using mathematics and computational thinking to solve problems.
  • Lesson 10:  The case studies provided in this moment allow you to step outside of orangutans to apply science ideas to a new context. Use this opportunity to extend science ideas to a local case.
  • Lesson 12 : An extension opportunity is suggested to support students in exploring local cases of seed dispersal.
  • Lesson 13 : An home learning assignment can be turned into a community photo-documentation activity for students to document examples of biodiverse plant communities and monocrop plant communities in their everyday lives.
  • Lessons 19 and 20 : These lessons offer two pathways to extend student learning through rich and substantial projects. Lesson 19 supports a communication project focused on communicating about palm oil to local community members. Lesson 20 offers an option to move away from palm oil into a local case where a population is struggling and/or land is being used in unproductive ways to support living things.

Unit Acknowledgements

Unit Development Team

  • Lindsey Mohan, Unit Lead, BSCS Science Learning
  • Renee Affolter, Writer, Reviewer, & PD Design, Boston College
  • Kate Cook Whitt, Writer, Maine Math and Science Alliance
  • Candice Guy-Gaytán, Writer, BSCS Science Learning
  • Emily Harris, Writer, BSCS Science Learning
  • Ty Scaletta, Writer, Pilot teacher, Chicago Public Schools
  • Guy Ollison, Writer, BSCS Science Learning
  • Barbara Taylor, Writer, Charles A. Center at UT-Austin
  • Michael Novak, Conceptual design, Northwestern University
  • Heather Young, Sim Developer, Oregon Public Broadcasting
  • Cathie Stimac, Sim Design, Oregon Public Broadcasting
  • Charles Hickey, Pilot teacher, Weymouth Public Schools
  • Jennifer Loud, Pilot teacher, Weymouth Public Schools
  • Julie Callanan, Pilot teacher, Advisor, Framingham Public Schools
  • Katie Van Horne, Assessment Specialist
  • Cindy Passmore, Unit Advisory Chair, UC-Davis
  • Steve Babcock, Advisor, Louisiana State University
  • Karla White, Teacher Advisor, Bethany Public Schools

Consultants

  • Dr. Cheryl Knott, Natalie Robinson, and Dr. Andrea Blackburn from Boston University and the Gunung Palung Orangutan Conservation Program
  • Dr. Rodolfo Dirzo, Stanford University

Production Team

BSCS Science Learning

  • Rachel Paul, Copyeditor, Independent Contractor
  • Natalie Giarratano, Copyeditor (field test), Independent Contractor
  • Kate Herman, Copyeditor, Independent Contractor
  • Stacey Luce, Editorial Production Lead Valerie Maltese, Communications and Advancement Manager
  • Renee DeVaul, Project Manager
  • Chris Moraine, Multimedia Graphic Designer
  • Kate Chambers, Multimedia Graphic Designer

Unit External Evaluation

EdReports awarded OpenSciEd an all-green rating for our Middle School Science Curriculum in February 2023.  The materials received a green rating on all three qualifying gateways: Designed for the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), Coherence and Scope, and Usability. To learn more and read the report, visit the  EdReports site .

NextGenScience’s Science Peer Review Panel

An integral component of OpenSciEd’s  development process  is external validation of alignment to the Next Generation Science Standards by NextGenScience’s Science Peer Review Panel using the  EQuIP Rubric for Science . We are proud that this unit has earned the highest score available and has been awarded the  NGSS Design Badge . You can find additional information about the EQuIP rubric and the peer review process at the  nextgenscience.org  website.

Unit standards

This unit builds toward the following NGSS Performance Expectations (PEs) as described in the OpenSciEd Scope & Sequence:

Reference to kit materials

The OpenSciEd units are designed for hands-on learning and therefore materials are necessary to teach the unit. These materials can be purchased as science kits or assembled using the kit material list.

NGSS Design Badge Awarded: Sep 15, 2021 Awarded To: OpenSciEd Unit 7.5: How Does Changing an Ecosystem Affect What Lives There? VERIFY

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Cambridge science grade 7: unit 2

Biology, science.

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10 questions

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No student devices needed.   Know more

Which 3 of these are the main charecteristics of a living organism?

Respiration

Which of these micro-organisms contain chlorophyll?

Microscopic fungi

... is when an organic matter is broken down by micro-organisms. This process is both useful, but also is a nuisance.

Bread are made mainly

By bacteria

Which of these diseases are made by micro-organisms?

Tuberculosis

Influenza(flu)

What does an animal cell has?

Cell membrane

Which of these does a plant cell has but an animal cell doesn't has?

Chloroplast

A...is a group of cell that has similar cells

Is bacteria important to human life? Why?

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  • NCERT Solutions
  • NCERT Class 7
  • NCERT Class 7 Science
  • Chapter 2: Nutrition In Animals

NCERT Solutions For Class 7 Science Chapter 2: Nutrition in Animals

Ncert solutions class 7 science chapter 2 – free pdf download.

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 – Nutrition in Animals is important as it will teach you many new topics that are pivotal in framing your career. NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 is available in PDF format, and students can freely download it from our website, or they can view the PDF on the website. They can later use the PDF as study material. Students can check out some of the questions below. These NCERT Solutions are really helpful to get a better understanding of concepts of nutrition. 

Download Exclusively Curated Chapter Notes for Class 7 Science Chapter – 2 Nutrition in Animals

Download most important questions for class 7 science chapter – 2 nutrition in animals.

Making use of BYJU’S NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science helps students to get acquainted with Chapter 2 (Nutrition in Animals) in a much better way with ease. All these NCERT Solutions have stepwise explanations, which aim at a student’s better understanding. These topics need to be understood clearly, and scoring well in exams is also very important. As such, students are advised to solve NCERT questions if they want to get better knowledge and clear the exams with flying colours. 

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NCERT Solutions for Class 7 March 31 Science Chapter 2 Nutrition in Animals

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Access Answers to NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 – Nutrition in Animals

Exercise Questions

1. Fill in the blanks:

(a) The main steps of nutrition in humans are _________, __________, __________, _________ and __________.

(b) The largest gland in the human body is __________.

(c) The stomach releases hydrochloric acid and ___________ juices which act on food.

(d) The inner wall of the small intestine has many finger-like outgrowths called _________.

(e) Amoeba digests its food in the ____________ .

(a) The main steps of nutrition in humans are ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion .

(b) The largest gland in the human body is liver .

(c) The stomach releases hydrochloric acid and digestive juices which act on food.

(d) The inner wall of the small intestine has many finger-like outgrowths called villi .

(e) Amoeba digests its food in the food vacuole .

2.Mark ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if it is false:

(a) Digestion of starch starts in the stomach. (T/F)

(b) The tongue helps in mixing food with saliva. (T/F)

(c) The gall bladder temporarily stores bile. (T/F)

(d) The ruminants bring back swallowed grass into their mouth and chew it for some time. (T/F)

3. Tick (✓) mark the correct answer in each of the following:

(a) Fat is completely digested in the

(i) stomach (ii) mouth (iii) small intestine (iv) large intestine

(b) Water from the undigested food is absorbed mainly in the

(i) stomach (ii) food pipe (iii) small intestine (iv) large intestine

a) (iii) small intestine

b) (iv) large intestine

4. Match the items of Column I with those given in Column II:

5. What are villi? What is their location and function?

Villi are finger-like projections or outgrowth. They are present in the small intestine of our digestive system. The villi increase the surface area for absorption of the digested food.

6. Where is the bile produced? Which component of the food does it help to digest?

Bile juice is produced in the liver, and it helps in the digestion of fats by breaking large fat globules into smaller ones.

7. Name the type of carbohydrate that can be digested by ruminants but not by humans. Give the reason also.

Cellulose is the carbohydrate that can be digested by ruminants but not by humans because humans lack cellulase enzyme required to digest the cellulose.

8. Why do we get instant energy from glucose?

Glucose is a simple sugar which is easily absorbed into the blood whereas other carbohydrates are first broken down into glucose and then absorbed; hence, glucose gives instant energy.

9. Which part of the digestive canal is involved in:

(i) absorption of food ________________.

(ii) chewing of food ________________.

(iii) killing of bacteria ________________.

(iv) complete digestion of food ________________.

(v) formation of faeces ________________.

i) Small intestine

ii) Buccal cavity

iii)Stomach

iv) Small intestine

v) Large Intestine

10. Write one similarity and one difference between nutrition in amoeba and human beings.

Similarity: Both amoeba and human beings follow the holozoic type of nutrition.

Difference:

Humans intake food through buccal cavity. In amoeba food is ingested through pseudopodia.

11. Match the items of Column I with suitable items in Column II

12. Label Fig. 2.11 of the digestive system.

Human digestive system

13. Can we survive only on raw, leafy vegetables/grass? Discuss.

No, we cannot survive only on raw, leafy vegetables because they mainly consist of Cellulose which cannot be digested by us due to lack of cellulose-digesting enzyme in our body.

Important topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 – Nutrition in Animals

  • Ways of food intake
  • Human digestion
  • Digestion in herbivores
  • Nutrition and digestion in Amoeba

Students can utilise the NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 for any quick references to comprehend these and other complex topics.

Class 7 Science NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 – Nutrition in Animals

The NCERT Solutions that are given here are framed to help students learn and practise questions related to animal nutrition. Besides, this chapter introduces students to important topics like nutrition and digestion in humans and animals as well as in simple organisms, the process of nutrition, digestive system , etc. The NCERT Solutions Class 7 Science for Nutrition in Animals also contains different examples and solved exercises that students can go through and use to prepare for exams.

Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2

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NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 - Nutrition In Animals

  • NCERT Solutions
  • Chapter 2 Nutrition In Animals

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NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 PDF Download

Are you looking for NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2? Vedantu is the platform where the solutions are available in PDF format and all you need to do is download the file and enjoy learning. Students can download NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 PDF from Vedantu at no cost. All the study materials provided are based on the syllabus followed by schools under the CBSE board.

Therefore, students can clarify their doubts and learn with ease. NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 has been designed by experienced and skilled experts. They also make sure the online study material for NCERT Class 7 Science Chapter 2 is error-free and leads students to the next level of preparation. You can also download NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Maths to revise the complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Topics Covered in Chapter 2 of Class 7 Science

The following are the main topics that are discussed in Chapter 2 of Class 7 Science.

Introduction to Nutrition

Different methods of food ingestion

The human digestive system

Mouth and buccal cavity

The functions of salivary glands

Small and large intestine

Digestion in herbivore animals

Ingestion and digestion in Amoeba

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Access NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 – Nutrition in Animals.

1. fill in the blanks:.

a). The main steps of digestion in humans are _______, _______, _______, _______ and _______.

Ans: ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion.

b). The largest gland in the human body is _______.

Ans: Liver.

c). The stomach releases hydrochloric acid and _______ juice which acts on food.

Ans: Gastric.

d). The Inner wall of the small intestine has many finger-like outgrowths called_______.

Ans: Villi.

e). Amoeba digests its food in the _______.

Ans: Food vacuole.

2. Mark ‘T’ if the Statement Is True and “F” if It Is False.

a). Digestion of starch starts in the stomach.

Digestion of starch starts from the mouth.

b). The tongue helps in mixing food with saliva.

c). The gallbladder temporarily stores bile.

d). The ruminants bring back swallowed grass into their mouth and chew it for some time.

3. Tick () Mark the Correct Answers in Each of the Following:

a). Fat is completely digested in the 

Stomach 

Small intestine

large intestine.

Ans: (iii) Small intestine.

Fats are completely digested in the small intestine because it gets bile from the liver through the gallbladder which is responsible for fat digestion.

b). Water from the undigested food is absorbed mainly in the

Small intestine 

Ans: (iv) Large intestine.

As it takes several hours for the food to travel to enter the large intestine through the digestive tract, the water from the undigested food should be cleaned, this process takes place in the large intestine.

4. Match the Item of Column I With Those Given in Column II.

The food components we take contain carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, which are then broken down by the digestive system into digestible ones such as sugar, amino acids, and fatty acids, glycerol respectively.

5. What are villi? What are their location and function?

The finger-like projections present in the inner wall of the small intestine are called villi.

Villi serves the function of increasing the surface area of the small intestine for absorption of digested food. 

6. Where is the Bile produced? Which component of the food does it digest?

Bile is produced by the liver. The gallbladder is where it is stored temporarily.

Fat is the component of food that is digested by bile juices.

7. Name the carbohydrate that can be digested by ruminants but not human beings. Give reason also.

Ans: Cellulose can be digested by ruminants but not by human beings. Because ruminants have a large sac-like structure called rumen between the esophagus and the small intestine. The cellulose of the food is digested here by the action of certain bacteria which are not present in humans.

8. Why do we get instant energy from glucose?

Ans: Glucose is the simplest carbohydrate that undergoes oxidation and   can be broken easily to give a high energy molecule that provides energy for cells and the bloodstream by which we get instant energy 

9. Which part of the digestive canal is involved in:

Absorption of food ------------. 

Chewing of food -------------. 

Killing of Bacteria ---------- 

Complete digestion of food -----------. 

Formation of feces -----------. 

small intestine 

buccal cavity 

stomach 

large intestine 

10. Write one similarity and one difference between the nutrition in amoeba and human beings.

Ans: Similarity: Both humans and amoeba require food for the cellular processes. Difference: Amoeba takes food by pseudopodia and digests it in there while humans eat food which gets digested at different parts of the digestive tract. 

11. Match the items of Column I With Suitable Items in Column II.

12. Label fig. 2.2 of the Digestive System. 

(Image will be uploaded soon)

13. Can we survive only on raw, leafy vegetables/grass? Discuss.

No, we cannot survive only on raw, leafy vegetables/grass, because to live a healthy life we should have a balanced diet with all the nutrients.

Raw vegetables and grasses only provide fibers that are not enough for the body. So, these green leafy vegetables will not serve the purpose.

Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Nutrition in Animals – Free PDF Download

After downloading the NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2, students can choose to keep the PDF file for future reference. They can also print it to keep it handy whenever required. Vedantu has always fostered the learning stage of several promising aspirants and hence, come up with quality study materials.

The NCERT Solutions of Chapter 2 of CBSE Class 7 Science given in this free downloadable PDF will benefit the students in understanding how to frame an answer in the exams, and it will also explain the concepts of animal nutrition in a better and comprehensive way. The detailed summary of the chapter at the end with key points to remember will come in handy when students look for quick revision.

So, download these NCERT Solutions For Class 7 Science Chapter 2: Nutrition in Animals today for better knowledge and performance. 

2.1 Different Ways of Taking Food

NCERT Science Class 7 Chapter 2 PDF download for Nutrition in Animals Class 7 will allow students to focus on how food is consumed. Different organisms have specific ways of consuming food. When it comes to bees and hummingbirds, they prefer sucking the nectar of plants. In terms of humans and other mammals, infants feed on mothers’ milk. Snakes find their prey and swallow them entirely. Among the aquatic animals, some of them find little food particles freely floating in the water and feed on them.

2.2 Digestion in Humans

Human beings consume their food with the help of the mouth. The food particles are then digested and utilized for various bodily functions. The ingested food that remains undigested gets defecated. What exactly happens after the food is chewed and swallowed? 

The food enters the stomach through a continuous canal that starts at the buccal cavity and ends at the anus. This canal is divided into several parts which include:

The buccal cavity

Food pipe or Esophagus

Large intestine ending in the rectum

These parts together make the alimentary canal or the digestive tract. When the food travels through the different compartments of the canal, it gradually gets digested and reaches our system. The digestion process is done through secretion of digestive juices from the inner walls of the stomach, small intestine and other glands that are associated with the digestion process including salivary glands, pancreas and the liver. The digestive juice makes the digestion process easier by breaking the food particles into simpler forms. Now, let’s find out what happens to the food in the various parts of the digestive tract?

The Mouth and Buccal Cavity

Whatever food we eat, it is taken into the body through our mouth. This process of taking the food into the body is known to be ingestion. The teeth in our mouth help in chewing and further break down mechanically to form tiny particles. Each root of a tooth has a separate socket that goes right into the gums. Even teeth are categorized based on their functionalities and appearance. These functionalities are:

Cutting and biting

Piercing and tearing

Chewing and grinding

Milk Teeth and Permanent Teeth

The first set of teeth that grow during infancy are known as milk teeth. They fall off between the age of six to eight years. Each tooth comes off from the root randomly to replace it with a permanent tooth. These sets of teeth may last the entire life or fall off when an adult becomes old enough. Permanent teeth may also come off due to dental diseases.

Sweets and Tooth Decay

Usually, bacteria can be found in our mouths, but they are not always harmful. However, if we do not take care of our teeth and gums, these bacteria can start creating ill effects. They tend to find a good place and grow between the gaps and crevices of your teeth.

Therefore, it is crucial to thoroughly clean and floss your mouth after every meal. The bacteria harm our teeth by releasing acids, which is used for breaking down sugar from the leftover food particles inside the mouth. This process is called tooth decay. If it’s overlooked, over time, tooth decay can cause severe toothache or loss of the tooth.

Chocolates, candies, soft drinks and other sugar products are the sources of causing tooth decay. Therefore, it is pivotal to clean your teeth with a brush and also use a tongue scraper for cleaning accumulated bacteria from the pores of the tongue. Using dental floss is also a good consideration to extract trapped food particles between two teeth. Make sure not to put unwashed or dirty fingers inside your mouth.

The Food Pipe/Esophagus

After the food is swallowed, it passes through a food pipe or esophagus. The food pipe starts from the neck to the ends of the chest. Basically, it connects our stomach with the neck. In the food pipe, through the movement in the wall, food is pushed down to the stomach. Actually, this movement is very common in the entire alimentary canal as the system continuously tends to push the food downwards. Sometimes, based on specific situations and types of food, our stomach does not accept the ingested food particles and this causes vomiting.

The Stomach

The stomach is known to be a large compartment in the alimentary canal. It is a thick-walled bag that looks like a flattened U. This part is the broadest in the entire canal. Our stomach receives food from one end (food pipe) and releases it to the other. The other opening leads the food particles to the small intestine. There is the inner lining of the wall inside the stomach and secretes mucus, hydrochloric acid and digestive juices to extract the contents from the food, for example, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, water, and others. The internal lining of the stomach is protected by the mucus, and the acid released is responsible for killing different types of bacteria which enter along with the food. The digestive juice naturally digests the core contents of the food. It further helps to break proteins in a simpler version of substances.

Small Intestine

The small intestine is known to be the tube that is extremely coiled and measures around 7.5 meters long. The secretion from the liver and pancreas reaches into the small intestine. Also, the inner wall of the intestine secretes juice to digest the remaining part of the food. The liver secretes bile, which is stored in a large sac known as the gallbladder. Bile is an important part of digestion, especially when it comes to fats. The half-digested food then reaches to the lower part of the intestine to complete the last stage of digestion.

Absorption in the Small Intestine

All digested food passes through the wall of the intestine to enter our blood vessels. This is known as absorption. The inner wall of the intestine is filled with finger-like outgrowths called villi. They are responsible for increasing the surface area to absorb the digested food.

Large Intestine

The large instance is a bit wider and shorter when compared with the small intestine. It measures about 1.5 meters long. It is responsible for absorbing water and salts from the undigested food particles. The undigested food, in the form of waste, passes to the rectum. They are stored like semi-solid feces. Fecal matters are then removed out of the body through the anus. The procedure is called egestion.

Sometimes when our digestive system fails, it leads to diarrhea. This may trigger an infection, indigestion or food poisoning. This is a very common case in children, and under severe conditions, it may turn out to be fatal. The excessive loss of salt and water from the body can be harmful to us.

Key Points at a Glance

Let us look into some of the important takeaways of the chapter.

Animal nutrition encompasses nutrient requirements, food consumption methods, and food usage in the body.

The gastrointestinal tract and secretory glands make up the human digestive system.

The salivary glands, the liver, and the pancreas are the parts of the glandular system that secrete digestive juices.

Digestive enzymes are also produced by the stomach and intestinal tract walls.

Carbohydrate digestion, such as starch digestion, begins in the buccal cavity.

Protein digestion begins in the stomach.

In the small intestine, bile, pancreatic juice and digestive juice accomplish the digestion of all ingested elements.

The small intestine absorbs the digested food through the blood vessels.

The large intestine absorbs water and salts from the undigested material.

Through the anus, the unabsorbed leftovers are ejected from the body as faeces.

Ruminants are grazing animals such as cows, buffaloes, and deer.

They quickly ingest and retain their green diet in the rumen. The meal eventually returns to the animal's mouth, where it is chewed.

The meal is ingested by the amoeba using its false feet, or pseudopodia. The food vacuole is where the meal is processed.

NCERT Solutions Class 7 Science Chapters

Chapter 1 - Nutrition in Plants

Chapter 3 - Fibre to Fabric

Chapter 4 - Heat

Chapter 5 - Acids

Chapter 6 - Physical and Chemical Changes

Chapter 7 - Weather

Chapter 8 - Winds

Chapter 9 - Soil

Chapter 10 - Respiration in Organisms

Chapter 11 - Transportation in Animals and Plants

Chapter 12 - Reproduction in Plants

Chapter 13 - Motion and Time

Chapter 14 - Electric Current and Its Effects

Chapter 15 - Light

Chapter 16 - Water: A Precious Resource

Chapter 17 - Forests: Our Lifeline

Chapter 18 - Wastewater Story

Additional Materials for CBSE Class 7 Science 

CBSE Class 7 Important Questions

CBSE Class 7 Revision Notes

CBSE Class 7 Exemplar Solutions

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 1

Vedantu stands exceptional when it comes to acquiring study materials. Below are some key features that make it unique in online study platforms:

NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Nutrition in Animals has been explained illustratively.

The language is quite simple in the PDF file and is easy to understand for the students of Class 7.

Downloading the file from the site is very convenient. 

As the study materials are designed by experienced teachers, students can have complete in-depth knowledge of the chapter. 

Some questions of the Class 7 Science Chapter 2 Solution come with practical experiments that any student can perform at home for a better understanding of the topic.

Conclusion:

The NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 - Nutrition In Animals offer a comprehensive understanding of how animals obtain and utilize nutrients. From exploring different modes of nutrition to understanding the processes of digestion and absorption, students have gained valuable insights. The chapter's emphasis on the importance of a balanced diet and the significance of various nutrients for growth and energy needs provides a solid foundation for further exploration of biological sciences. These solutions have not only enhanced students' knowledge of animal nutrition but also fostered an appreciation for the intricacies of life and the importance of healthy dietary habits.

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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science Chapter 2 - Nutrition In Animals

1. What is animal nutrition according to the Class 7 NCERT textbook?

The topic of animal nutrition in CBSE Class 7 Science discusses animals’ and humans’ nutrient requirements, why is nutrition important, how they  intake food, and how the food is utilised in the body.

2. What is nutrition according to Class 7 Chapter 2? 

Chapter 2 "Nutrition in Animals" explains that nutrition is the process by which organisms obtain their food and absorb the nutrients present in the food in their bodies. Nutrition is important for different organisms to perform various bodily functions, as proper ingestion and assimilation of food provide energy. Therefore, proper nutrition is crucial for one’s survival.

3. Where is bile produced and what is its function in Chapter 2 of NCERT Solutions for Class 7 Science?

Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile juice helps in the digestion of fats by breaking large fat molecules into smaller ones.

4. How long does food stay in the stomach Chapter 2 Class 7 ?

Depending on the type of food, it can remain in the stomach for a few minutes or even for a few hours. Solid food can stay in the stomach for 4-5 hours, however, liquid food can remain only for a few minutes.

5. What are the five essential components of animal nutrition?

Nutrients found in feed are crucial for the growth and productivity of animals. These nutrients can be classified into five main groups, namely water, protein, carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins.

6. Who is the father of Nutrition?

Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier, credited as the father of nutrition and chemistry, made significant discoveries in 1770, including the concept of metabolism.

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7th Science English Medium 2nd Assignment July 2021(With Answers) Unit 2 & Unit 4

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7th Science English Medium 2nd Assignment July 2021(With Answers) Unit 2:- This is the 7th standard second assignment science English medium answer key, For Tamil medium science we shared on another page. Students must submit their assignments on time to get good marks.

7th science assignment answers unit 2

Class: 7 Subject:SCIENCE

Unit 2 part – a, i. one mark questions, 1.si unit for distance and displacement ……...

Answer:- A) M

2.Speed is………

A) distance/time, b) time/distance, c) time*distance, d)time+distance.

Answer:- A) Distance/Time

3.Velocity is——

A) displacement/hour, b) time/displacement, c)dispacement/time, d). minutes/ displacement.

Answer:- C)Dispacement/Time

4.SI unit of Velocity is……

C) m2/minutes, d) m/minutes.

Answer:- B) m/s

5.One girl takes 30s to complete a 300m sprint event. Find her speed?

Answer:- B. 10 m/s

6.The rate of change in velocity is…….

C. acceleration.

Answer:- C. Acceleration

7.Acceleration formula is …..

Answer:- a) a=v-u/t

8.Bus at rest

A) zero acceleration, b) negative acceleration, c) positive acceleration, d) uniform acceleration.

Answer:- A) Zero acceleration

9.A particle is moving in a circular path of radius r. The displacement after half a r circle would be……

Answer:- C. 2r

10.How many types of stability?

Answer:- A. 3

II. Short Answer.

1.distinguish between speed and velocity, 2.what is the centre of velocity.

Any point on a rigit body or on its extension that has zero velocity is called the Instantaneous Center of Velocity of the body

3.Mention three types of stability?

  • Stable equilibrium
  • Unstable equilibrium
  • Neutral equilibrium

4.What is Acceleration?

  • Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity
  • Acceleration = change in velocity / time
  • SI unit of acceleration is m/s 2

5.Draw centre of gravity for regular-shaped objects?

Draw centre of gravity for regular-shaped objects

III.Write in detail.

1.explain the 3 types of stability with suitable example.

7th science assignment answers unit 2

1.A graph is drawn between distance and time. There are two cars A & B are with different acceleration. Which of the two is moving faster? Justify your answer.

7th science assignment answers unit 2

Car A moves faster than car B because distance covered by car A is more compared to car B and time taken by car A is less than Car B

Unit4 ATOMIC STRATURE

1.subatomic particles of atom is……..

Answer:- A) 3

2.Who discovered the Proton

A) ernest rutherford, b) j.j. thomson, c) james chadwick.

Answer:- A) Ernest Rutherford

3.Negatively charged particle is……

C) electron, d) non of these.

Answer:- C) Electron

4.Atomic number of Hydrogen is……

Answer:- C) 1

5.The proton charges is———

Answer:- A) +1

II .Short Answer

1.what is subatomic particle.

Atoms of all elements are made up of smaller components electron,proton and neutron. These particles that make up the atom are called Subatomic particles.

2.What are nucleons?

Protons and Neutrons are the two types of particles in the nucleus of an atom. They are called nucleons.

3.write any four elements that are used in day today life?

Iii. answer in detail, 1.draw the atom structure and explain it.

Draw the atom structure and explain it

This is helpful for me thankyou very much and give answer for all exams like this

Thanks very very much

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7th social science unit 2 Assignment Answer Key- Civics July 2021

 Assignment

Class: 7 Subject: Social Science

7th social 2 Civics Assignment Answer Key

Unit – II – Political Parties

Part – A

I. One Mark Questions:

1.In earlier times, the ……. was the supreme head of the Legislative, Executive and Judiciary branches.

(a) Governor

(b) Viceroy

(d) Minister

Answer:- (c) King

2.In ……. India became a democratic country.

Answer:- (b) 1950

3.Political arties are ge erally formed n the basis of

a) Religious Principles

b) Common interest

c) Economic principles

Answer:- a) Religious Principles

4.Single -party system is found in

Answer:- (d) China

5.Which party system is existence in India, France, Sweden and Norway?

a) Single party

b) Two-party

c) Triple party

d) Multiparty

Answer:- d) Multiparty

6.Symbols of animals approved by the Election Commission

a) Lion, Tiger

b) Elephant,Tiger

c) Elephant, horse

d) Lion, elephant

Answer:- d) Lion, elephant

7 …………has the largest number of political parties in the world

d) North Korea

Answer:- a) India

8.The leader of the opposition party enjoys the rank of ……

(a) Deputy minister

(b) Cabinet minister

(c) Associate minister

(d) Minister of state

Answer:- (b) Cabinet minister

9.The head quarters of Election commission is located in

(a) Chennai

(c) New Delhi

(d) Kolkatta

Answer:- (c) New Delhi

10.The ……..of India is an autonomous constitutional authority to administer elections.

(a) Supreme court

(b) Parliament

(c) Election Commission

(d) Education Commission

Answer:- (c) Election Commission

Part – B

II.Very Short Answer.

11.What are the basic components of a political party?

  • The basic components of the party are the leader, the active members and the followers.

12.Name the three major types of party system.

There are three major types of the party system:

Single party system,

  • Di – party System,

Multiparty system.

13.What is party ‘manifesto’?

  • Before the election, the candidates announce the programmes and policies that their party will undertake if voted to power.

14.What is an opposition party?

  • The party which get second largest number of seats next to the majority party in the election is called the oppsition party

15.What is an Electoral symbols?

  • An electrol symbol is a standardised symbol allocated to a political party

Part – C

III.Write in detail.

16.Deceive the major types of party system.

there are three major types of the party system:

Bi – party System,

  • A system in which a single political party has the right to form the government.The SIngle party exists in communist countries such as China. North Korea and Cuba.
  • In a Bi-Party system, the power is usually shared between two parties. Of the two parties, one becomes the ruling party and the other becomes opposition. eg Bi-Party system can be seen in U.K (the Labour Party and the Conservative Party) and in U.S.A (the Republican Party and the Democratic Party)
  • When the competition for power is among three or more parties, the system is known as a multi-party system. This type of party system is in existence in India, France, Sweden, and Norway, etc.
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