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130 Agriculture Research Topics To Write An Excellent Paper

The preparation of an agriculture research paper involves several nuances and complexities. The first aspect is technical requirements, such as text formatting, structure, and source list. It's also important to choose those agriculture topics that you can analyze and find expert material. Any research paper is based on theses and statements, which are supported by evidence and factual information.

This is especially important when you tend to choose agricultural controversial topics. Then you need to find studies with verified information and prepare arguments for your paper. The whole process of work requires meticulous data collection and analysis of alternative sources. Then choosing any agricultural essay topics won't seem like a heady decision.

Your academic paper may relate to environmental factors, the economic feasibility of starting a farm, or the nuances of breeding. The main plus is that you can choose any of the agricultural related topics for research preparation. Here are 130 options for you.

Fisheries And Aquaculture

Such agricultural research paper topics allow revealing the topic of fishery and agricultural procurement. Students can concentrate on many aspects of the payback of farms and fisheries. The topics are quite extensive, and you can find a lot of research on the Internet for choosing trust sources.

  • Trout breeding in freshwaters.
  • Effect of algae on oxygen levels in fish rates.
  • Seasonal spawning of oceanic fish.
  • Prohibited fishing waters in the United States.
  • Exploration of the Pacific Ocean.
  • The impact of cyclones on fishing.
  • Poisonous fish and the reasons for their breeding in North America.
  • Seasonal diseases of trout.
  • Sea horse: A case study.
  • Risk analysis of water quality in aquaculture.

Plant Science And Crop Production

Crop Production agricultural research topics and plant science are not the easiest, but they contain a ton of information on the Internet. It is not a problem to find research by leading scientists and create your own research paper based on their statistics. The plus is that you don't have to start from scratch.

  • Innovative plant breeding.
  • Reclamation as a method of increasing yields.
  • Hybrid plants of Montana.
  • Citrus growing methods.
  • Technical cannabis and plantations in the USA.
  • Analysis of the yield of leguminous crops.
  • Method for creating genetically modified plants.
  • Field analysis of wheat for pesticides.
  • New plants and methods of growing them.
  • Hybrids and cold-resistant plants.

Topics in Agricultural Science

Agriculture essay topics like this allow you to select a specific aspect to research. You can concentrate on vegetation breeding or high tech greenhouse methodology. A large amount of research is a definite plus because you can build your theses on the basis of available data, criticizing or supporting research by scientists.

  • Harvesting robots.
  • Methodology for improving agricultural performance.
  • The influence of technology on the growth of grain crops.
  • How important is the timely irrigation of fields?
  • Climatic changes and impact on yield.
  • Breeding earthworms.
  • Hydroponic gardening.
  • Genetically modified organisms and their distribution.
  • Starting a garden.
  • How can we make medicine from plants?

Topics in Agronomy

Agronomy agriculture projects for students allow you to consider the aspects of growing crops in conditions with a specific soil type and natural characteristics. You can base your claims on statistics with the ability to draw on facts from other research. For example, this is relevant for papers examining the fertility of the topsoil.

  • Choosing the type of soil for the cornfield.
  • Innovative land reclamation.
  • New branches in agronomy.
  • Phosphate-free fertilizers.
  • Hydroponics and greenhouses.
  • Hybrid yield analysis.
  • Methodology for assessing agronomic losses.
  • Stages of preparing a field for harvesting.
  • The role of GMOs in the fight against insect pests.
  • Cultivation of technical hemp and soil fertilization methods.

Topics in Animal Breeding And Genetics

Agriculture related topics are interesting because you can touch on aspects of genetics and breeding. Students can concentrate on specific aspects of species modification and animal rearing. The research paper will look more convincing when there are references to real scientific papers with statistics and experimental results.

  • Breeding new types of sheep.
  • Breeding bulls and genetic engineering.
  • The influence of selection on the growth of the animal population.
  • Proper nutrition for livestock in winter.
  • Vitamin complexes for animals.
  • Genetic changes in chickens for resistance to cold.
  • Nuances of animal genetic modifications.
  • Stages of caring for newborn kittens.
  • What is a negative selection?
  • Basic methods of genetic experiments on animals.

Topics in Animal Production And Health

Such agriculture research paper topics are especially interesting because you can write about farming aspects in the context of raising animals, vegetables, and various crops. It is broad enough, so you will not be limited by narrow boundaries and will be able to consider many aspects of your research paper.

  • Environmental threats to the oversupply of the sheep population.
  • The role of livestock in marginal areas.
  • Livestock digitalization.
  • Animal selection for meat preparation.
  • Analysis of livestock farms.
  • Animal production evaluation technique.
  • Cow health during calving.
  • The importance of animal vaccination.
  • Technical aspects of the medical treatment of animals.
  • Environmental aspects of animal husbandry.

Topics in Ecotourism And Wildlife

Ecotourism is gaining momentum all over the world. The new trend is aimed at bringing people closer to nature and exploring the beauty of different countries. This issue will be of interest to those who want to talk about wildlife and nature reserves. The topic is quite extensive, so students will not have problems with preparing a research paper.

  • Minnesota and Eco-Tourism.
  • The influence of wolves on the formation of the local ecosystem.
  • Recreational tourism in the USA.
  • Methods for preparing resorts for eco-tourism.
  • Lakes and environmental factors.
  • A technique for preserving wildlife in its original form.
  • Classic models of eco-tourism.
  • Stages of creating ecological reserves.
  • The role of tourism in the restoration of the ecological environment.
  • The main factors of wildlife conservation.
  • The legislative framework for wildlife protection.
  • The nuances of creating a farm in reserve.
  • Consolidation of resources for the development of a livestock farm.

Topics in Farm Management

Managing a farm can be a complex and multifaceted process. Many students may choose this topic to talk about aspects of breeding and breeding pets or crops. The topic is quite extensive and allows you to touch on any aspect of the farmer's activities related to the production and sale of products.

  • Farm methods to improve performance.
  • Stages of creating a livestock farm.
  • Farm success analysis forms.
  • Management of the process of planting crops.
  • The role of modern equipment in cow milking.
  • Farm reporting and profitability analysis.
  • Breeding exotic animals.
  • Rabbit population management.
  • Statistical methodology for farm control.
  • Stages of the animal population control on the farm.

Topics in Fisheries And Aquaculture

A similar topic is associated with fish farming, introductory aquaculture, and general aquaculture. Quite a few students can prepare a good research paper if they turn to other people's research and use it as a basis to prove or disprove their own claims and theories. It is also a good opportunity to select food related research topics as you can touch upon the aspect of fish farming and marketing.

  • Creation and management of a fish rate.
  • Sturgeon breeding and distribution.
  • Methods for improving the ecological state of water bodies.
  • Planting plants in reservoirs for liquid purification.
  • Fish spawning control.
  • The aquaculture aspect and social trends.
  • Methods for increasing fish resources.
  • Breeding in the fishing industry.
  • Methods for creating a fish farm.
  • River resource monitoring and digitalization.

Topics in Agric Business And Financial Management

Control of a livestock or vegetable enterprise depends on many factors, so such a topic's choice will be extremely relevant. The student's most important task is to bring only proven facts and arguments of his own judgments. These agriculture topics for students include an overview of many business processes and farm management.

  • The farm cost reduction methodology.
  • US agricultural financing sector.
  • Agricultural business practices.
  • Data analysis and farming development.
  • Financial management of small livestock farms.
  • Impact of drought on yield.
  • Cost and payback of farms.
  • Selecting a region for creating a farm.
  • A method for analyzing animal resources on a farm.
  • Management of automated farming enterprises.
  • Local farming business.
  • Key factors of farm management.
  • Farm reports and breeding work.

Topics in Agric Meteorology And Water Management

Meteorological aspects are very important for the management of a company or agricultural enterprises. Another aspect of this topic is water management, which may also be interesting for those who are going to reveal the nuances of fish farming in local waters. The topic will be especially interesting for those who want to connect their lives with agronomy and a similar field.

  • Cattle breeding methodology.
  • Pig breeding methods.
  • Water management to maximize profits.
  • The choice of a reservoir for growing fish.
  • Analysis of the ecological situation in water bodies.
  • Farm equipment management techniques.
  • Water supply for farm households.
  • Analysis and selection of a farm development methodology.
  • Finding the right methods for creating protected reservoirs.
  • Stages of development of a water farm.

Other Agric Topics

Sometimes choosing a specific topic can be difficult. This is because students are not quite sure which study to base their paper on. You can take a neutral topic that has no specific relation to breeding, meteorology, or farming aspects in such cases.

  • Innovative farming methods.
  • Choosing the right water farm management model.
  • The nuances of trout breeding.
  • Population control and livestock farm development plan.
  • Financial analytics and purchase of farm animals.
  • The self-sufficiency period of the fish farm.
  • How to create fish spawning tanks?
  • Selection of breeds of cows for farming.
  • Methodology for calculating farm risks.
  • Time management and selection of plants for the plantation.
  • Features of the legal registration of a farm household.
  • Modern agricultural drones.
  • The difference between Ayn Rand's anthem and George Orwell's animal farm.
  • Animal rights vs. animal welfare.

How to Write a Good Agriculture Research Paper?

One of the main life hacks for getting a high mark is choosing controversial agricultural topics. Choosing this option allows students to consider an interesting statement and back it up with real facts. A paper-based on real statistics with proof of student work is valued above all else.

But even when choosing a good topic, you still need to prepare the right outline for writing your research paper. The introduction should be of the highest quality as well as the final paragraph since these are the main parts that affect the assessment. Real facts and statistics must support all the statements above if you are talking about specific figures. Many colleges and universities have their own paper requirements as well as the nuances of the design of research work. You must consider each parameter in order to get the best result.

If it is difficult to find controversial topics in agriculture and write a high-quality research paper, we can help you with this issue. Our  best essay writing service has been in operation for many years and provides writing assistance for many types of essays, research papers, and theses. We will help you synchronize your preparation process and create an expert paper that gets high marks. You can switch to other tasks and get the opportunity to free up some time to study other disciplines.

An Inspiration List:

  • Agricultural Research
  • Current Agriculture Research Journal
  • Agricultural Research & Technology
  • Journal of Agriculture and Food Research
  • Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research
  • Journal of Bioscience and Agriculture Research
  • Middle East Journal of Agriculture Research

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114 Agriculture Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

Inside This Article

Agriculture plays a vital role in the development and sustainability of societies around the world. From crop cultivation to animal husbandry, agriculture encompasses a wide range of practices that affect our food production, environment, and economy. If you're looking for essay topics related to agriculture, we've compiled a comprehensive list of 114 ideas and examples to inspire your writing.

  • The impact of climate change on agriculture: challenges and adaptation strategies.
  • The role of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in modern agriculture.
  • Organic farming: benefits, challenges, and future prospects.
  • The use of pesticides in agriculture: balancing productivity and environmental concerns.
  • Agricultural subsidies: their impact on farmers and the economy.
  • The importance of soil health for sustainable agriculture.
  • Precision farming: the integration of technology in agricultural practices.
  • The role of women in agriculture: empowerment and gender equality.
  • Urban agriculture: promoting food security in cities.
  • The impact of globalization on agriculture: opportunities and threats.
  • The role of agricultural education in shaping the future of farming.
  • Food waste in agriculture: causes, consequences, and solutions.
  • Sustainable livestock production: balancing meat consumption and environmental impact.
  • The role of small-scale farmers in global food production.
  • The ethics of animal welfare in modern farming practices.
  • Agricultural trade policies: implications for developing countries.
  • The impact of deforestation on agricultural practices.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in feeding a growing population.
  • The challenges and benefits of aquaculture in meeting global seafood demand.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on water resources.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in supporting small-scale farmers.
  • The future of vertical farming: opportunities and limitations.
  • The impact of agricultural pollution on human health.
  • Agroforestry: integrating trees into agricultural landscapes.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in rural development.
  • The potential of hydroponics in urban agriculture.
  • The impact of industrial agriculture on biodiversity.
  • The role of agricultural research and development in innovation.
  • The influence of social media on consumer perceptions of agriculture.
  • The challenges and opportunities of agricultural mechanization in developing countries.
  • The role of agricultural insurance in mitigating risks for farmers.
  • The impact of land tenure systems on agricultural productivity.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in sustainable development.
  • The potential of vertical farming to reduce food miles and carbon footprint.
  • The impact of agricultural subsidies on food prices for consumers.
  • The role of urban agriculture in community development.
  • The importance of seed banks in preserving agricultural biodiversity.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on pollinators and ecosystem services.
  • The role of agricultural drones in precision farming.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to regenerative agriculture.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on soil erosion.
  • The role of agricultural education in fostering entrepreneurship.
  • The potential of agricultural waste management in bioenergy production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural livelihoods.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in improving market access for small-scale farmers.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic dairy farming.
  • The impact of climate-smart agriculture on resilience and adaptation.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in improving crop yields.
  • The potential of agroecology in sustainable farming.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on air quality.
  • The role of agricultural research in addressing food security challenges.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable palm oil production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on wildlife conservation.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting fair trade.
  • The potential of precision livestock farming in improving animal welfare.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural migration patterns.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic vegetable farming.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in addressing malnutrition.
  • The potential of urban rooftop gardens in enhancing food security.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on groundwater contamination.
  • The role of agricultural entrepreneurship in rural development.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to agroforestry systems.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food safety.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in empowering marginalized communities.
  • The potential of hydroponics in space agriculture.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on indigenous food systems.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable cotton production.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in reducing post-harvest losses.
  • The potential of vertical farming in food deserts.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural poverty alleviation.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting climate-smart agriculture.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic wine production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on soil degradation.
  • The role of agricultural education in promoting sustainable farming practices.
  • The potential of aquaponics in sustainable food production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food sovereignty.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable coffee farming.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in reducing pesticide use.
  • The potential of urban agriculture in reducing food waste.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on indigenous land rights.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting gender equality.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic beekeeping.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural resilience.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in promoting climate resilience.
  • The potential of rooftop farming in urban sustainability.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food culture.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable cocoa production.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in improving nutritional quality.
  • The potential of vertical farming in disaster-prone areas.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food sovereignty in indigenous communities.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting sustainable seafood.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic tea production.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural social capital.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in promoting sustainable water management.
  • The potential of hydroponics in space exploration.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food justice.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable sugar production.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in reducing food waste.
  • The potential of urban agriculture in promoting social cohesion.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on land rights in developing countries.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting sustainable palm oil.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic cotton farming.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural cultural heritage.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in promoting sustainable energy use.
  • The potential of aquaponics in sustainable urban development.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food sovereignty in marginalized communities.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to sustainable chocolate production.
  • The role of agricultural biotechnology in improving drought tolerance.
  • The potential of vertical farming in post-disaster recovery.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on food security in conflict zones.
  • The role of agricultural cooperatives in promoting sustainable timber production.
  • The challenges and benefits of transitioning to organic coffee farming.
  • The impact of agricultural practices on rural cultural landscapes.
  • The role of agricultural extension services in promoting sustainable waste management.

These essay topic ideas cover a wide range of aspects related to agriculture, providing a plethora of opportunities for research and critical analysis. Whether you're interested in environmental sustainability, social justice, or technological innovation, there is a topic here that will inspire your writing and contribute to the ongoing dialogue about the future of agriculture.

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45 Research Project Ideas in Agriculture – Innovative Approaches to Sustainable Farming

Explore 45 research project ideas in agriculture for sustainable farming.

Dr. Somasundaram R

Agriculture is a vast and dynamic field that plays a critical role in feeding the world’s population. As the global population continues to grow, the demand for food production is also increasing, making agriculture one of the most important sectors for ensuring food security and sustainable development. However, the challenges facing the agriculture industry today are numerous, ranging from climate change, soil degradation, water scarcity, and pest infestation to biodiversity loss and food waste.

To tackle these issues and promote sustainable agriculture, researchers and professionals in the field are continuously exploring new and innovative ways to improve agricultural practices, increase productivity, and reduce environmental impact. In this article, we will present 45 research project ideas in agriculture that can help address some of the most pressing issues facing the industry today.

These research projects cover a wide range of topics, from soil health and crop yields to livestock farming, aquaculture, and food systems, providing a comprehensive overview of the latest trends and innovations in agricultural research.

Whether you are a student, researcher, or professional in the field, these research project ideas can help guide your work and contribute to a more sustainable and resilient agriculture industry.

  • Evaluating the effectiveness of natural pest control methods in agriculture.
  • Investigating the effects of climate change on crop yields and food security.
  • Studying the impact of soil quality on plant growth and crop yields.
  • Analyzing the potential of precision agriculture techniques to increase yields and reduce costs.
  • Assessing the feasibility of vertical farming as a sustainable solution to food production.
  • Investigating the impact of sustainable agriculture practices on soil health and ecosystem services.
  • Exploring the potential of agroforestry to improve soil fertility and crop yields.
  • Developing strategies to mitigate the effects of drought on crop production.
  • Analyzing the impact of irrigation management techniques on crop yields and water use efficiency.
  • Studying the potential of biochar as a soil amendment to improve crop productivity.
  • Investigating the effects of soil compaction on crop yields and soil health.
  • Evaluating the impact of soil erosion on agriculture and ecosystem services.
  • Developing integrated pest management strategies for organic agriculture.
  • Assessing the potential of cover crops to improve soil health and reduce erosion.
  • Studying the effects of biofertilizers on crop yields and soil health.
  • Investigating the potential of phytoremediation to mitigate soil pollution in agriculture.
  • Developing sustainable practices for livestock farming and manure management.
  • Studying the effects of climate change on animal health and productivity.
  • Analyzing the impact of animal feeding practices on meat quality and safety.
  • Investigating the potential of aquaponics to increase food production and reduce environmental impact.
  • Developing strategies to reduce food waste and loss in agriculture.
  • Studying the effects of nutrient management practices on crop yields and environmental impact.
  • Evaluating the potential of organic agriculture to improve soil health and reduce environmental impact.
  • Investigating the effects of land use change on agriculture and biodiversity.
  • Developing strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture.
  • Analyzing the impact of agricultural policies on food security and sustainability.
  • Studying the potential of precision livestock farming to improve animal welfare and productivity.
  • Investigating the impact of agrochemicals on soil health and biodiversity.
  • Developing sustainable practices for fisheries and aquaculture.
  • Studying the potential of bioremediation to mitigate pollution in aquaculture.
  • Investigating the effects of climate change on fisheries and aquaculture.
  • Developing strategies to reduce water pollution from agriculture and aquaculture.
  • Studying the impact of land use change on water resources and aquatic ecosystems.
  • Evaluating the potential of agroecology to promote sustainable agriculture and food systems.
  • Investigating the impact of climate-smart agriculture practices on food security and resilience.
  • Studying the potential of agrobiodiversity to improve crop productivity and resilience.
  • Analyzing the impact of agricultural trade on food security and sustainability.
  • Investigating the effects of urbanization on agriculture and food systems.
  • Developing strategies to promote gender equity in agriculture and food systems.
  • Studying the potential of agroforestry to promote biodiversity and ecosystem services.
  • Analyzing the impact of food systems on public health and nutrition.
  • Investigating the effects of climate change on pollination and crop yields.
  • Developing strategies to promote agrotourism and rural development.
  • Studying the potential of agroforestry to promote carbon sequestration and mitigate climate change.
  • Analyzing the impact of agricultural subsidies on food security and sustainability.

I hope this article would help you to know the new project topics and research ideas in Agricultural.

  • agriculture research
  • crop yields
  • food systems
  • livestock farming
  • Project Topics
  • Research Ideas
  • soil health
  • sustainable farming

Dr. Somasundaram R

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agriculture topics for research papers

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  • Published: 09 September 2021

Advancing agricultural research using machine learning algorithms

  • Spyridon Mourtzinis 1 ,
  • Paul D. Esker 2 ,
  • James E. Specht 3 &
  • Shawn P. Conley 4  

Scientific Reports volume  11 , Article number:  17879 ( 2021 ) Cite this article

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  • Agroecology

Rising global population and climate change realities dictate that agricultural productivity must be accelerated. Results from current traditional research approaches are difficult to extrapolate to all possible fields because they are dependent on specific soil types, weather conditions, and background management combinations that are not applicable nor translatable to all farms. A method that accurately evaluates the effectiveness of infinite cropping system interactions (involving multiple management practices) to increase maize and soybean yield across the US does not exist. Here, we utilize extensive databases and artificial intelligence algorithms and show that complex interactions, which cannot be evaluated in replicated trials, are associated with large crop yield variability and thus, potential for substantial yield increases. Our approach can accelerate agricultural research, identify sustainable practices, and help overcome future food demands.

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agriculture topics for research papers

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agriculture topics for research papers

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agriculture topics for research papers

An interaction regression model for crop yield prediction

Introduction.

Increasing food demand will challenge the agricultural sector globally over the next decades 1 . A sustainable solution to this challenge is to increase crop yield without massive cropland area expansion. This can be achieved by identifying and adopting best management practices. To do so requires a more detailed understanding of how crop yield is impacted by climate change 2 , 3 and growing-season weather variability 4 . Even with that knowledge, prediction is challenging because various factors interact with each other. For example, variability in soil type can interact with weather conditions and mitigate or aggravate climate-related impacts on crop yield 5 , 6 . Additionally, seed genetics (G) and crop management decisions (M), interact with the effect of environment (E: soil and in-season weather conditions), thereby resulting in a near infinite number of combinations of G × E × M that can impact crop yield.

Substantial variability in crop yield arises from the wide range of optimal to sub-optimal management observed in soybean farmers’ fields 7 , 8 . Reducing the frequency of lowest vs . highest yields has been proposed as an effective means to increase food production in existing crop land 9 . In that regard, replicated field experiments have been used to identify best management practices for several decades. Most commonly, the effectiveness of up to three management factors and their interactions are evaluated in a single location due to practical constraints (e.g., cost, logistics). By holding the background management constant, causal relationships are identified, and the effectiveness of the examined management practice/s is assessed. It is assumed that background management practices are optimal or at least relevant to what most farmers use in the region, which in fact may not be realistic for many farmers.

Multi-year-site performance trials that account for large environmental and background management variability is another common practice in agricultural research. Such trials usually estimate an average effect across environments and background cropping systems. Inevitably, the measured yield response magnitude and sign may not apply to all farms in the examined region. Other research approaches involve analysis of producer self-reported data 7 , 8 , which can capture yield trends attributable to producer management choice across large regions, but such studies lack sufficient power relative to establishing causality and evaluating complex high-order G × E × M interactions.

Process-based models have been extensively used to evaluate the effect of weather 10 and management 11 , 12 on crop yield. However, to obtain accurate estimates, the models require extensive calibration, which is not a trivial task due to the large number of parameters. Specifically, it has been shown that management is an important source of uncertainty in process-based models, which can lead to substantial and varying degree of bias in yield estimates across the US, even when using harmonized parameters 13 .

Given all the well-known deficiencies of current agricultural research methods, we argue that a method that allows environment-specific identification of unique cropping systems with the greatest yield potential is essential to meet future food demand. Here, by utilizing maize and soybean yield and management data from publicly available performance tests, plus associated weather data, and by leveraging the power of machine learning (ML) algorithms, we developed a method that can evaluate myriads of potential crop management systems and thereby identify those with the greatest yield potential in specific environments across the US.

Results and discussion

Two databases including yield, management, and weather data for maize (n = 17,013) and soybean (n = 24,848) involving US crop performance trials conducted in 28 states between 2016 to 2018 for maize and between 2014 to 2018 for soybean, were developed (Fig.  1 ). Crop yield and management data were obtained from publicly available variety performance trials which are typically performed yearly in several locations across each state ( see methods for more information ). Final databases were separated in training (80% of database) and testing (20% of database) datasets using stratified sampling by year, use of irrigation, and soil type. For each crop, an extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost, see methods for more information ) algorithm to estimate yield based on soil type and weather conditions (E), seed traits (G) and management practices (M) was developed (see variables listed in Tables S1 and S2 for maize and soybean, respectively, and data science workflow in Fig. S1 ).

figure 1

Locations where maize and soybean trials were performed during the examined period. The map was developed in ArcGIS Pro 2.8.0 ( https://www.esri.com ).

The developed algorithms exhibited a high degree of accuracy when estimating yield in independent datasets (test dataset not used for model calibration) (Fig.  2 ). For maize, the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) was a respective 4.7 and 3.6% of the dataset average yield (13,340 kg/ha). For soybean, the respective RMSE and MAE was 6.4 and 4.9% of the dataset average yield (4153 kg/ha). As is evident in the graphs (Fig.  2 ), estimated yields exhibited a high degree of correlation with actual yields for both algorithms in the independent datasets. For maize and soybean, 72.3 and 60% of cases in the test dataset deviated less than 5% from actual yields, respectively. Maximum deviation for maize and soybean reached 43 and 70%, respectively. Data points with deviations greater than 15% from actual yield were 1.5% in maize and 3.6% in soybean databases. These results suggest that the developed algorithms can accurately estimate maize and soybean yields utilizing database-generated information involving reported environmental, seed genetic, and crop management variables.

figure 2

Actual versus algorithm-derived maize (left) and soybean (right) yield in test datasets. Black solid line indicates y = x, red short-dashed lines, black dashed lines, and red long-dashed lines indicate ± 5, 10, and 15% deviation from the y = x line. RMSE, root mean square error; MAE, mean absolute error; r 2 , coefficient of determination; n = number of observations. Each observation corresponds to a yield of an individual cropping system in a specific environment (location-year).

In contrast to statistical models, ML algorithms can be complex, and the effect of single independent variables may not obvious. However, accumulated local effects (ALE) plots 14 can aid the understanding and visualization of important and possibly correlated features in ML algorithms. For both crops, indicatively important variables included sowing date, seeding rate, nitrogen fertilizer (for maize), row spacing (for soybean) and June to September cumulative precipitation (Fig.  3 ). Across the entire region and for both crops, the algorithm-derived trends suggest that above average yields occur in late April to early May sowing dates, but sharply decrease thereafter. Similar responses have been observed in many regional studies across the US for both, maize 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 and soybean 19 . Similarly, simulated yield curves due to increasing seeding rate are in close agreement with previous maize 20 , 21 and soybean 22 studies. The maize algorithm has captured the increasing yield due to increasing N fertilizer rate. The soybean algorithm suggests that narrower row spacing resulted in above average yield compared to wider spacing. Such response has been observed in many regions across the US 23 . Season cumulative precipitation between 400 and 700 mm resulted in above average yields for both crops.

figure 3

Accumulated local effect plots for maize sowing date ( A ), seeding rate ( B ), Nitrogen fertilizer rate ( C ), and cumulative precipitation between June and September (mm) ( D ), and soybean sowing date ( E ), seeding rate ( F ), row spacing ( G ), and cumulative precipitation between June and September (mm) ( H ).

The responses in the ALE plots (Fig.  3 ) suggest that these algorithms have captured the general expected average responses for important single features. Nevertheless, our databases include hundreds of locations with diverse environments across the US and site-specific crop responses which may vary due to components of the G × E × M interaction. We argue that, instead of examining a single or low-order management interactions, site-specific evaluation of complex high order interactions (a.k.a. cropping systems) can reveal yield differences that current research approaches cannot fully explore and quantify. For example, sowing date exerts a well-known impact on maize and soybean yield. For each crop separately, by creating a hypothetical cropping system (a single combination of all management and traits in Tables S1 and S2 ) in a randomly chosen field in south central Wisconsin (latitude = 43.34, longitude = -89.38), and by applying the developed algorithms, we can generate estimates of maize and soybean yield. For that specific field and cropping system (out of the vast number of management combinations a farmer can choose from), maize yield with May 1st sowing was 711 kg/ha greater (6% increase) than June sowing (Fig.  4 A). By creating scenarios with 256 background cropping system choices (Table S3 ), the resultant algorithm-derived yield estimate difference for the same sowing date contrast (averaged across varying cropping systems) was smaller but still positive (3% increase), although the range of possible yield differences was wider (Fig.  4 B). However, when comparing, instead of averaging, the estimated yield potential among the simulated cropping systems, a 2903 kg/ha yield difference (25% difference) was observed (Fig.  4 C). Interestingly, when focusing on the early sown fields that were expected to exhibit the greatest yield, the same yield difference was observed (Fig.  4 D). This result shows that sub-optimal background management can mitigate the beneficial effect of early sowing (Table S4 ).

figure 4

Maize yield difference (in kg/ha and percentage) due to sowing date (May 1st vs. June 1st) for a single identical background cropping system ( A ), maize yield difference due to sowing date when averaged across 256 (3 years × 256 cropping systems = 768 year-specific yields) ( B ), maize yield variability in each of the 256 cropping systems ( C ), and maize yield variability in each of the 128 cropping systems with early sowing ( D ). Soybean yield difference due to sowing date (May 1st vs June 1st) for a single identical background cropping system ( E ), soybean yield difference due to sowing date when averaged across 128 (5 years × 128 cropping systems = 640 year-specific yields) ( F ), soybean yield in each of the 128 cropping systems ( G ) and soybean yield variability due in each of the 64 cropping systems with early sowing ( H ). Within each panel, the horizontal red and grey lines indicate the boxplot with maximum and minimum yield, respectively. In the left four panels, boxes delimit first and third quartiles; solid lines inside boxes indicate median and green triangles indicate means. Upper and lower whiskers extend to maximum and minimum yields. Each maize and soybean cropping system is a respective 8-way and a 7-way interaction of management practices in a randomly chosen field in Wisconsin, USA (Table S3 and S5 , respectively).

In the case of soybean, a May 1st sowing resulted in greater yield (588 kg/ha; a 14% increase) than a June 1st in the single background cropping system (Fig.  4 E). The result was consistent when yield differences due to sowing date were averaged across 128 background cropping system choices (Table S5 ) (Fig.  4 F). Similar to what was observed in maize, among all cropping systems, yield varied by 1704 kg/ha (44% difference) (Fig.  4 G). When focusing only on the early sown fields, a 1181 kg/ha yield difference (27% yield increase) was observed (Fig.  4 H). In agreement with maize, this result highlights the importance of accounting for sub-optimal background management which can mitigate the beneficial effect of early sowing (Table S6 ).

We note here the ability of farmers to change management practices can be limited due to an equipment constraint (e.g., change planter unit row width) or simply impossible (e.g., change the previous year’s crop). Thus, recommended management practices that were evaluated in studies that used specific background management may not be applicable in some instances. The benefits of the foregoing approach, which involves extensive up-to-date agronomic datasets and high-level computational programing, can have important and immediate implications in future agricultural trials. Our approach allows for more precise examination of complex management interactions in specific environments (soil type and growing season weather) across the US (region covered in Fig.  1 ). The ability to extract single management practice information (even across cropping systems) is also possible by utilizing ALE plots, or by calculation of the frequency at which a given level/rate of a management practice appeared among the highest yielding cropping systems (Tables S4 and S6 ).

Among all available 30-d weather variables, many were strongly correlated in both crop databases (Figs. S2 and S3 for maize and soybean, respectively). Models using all 30-d interval variables with r < 0.7 (Tables S8 and S9 ) showed minimal to no performance gain compared to the final more parsimonious models that included season-long weather variables (Fig. S4 ). Thus, we consider the length of periods we chose to represent well the approximate successive 60-d pre-sowing, 120-d in-season, and 60-d post-harvest segments of growing season in the US (Fig. S7 ). Season-long weather conditions have been used in previous studies 13 , 24 , and it has been shown that choice of growing season does not affect climate-related effects on crop yield 25 , 26 .

As an additional sensitivity analysis, we developed ALE plots for the algorithms using the aforementioned 30-d weather variables (Fig. S8 ). For major management practices, there were no differences in simulated responses between the algorithms that used multiple 30-d weather variables and the final chosen algorithms that used longer intervals (Fig.  3 ). Repeating the analysis for the same hypothetical cropping system in the same Wisconsin location using the algorithms developed with the 30-d weather conditions, the observed trends were consistent with the season-long weather algorithms, although the simulated yields were numerical different (Fig. S9 ). Nevertheless, across all representations of weather conditions (algorithms with 30-d intervals and season-long), the levels/rates of management practices in the 5% highest and lowest yielding maize and 5% highest soybean cropping systems with early sowing date were identical, apart from manure use in maize. Based on these results, we consider the algorithm-derived yield estimates robust to different representations of seasonal weather variability.

It appears that several different cropping systems can result in similar high yield for both crops (Fig.  4 C,D,G,H). This is in agreement with other agricultural decision maker tools 27 . Moreover, it is common for neighboring farms to attain similar crop yield despite the use of a different cropping system, suggesting that a single optimal solution does not necessarily exist and that different combinations of management practices, when they interact with environment, can still result in similar high yields. Since the effect of environment is ever-changing, the high level of complexity of synergies between G × E × M suggests that long-term optimization of single management factor may not be possible 28 , which further highlights the importance of accounting for the effect of the entire cropping system at the field level.

The approach we present here should not be considered as a crop yield forecasting exercise. There have been several attempts to forecast crop yields using deep neural network methods (e.g., 29 , 30 ). In contrast, the algorithms we present here can generate hypothetical experimental data that can be used to rapidly examine G × E × M interaction for both maize and soybean across the US. Of the millions of possible G × E × M combinations, our ML algorithms can identify hidden complex patterns between G × E × M combinations for yield optimization that may be non-obvious, but once identified, worthy of field test confirmation. Farmers can use the algorithms to gain insights about optimum management interactions in their location-specific environment (known soil type × expected weather conditions), and to identify farm factors that may be too costly to alter without a priori reason (generated by the model) for doing so. Researchers can compare expected yield across thousands of hypothetical cropping systems and use the results as a guide to design more efficient future field-based crop management practice evaluation experiments.

We note that this approach should not be considered as a substitute of replicated trials. To the contrary, replicated field trials performed by Universities are continually needed to serve as an excellent source of high-quality unbiased data which can be used to train even more comprehensive algorithms. The major issue with current performance trial data is that a great amount of management information is not reported. Usually, only information relevant to the examined management factors in each trial are reported, which inevitably results in missing values (Tables S1 and S2 ), or even in absence of important variables (e.g., number and dates of split fertilizer application). As we have highlighted here, the high order and complex background management interactions should not be considered as irrelevant.

Conclusions

Agricultural experiments repeated every year in hundreds of locations across the US generate a vast amount of crop yield and management datasets which are useful for broad inferences (average effect of a management practice across a range of environments). Such datasets have, to date, remained disconnected from each other, and are difficult to combine, standardize, and properly analyze. In the presented work, we overcame these issues by developing large databases and by leveraging the power of ML algorithms. We argue that our algorithms can advance agricultural research and aid in revealing a currently hidden yield potential in each individual farm across the US.

Crop yield and management data were obtained from publicly available variety performance trials which are typically performed yearly in several locations across each state 31 . Recorded, trial-specific, management practices for maize included use of irrigation, tillage practice, seeding rate, row spacing, sowing date, previous crop, fertilizer (N, P, and K), use of manure, cultivar’s maturity, insecticide traits and use of seed treatments (Table S1 ). For soybean, use of irrigation, foliar fungicide, tillage practice, seeding rate, row spacing, sowing date, previous crop, and cultivar maturity were recorded (Table S2 ).

Since data were collected from different states and years, it was assumed that reported management practices (general categories) were consistent across all locations. Additionally, the type and application method of fertilizer was rarely reported. Similarly, there was a lack of information on the active ingredient and rates of seed treatments and foliar applied products. We acknowledge that this lack of information, as we state in the discussion section, is a limitation of our databases and our assumption, that the way different management practices are reported across different states is consistent, may have contributed to the observed unexplained variability.

For both databases, data entry was performed manually. Additionally, for both crops, soil type was recorded and weather data (Table S7 ) were retrieved from the DAYMET 32 database for each year and set of coordinates. DAYMET daily data are reasonably accurate when means or totals are calculated over extended periods 33 . Therefore, means and sums for three periods (90–150, 151–270, and 271–330 days of year) (Tables S1 and S2 ) and 30-d periods (Tables S8 and S9 ) were calculated. The different sets of weather variables were used in different models to assess their impact in model accuracy.

The exact coordinates for each site were not reported in the trial reports. Therefore, approximate coordinates, based on the nearest reported city, were used for each unreported site. When unmanageable production adversities were reported (e.g., hail, damage due to deer etc.), the associated data were not used. Missing values were present in almost all management-related variables in both databases (Tables S1 and S2 ). Since the data were derived from designed experiments, levels of management were not a result of response to external factors (e.g., weather conditions) but were researcher’s decisions to answer specific research questions (e.g., crop yield response to different sowing dates or maturity ratings), no missing data imputation was performed.

The first step before data analysis was to examine correlations among the weather variables. Due to their strong collinearity (Figs. S3 and S4 for maize and soybean, respectively), only those with Pearson r < 0.7 were retained for subsequent analyses. The final maize database included seven weather variables (Table S1 ) and the final soybean database included eight weather variables (Table S2 ). Categorical variables were one-hot encoded and then databases were separated in training (80% of database) and testing (20% of database) datasets. To ensure adequate representation of growing environments in both, the training and testing portions of the data, stratified sampling was performed by year, use of irrigation, and soil type. For each crop, an extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) algorithm 34 was trained to predict final yield as a response of the aforementioned weather and management variables listed in Tables S1 and S2 . The hyperparameters were optimized using the training dataset and included number of estimators, tree depth, number of leaves, minimum sum of instance weight in node, learning rate, subsample percentage, column sample by tree and by level, gamma, alpha and lambda parameters. To efficiently tune the hypermeters, Bayesian optimization was performed using “hyperopt” in Python 3.6.9 with tenfold cross validation. The combination of the hypermeters that resulted in the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) in the tenfold cross validations was chosen as the final model which was further evaluated on the test portion of the data (Fig.  2 in main document).

Accumulated local effects (ALE) plots 14 , which are robust to correlation among independent variables, were developed for indicative and important variables using 1000 Monte Carlo simulations. These plots are useful to visualize how individual features influence the predictions of the developed “black-box” algorithms. To perform the evaluation for the “what if” scenarios, the final algorithms were applied on hypothetical cropping systems in a randomly chosen field in south central Wisconsin (latitude = 43.34, longitude =  − 89.38) and weather conditions in 2016–2018 for maize and 2014–2018 for soybean. Boxplots were used to visually evaluate the results.

Data and code availability

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank Adam Roth and multiple students for their help in database development and John Gaska for constructing Fig. 1 . This research was funded in part by the Wisconsin Soybean Marketing Board, The North Central Soybean Research Program (S.P. Conley), and the USDA National Institute of Food and Federal Appropriations under Project PEN04660 and Accession number 1016474 (P.D. Esker).

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S.M. conceived the idea, analyzed the data, and wrote the paper. P.D.E and J.E.S. contributed to idea development, reviewed results, and provided revisions for improvement of the manuscript. S.P.C. contributed to the data set and idea development, reviewed results, and commented on the manuscript.

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Mourtzinis, S., Esker, P.D., Specht, J.E. et al. Advancing agricultural research using machine learning algorithms. Sci Rep 11 , 17879 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97380-7

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Othmane Friha, Mohamed Amine Ferrag, Lei Shu, Leandros Maglaras, and Xiaochan Wang, "Internet of Things for the Future of Smart Agriculture: A Comprehensive Survey of Emerging Technologies," vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 718-752, Apr. 2021. doi:
Othmane Friha, Mohamed Amine Ferrag, Lei Shu, Leandros Maglaras, and Xiaochan Wang, "Internet of Things for the Future of Smart Agriculture: A Comprehensive Survey of Emerging Technologies," vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 718-752, Apr. 2021. doi:

Internet of Things for the Future of Smart Agriculture: A Comprehensive Survey of Emerging Technologies

Doi:  10.1109/jas.2021.1003925.

  • Othmane Friha 1 ,  , 
  • Mohamed Amine Ferrag 2 ,  , 
  • Lei Shu 3, 4 ,  ,  , 
  • Leandros Maglaras 5 ,  , 
  • Xiaochan Wang 6 , 

Networks and Systems Laboratory, University of Badji Mokhtar-Annaba, Annaba 23000, Algeria

Department of Computer Science, Guelma University, Gulema 24000, Algeria

College of Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China

School of Engineering, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN67TS, UK

School of Computer Science and Informatics, De Montfort University, Leicester LE1 9BH, UK

Department of Electrical Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China

Othmane Friha received the master degree in computer science from Badji Mokhtar-Annaba University, Algeria, in 2018. He is currently working toward the Ph.D. degree in the University of Badji Mokhtar-Annaba, Algeria. His current research interests include network and computer security, internet of things (IoT), and applied cryptography

Mohamed Amine Ferrag received the bachelor degree (June, 2008), master degree (June, 2010), Ph.D. degree (June, 2014), HDR degree (April, 2019) from Badji Mokhtar-Annaba University, Algeria, all in computer science. Since October 2014, he is a Senior Lecturer at the Department of Computer Science, Guelma University, Algeria. Since July 2019, he is a Visiting Senior Researcher, NAULincoln Joint Research Center of Intelligent Engineering, Nanjing Agricultural University. His research interests include wireless network security, network coding security, and applied cryptography. He is featured in Stanford University’s list of the world’s Top 2% Scientists for the year 2019. He has been conducting several research projects with international collaborations on these topics. He has published more than 60 papers in international journals and conferences in the above areas. Some of his research findings are published in top-cited journals, such as the IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials , IEEE Internet of Things Journal , IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management , IEEE Access , Journal of Information Security and Applications (Elsevier), Transactions on Emerging Telecommunications Technologies (Wiley), Telecommunication Systems (Springer), International Journal of Communication Systems (Wiley), Sustainable Cities and Society (Elsevier), Security and Communication Networks (Wiley), and Journal of Network and Computer Applications (Elsevier). He has participated in many international conferences worldwide, and has been granted short-term research visitor internships to many renowned universities including, De Montfort University, UK, and Istanbul Technical University, Turkey. He is currently serving on various editorial positions such as Editorial Board Member in Journals (Indexed SCI and Scopus) such as, IET Networks and International Journal of Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (Inderscience Publishers)

Lei Shu (M’07–SM’15) received the B.S. degree in computer science from South Central University for Nationalities in 2002, and the M.S. degree in computer engineering from Kyung Hee University, South Korea, in 2005, and the Ph.D. degree from the Digital Enterprise Research Institute, National University of Ireland, Ireland, in 2010. Until 2012, he was a Specially Assigned Researcher with the Department of Multimedia Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Osaka University, Japan. He is currently a Distinguished Professor with Nanjing Agricultural University and a Lincoln Professor with the University of Lincoln, U.K. He is also the Director of the NAU-Lincoln Joint Research Center of Intelligent Engineering. He has published over 400 papers in related conferences, journals, and books in the areas of sensor networks and internet of things (IoT). His current H-index is 54 and i10-index is 197 in Google Scholar Citation. His current research interests include wireless sensor networks and IoT. He has also served as a TPC Member for more than 150 conferences, such as ICDCS, DCOSS, MASS, ICC, GLOBECOM, ICCCN, WCNC, and ISCC. He was a Recipient of the 2014 Top Level Talents in Sailing Plan of Guangdong Province, China, the 2015 Outstanding Young Professor of Guangdong Province, and the GLOBECOM 2010, ICC 2013, ComManTel 2014, WICON 2016, SigTelCom 2017 Best Paper Awards, the 2017 and 2018 IEEE Systems Journal Best Paper Awards, the 2017 Journal of Network and Computer Applications Best Research Paper Award, and the Outstanding Associate Editor Award of 2017, and the 2018 IEEE ACCESS. He has also served over 50 various Co-Chair for international conferences/workshops, such as IWCMC, ICC, ISCC, ICNC, Chinacom, especially the Symposium Co-Chair for IWCMC 2012, ICC 2012, the General Co-Chair for Chinacom 2014, Qshine 2015, Collaboratecom 2017, DependSys 2018, and SCI 2019, the TPC Chair for InisCom 2015, NCCA 2015, WICON 2016, NCCA 2016, Chinacom 2017, InisCom 2017, WMNC 2017, and NCCA 2018

Leandros Maglaras (SM’15) received the B.Sc. degree from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, in 1998, M.Sc. in industrial production and management from University of Thessaly in 2004, and M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical & computer engineering from University of Volos in 2008 and 2014, respectively. He is the Head of the National Cyber Security Authority of Greece and a Visiting Lecturer in the School of Computer Science and Informatics at the De Montfort University, U.K. He serves on the Editorial Board of several International peer-reviewed journals such as IEEE Access , Wiley Journal on Security & Communication Networks , EAI Transactions on e-Learning and EAI Transactions on Industrial Networks and Intelligent Systems . He is an author of more than 80 papers in scientific magazines and conferences and is a Senior Member of IEEE. His research interests include wireless sensor networks and vehicular ad hoc networks

Xiaochan Wang is currently a Professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Nanjing Agricultural University. His main research fields include intelligent equipment for horticulture and intelligent measurement and control. He is an ASABE Member, and the Vice Director of CSAM (Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery), and also the Senior Member of Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. He was awarded the Second Prize of Science and Technology Invention by the Ministry of Education (2016) and the Advanced Worker for Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering (2012), and he also gotten the “Blue Project” in Jiangsu province young and middle-aged academic leaders (2010)

  • Corresponding author: Lei Shu, e-mail: [email protected]
  • Revised Date: 2020-11-25
  • Accepted Date: 2020-12-30
  • Agricultural internet of things (IoT) , 
  • internet of things (IoT) , 
  • smart agriculture , 
  • smart farming , 
  • sustainable agriculture
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  • We review the emerging technologies used by the Internet of Things for the future of smart agriculture.
  • We provide a classification of IoT applications for smart agriculture into seven categories, including, smart monitoring, smart water management, agrochemicals applications, disease management, smart harvesting, supply chain management, and smart agricultural practices.
  • We provide a taxonomy and a side-by-side comparison of the state-of-the-art methods toward supply chain management based on the blockchain technology for agricultural IoTs.
  • We highlight open research challenges and discuss possible future research directions for agricultural IoTs.
  • Copyright © 2022 IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica
  • 京ICP备14019135号-24
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agriculture topics for research papers

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  • Figure 1. The four agricultural revolutions
  • Figure 2. Survey structure
  • Figure 3. IoT-connected smart agriculture sensors enable the IoT
  • Figure 4. The architecture of a typical IoT sensor node
  • Figure 5. Fog computing-based agricultural IoT
  • Figure 6. SDN/NFV architecture for smart agriculture
  • Figure 7. Classification of IoT applications for smart agriculture
  • Figure 8. Greenhouse system [ 101 ]
  • Figure 9. Aerial-ground robotics system [ 67 ]
  • Figure 10. Photovoltaic agri-IoT schematic diagram [ 251 ]
  • Figure 11. Smart dairy farming system [ 254 ]
  • Figure 12. IoT-based solar insecticidal lamp [ 256 ], [ 257 ]

187 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Questions + Examples

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  • Cuisine and Agriculture of Ancient Greece There are many reasons for modern students to investigate the development of cuisine and agriculture in Ancient Greece.
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  • Food Additives Use in Agriculture in the United States Food additives in agriculture become a debatable issue because their benefits do not always prevail over such shortages like health issues and environmental concerns.
  • Radio-Frequency Identification in Healthcare and Agriculture Specifically, radio-frequency identification (RFID) has gained traction due to its ability to transmit data over distance.
  • Mechanism of US Agricultural Market The fact that lower interest rates increased the number of potential customers for real estate in the 2000s shows that housing prices should have increased.
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  • The role of bees in agriculture and threats to their survival.
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  • The journey of food in modern agricultural supply chains.
  • The role of agri-tech startups in agricultural innovation.
  • Youth in agriculture: inspiring the next generation of farmers.
  • Why should we shift to plant-based meat alternatives?
  • The importance of preserving indigenous agricultural practices.
  • Smart irrigation systems: optimizing water use in agriculture.

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StudyCorgi. (2022, March 1). 187 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Questions + Examples. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/agriculture-essay-topics/

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StudyCorgi . "187 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Questions + Examples." March 1, 2022. https://studycorgi.com/ideas/agriculture-essay-topics/.

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Is land fragmentation undermining collective action in rural areas an empirical study based on irrigation systems in china’s frontier areas.

agriculture topics for research papers

1. Introduction

2. literature review, 2.1. the causes of land fragmentation, 2.2. research on collective action, 2.3. the impacts of land fragmentation on collective action: a social science perspective, 2.4. the impacts of land fragmentation on social–ecological systems: a natural science perspective, 2.5. summary of the literature, 3. theoretical analysis and research hypotheses, 3.1. connections between humans and nature, 3.2. the impact of land fragmentation on collective action in the context of connection between humans and nature, 4. materials and methods, 4.1. research area, 4.2. research data, 4.3. variable selection, 4.3.1. dependent variable, 4.3.2. core independent variables, 4.3.3. control variables, 4.4. research methodology, 4.4.1. ordered probability regression model, 4.4.2. instrumental variables test, 5. estimated results, 5.1. benchmark regression, 5.2. robustness analysis, 6. discussion, 6.1. the impact of an lf threshold of 513.3 m 2 on collective action and its policy implications, 6.2. possible mechanisms through which land fragmentation affects collective action, 6.3. promoting an extended understanding of the relationship between land fragmentation and collective action: a dynamic perspective discussion, 7. conclusions, implications, and limitations, 7.1. conclusions, 7.2. implications, 7.3. limitations, author contributions, data availability statement, conflicts of interest.

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Click here to enlarge figure

VariableDescriptionMeanStd. Dev.Min.Max.
ICADoes the household regularly participate in irrigation facility repair activities? (ICA) (1 = Never participate to 5 = Frequently participate)4.2860.87915
LFReciprocal of the area of land managed by households1.0890.6510.1432.915
LF2Reciprocal of the area of land managed by households (square)1.6101.8900.0208.500
PESTICIDEDid your family reduce pesticide application in actual cultivation? (0 = No; 1 = Yes)1.5190.50012
FERTILIZERDid your family reduce fertilizer application in actual cultivation? (0 = No; 1 = Yes)0.4360.49601
FAITHDo your family members hold religious beliefs? (0 = No; 1 = Yes)0.0390.19301
INCOMEWhat was the family income in 2022? (Yuan)90,594.160218,947.80003,750,000
POPULATIONHow many people are there in your family?5.1492.308135
COASTALIs the village located in a coastal area? (0 = No; 1 = Yes)0.0330.17901
MOUNTAINIs the village located in a mountainous area? (0 = No; 1 = Yes)0.4710.49901
DEGENERATHas there been any degradation in the quality of family farmland in recent years? (0 = No; 1 = Yes)0.3680.48301
Soil HealthHow is the fertility level of the family land? (1 = Very barren; 5 = Very fertile)3.4280.86815
DISTANCEHow far is the family residence from the town center? (km)7.5406.5630.0150
ENDOWMENTDoes the family purchase elderly insurance? (0 = No; 1 = Yes)0.7790.41501
LAWHave you heard or are you familiar with the “Environmental Protection Law”? (1 = Never heard of it; 5 = Very familiar)2.8081.14515
FACILITIESHas there been any improvement in the village’s farmland infrastructure conditions in recent years? (0 = No; 1 = Yes)0.7620.42601
COOPERATIVEDid your family join a rural cooperative in 2022? (0 = No; 1 = Yes)0.1450.35301
RELATIONHow familiar are you and your family with other villagers in the village? (1 = Not familiar at all; 5 = Very familiar)4.4890.72915
SELLWhat percentage of the grains planted by the family is used for external sales? (%)25.85237.6960100
TECHNOLOGYDo you seek agricultural technology assistance through the Internet? (1 = Strongly disagree; 5 = Strongly agree)1.9981.21215
DISASTER1In recent years, natural disasters have caused substantial damage to properties such as houses and gardens (1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree)2.3541.31815
DISASTER2In recent years, have natural disasters caused substantial harm to household agricultural production? (1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree)2.8741.43715
REGULATIONSHow well do other villagers adhere to village rules and agreements? (1 = Never adhere; 5 = always adhere)4.0590.77415
EQUITYDo you believe that decision-making on various village affairs is genuinely fair, just, and transparent? (1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree)4.0641.13515
VariableModel 1 (Oprobit)Model 2 (2SLS)Model 3 (IV-Probit)
ICAICAICA
LF0.679 **2.474 **0.599
(2.39)(2.14)(1.49)
LF2−0.261 ***−0.887 **−0.263 ***
(−2.70)(−2.17)(−2.72)
PESTICIDE−0.0391−0.0493−0.0294
(−0.36)(−0.63)(−0.26)
FERTILIZER0.02620.02840.0148
(0.24)(0.36)(0.12)
FAITH−0.174−0.189−0.164
(−0.79)(−1.15)(−0.73)
INCOME−0.022−0.013−0.022
(−1.27)(−0.98)(−1.26)
POPULATION−0.005550.00462−0.00729
(−0.29)(0.33)(−0.37)
COASTAL0.01830.1230.0312
(0.08)(0.70)(0.13)
MOUNTAIN0.170 *0.170 **0.148
(1.82)(2.25)(1.22)
DEGENERAT0.03920.03860.0490
(0.42)(0.57)(0.49)
FERTILITY0.176 ***0.0988 **0.177 ***
(3.22)(2.56)(3.24)
DISTANCE0.001190.002400.00243
(0.17)(0.48)(0.30)
ENDOWMENT0.09370.06010.0944
(0.91)(0.79)(0.92)
LAW0.106 ***0.0715 **0.106 ***
(2.64)(2.44)(2.65)
FACILITIES0.03220.05540.0309
(0.32)(0.73)(0.30)
COOPERATIVE−0.0415−0.0234−0.0434
(−0.34)(−0.27)(−0.35)
RELATION0.356 ***0.272 ***0.353 ***
(6.16)(6.09)(6.00)
SELL−0.00103−0.00150−0.000794
(−0.86)(−1.60)(−0.54)
TECHNOLOGY0.04810.03280.0480
(1.30)(1.26)(1.29)
DISASTER1−0.126 ***−0.0788 ***−0.127 ***
(−3.13)(−2.77)(−3.15)
DISASTER20.0803 **0.04310.0808 **
(2.11)(1.60)(2.13)
REGULATIONS0.314 ***0.171 ***0.310 ***
(5.41)(3.93)(5.11)
EQUITY0.03070.01220.0331
(0.77)(0.44)(0.82)
Regional variablesControlledControlledControlled
Observed value798798798
Wald chi-squared183.7311.613183.73
p > chi-squared0.0000.0000.000
Pseudo-R-squared0.1030.0710.103
VariablesModel 4Model 5Model 6Model 7
DCASCATCAPCA
LF0.688 **−0.539 **−0.4071.034 ***
(2.49)(−2.08)(−1.38)(3.14)
LF2−0.252 ***0.182 **0.228 **−0.358 ***
(−2.69)(2.04)(2.23)(−3.19)
Connection between
humans and nature
ControlledControlledControlledControlled
Controlled variablesControlledControlledControlledControlled
Regional variablesControlledControlledControlledControlled
Observations798798798798
Wald chi-squared181.61120.87102.83124.74
Chi-squared0.0000.0000.0000.000
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Share and Cite

Su, Y.; Xuan, Y.; Zang, L.; Zhang, X. Is Land Fragmentation Undermining Collective Action in Rural Areas? An Empirical Study Based on Irrigation Systems in China’s Frontier Areas. Land 2024 , 13 , 1041. https://doi.org/10.3390/land13071041

Su Y, Xuan Y, Zang L, Zhang X. Is Land Fragmentation Undermining Collective Action in Rural Areas? An Empirical Study Based on Irrigation Systems in China’s Frontier Areas. Land . 2024; 13(7):1041. https://doi.org/10.3390/land13071041

Su, Yiqing, Yuan Xuan, Liangzhen Zang, and Xiaoyin Zhang. 2024. "Is Land Fragmentation Undermining Collective Action in Rural Areas? An Empirical Study Based on Irrigation Systems in China’s Frontier Areas" Land 13, no. 7: 1041. https://doi.org/10.3390/land13071041

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176 Agriculture Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

🏆 best agriculture topic ideas & essay examples, 💡 most interesting agriculture topics to write about, 📌 simple & easy agriculture essay titles, 👍 good essay topics on agriculture, ❓ agriculture essay questions.

  • Sustainable Agriculture It is believed that the increase in the demand for food due to the increase in global population and change in dietary habit of the population.
  • The Impact of Groundwater Pollution on Agriculture and Its Prevention People have to be aware about the impact of their activities on groundwater and be able to improve the conditions, they live under, and this piece of writing will inform each reader about each detail […]
  • Use of Pesticides in Agriculture The general narrative on pesticide use in agriculture is the assertion that it saves labor and ensures higher crop yields. These adversities show just how greater danger than the usefulness of pesticide use is in […]
  • Smart Farming and Sustainable Agriculture Smart farming allows for a wide range of options, from robotization and satellite imagery to the Internet of Things and the blockchain technology that increases the efficiency of crop cultivation by optimizing the use of […]
  • Urban Agriculture Effects on Economy The preparation of the journals involved conducting interviews with the urban farmers and surveys on the certainty of the farming practices.
  • Culture and Agriculture: Nature and Significance Understanding Seeing that agriculture shapes the society and defines the course of its further development, promoting the ideas of environmentalism and sustainability, it will be reasonable to assume that agriculture belongs to the domain of cultures.
  • The Difference Between Agricultural Societies and Hunter-Gathers Societies in the Past In the course of time, people have been searching for techniques and approaches to adjust to geographical, social, and cultural environment in the past and in the modern contexts.
  • Environmental Degradation and the Use of Technology in the Agricultural Sector According to the United Nations Environmental Program, environmental degradation is the term used to refer to the destruction of the environment through the exhaustion f natural resources such as air water, and soil along with […]
  • Agriculture Effects on Wild Animals An increase in agricultural activities has subjected a majority of the wild animals to the danger of extinction. Prior to the introduction of the mongoose in Hawaii, it was easy to find a Nene goose […]
  • Agricultural Sector: The Use of Drones Thompson states that the application of drones in agriculture, specifically in the United Kingdom, can promote the enhancement of the crops and reduce the usage of pesticides.
  • Agricultural Modernization in Third World Countries Due to underdevelopment in third world countries, the state considered the need for integrated rural development to reduce poverty in rural areas.
  • Agriculture Versus Forestry Sequentially, in the endeavor to determine what type of an activity to be dedicated to a land, it is proper to comprehend how the activity would work towards maintaining an excellent ecosystem’s functionality.
  • Growing Pumpkins: Here’s What You Need to Know One way of keeping the leaves dry is by ensuring that the pumpkins are watered early in the morning to give them sufficient time to dry during the day. Microbes found in the soil contribute […]
  • Improving Stress Resistance in Agricultural Crops The biotechnology involved in producing such crops faces many difficulties and there are a lot of considerations of the methods used to improve the crop’s resistance that need to be assessed.
  • Application of Geography (GIS) in Biotechnology in Field of Agriculture and Environment According to Wyland, “the ability of GIS to analyze and visualize agricultural environments and work flows has proved to be very beneficial to those involved in the farming industry”.
  • Hydroponics in Agriculture These different setups have the same idea of hydroponics growing but the difference comes in the type of medium used in the growing and the state of the nutrient solution.
  • Agricultural Geography and the Production and Consumption of Food in British Columbia The impact of the disparity in the natural environment which causes variable conditions in different geographical areas is reflected in the productivity, production cost and efficiency of production.
  • The Agricultural Revolution: From the Neolithic Age to a New Era of Agricultural Growth The discovery of tools is recognized to be one of the most important events of human development, as it is a well-known fact that “The development of tools such as flint points, axes, weapons such […]
  • The Olmec and the Inca Civilizations Agriculture Practices The aim of this paper is to compare the lifestyles and achievements of the Olmec and the Inca civilizations. The creation of the civilization was instigated by the fact that local alluvial soil was well […]
  • The Indian Agriculture Sector Given the significance of the agricultural sector to the economy, the government introduced the 11th five-year plan to provide support and incentives to farmers and other stakeholders in order to enhance production of food.
  • Urban Agricultural Impact on Human Life One major characteristic of urban agriculture that differentiates it from rural agriculture is the integration of agriculture in the urban economic and ecological system.
  • Zimbabwe’s Agriculture Sectors: Role in the Economic Development This report is dedicated to exploring the agriculture sectors of Zimbabwe and their role in the economic development of the country.
  • Internet of Things in Agriculture According to Chalimov, farmers can control such indicators as soil contamination, the proportion of harmful substances in the air, the level of water pollution, and many other characteristics that are crucial to address timely.
  • Sprinkler Drones in the Agricultural Sector The introduction of drones in agriculture is expected to solve the problem of the shifting structure of the workforce in agriculture.
  • Agriculture and Regulations in African Countries This work is aimed at determining the significance of agriculture in African countries, the main features of the regulation of this field, as well as the causes leading to a failure in a traditional developmental […]
  • Global Warming and Agriculture The first and the most obvious result of the global warming is the decrease of the harvest in the majority of regions all over the world.
  • Lucretius’s View About the Roman Agriculture This was not a mere rhetoric considering that writers on the Roman agriculture also highlighted the decline in land productivity either due to the land being old or because of humans’ failure to preserve the […]
  • The Main Objective of DNA Fingerprinting in Agriculture Therefore, the main objective of DNA fingerprinting in agriculture is to overcome the limitation of insufficient dissimilarity among prior genotypes and come up with the best ideas to discover new molecular markers and collect data […]
  • Advices to the French Minister of Agriculture, the Head of the French Wine Industry Association and the Owners of Vineyards One of the major problems of the French wine industry is the incapacity to produce the cheap wine due to the climate characteristics of the region, luck of commercial interest and the low support of […]
  • Effects of Industrialized Agriculture Finally, the corporations that are involved in the process of food production are responsible for the creation of new markets for consumption and the global trade of agricultural products.
  • History of Agriculture in the American West The introduction of electric and gasoline-powered machinery, the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides made agriculture one of the main sources of income for West America.
  • Changes in Agriculture in the Next 25 Years The most dramatic change will be the lives and lifestyles of the farmers that will in the next 25 years be the envy of urban folks.
  • Soil Degradation as an Issue Facing Agriculture The most informative indicators of purely hydrological degradation of soils are a decrease in the total moisture capacity of the soil and a reduction in the lowest moisture capacity of the soil, which characterizes the […]
  • Agricultural Issues in the “Food Inc.” Documentary One of the reasons is that large corporations can launch a mass-scale production of food, and therefore, they can dictate pricing policies to the small farmers, who, in their turn, have to work with these […]
  • Agriculture and Farming in Abu Dhabi Many researches have been done on soil taxonomy in the UAE, with the invention of a non-absorbent type of soil that was one of the breakthroughs that have greatly influenced agriculture in Abu Dhabi.
  • The Nayar Caste of India: Agricultural Practice This paper explores the culture of the Indian Nayar’s with the perspective to establish their subsistence methods. The Nayar society is matrilineal in nature and women enjoy massive power regarding diverse aspects of their culture.
  • Agricultural Pesticide Negative Impacts The presence of pesticide residues in water, air, and the food is considered the main consequence of the neglectful use of pesticides in agriculture as it puts a serious risk to the safety of people […]
  • Intensification of Agriculture Industries in Canada and the USA Therefore, one should not suppose that the growth of production can be explained by the increase in the number of people who wanted to work in this industry.
  • Agriculture Development in Economic Development This they attribute to the division of labour, where the workers that perform the basic, manual jobs that demand a lot of strength are the least paid, while those that perform the lightest and sophisticated […]
  • Organic Agriculture Funding: Regenerative Organic Agriculture In turn, organic farming will persist in enriching the soil and the products, Additionally, products that are certified organic continue to be in high demand due to consumer preference.
  • Industrial Revolution in Agriculture On the other hand, the industrial revolution in agriculture has led to the introduction of new safety challenges. In conclusion, as a result of the industrial revolution in agriculture, automation has become increasingly relied upon […]
  • History of Mexican Agriculture and Land Tenure The topics covered in the article are related to the history of land tenure in Mexico. Furthermore, it is vital to adapt to the emerging situation in terms of protecting the farmers and land from […]
  • Environmental Ethics of Pesticide Usage in Agriculture For example, pesticides are responsible for the destruction of the soil and harm to the overall ecosystem. The soil, water, and air resources are at a high risk of contamination from the toxins that are […]
  • The Effectiveness of Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture Thus, the research question of the proposed study is as follows: how effective is the application of artificial intelligence to agriculture in terms of removing inefficiency and the lack of productivity?
  • Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture and Health Care The more I studied this issue, the more I became interested in biotechnologies and the possibilities of their use for people.
  • Food Security, Improved Nutrition and Sustainable Agriculture The sizes and types of farming in the US smaller farms could be evaluated to determine the potential of these entities.
  • Blockchain and Internet-of-Things in Agriculture The intensification of the deep penetration of information technology in all areas of life has naturally led to the development of strategies to use it everywhere to optimize processes.
  • The Agriculture, Energy, and Transportation Infrastructure: Main Threats Thus, the purpose of the work is to analyze the food/agricultural, energy, and transport sectors of critical infrastructure in terms of physical, cyber, or natural disaster threats.
  • The Impact of Acetamiprid on Agriculture It is also effective in corroding insects with biting and sucking parts of the mouth, as the active ingredient of acetamiprid is nicotine, which is dangerous for a significant portion of animals and insects.
  • The Seasonal Agriculture Worker Program Reflection There are many cases of violation of labor in migrant employees, and it is essential to examine how SAWP undermines accommodations for Caribbean and Mexico migrants and seek an efficient solution.
  • Effects of Invasive Species on the Agriculture Industry By conducting a study that assesses the impact of the proposed tool on the management of the invasive species’ effects, one will be able to introduce an improvement.
  • Sustainable Agriculture as a Primary Model of Production The benefits of sustainable agriculture are derived from its meaning which is to use agriculture in a way that is beneficial to the environment.
  • Is It Safe to Apply Biosolids to Agricultural Lands? This essay demonstrates that biosolids are safe, beneficial to the environment, and essential for enhancing the soil structure while providing a better alternative to inorganic fertilizers.
  • Agriculture: Environmental, Economic, and Social Aspects One of them is agriculture, and its examination from the selected perspective seems reasonable in order to reveal the interrelation of the above concepts alongside the importance of sustainability.
  • Immigrants’ Employment in Agriculture and Food Processing Most people in the grocery and farm product wholesales are immigrants and account for the largest agricultural and food processing workers in the United States.
  • Japanese Agricultural Policies To cope with the hardships of food supply, Japan needs a flexible and robust regulation in the food and agricultural fields.
  • Agriculture and Its Social Origins Despite the advantages of old methods of finding food and the disadvantages of agriculture, the transition could occur due to the human factor.
  • The Reduction of Agricultural Nutrient Pollution: Possible Solutions The nutrients that are contained in fertilizer or manure may reach water basins and cause a dramatic increase in the populations of phytoplankton and algae.
  • Industrialization and Increased Agricultural Production During this time, there was a reduction in adult mortality and this resulted in increased savings, increased acreage of agricultural land, increased capital stock, reduced rates of capital returns, and improved agricultural production.
  • The Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture However, the move to introduce foreign species of grass such as Bermuda grass in the region while maintaining the native grass has been faced by challenges related to the fiscal importance of the production.
  • American Agricultural and Food System The agricultural system is one of the most important for the functioning of any state. Finally, the reason for this behavior is the nature of the distribution of food to consumers in America.
  • Agricultural Policies’ Impact on Developing Economies It is seen that there are disparities between the agricultural policies of rich countries and their consequent impact on poorer ones lies in the fact that the current distribution of over 90 Billion Euros in […]
  • Agricultural Revolution Process and Its Results Animals were brought to people’s settlements, they were chosen according to their abilities to provide products, to work, or to serve as a source of food.
  • Agriculture in the UAE Water supply is one of the basic demands needed to align the efficient functioning of the agricultural sector, which, in its turn, will be able to provide the food needed to satisfy workers needs and […]
  • Impacts of E-Commerce on Agriculture An analysis can be done to the decision-makers in the industry, agricultural and food products, business processes, firms as well as the interaction that results in the marketplaces, the structure of the market and the […]
  • The Idea of an Agricultural Electric Tractor It is important to analyze and provide a demonstration of how the electric tractor will operate and the principles behind it.
  • Financial Profile of Oman Agriculture Development Company Although the year 2008 has been the most beneficial for the company, yet in comparison to the year 2009, the company has managed to improve the figures in 2010.
  • Agriculture and Environment: Organic Foods Nitrogen has various effects on the food supply, and it’s present in the soil in the form of nitrates and nitrites.
  • The Impact of Geography on Agriculture: Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia Due to the fact that the river overrode the Ethiopian lowland, the inclined gradient of the River Nile sent the water torrent which overflowed the river banks resulting in over flooding of the river.
  • Immigrant Labor Force in the Agricultural Sectors Problem The topic of immigrant labor has been discussed since the agricultural industry faced the problems of farm labor shortage.”Since World War I, the Congress has allowed the use of temporary foreign workers to perform agricultural […]
  • Common Agricultural Policy in Italy One of the latter is the so called Common Agricultural Policy implemented by the EU officials in 2003 to develop for the coming decades and ensure the equal development of the agricultural spheres of all […]
  • The Debate on Conventional vs. Alternative Agricultural Approaches The fundamental shift in contents is the pro-ecological balance thrust of the alternative agriculture methods which are in direct contrast to the traditional methods.
  • Agricultural Exposure to Arsenic Lung cancer from breathing arsenic is an occupational disease for workers in the smelting industry and the arsenic pesticide manufacturing industry.
  • Should Common Agricultural Policy Be Reformed? So with the CAP policy, it is sending a strong message to the world in that it is through the CAP policy that our farmers will be in a position to strongly compete with world […]
  • Libyan Agricultural Infrastructure Analysis The telecommunications network in Libya is in the process of being modernized. The development of agricultural infrastructure has played a big role in alleviating poverty in this nation.
  • World Trade as the Adjustment Mechanism of Agriculture to Climate Change by Julia & Duchin The significant value of the article under consideration consists in the authors’ presenting a new methodological framework for the evaluation of a trade as the stated mechanism and its use for analysis of changes in […]
  • Social Capital in Agriculture and Rural Development The first usage of this term is traced back to 1899 when John Dewey made the first direct mainstream use of the term social capital in the book, “The school and the society”.
  • Weather Tracking and Effects on Agriculture The success of weather forecasting to meet the needs of different stakeholders depends on the tools and technologies put in place.
  • Agricultural Revolution and Changes to Ancient Societies in Terms of the State, Urbanization, and Labor This made the climate and soil more adaptable to plant growth and farming as some of the wild variants of barley and fruit began to grow in the region on their own.
  • A Technique for Controlling Plant Characteristics: Genetic Engineering in the Agriculture A cautious investigation of genetic engineering is required to make sure it is safe for humans and the environment. The benefit credited to genetic manipulation is influenced through the utilization of herbicide-tolerant and pest-safe traits.
  • Pesticide Ban and Its Effects on US Agriculture The findings of the research also challenged the notion that a ban on insecticides would help the environment. Sam is whether to protect the lives that can be lost through the harmful effects of the […]
  • Agriculture: “Yield Prospects by Land and Air” by Schafer The crop tour allows farmers to participate in learning a lot during their visits. The editors of the article, however, failed to share what the farmers learned at the tour despite the delayed corn.
  • Agriculture: “Getting Sprayed Starting Over” by Shepherd They are currently rectifying the affected parts of the farm to get rid of the contamination. The Editor should offer more insight on how to avoid such violations.
  • Agriculture: “Prep Your Pivot for Winter” by Birt The TL irrigation company runs the “the Caveat to winter Pivot Maintenance” program. The dealers who represent the TL Irrigation company receive adequate training on how to service and maintain the equipment.
  • Agricultural Policy in the European Union and the USA The position of this thesis on the EU and the US, particularly in the light of the political implications on policy-making in the Agricultural Sectors is that both the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy and the […]
  • Common Agricultural Policy in the EU The number of funds that were being used for the payments was proposed to be used in developing the countryside through the establishment of a budget for rural development.
  • Agricultural Policies in the EU vs. the US It is the position of this paper concerning the European Union, and the United States, particularly in the light of the political implications on policymaking in the Agricultural Sectors, that both the EU’s Common Agricultural […]
  • “The Political Economy of Agricultural Transition” by Rozelle and Swinnen Other important highlights of the article include the motivations behind the actor’s push for economic reform in China and the Soviet Union.
  • Agricultural Issues in the Global South The latter has ensured that food is produced in plenty and that the citizens do not starve at the expense of cash crops.
  • The Agricultural Revolutions: Timeline, Causes, Inventions This revolution prevented food emergencies in Latin America and Asia during the 1970s and 1980s. However, the revolution was not a successful tactic in ending global food shortage and hunger.
  • Argentina-Kenya International Trade in Agriculture The use of manual labor and inefficient production processes can be considered as one of the main reasons behind the sheer “glut” of workers in the agricultural industry and, as such, this shows one area […]
  • Agricultural Products vs. Animal Rights Dilemma A while back I was looking for a summer job and I was able to get one in the farms that rear chicken for their eggs and meat.
  • Agricultural Policies in African and Asian Countries Agriculture is the largest contributor to the GDP in most countries accounting for 32% of the GDP. Agriculture is the main source of income for the majority of the population.
  • Farmers and Their Role in the American Agriculture The recent changes in the world’s largest countries’ economies can be a good illustration of the exclusive role of agriculture which can enable a state to play an important role in the world.
  • Big Data and Agriculture Big Data is expected to feed the world in the future by analyzing large volumes of data associated with predicting the weather, finding appropriate regions for farming and agriculture, and eliminating possible adverse outcomes.
  • Poverty and Global Food Crisis: Food and Agriculture Model Her innovative approach to the issue was to measure food shortages in calories as opposed to the traditional method of measuring in pounds and stones.
  • Yara vs. Southern Agricultural Corridor of Tanzania At the same time, the approaches of both companies to maintaining high market positions are different, and the purpose of this work is to analyze the strategies applied by Yara and SAGCOT to ensure interest […]
  • Current Condition of Australian Agriculture The current situation in the agricultural sphere is one of the critical drivers for the need for government intervention and the development of new reforms.
  • Australian Economy: Agriculture, Industry and Services Most of the responsibility for the upsurge lies on the technological advancement of the industry that drives the growth and productivity.
  • Jethro Tull as a Change Agent in the Agriculture First, he told his people to be more exact and throw seeds to the whole, but his commands were ignored. In order to prove the effectiveness of his methods, he did not use manure for […]
  • Genetically Modified Organisms in Canadian Agriculture The primary goal of the public engagement initiative is to come up with practical solutions to the challenges facing the adoption of GMOs in Canadian agriculture. The project will inform and consult the citizens to […]
  • Environmental Health and Agricultural Hazards OSHA contributes to environmental health, as it attracts attention to the fact that a lot of people are injured and killed on farms.
  • Urban Agriculture in Chicago: Pros and Cons The climatic changes that have adversely affected the ability of farmers in the rural areas to generate high yields in their farms have led to a reduction in the number of fresh products reaching the […]
  • Agriculture in the Pacific Northwest The large variety of marine and terrestrial resources made agriculture the secondary food source and allowed for the development of storage-based subsistence economy in the Pacific Northwest, especially in Oregon.
  • Construction Control Inspector in Agriculture The job description by the Natural Resource Conservation Service for the construction control inspector position is accurate in the description of the duties and tasks that may be required.
  • American Agriculture in “Food Inc.” Documentary My decision to use the film for the assignment was based on the fact that I had watched it before and was highly influenced by it.
  • Agricultural Nutrient Pollution and Its Reduction The solutions that have been proposed for the issue are varied: there is the possibility of upgrading farms with the help of better technologies, controlling the use of fertilizers and waste discharge with the help […]
  • Native Americans’ History, Farming, Agriculture Nowadays, the task of primary importance is to educate the society and convey the idea that the rich past of the American Indians should be remembered.
  • Canadian Small Agricultural Business and Its Trends Some of the misconceptions are illustrated in the report are that the sector is shrinking with no modernization and innovation. In reality, the study showed that over 95% of the farmers in Canada take measures […]
  • Management Accounting in Agriculture The farming industry of the nature of John and Mary falls in this category however with such a management accounting system like the one portrayed, then the management is likely to be more easy and […]
  • Exchange Rates Impact on the Australian Agriculture The random trend in the foreign exchange market is a macroeconomic issue that has significant implications on the export market prices and the appreciation of the Australian dollar.
  • Energy Problems in the Agriculture Sector From the start, I recognized that using the diesel generator was not the most effective way to solve the power needs of the farm.
  • Agriculture Improvement: The US Farm Bill Nadine Lehrer, who has been studying the bill, asserts, “The bill was developed in the wake of 1930’s farm crisis to bring farm incomes up to the par with the required minimum incomes”.
  • Agricultural Industries in Australia The Commonwealth of Australia is situated in Oceania and is “the world’s sixth-largest country”. This is at least partially the result of the historical development of the country.
  • Use of Mobile Phones in Agricultural Extension This indicates that the use of mobile phones in agriculture may lead to an increase in prices so as to enable farmers to maximize their returns.
  • Urban Agriculture and Localization The increased rate of rural to urban movement has caused urban food shortage, a high cost of food, and a huge reliance on imported food, among other challenges.
  • US Food Industry: Market Dynamics and Regulation Impact The overall outcome of such a supply management program is rising in production costs, consumer prices and a reduction in the capacity of US milk products to compete in the global market.
  • Agricultural Studies: The Kuwaiti Pineapple People who meet me at their life paths are inclined to experience similar emotions and feelings while analyzing the details of my appearance and character, and my friends agree that the discussion of pineapple as […]
  • Whole Foods Trends: Stringent Standards to Agricultural Practices and Food Products Some of the most common trends pertaining the retail of organic food products in the industry include the ups and downs within the farming sector, concerns of the environment, and concern of healthy lifestyles.
  • Impact of Policies on the Practice of Urban Agriculture in Los Angeles This paper looks at the city of Los Angeles and the practice of urban agriculture as a case study to enable the exploration of some of the components of climate change coupled with how political […]
  • Vicious Cycle: The Flipside of Brazil’s Agricultural Expansionist Policies But more importantly, environmental policymakers in Brazil should realize that another vicious cycle between economic development and income distribution will set in the near future as long as farmers in North-East regions of the country […]
  • Potential Reduction in Irrigation Water Through the Use of Water-Absorbent Polymers in Agriculture in UAE The purpose of this study is to focus on the possibility of the use of super absorbent polymers in agriculture in other parts of the world too with an aim of reducing water used in […]
  • Organic Agriculture in the United Arab Emirates The business plan will shed light on the business idea, the value proposition, and the technology that will be required to operate the business.
  • The Agricultural Policy in European Union and the United State of America To achieve the main aim of the study, the third objective will be to analyse the common agricultural policy in the European Union and its effects on the member countries with the use of Germany, […]
  • Agricultural Subsidies in the United States and the EU The main purpose of this paper is to conduct a comparative analysis of the similarities and differences between the US and the EU agricultural subsidies.
  • Human Development. Role of Agriculture. Importance of Technology and Foreign Aid in Mozambique The access to wage labor, which enhances the state of agriculture and the whole country, depends on the people’s education. The rapid development of the agriculture is connected with foreign investments and earnings, as they […]
  • Applying Ecological Theory: Agricultural Degradation of Tropical Forest Ecosystems & Restoration of Exhausted Agricultural Land In this latter case, the conditions inhibit the recovery of the original forest and can lead to a different ecosystem. One of the human activities that are proving to be a dangerous threat to tropical […]
  • Managing for Sustainability: The Case of Agricultural Producers & Coal Mining in Australia In spite of the fact that these agricultural producers are responsible for bringing significant income to state and local budgets, and despite the fact that the agricultural producers are personally or cooperatively responsible for decreasing […]
  • Agricultural, Economics and Environmental Considerations of Bio-Fuels With the end of the oil crisis at the onset of the 1980s decade, the keen interest in bio-fuels fizzled out.
  • Brazil Sustainable and Productive Agricultural Practices The country is the source of water and also a water table of up to 12% of the available freshwater worldwide the Brazil is also undoubtedly one of the leading producers of food and biofuels […]
  • Critical Review: “Food’s Footprint: Agriculture and Climate Change” by Jennifer Burney The ability to unravel the current quagmire surrounding the causes and effects of global warming on food and agricultural production remain the key area towards effective policy design, management application and eventual sustainability assimilation in […]
  • Pesticides Usage on Agricultural Products in California Some of the aspects that must be incorporated in that report are the date of application, the amount used as used as well as the ell as the geographical location of the farm in question.
  • Swidden Agriculture: Shift Farming Although this farming technique has been efficient in the past, it has proved to be unsustainable with the current increase in the global population.
  • Sowing Blood With the Maize: Zapotec Effigy Vessels and Agricultural Ritual At the very beginning, the author overviews the importance of maize for human and relates it to the peculiarities of Zapotec religion, including the description of genital bloodletting as an act of self-sacrifice to gods.
  • Malaria’s and Agriculture Relationship in Kenya This case study analyses the relationship between malaria and agriculture and some of the measures which have been put in place to lower the occurrence of the disease.
  • Changes and its Effects Observed at the Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology For instance, the main entrance was fully furnished and the stretch from the gate connecting other units of the campus was renovated.
  • Can Genetically Modified Food Feed the World: Agricultural and Biotechnological Perspective Undoubtedly, the practice of tissue culture and grafting in plants is never enough to quench the scientific evidence on the power of biotechnology to improve breeding and feeding in living organisms.
  • Agriculture and Genetics Disciplines Relationship The collapse of Crick’s theory was a setback to the genetics discipline because the foundations of genetic engineering are based on the central dogma premise.
  • Recycling of Wastewater for Agricultural Use in Arid Areas Given that in these arid areas water is a rare commodity, recycling of wastewaters has been considered as one of the ways that can be used to increase the amount of water for irrigation for […]
  • Agricultural Subsidies and Development In the event that the world prices is lower than the guaranteed price the government of the nation in question will make up the difference through its subsidy kit set aside for this purpose.
  • Cultural Innovations: An Archaeological Examination of Prehistoric Economics, Agriculture and Family Life The type of structures made were and still are determined by the availability of building materials, the level of development of building tools, the climatic conditions, and the economic resources available to the builder.
  • Addressing Concerns on Food and Agriculture Mechanization of agriculture running back to the days of the industrial revolution contributes quite a lot to increasing food production. Genetic engineering contributes considerably to the increased food production for the needs of the human […]
  • Does Agriculture Help Poverty and Inequality Reduction?
  • How Can Caribbean Agriculture Reach Its Potential?
  • Can Conservation Agriculture Improve Crop Water Availability in an Erratic Tropical Climate Producing Water Stress?
  • How Did Government Affect Agriculture?
  • Does Agriculture Matter?
  • Are African Households Leaving Agriculture?
  • How Can Multifunctional Agriculture Support a Transition to a Green Economy in Africa?
  • Does Crop Insurance Influence Commercial Crop Farm Decisions to Expand?
  • Can Geographical Indications Modernize Indonesian and Vietnamese Agriculture?
  • Does Education Enhance Productivity in Smallholder Agriculture?
  • Where and How Can a Debate About Non-safety Related Issues of Genome Editing in Agriculture Take Place?
  • Does Group Affiliation Increase Productivity and Efficiency in Russia’s Agriculture?
  • Can Integrated Agriculture-Nutrition Programs Change Gender Norms on Land and Asset Ownership?
  • Does Off-Farm Employment Contribute to Agriculture-Based Environmental Pollution?
  • Are Mega-Farms the Future of Global Agriculture?
  • Does Oil Palm Agriculture Help Alleviate Poverty?
  • Can Agriculture Support Climate Change Adaptation, Greenhouse Gas Mitigation, and Rural Livelihoods?
  • Does Organic Agriculture Lead to Better Health Among Organic and Conventional Farmers in Thailand?
  • Are Non-exporters Locked Out of Foreign Markets Because of Low Productivity?
  • Does Urban Proximity Enhance Technical Efficiency in Agriculture?
  • How Does Biological Control Contribute to Sustainable Agriculture?
  • Can Climate Interventions Open up Space for Transformation?
  • Are Production Technologies Associated with Agri-Environmental Programs More Eco-Efficient?
  • Can Conservation Agriculture Save Tropical Forests?
  • Does Agriculture Generate Local Economic Spillovers?
  • Can Sustainable Agriculture Feed Africa?
  • How Can African Agriculture Adapt to Climate Change?
  • Why Are Cooperatives Important in Agriculture?
  • Who Influences Government Spending in Agriculture?
  • What Does Climate Change Mean for Agriculture in Developing Countries?
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agriculture topics for research papers

  • 18 Jun 2024
  • Cold Call Podcast

How Natural Winemaker Frank Cornelissen Innovated While Staying True to His Brand

In 2018, artisanal Italian vineyard Frank Cornelissen was one of the world’s leading producers of natural wine. But when weather-related conditions damaged that year’s grapes, founder Frank Cornelissen had to decide between staying true to the tenets of natural wine making or breaking with his public beliefs to save that year’s grapes by adding sulfites. Harvard Business School assistant professor Tiona Zuzul discusses the importance of staying true to your company’s principles while remaining flexible enough to welcome progress in the case, Frank Cornelissen: The Great Sulfite Debate.

agriculture topics for research papers

  • 15 Nov 2018

Can the Global Food Industry Overcome Public Distrust?

The public is losing trust in many institutions involved in putting food on our table, says Ray A. Goldberg, author of the new book Food Citizenship. Here's what needs to be done. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

  • 17 Oct 2016

Business Solutions That Help Cut Food Waste

Up to 40 percent of food grown in the United States for human consumption is wasted. But solutions are starting to come together from retailers, farmers, academics, policy makers, and social service organizations, according to José Alvarez. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

  • 09 Apr 2012
  • Research & Ideas

Who Sways the USDA on GMO Approvals?

Government agencies can be "captured" by the very companies or industries they regulate. Looking at how genetically altered food products are approved, Assistant Professor Shon R. Hiatt finds unexpected influencers on the US Department of Agriculture. Key concepts include: "Regulatory capture" describes the phenomenon whereby regulatory agencies tasked with serving the public instead end up advancing the interests of the companies they regulate. Traditional theories of capture such as lobbying and campaign contributions had little effect on whether the US Department of Agriculture approved any particular genetically altered agriculture product. What did seem to affect the approval process was the influence of third-party groups such as associations and even related regulatory agencies. Open for comment; 0 Comments.

  • 19 Jun 2009
  • Research Event

Business Summit: The Evolution of Agribusiness

Agribusiness has come to be seen not just as economically important, but as a critical part of society. The future for this massive industry will be both exciting and complex. Closed for comment; 0 Comments.

  • 03 Nov 2008

Economics of the Ethanol Business

What happens when a group of Missouri corn farmers gets into the energy business? What appears to be a very lucrative decision quickly turns out to be much more risky. Professor Forest Reinhardt leads a case discussion on what the protagonists should do next. From HBS Alumni Bulletin. Key concepts include: The case examines the complex political and economic underpinnings of the ethanol industry. By investing in corn-based ethanol, farmers reduce their exposure to corn prices, but at the expense of exposure to the oil market. The case promotes greater understanding of the way materials and energy flow in the modern U.S. agricultural system. Closed for comment; 0 Comments.

  • 02 Jul 2001

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Explore 118+ Agriculture Research Topics for Innovation and Possibilities.

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Embarking on a journey through agriculture research topics unveils a realm of possibilities and innovation that underpin our food systems and farming practices. Have you ever wondered what areas researchers delve into to improve our agricultural landscape? Well, get ready for a glimpse into intriguing research topics in agriculture that scientists are currently exploring. From sustainable development to genetic improvement of crops and livestock, the field is diverse and crucial for tackling our planet’s challenges. So, what exactly are these agriculture research topics, and how do they contribute to making our food systems more resilient and sustainable? Let’s uncover the answers to these questions as we explore the exciting world of agricultural research.

Table of Contents

How do you select the best Agriculture Research Paper topic?

Choosing the right agriculture research paper topic is like picking the perfect crop to plant – it requires careful consideration and a bit of know-how. So, how do you select the best agriculture research paper topic that stands out in the field? Let’s break it down:

  • Passion Points: Ask yourself, “What aspects of agriculture am I most passionate about?” Whether it’s sustainable farming, animal breeding, or soil health, picking a topic you’re genuinely interested in makes the research journey more exciting.
  • Identify Gaps: Consider the gaps in current knowledge. Where does agriculture need more insight? Think about the questions that intrigue you – those uncharted territories where you can contribute valuable information.
  • Feasibility: Assess the feasibility of your chosen topic. Are there enough resources and data available to support your research? Avoid topics that might be too complex or lack the necessary information.
  • Relevance: Ask yourself, “How relevant is my chosen topic to the current issues in agriculture?” Staying up-to-date with industry trends ensures your research contributes to solving real-world problems.
  • Impactful Research: Consider the potential impact of your research. Will it bring about positive changes in farming practices or contribute to sustainable agriculture? Aim for topics that have practical implications and can make a difference.
  • Consult Experts: Don’t hesitate to consult with teachers, experts, or researchers in the field. They can provide valuable insights, helping refine your topic and ensure it aligns with current research priorities.
  • Stay Flexible: Be open to adjusting your topic as you delve deeper into the research. The initial idea might sometimes evolve, leading to a more refined and focused research question.
  • Ask for Feedback: Seek feedback from peers or mentors. Present your chosen topic and gather input – a fresh perspective can help you fine-tune your focus.

Best Agriculture Research Topics

  • Integrating Sustainable Agriculture Practices for Enhanced Food Security
  • Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production Systems
  • Innovations in Irrigation Techniques to Promote Sustainable Food Systems
  • Enhancing Food Safety Protocols in Agricultural Supply Chains
  • Conservation Strategies for Biodiversity in Agroecosystems
  • Pest Management Approaches for Sustainable Crop Yield Improvement
  • The Role of Ecological Practices in Mitigating Agricultural Waste
  • Sustainable Livestock Farming: Balancing Productivity and Environmental Impact
  • Evaluating the Ecological Impact of Pesticide Use in Modern Agriculture
  • Promoting Sustainable Food Systems through Community-Based Agriculture Initiatives

Agricultural Economics Research Topics

  • Market Dynamics and Price Volatility in Agricultural Commodities
  • Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Production Systems
  • Policy Interventions for Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development
  • Assessing the Role of Technology Adoption in Agricultural Productivity
  • Economic Analysis of Precision Farming Technologies and Practices
  • Income Inequality in Agricultural Communities: Causes and Remedies
  • The Role of Agricultural Trade in Global Economic Development
  • Economic Evaluation of Ecosystem Services in Agricultural Landscapes

Agricultural Engineering Research Topics

  • Innovative Engineering Approaches for Sustainable Water Management in Agriculture
  • Precision Agriculture Technologies: Advancements and Implementation Challenges
  • Automated Systems for Crop Monitoring and Yield Prediction
  • Energy-Efficient Solutions in Agricultural Machinery and Equipment
  • Sensor Technologies for Real-time Monitoring of Soil Health and Crop Conditions
  • Robotics and Automation in Agricultural Practices: Opportunities and Limitations
  • Waste-to-Energy Technologies for Sustainable Agricultural Operations
  • Engineering Solutions for Mitigating the Impact of Climate Change on Farming Systems

Interesting Agriculture Research Topics For Students

  • Microbial Applications for Enhancing Nutrient Cycling in Agricultural Systems
  • Sustainable Agricultural Practices in Rural Areas: A Case Study Analysis
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Urban Agriculture: Assessing Sustainability
  • Innovative Agricultural Water Management Techniques for Increased Productivity
  • Fertility Management Strategies for Sustainable Crop Production Systems
  • Exploring the Role of Nutrient-Rich Food Products in Improving Human Health
  • Assessing the Environmental Impact of Agricultural Waste in Production Systems
  • Integrating NIFA Initiatives for Advancing Food and Agriculture Research
  • Enhancing Agricultural Productivity through Technology-driven Production Systems
  • The Intersection of Food Security and Sustainability in Modern Agricultural Practices

Agriculture-Related Research Paper Topics

  • Analytical Approaches to Assessing the Environmental Sustainability of Local Food Systems
  • The Impact of Bioenergy Production on Biodiversity in Agricultural Landscapes
  • Intervention Strategies for Addressing Depletion of Crop Varieties in Modern Agriculture
  • Exploring the Role of Agricultural Enterprises in Rural Development
  • Assessing the Ecological Consequences of Invasive Species in Food Production Systems
  • Local Food Initiatives and Their Influence on the Global Food Supply Chain
  • Investigating the Analytical Methods for Monitoring and Improving Food Supply Chain Efficiency
  • Biodiversity Conservation in Agricultural Landscapes: A Focus on Crop Varieties
  • The Intersection of Rural Development and Environmental Sustainability in Agriculture
  • Examining the Impact of Intervention Programs on Sustainable Food Production Practices

List of Agriculture Research Paper Topics

  • Sustainable Development Strategies in High-Yielding Agriculture
  • Integrated Pest Management Approaches for Crop Improvement
  • Organic Farming and Its Impact on Soil Health and Fertility
  • Assessing the Ecological and Economic Dimensions of Soil Degradation
  • National and International Perspectives on Water Management Practices in Agriculture
  • USDA Initiatives for Promoting Sustainable Agriculture in Rural Communities
  • Balancing High-Yielding Crop Practices with Ecological Considerations
  • Exploring the Relationship Between Soil Fertility and Agricultural Productivity

Expanded Agriculture Research Paper Topics

  • Enhancing Crop Productivity through Innovative Input Strategies
  • The Role of Forestry Practices in Sustainable Agriculture
  • Microorganism Diversity and its Impact on Soil Health and Crop Yield
  • Advancements in Horticulture Techniques for Improved Crop Management
  • Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities
  • Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Crop Responses to Environmental Stress
  • Engineering Approaches for Efficient Water Management in Agriculture
  • Genomic Applications for Crop Improvement and Biotic Stress Resistance

Agricultural Research Topics in Animal Breeding And Genetics

  • Genomic Selection and its Application in Animal Breeding Programs
  • Genetic Improvement of Livestock for Enhanced Productivity and Disease Resistance
  • Molecular Markers and their Role in Characterizing Genetic Diversity in Animal Populations
  • Selective Breeding for Improved Reproductive Performance in Farm Animals
  • Genomic Tools for Identifying and Managing Genetic Disorders in Livestock
  • Application of Quantitative Genetics in Improving Feed Efficiency in Farm Animals
  • Genetic and Genomic Approaches to Enhance Heat Tolerance in Livestock
  • Advances in Marker-Assisted Selection for Traits of Economic Importance in Animal Agriculture

Agriculture Related Research Topics in Plant Science And Crop Production

  • Innovative Approaches to Enhance Crop Productivity in Sustainable Agriculture
  • Genetic Modification for Crop Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses
  • Precision Farming Technologies for Optimal Resource Utilization in Crop Production
  • Investigating the Impact of Climate Change on Crop Physiology and Yield
  • Sustainable Management of Soil Health for Improved Crop Production
  • Functional Genomics in Understanding Plant Responses to Environmental Challenges
  • Development and Deployment of High-Yielding Crop Varieties with Desired Traits
  • Exploring Novel Strategies for Integrated Pest Management in Crop Agriculture

Agriculture Research Project Topics in Fisheries And Aquaculture

  • Sustainable Aquaculture Practices: Balancing Production and Environmental Conservation
  • Genetic Improvement of Aquatic Species for Enhanced Aquaculture Productivity
  • Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Its Impact on Fisheries Sustainability
  • Innovative Technologies for Water Quality Monitoring in Aquaculture Systems
  • Socio-economic Impacts of Aquaculture on Local Communities
  • Development and Optimization of Feed Formulations for Aquaculture Species
  • Disease Management Strategies in Aquatic Organisms: A Focus on Probiotics and Immunostimulants
  • Assessing the Ecological Impact of Aquaculture Practices on Coastal and Inland Water Bodies

Topics in Agricultural Science

  • Understanding the Physiology of Insect Species in Agricultural Ecosystems
  • Sensitive Information Handling in Agricultural Science Research
  • Addressing Water Scarcity Challenges in Agricultural Practices
  • Livelihood Impact of Agricultural Practices on Local Communities
  • Manure Management Strategies for Sustainable Agriculture
  • Energy Production from Agricultural Waste: Biochemical Approaches
  • Exploring Nutrient Composition in Plants for Improved Crop Yield
  • Cover Crops and Medicinal Herbs: Contributions to Sustainable Agriculture in a Growing World Population

Agricultural Economics Research Topics in Farm Management

  • Economic Analysis of Disease Management Strategies for Plant Pathogens in Crop Production
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis of Precision Farming Technologies in Livestock Rearing
  • Financial Viability of Integrated Pest Management Practices in Farm Management
  • Evaluating the Economic Impact of Climate Change on Crop Rearing Systems
  • Adoption and Economic Implications of Sustainable Agriculture Practices in Livestock Farms
  • Farm-Level Decision-Making for Efficient Resource Allocation in Rearing Operations
  • Economic Evaluation of Technology Adoption for Disease Control in Plant Pathogen Management
  • Assessing the Profitability and Sustainability of Diversification Strategies in Farm Enterprises

Topics in Agric Meteorology And Water Management

  • Climate Variability and its Impact on Agricultural Water Management
  • Precision Irrigation Technologies for Efficient Water Use in Agriculture
  • Modeling and Simulation of Meteorological Factors in Crop Growth
  • Weather Forecasting for Optimal Decision-Making in Agriculture
  • Integrated Water Resource Management for Sustainable Agriculture
  • Evaluating the Impact of Climate Change on Water Availability for Agriculture
  • Meteorological Approaches to Assessing Drought Risk in Agricultural Regions
  • Remote Sensing Applications in Monitoring and Managing Agricultural Water Resources

Agriculture Research Paper Topics in Agronomy

  • Optimizing Crop Rotation Systems for Sustainable Agronomic Practices
  • Soil Health Assessment Techniques for Precision Agriculture
  • Evaluating the Impact of Cover Crops on Weed Management in Agronomic Systems
  • Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Crop Production through Agronomic Practices
  • Investigating the Role of Plant-Microbe Interactions in Crop Health and Yield
  • Sustainable Management of Agricultural Residues for Improved Soil Quality
  • Precision Farming Technologies for Efficient Resource Utilization in Agronomy
  • Agronomic Approaches to Mitigate the Effects of Climate Change on Crop Production

Get Help With Your Agriculture Research Paper

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Which topic is best for research in agriculture?

Determining the best research topic in agriculture depends on your interests and the current needs of the industry, ranging from sustainable practices to genetic improvements in crops and livestock.

What are the research paper topics on organic farming?

Research paper topics on organic farming can include soil health in organic systems, the impact of organic practices on crop yield, and the economic viability of organic farming compared to conventional methods.

What are some of the projects in agriculture?

Projects in agriculture cover a broad spectrum, such as precision farming using technology, sustainable water management practices, genetic improvement of crops, and innovative approaches to pest management.

What is a research topic example?

An example of a research topic could be “Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Crop Productivity” or “Exploring Sustainable Livestock Farming Practices for Environmental Conservation.”

sarah Bentley

With a passion for helping students navigate their educational journey, I strive to create informative and relatable blog content. Whether it’s tackling exam stress, offering career guidance, or sharing effective study techniques

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National Academies Press: OpenBook

Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education in the Field: A Proceedings (1991)

Chapter: introduction, introduction.

Charles M. Benbrook

These proceedings are based on a workshop that brought together scientists, farmer-innovators, policymakers, and interested members of the public for a progress report on sustainable agriculture research and education efforts across the United States. The workshop, which was held on April 3 and 4, 1990, in Washington, D.C., was sponsored by the Office of Science and Education of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Board on Agriculture of the National Research Council. The encouraging new science discussed there should convince nearly everyone of two facts.

First, the natural resource, economic, and food safety problems facing U.S. agriculture are diverse, dynamic, and often complex. Second, a common set of biological and ecological principles—when systematically embodied in cropping and livestock management systems—can bring improved economic and environmental performance within the reach of innovative farmers. Some people contend that this result is not a realistic expectation for U.S. agriculture. The evidence presented here does not support such a pessimistic assessment.

The report of the Board on Agriculture entitled Alternative Agriculture (National Research Council, 1989a) challenged everyone to rethink key components of conventional wisdom and contemporary scientific dogma. That report has provided encouragement and direction to those individuals and organizations striving toward more sustainable production systems, and it has provoked skeptics to articulate why they feel U.S. agriculture cannot—some even say should not—seriously contemplate the need for such change. The debate has been spirited and generally constructive.

Scholars, activists, professional critics, and analysts have participated in

this debate by writing papers and books, conducting research, and offering opinions about alternative and sustainable agriculture for over 10 years. Over the past decade, many terms and concepts have come and gone. Most people—and unfortunately, many farmers—have not gone very far beyond the confusion, frustration, and occasional demagoguery that swirls around the different definitions of alternative, low-input, organic, and sustainable agriculture.

Fortunately, though, beginning in late 1989, a broad cross-section of people has grown comfortable with the term sustainable agriculture. The May 21, 1990, issue of Time magazine, in an article on sustainable agriculture entitled “It's Ugly, But It Works” includes the following passage:

[A] growing corps of experts [are] urging farmers to adopt a new approach called sustainable agriculture. Once the term was synonymous with the dreaded O word—a farm-belt euphemism for trendy organic farming that uses no synthetic chemicals. But sustainable agriculture has blossomed into an effort to curb erosion by modifying plowing techniques and to protect water supplies by minimizing, if not eliminating, artificial fertilizers and pest controls.

Concern and ridicule in farm publications and during agribusiness meetings over the philosophical roots of low-input, sustainable, or organic farming have given way to more thoughtful appraisals of the ecological and biological foundations of practical, profitable, and sustainable farming systems. While consensus clearly does not yet exist on how to “fix” agriculture's contemporary problems, a constructive dialogue is now under way among a broad cross-section of individuals, both practitioners and technicians involved in a wide variety of specialties.

This new dialogue is powerful because of the people and ideas it is connecting. Change will come slowly, however. Critical comments in some farm magazines will persist, and research and on-farm experimentation will not always lead to the hoped for insights or breakthroughs. Some systems that now appear to be sustainable will encounter unexpected production problems. Nonetheless, progress will be made.

The Board on Agriculture believes that over the next several decades significant progress can and will be made toward more profitable, resource-conserving, and environmentally prudent farming systems. Rural areas of the United States could become safer, more diverse, and aesthetically pleasing places to live. Farming could, as a result, become a more rewarding profession, both economically and through stewardship of the nation's soil and water resources. Change will be made possible; and it will be driven by new scientific knowledge, novel on-farm management tools and approaches, and economic necessity. The policy reforms adopted in the 1990 farm bill, and ongoing efforts to incorporate environmental objectives

into farm policy, may also in time make a significant difference in reshaping the economic environment in which on-farm management decisions are made.

This volume presents an array of new knowledge and insight about the functioning of agricultural systems that will provide the managerial and technological foundations for improved farming practices and systems. Examples of the research projects under way around the country are described. Through exploration of the practical experiences, recent findings, and insights of these researchers, the papers and discussions presented in this volume should demonstrate the value of field- and farm-level systems-based research that is designed and conducted with ongoing input from farmer-innovators.

Some discussion of the basic concepts that guide sustainable agriculture research and education activities may be useful. Definitions of key terms, such as sustainable agriculture, alternative agriculture, and low-input sustainable agriculture, are drawn from Alternative Agriculture and a recent paper (Benbrook and Cook, 1990).

BASIC CONCEPTS AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS

Basic concepts.

Sustainable agriculture, which is a goal rather than a distinct set of practices, is a system of food and fiber production that

improves the underlying productivity of natural resources and cropping systems so that farmers can meet increasing levels of demand in concert with population and economic growth;

produces food that is safe, wholesome, and nutritious and that promotes human well-being;

ensures an adequate net farm income to support an acceptable standard of living for farmers while also underwriting the annual investments needed to improve progressively the productivity of soil, water, and other resources; and

complies with community norms and meets social expectations.

Other similar definitions could be cited, but there is now a general consensus regarding the essential elements of sustainable agriculture. Various definitions place differing degrees of emphasis on certain aspects, but a common set of core features is now found in nearly all definitions.

While sustainable agriculture is an inherently dynamic concept, alternative agriculture is the process of on-farm innovation that strives toward the goal of sustainable agriculture. Alternative agriculture encompasses efforts by farmers to develop more efficient production systems, as well as

efforts by researchers to explore the biological and ecological foundations of agricultural productivity.

The challenges inherent in striving toward sustainability are clearly dynamic. The production of adequate food on a sustainable basis will become more difficult if demographers are correct in their estimates that the global population will not stabilize before it reaches 11 billion or 12 billion in the middle of the twenty-first century. The sustainability challenge and what must be done to meet it range in nature from a single farm field, to the scale of an individual farm as an enterprise, to the food and fiber needs of a region or country, and finally to the world as a whole.

A comprehensive definition of sustainability must include physical, biological, and socioeconomic components. The continued viability of a farming system can be threatened by problems that arise within any one of these components. Farmers are often confronted with choices and sacrifices because of seemingly unavoidable trade-offs—an investment in a conservation system may improve soil and water quality but may sacrifice near-term economic performance. Diversification may increase the efficiency of resource use and bring within reach certain biological benefits, yet it may require additional machinery and a more stable and versatile labor supply. Indeed, agricultural researchers and those who design and administer farm policy must seek ways to alleviate seemingly unwelcome trade-offs by developing new knowledge and technology and, when warranted, new policies.

Operational Definitions

Sustainable agriculture is the production of food and fiber using a system that increases the inherent productive capacity of natural and biological resources in step with demand. At the same time, it must allow farmers to earn adequate profits, provide consumers with wholesome, safe food, and minimize adverse impacts on the environment.

As defined in our report, alternative agriculture is any system of food or fiber production that systematically pursues the following goals (National Research Council, 1989a):

more thorough incorporation of natural processes such as nutrient cycling, nitrogen fixation, and beneficial pest-predator relationships into the agricultural production process;

reduction in the use of off-farm inputs with the greatest potential to harm the environment or the health of farmers and consumers;

productive use of the biological and genetic potential of plant and animal species;

improvement in the match between cropping patterns and the productive potential and physical limitations of agricultural lands; and

profitable and efficient production with emphasis on improved farm management, prevention of animal disease, optimal integration of livestock and cropping enterprises, and conservation of soil, water, energy, and biological resources.

Conventional agriculture is the predominant farming practices, methods, and systems used in a region. Conventional agriculture varies over time and according to soil, climatic, and other environmental factors. Moreover, many conventional practices and methods are fully sustainable when pursued or applied properly and will continue to play integral roles in future farming systems.

Low-input sustainable agriculture (LISA) systems strive to achieve sustainability by incorporating biologically based practices that indirectly result in lessened reliance on purchased agrichemical inputs. The goal of LISA systems is improved profitability and environmental performance through systems that reduce pest pressure, efficiently manage nutrients, and comprehensively conserve resources.

Successful LISA systems are founded on practices that enhance the efficiency of resource use and limit pest pressures in a sustainable way. The operational goal of LISA should not, as a matter of first principles, be viewed as a reduction in the use of pesticides and fertilizers. Higher yields, lower per unit production costs, and lessened reliance on agrichemicals in intensive agricultural systems are, however, often among the positive outcomes of the successful adoption of LISA systems. But in much of the Third World an increased level of certain agrichemical and fertilizer inputs will be very helpful if not essential to achieve sustainability. For example, the phosphorous-starved pastures in the humid tropics will continue to suffer severe erosion and degradation in soil physical properties until soil fertility levels are restored and more vigorous plant growth provides protection from rain and sun.

Farmers are continuously modifying farming systems whenever opportunities arise for increasing productivity or profits. Management decisions are not made just in the context of one goal or concern but in the context of the overall performance of the farm and take into account many variables: prices, policy, available resources, climatic conditions, and implications for risk and uncertainty.

A necessary step in carrying out comparative assessments of conventional and alternative farming systems is to understand the differences between farming practices, farming methods, and farming systems. It is somewhat easier, then, to determine what a conventional practice, method, or system is and how an alternative or sustainable practice, method, or system might or should differ from a conventional one. The following definitions are drawn from the Glossary of Alternative Agriculture (National Research Council, 1989a).

A farming practice is a way of carrying out a discrete farming task such as a tillage operation, particular pesticide application technology, or single conservation practice. Most important farming operations—preparing a seedbed, controlling weeds and erosion, or maintaining soil fertility, for example—require a combination of practices, or a method. Most farming operations can be carried out by different methods, each of which can be accomplished by several unique combinations of different practices. The manner in which a practice is carried out—the speed and depth of a tillage operation, for example—can markedly alter its consequences.

A farming method is a systematic way to accomplish a specific farming objective by integrating a number of practices. A discrete method is needed for each essential farming task, such as preparing a seedbed and planting a crop, sustaining soil fertility, managing irrigation, collecting and disposing of manure, controlling pests, and preventing animal diseases.

A farming system is the overall approach used in crop or livestock production, often derived from a farmer's goals, values, knowledge, available technologies, and economic opportunities. A farming system influences, and is in turn defined by, the choice of methods and practices used to produce a crop or care for animals.

In practice, farmers are constantly adjusting cropping systems in an effort to improve a farm's performance. Changes in management practices generally lead to a complex set of results—some positive, others negative—all of which occur over different time scales.

The transition to more sustainable agriculture systems may, for many farmers, require some short-term sacrifices in economic performance in order to prepare the physical resource and biological ecosystem base needed for long-term improvement in both economic and environmental performance. As a result, some say that practices essential to progress toward sustainable agriculture are not economically viable and are unlikely to take hold on the farm (Marten, 1989). Their contention may prove correct, given current farm policies and the contemporary inclination to accept contemporary, short-term economic challenges as inviolate. Nonetheless, one question lingers: What is the alternative to sustainable agriculture?

PUBLIC POLICY AND RESEARCH IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Farmers, conservationists, consumers, and political leaders share an intense interest in the sustainability of agricultural production systems. This interest is heightened by growing recognition of the successes achieved by innovative farmers across the country who are discovering alternative agriculture practices and methods that improve a farm's economic and environmental performance. Ongoing experimental efforts on the farm, by no

means universally successful, are being subjected to rigorous scientific investigation. New insights should help farmers become even more effective stewards of natural resources and produce food that is consistently free of man-made or natural contaminants that may pose health risks.

The major challenge for U.S. agriculture in the 1990s will be to strike a balance between near-term economic performance and long-term ecological and food safety imperatives. As recommended in Alternative Agriculture (National Research Council, 1989a), public policies in the 1990s should, at a minimum, no longer penalize farmers who are committed to resource protection or those who are trying to make progress toward sustainability. Sustainability will always remain a goal to strive toward, and alternative agriculture systems will continuously evolve as a means to this end. Policy can and must play an integral role in this process.

If sustainability emerges as a principal farm and environmental policy goal, the design and assessment of agricultural policies will become more complex. Trade-offs, and hence choices, will become more explicit between near-term economic performance and enhancement of the long-term biological and physical factors that can contribute to soil and water resource productivity.

Drawing on expertise in several disciplines, policy analysts will be compelled to assess more insightfully the complex interactions that link a farm's economic, ecological, and environmental performance. It is hoped that political leaders will, as a result, recognize the importance of unraveling conflicts among policy goals and more aggressively seizing opportunities to advance the productivity and sustainability of U.S. agriculture.

A few examples may help clarify how adopting the concept of sustainability as a policy goal complicates the identification of cause-and-effect relationships and, hence, the design of remedial policies.

When a farmer is pushed toward bankruptcy by falling crop prices, a farm operation can become financially unsustainable. When crop losses mount because of pest pressure or a lack of soil nutrients, however, the farming system still becomes unsustainable financially, but for a different reason. In the former example, economic forces beyond any individual farmer's control are the clear cause; in the latter case the underlying cause is rooted in the biological management and performance of the farming system.

The biological and economic performance of a farming system can, in turn, unravel for several different reasons. Consider an example involving a particular farm that is enrolled each year in the U.S. Department of Agriculture's commodity price support programs. To maintain eligibility for government subsidies on a continuing basis, the farmer understands the importance of growing a certain minimum (base) acreage of the same crop each year. Hence, the cropping pattern on this farm is likely to lead to a

buildup in soilborne pathogens that attack plant roots and reduce yields. As a result, the farmer might resort to the use of a fumigant to control the pathogens, but the pesticide might become ineffective because of steadily worsening microbial degradation of the fumigant, or a pesticide-resistant pathogen may emerge.

A solution to these new problems might be to speed up the registration of another pesticide that could be used, or relax regulatory standards so more new products can get registered, or both. Consider another possibility. A regulatory agency may cancel use of a fumigant a farmer has been relying upon because of food safety, water quality, or concerns about it effect on wildlife. The farmer might then seek a change in grading standards or an increase in commodity prices or program benefits if alternative pesticides are more costly.

Each of these problems is distinctive when viewed in isolation and could be attacked through a number of changes in policy. The most cost-effective solution, however, will prove elusive unless the biology of the whole system is perceptively evaluated. For this reason, in the policy arena, just as on the farm, it is critical to know what the problem is that warrants intervention and what the root causes of the problem really are.

Research Challenges

In thinking through agricultural research priorities, it should be acknowledged that the crossroads where the sciences of agriculture and ecology meet remain largely undefined, yet clearly promising. There is too little information to specify in detail the features of a truly sustainable agriculture system, yet there is enough information to recognize the merit in striving toward sustainability in a more systematic way.

The capacity of current research programs and institutions to carry out such work is suspect (see Investing in Research [National Research Council, 1989b]). It also remains uncertain whether current policies and programs that were designed in the 1930s or earlier to serve a different set of farmer needs can effectively bring about the types of changes needed to improve ecological management on the modern farm.

In the 1980s, the research community reached consensus on the diagnosis of many of agriculture's contemporary ills; it may take most of the 1990s to agree on cures, and it will take at least another decade to get them into place. Those who are eager for a quick fix or who are just impatient are bound to be chronically frustrated by the slow rate of change.

Another important caution deserves emphasis. The “silver bullet” approach to solving agricultural production problems offers little promise for providing an understanding of the ecological and biological bases of sustainable agriculture. The one-on-one syndrome seeks to discover a new

pesticide for each pest, a new plant variety when a new strain of rust evolves, or a new nitrogen management method when nitrate contamination of drinking water becomes a pressing social concern. This reductionist approach reflects the inclination in the past to focus scientific and technological attention on products and outcomes rather than processes and on overcoming symptoms rather than eliminating causes. This must be changed if research aimed at making agriculture more sustainable is to move ahead at the rate possible given the new tools available to agricultural scientists.

One area of research in particular—biotechnology—will benefit from a shift in focus toward understanding the biology and ecology underlying agricultural systems. Biotechnology research tools make possible powerful new approaches in unraveling biological interactions and other natural processes at the molecular and cellular levels, thus shedding vital new light on ecological interactions with a degree of precision previously unimagined in the biological sciences. However, rather than using these new tools to advance knowledge about the functioning of systems as a first order of priority, emphasis is increasingly placed on discovering products to solve specific production problems or elucidating the mode of action of specific products.

This is regrettable for several reasons. A chance to decipher the physiological basis of sustainable agriculture systems is being put off. The payoff from focusing on products is also likely to be disappointing. The current widespread pattern of failure and consolidation within the agricultural biotechnology industry suggests that biotechnology is not yet mature enough as a science to reliably discover, refine, and commercialize product-based technologies. Products from biotechnology are inevitable, but a necessary first step must be to generate more in-depth understanding of biological processes, cycles, and interactions.

Perhaps the greatest potential of biotechnology lies in the design and on-farm application of more efficient, stable, and profitable cropping and livestock management systems. For farmers to use such systems successfully, they will need access to a range of new information and diagnostic and analytical techniques that can be used on a real-time basis to make agronomic and animal husbandry judgments about how to optimize the efficiencies of the processes and interactions that underlie plant and animal growth.

Knowledge, in combination with both conventional and novel inputs, will be deployed much more systematically to avoid soil nutrient or animal nutrition-related limits on growth; to ensure that diseases and pests do not become serious enough to warrant the excessive use of costly or hazardous pesticides; to increase the realistically attainable annual level of energy flows independent of purchased inputs within agroecosystems; and to maximize a range of functional symbiotic relationships between soil micro-

and macrofauna, plants, and animals. Discrete goals will include pathogen-suppressive soils, enhanced rotation effects, pest suppression by populations of plant-associated microorganisms, nutrient cycling and renewal, the optimization of general resistance mechanisms in plants by cultural practices, and much more effective soil and water conservation systems that benefit from changes in the stability of soil aggregates and the capacity of soils to absorb and hold moisture.

Because of the profound changes needed to create and instill this new knowledge and skills on the farm, the recommendations in Alternative Agriculture (National Research Council, 1989a) emphasize the need to expand systems-based applied research, on-farm experimentation utilizing farmers as research collaborators, and novel extension education strategies—the very goals of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's LISA program.

Future research efforts—and not just those funded through LISA—should place a premium on the application of ecological principles in the multidisciplinary study of farming system performance. A diversity of approaches in researching and designing innovative farming systems will ensure broad-based progress, particularly if farmers are actively engaged in the research enterprise.

Benbrook, C., and J. Cook. 1990. Striving toward sustainability: A framework to guide on-farm innovation, research, and policy analysis. Speech presented at the 1990 Pacific Northwest Symposium on Sustainable Agriculture, March 2.

Marten, J. 1989. Commentary: Will low-input rotations sustain your income? Farm Journal, Dec. 6.

National Research Council. 1989a. Alternative Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 1989b. Investing in Research: A Proposal to Strengthen the Agricultural, Food, and Environmental System. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Interest is growing in sustainable agriculture, which involves the use of productive and profitable farming practices that take advantage of natural biological processes to conserve resources, reduce inputs, protect the environment, and enhance public health. Continuing research is helping to demonstrate the ways that many factors—economics, biology, policy, and tradition—interact in sustainable agriculture systems.

This book contains the proceedings of a workshop on the findings of a broad range of research projects funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The areas of study, such as integrated pest management, alternative cropping and tillage systems, and comparisons with more conventional approaches, are essential to developing and adopting profitable and sustainable farming systems.

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Agriculture and Food Technology Research Paper Topics

Academic Writing Service

See our collection of agriculture and food technology research paper topics . This page lists 19 topics and provides an overview of agriculture and food technology development.

1. Activated Carbon

Activated carbon is made from any substance with a high carbon content, and activation refers to the development of the property of adsorption. Activated carbon is important in purification processes, in which molecules of various contaminants are concentrated on and adhere to the solid surface of the carbon. Through physical adsorption, activated carbon removes taste and odor-causing organic compounds, volatile organic compounds, and many organic compounds that do not undergo biological degradation from the atmosphere and from water, including potable supplies, process streams, and waste streams. The action can be compared to precipitation. Activated carbon is generally nonpolar, and because of this it adsorbs other nonpolar, mainly organic, substances. Extensive porosity (pore volume) and large available internal surface area of the pores are responsible for adsorption. Activated carbon also found wide application in the pharmaceutical, alcoholic beverage, and electroplating industries; in the removal of pesticides and waste of pesticide manufacture; for treatment of wastewater from petroleum refineries and textile factories; and for remediation of polluted groundwater. Although activated carbons are manufactured for specific uses, it is difficult to characterize them quantitatively. As a result, laboratory trials and pilot plant experiments on a specific waste type normally precede installation of activated carbon facilities.

Academic Writing, Editing, Proofreading, And Problem Solving Services

Get 10% off with 24start discount code, 2. biological pest control.

Insect outbreaks have plagued crop production throughout human history, but the growth of commercial agriculture since the middle of the nineteenth century has increased their acuteness and brought forth the need to devise efficient methods of insect control. Methods such as the spraying of insecticides, the application of cultural methods, the breeding of insect-resistant plants, and the use of biological control have increasingly been used in the twentieth century. Traditionally limited to checking the populations of insect pests through the release of predatory or parasitic insects, biological control now refers to the regulation of agricultural or forest pests (especially insects, weeds and mammals) using living organisms. It also includes other methods such as the spraying of microbial insecticides, the release of pathogenic microorganisms (fungi, bacteria or viruses), the release of male insects sterilized by radiation, the combination of control methods in integrated pest management programs, and the insertion of toxic genes into plants through genetic engineering techniques. Biological control is also directed against invasive foreign species that threaten ecological biodiversity and landscape esthetics in nonagricultural environments.

3. Crop Protection and Spraying

Humans have controlled agricultural pests, both plants and insects, that infest crops with a variety of biological and technological methods. Modern humans developed spraying pest management techniques that were based on practical solutions to combat fungi, weeds, and insects. Ancient peoples introduced ants to orchards and fields so they could consume caterpillars preying on plants. Chinese, Sumerian, and other early farmers used chemicals such as sulfur, arsenic, and mercury as rudimentary herbicides and insecticides. These chemicals were usually applied to or dusted over roots, stems, or leaves. Seeds were often treated before being sowed. As early as 200 BC, Cato the Censor promoted application of antipest oil sprays to protect plants in the Roman Republic. The nineteenth century potato famine and other catastrophic destruction of economically significant crops including vineyard grapes emphasized the need to improve crop protection measures. People gradually combined technological advances with biological control methods to initiate modern agricultural spraying in the late nineteenth century. Such crop protection technology was crucial in the twentieth century when large-scale commercial agriculture dominated farming to meet global demands for food. Individual farms consisted of hundreds to thousands of acres cultivated in only one or two crop types. As a result, spraying was considered essential to prevent devastating economic losses from pest damage associated with specific crops or locales.

4. Dairy Farming

Throughout the world, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, milk, cheese, butter, ice cream, and other dairy products, have been central elements of food production. Over the centuries improvements in cattle breeding and nutrition, as well as new dairy techniques, led to the increased production of dairy goods. Hand-operated churns and separators were used to make butter and cream, and those close to a barnyard had access to fresh milk. By the late nineteenth century, new science and technology had begun to transform dairy production, particularly in the U.S. and Europe. Rail transportation and iced and refrigerated boxcars made it easier to transport milk to more distant markets. Successful machinery for separating milk from cream came from the DeLaval Corporation in 1879, and the Babcock butterfat tester appeared in 1890. The first practical automated milking machines and commercial pasteurization machines were in use in the decades before 1900. Louis Pasteur’s contribution to the dairy industry— discovering the sterilization process for milk— was substantial. By heating milk, pasteurization destroys bacteria that may be harmful to humans. The pasteurization process also increases the shelf life of the product by eliminating enzymes and bacteria that cause milk to spoil. Milk is pasteurized via the ‘‘batch’’ method, in which a jacketed vat is surrounded by heated coils. The vat is agitated while heated, which adds qualities to the product that also make it useful for making ice cream. With the ‘‘continuous’’ method of pasteurization, time and energy are conserved by continuously processing milk as a high temperature using a steel-plated heat exchanger, heated by steam or hot water. Ultra-high temperature pasteurization was first used in 1948.

5. Farming and Agricultural Methods

Agriculture experienced a transformation in the twentieth century that was vital in increasing food and fiber production for a rising global population. This expansion of production was due to mechanization, the application of science and technology, and the expansion of irrigation. Yet these changes also resulted in the decimation of traditional agricultural systems and an increased reliance on capital, chemicals, water, exploitative labor conditions, and the tides of global marketing. A sign of the transformation of agriculture in the twentieth century was the shift from China and India as countries often devastated by famine to societies that became exporters of food toward the end of the century. As the world’s technological leader, the U.S. was at the vanguard of agricultural change, and Americans in the twentieth century experienced the cheapest food in the history of modern civilization, as witnessed by the epidemic of obesity that emerged in the 1990s. Unfortunately, this abundance sometimes led to overproduction, surplus, and economic crisis on the American farm, which one historian has labeled ‘‘the dread of plenty.’’

6. Farming and Growth Promotion

Early in the twentieth century, most farmers fed livestock simple mixtures of grains, perhaps supplemented with various plant or animal byproducts and salt. A smaller group of scientific agriculturalists fed relatively balanced rations that included proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, and fats. Questions remained, however, concerning the ideal ratio of these components, the digestibility of various feeds, the relationship between protein and energy, and more. The discoveries of various vitamins in the early twentieth century offered clear evidence that proteins, carbohydrates, and fats did not supply all the needs of a growing animal. Additional research demonstrated that trace minerals like iron, copper, calcium, zinc, and manganese are essential tools that build hemoglobin, limit disease, and speed animal growth. Industrially produced nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, especially urea, have also become important feed additives. The rapid expansion of soybean production, especially after 1930, brought additional sources of proteins and amino acids within the reach of many farmers. Meanwhile, wartime and postwar food demands, as well as a substantial interest in the finding industrial uses for farm byproducts, led to the use of wide variety of supplements—oyster shells, molasses, fish parts, alfalfa, cod liver oil, ground phosphates, and more.

7. Farming Mechanization

Mechanization of agriculture in the twentieth century helped to dramatically increase global production of food and fiber to feed and clothe a burgeoning world population. Among the significant developments in agricultural mechanization in the twentieth century were the introduction of the tractor, various mechanical harvesters and pickers, and labor-saving technologies associated with internal combustion engines, electric motors, and hydraulics. While mechanization increased output and relieved some of the drudgery and hard work of rural life, it also created unintended consequences for rural societies and the natural environment. By decreasing the need for labor, mechanization helped accelerate the population migration from rural to urban areas. For example, in 1790, 90 percent of Americans worked in agriculture, yet by 2000 only about 3 percent of the American workforce was rural. Blessed with great expanses of land and limited labor, technologically inclined Americans dominated the mechanization of agriculture during the twentieth century. Due to mechanization, irrigation, and science, the average American farmer in 1940 fed an estimated ten people, and by 2000 the number was over 100 people. Yet even as mechanization increased the speed of planting and harvesting, reduced labor costs, and increased profits, mechanization also created widespread technological unemployment in the countryside and resulted in huge losses in the rural population.

8. Fertilizers

As the twentieth century opened, fertilizers were a prominent concern for farmers, industrialists, scientists, and political leaders. In 1898, British scientist William Crookes delivered a powerful and widely reported speech that warned of a looming ‘‘famine’’ of nitrogenous fertilizers. According to Crookes, rising populations, increased demand for soil-depleting grain products, and the looming exhaustion of sodium nitrate beds in Chile threatened Britain and ‘‘all civilized nations’’ with imminent mass starvation and collapse. Yet Crookes also predicted that chemists would manage to discover new artificial fertilizers to replace natural and organic supplies, a prophecy that turned out to encapsulate the actual history of fertilizers in the twentieth century. In addition to obvious links to increased agricultural production, the modern fertilizer industry has been linked with a number of concerns beyond the farm. For example, the short-lived phosphate boom on the Pacific island of Nauru offers a telling case study of the social consequences and environmental devastation than can accompany extractive industries. Further, much of the nitrogen applied to soils does not reach farm plants; nitrates can infiltrate water supplies in ways that directly threaten human health, or indirectly do so by fostering the growth of bacteria that can choke off natural nutrient cycles. To combat such threats, the European Union Common Agricultural Policy includes restrictions on nitrogen applications, and several nations now offer tax incentives to farmers who employ alternative agricultural schemes. Nevertheless, the rapidly growing global population and its demand for inexpensive food means that artificial fertilizer inputs are likely to continue to increase.

9. Fish Farming

Controlled production, management, and harvesting of herbivorous and carnivorous fish has benefited from technology designed specifically for aquaculture. For centuries, humans have cultivated fish for dietary and economic benefits. Captive fish farming initially sustained local populations by supplementing wild fish harvests. Since the 1970s, aquaculture became a significant form of commercialized farming because wild fish populations declined due to overfishing and habitat deterioration. Growing human populations increased demand for reliable, consistent sources of fish suitable for consumption available throughout the year. Fish farming technology can be problematic. If genetically engineered fish escape and mate with wild fish, the offspring might be unable to survive. Cultivated fish live in crowded tanks that sometimes cause suffocation, diseases, and immense amounts of waste and pollutants. Antibiotic use can sometimes result in resistant microorganisms. Coastal fish farms, especially those for shrimp, can be environmentally damaging if adjacent forests are razed.

10. Foods Additives and Substitutes

Advances in food and agricultural technology have improved food safety and availability. Food technology includes techniques to preserve food and develop new products. Substances to preserve and enhance the appeal of foods are called food additives, and colorings fit into this category of additives that are intentionally included in a processed food. All coloring agents must be proven to be safe and their use in terms of permitted quantity, type of food that can have enhanced coloring, and final level is carefully controlled. Fat substitutes on the other hand are technically known as replacers in that they replace the saturated and/or unsaturated fats that would normally be found in processed food as an ingredient or that would be added in formulation of a processed food. Usually the purpose is to improve the perceived health benefit of the particular food substance. Technically speaking, substitutes are not additives but their efficacy and safety must be demonstrated.

11. Food Preparation and Cooking

Twentieth century technological developments for preparing and cooking food consisted of both objects and techniques. Food engineers’ primary objectives were to make kitchens more convenient and to reduce time and labor needed to produce meals. A variety of electric appliances were invented or their designs improved to supplement hand tools such as peelers, egg beaters, and grinders. By the close of the twentieth century, technological advancements transformed kitchens, the nucleus of many homes, into sophisticated centers of microchip-controlled devices. Cooking underwent a transition from being performed mainly for subsistence to often being an enjoyable hobby for many people. Kitchen technology altered people’s lives. The nineteenth-century Industrial Revolution had initiated the mechanization of homes. Cooks began to use precise measurements and temperatures to cook. Many people eagerly added gadgets to their kitchens, ranging from warming plates and toasters to tabletop cookers. Some architects designed kitchens with built-in cabinets, shelves, and convenient outlets to encourage appliance use. Because they usually cooked, women were the most directly affected by mechanical kitchen innovations. Their domestic roles were redefined as cooking required less time and was often accommodated by such amenities as built-in sinks and dishwashers. Ironically, machines often resulted in women receiving more demands to cook for events and activities because people no longer considered cooking to be an overwhelming chore.

12. Food Preservation by Cooling and Freezing

People have long recognized the benefits of cooling and freezing perishable foods to preserve them and prevent spoilage and deterioration. These cold storage techniques, which impede bacterial activity, are popular means to protect food and enhance food safety and hygiene. The food industry has benefited from chilled food technology advancements during the twentieth century based on earlier observations. For several centuries, humans realized that evaporating salt water removed heat from substances. As a result, food was cooled by placing it in brine. Cold storage in ice- or snow-packed spaces such as cellars and ice houses foreshadowed the invention of refrigerators and freezers. Before mechanical refrigeration became consistent, freezing was the preferred food preservation technique because ice inhibited microorganisms. Freezing technology advanced to preserve food more efficiently with several processes. Blast freezing uses high-velocity air to freeze food for several hours in a tunnel. Refrigerated plates press and freeze food for thirty to ninety minutes in plate freezing. Belt freezing quickly freezes food in five minutes with air forced through a mesh belt. Cryogenic freezing involves liquid nitrogen or Freon absorbing food heat during several seconds of immersion.

13. Food Preservation by Freeze Drying, Irradiation, and Vacuum Packing

Humans have used processes associated with freeze-drying for centuries by placing foods at cooler high altitudes with low atmospheric pressure where water content is naturally vaporized. Also called lyophilization, freeze-drying involves moisture being removed from objects through sublimation. Modern freeze-drying techniques dehydrate frozen foods in vacuum chambers, which apply low pressure and cause vaporization. Irradiation is less successful than freeze-drying. Prior to irradiation, millions of people worldwide became ill annually due to contaminated foods with several thousand being hospitalized or dying due to food-borne pathogens. By exposing food to an electron beam, irradiation enhances food safety. Irradiated human and animal feed, especially grain, can be transported over distances and stored for a long duration without spoiling or posing contamination hazards. The radura is the international food packaging symbol for irradiation. Vacuum-packing food technologies involve a process that removes empty spaces around foods being packaged. Vacuum technology uses environments artificially modified to have atmospheric pressures that are lower than natural conditions. Vacuum packing extends the shelf life of food. The U.K. Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Foods warned that anaerobic pathogens such as C. botulinum can grow in vacuum-packed foods. Because vacuum packing often results in rubbery sliced cheese, some manufacturers use the modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) system, which utilizes gases to fill spaces so that cheese can mature to become tastier inside packaging.

14. Irrigation Systems

Since the onset of human civilization, the manipulation of water through irrigation systems has allowed for the creation of agricultural bounty and the presence of ornamental landscaping, often in the most arid regions of the planet. These systems have undergone a widespread transformation during the twentieth century with the introduction of massive dams, canals, aqueducts, and new water delivery technology. In 1900 there were approximately 480,000 square kilometers of land under irrigation; by 2000 that total had surged to 2,710,000 square kilometers, with India and China as the world leaders in irrigated acreage. Globally, the agriculture industry uses about 69 percent of the available fresh water supplies, producing 40 percent of the world’s food on just about 18 percent of the world’s cropland. (It takes 1000 tons of water to produce 1 ton of grain.) New technologies to monitor evaporation, plant transpiration, and soil moisture levels have helped increase the efficiency of irrigation systems. The US is the world leader in irrigation technology, exporting upward of $800 million of irrigation equipment to the rest of the world each year, with the sales of drip irrigation equipment increasing 15 to 20 percent per annum in the 1990s. Golf course and landscape irrigation are also an increasing part of the irrigation technology market. Intense competition for water from cities and for environmental restoration projects might mean a reduction in irrigated agriculture in future years. At the same time, salinization of fields, infiltration of aquifers by sea water, and depleted water availability could lead to a reduction in land under irrigation worldwide.

15. Nitrogen Fixation

In 1898, the British scientist William Crookes in his presidential address to the British Association for the Advancement of Science warned of an impending fertilizer crisis. The answer lay in the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. Around 1900, industrial fixation with calcium carbide to produce cyanamide, the process of the German chemists Nikodemus Caro and Adolf Frank, was introduced. This process relied on inexpensive hydroelectricity, which is why the American Cyanamid Company was set up at Ontario, Canada, in 1907 to exploit the power of Niagara Falls. Electrochemical fixing of nitrogen as its monoxide was first realized in Norway, with the electric arc process of Kristian Birkeland and Samuel Eyde in 1903. The nitrogen monoxide formed nitrogen dioxide, which reacted with water to give nitric acid, which was then converted into the fertilizer calcium nitrate. The yield was low, and as with the Caro–Frank process, the method could be worked commercially only because of the availability of hydroelectricity.

16. Pesticides

A pesticide is any chemical designed to kill pests and includes the categories of herbicide, insecticide, fungicide, avicide, and rodenticide. Individuals, governments, and private organizations used pesticides in the twentieth century, but chemical control has been especially widespread in agriculture as farmers around the world attempted to reduce crop and livestock losses due to pest infestations, thereby maximizing returns on their investment in seed, fuel, labor, machinery expenses, animals, and land. Until the twentieth century, cultural pest control practices were more popular than chemicals. Cultural methods meant that farmers killed pests by destroying infested plant material in the fields, trapping, practicing crop rotation, cultivating, drying harvested crops, planting different crop varieties, and numerous other techniques. In the twentieth century, new chemical formulations and application equipment were the products of the growth in large-scale agriculture that simultaneously enabled that growth. Large scale and specialized farming provided ideal feeding grounds for harmful insects. Notable early efforts in insect control began in the orchards and vineyards of California. Without annual crop rotations, growers needed additional insect control techniques to prevent build-ups of pest populations. As the scale of fruit and nut production increased in the early decades of the century, so too did the insect problem.

17. Processed and Fast Food

Convenience, uniformity, predictability, affordability, and accessibility characterized twentieth-century processed and fast foods. Technology made mass-produced fast food possible by automating agricultural production and food processing. Globally, fast food provided a service for busy people who lacked time to buy groceries and cook their meals or could not afford the costs and time associated with eating traditional restaurant fare. As early as the nineteenth century, some cafeterias and restaurants, foreshadowing fast-food franchises, offered patrons self-service opportunities to select cooked and raw foods, such as meats and salads, from displays. Many modern cafeterias are affiliated with schools, businesses, and clubs to provide quick, cheap meals, often using processed foods and condiments, for students, employees, and members. Food-processing technology is designed primarily to standardize the food industry and produce food that is more flavorful and palatable for consumers and manageable and inexpensive for restaurant personnel. Food technologists develop better devices to improve the processing of food from slaughter or harvesting to presentation to diners. They are concerned with making food edible while extending the time period it can be consumed. Flavor, texture, and temperature retention of these foods when they are prepared for consumers are also sought in these processes. Microwave and radio frequency ovens process food quickly, consistently, and affordably. Microwaves are used to precook meats before they are frozen for later frying in fast-food restaurants. Nitrogen-based freezing systems have proven useful to process seafood, particularly shrimp. Mechanical and cryogenic systems also are used. The dehydrating and sterilizing of foods remove contaminants and make them easier to package. Heating and thawing eliminate bacteria to meet health codes. These processes are limited by associated expenses and occasional damage to foods. Processing techniques have been adapted to produce a greater variety of products from basic foods and have been automated to make production and packaging, such as mixing and bottling, efficient enough to meet consumer demand.

18. Synthetic Foods, Mycoprotein and Hydrogenated Fats

Food technologists developed synthetic foods to meet specific nutritional and cultural demands. Also referred to as artificial foods, synthetic foods are meat-free and are designed to provide essential fiber and nutrients such as proteins found in meats while having low saturated fat and lacking animal fat and cholesterol. These foodstuffs are manufactured completely from organic material. They have been manipulated to be tasty, nutritionally sound with major vitamins and minerals, have appealing textures, and safe for consumption. Synthetic foods offer people healthy dietary choices, variety, and convenience. Mycoprotein is created from Fusarium venenatum (also known as Fusarium graminearum), a small edible fungi related to mushrooms and truffles that was initially found in the soil of a pasture outside Marlow in Buckinghamshire, England. Concerned about possible food shortages such as those experienced in World War II Europe; as global populations swelled postwar, scientists began investigating possible applications for this organism as a widely available, affordable protein source. Scientists at one of Britain’s leading food manufacturers, Rank Hovis McDougall, focused on mycoprotein from 1964. At first, they were unable to cultivate fungus to produce mycoprotein in sufficient quantities for the envisioned scale of food production. Food technologists devoted several years to establishing procedures for growing desired amounts of mycoprotein. They chose a fermentation process involving microorganisms, somewhat like those historically used to create yogurt, wine, and beer. Food technologists create hydrogenated fats by processing vegetable oils, consisting of glycerides and fatty acids, with chemicals to achieve certain degrees of hardening. Partial hydrogenation stiffens oils, while full hydrogenation converts liquid oils into solid fat. The hydrogenation process involves moving hydrogen gas through heated oils in vats containing metals, usually copper, nickel, or zinc. When the metal reacts to the gas, it acts as a catalyst to relocate hydrogen molecules in the oil to create different, stiffer molecular shapes. This chemical reaction creates trans fats. Saturation of fats in these synthetic molecules increases according to the degree of hydrogenation achieved.

19. Transportation of Foodstuffs

Twentieth century foodstuffs were transported by land on vehicles and trains, by air on cargo planes, and by water on ships or barges. Based on innovations used in previous centuries, engineers developed agricultural technology such as refrigerated containers to ship perishable goods to distant markets. Technological advancements enabled food transportation to occur between countries and continents. International agreements outlined acceptable transportation modes and methods for shipping perishables. Such long-distance food transportation allowed people in different regions of the world to gain access to foodstuffs previously unavailable and incorporate new products they liked into their diets. Refrigerated trailers dominate road food transportation methods. This transportation mode minimizes food vulnerability to shipment damage from being harvested to placement on grocery shelves. Refrigerated transport enables fresh produce from milder climates to be shipped out-of-season to colder locations. Refrigeration is achieved by mechanical or cryogenic refrigeration or by packing or covering foods in ice. Ventilation keeps produce cool by absorbing heat created by food respiration and transferred through the walls and floor from the external air beneath and around the shipping trailer. Food technologists design packaging materials for food transportation. Most produce is shipped in corrugated and fiberboard cardboard boxes that are sometimes coated with wax. Wooden and wire-bound crates are also used in addition to bushel hampers and bins. Mesh plastic, burlap, and paper bags hold produce. Meat is often vacuum packed on plastic trays that are placed in wooden lugs. Foods are occasionally wrapped in plastic liners or packed in ice to withstand damage in transit and limit evaporation.

Agriculture and Food Technology

In late-twentieth century Western societies, food was available in abundance. Shops and supermarkets offered a wide choice in products and brands. The fast-food industry had outlets in every neighborhood and village. For those in search of something more exclusive, there were smart restaurants and classy catering services. People chose what they ate and drank with little awareness of the sources or processes involved as long as the food was tasty, nutritious, safe, and sufficient for everyone. These conditions have not always been met over the last century when food shortages caused by economic crises, drought, or armed conflicts and war, occurred in various places. During the second half of the twentieth century, food deficiency was a feature of countries outside the Western world, especially in Africa. The twentieth century also witnessed a different sort of food crisis in the form of a widespread concern over the quality and safety of food that mainly resulted from major changes in production processes, products, composition, or preferences.

Technology plays a key role in both types of crises, as both cause and cure, and it is the character of technological development in food and agriculture that will be discussed. The first section examines the roots of technological developments of modern times. The second is an overview of three patterns of agricultural technology. The final two sections cover developments according to geographical differences.

Before we can assess technological developments in agriculture and food, we must define the terms and concepts. A very broad description of agriculture is the manipulation of plants and animals in a way that is functional to a wide range of societal needs. Manipulation hints at technology in a broad sense; covering knowledge, skills, and tools applied for production and consumption of (parts or extractions of) plants and animals. Societal needs include the basic human need for food. Many agricultural products are food products or end up as such. However, crops such as rubber or flax and animals raised for their skin are only a few examples of agricultural products that do not end up in the food chain. Conversely, not all food stems from agricultural production. Some food is collected directly from natural sources, like fish, and there are borderline cases such as beekeeping. Some food products and many food ingredients are artificially made through complicated biochemical processes. This relates to a narrow segment of technology, namely science-based food technology.

Both broad and narrow descriptions of agriculture are relevant to consider. In sugar production for example, from the cultivation of cane or beets to the extraction of sugar crystals, both traditional and science-based technologies are applied. Moreover, chemical research and development resulted in sugar replacements such as saccharin and aspartame. Consequently, a randomly chosen soft drink might consist of only water, artificial sweeteners, artificial colorings and flavorings, and although no agriculture is needed to produce such products, there is still a relationship to it. One can imagine that a structural replacement of sugar by artificial sweeteners will affect world sugar prices and therewith the income of cane and beet sugar producers. Such global food chains exemplify the complex nature of technological development in food and agriculture.

The Roots of Technological Development

Science-based technologies were exceptional in agriculture until the mid-nineteenth century. Innovations in agriculture were developed and applied by the people cultivating the land, and the innovations related to the interaction between crops, soils, and cattle. Such innovation is exemplified by farmers in Northern Europe who confronted particular difficulties caused by the climate. Low temperatures meant slow decomposition of organic material, and the short growing season meant a limited production of organic material to be decomposed. Both factors resulted in slow recuperation of the soil’s natural fertility after exploitation. The short growing season also meant that farmers had to produce enough for the entire year in less than a year. Farmers therefore developed systems in which cattle and other livestock played a pivotal role as manure producers for fertilizer. Changes in the feed crop could allow an increase in livestock, which produced more manure to be used for fertilizing the arable land, resulting in higher yields. Through the ages, farmers in Northern Europe intensified this cycle. From about the 1820s the purchase of external supplies increased the productivity of farming in the temperate zones. Technological improvements made increases in productivity not only possible but also attractive, as nearby markets grew and distant markets came within reach as a result of the nineteenth century transportation revolution.

An important development at mid-nineteenth century was the growing interest in applying science to agricultural development. The two disciplines with the largest impact were chemistry and biology. The name attached to agricultural chemistry is Justus von Liebig, a German chemist who in the 1840s formulated a theory on the processes underlying soil fertility and plant growth. He propagated his organic chemistry as the key to the application of the right type and amount of fertilizer. Liebig launched his ideas at a time when farmers were organizing themselves based on a common interest in cheap supplies. The synergy of these developments resulted in the creation of many laboratories for experimentation with these products, primarily fertilizers. During the second half of the nineteenth century, agricultural experiment stations were opened all over Europe and North America.

Sometime later, experimental biology became entangled with agriculture. Inspired by the ideas of the British naturalist Charles Darwin, biologists became interested in the reproduction and growth of agricultural crops and animals. Botany and, to a lesser extent, zoology became important disciplines at the experimental stations or provided reasons to create new research laboratories. Research into the reproductive systems of different species, investigating patterns of inheritance and growth of plant and animal species, and experimentation in cross-breeding and selection by farmers and scientists together lay the foundations of genetic modification techniques in the twentieth century.

By the turn of the century, about 600 agricultural experiment stations were spread around the Western world, often operating in conjunction with universities or agricultural schools. Moreover, technologies that were not specifically developed for agriculture and food had a clear impact on the sector. Large ocean-going steamships, telegraphy, railways, and refrigeration, reduced time and increased loads between farms and markets. Key trade routes brought supplies of grain and other products to Europe from North America and the British dominions, resulting in a severe economic crisis in the 1880s for European agriculture. Heat and power from steam engines industrialized food production by taking over farm activities like cheese making or by expanding and intensifying existing industrial production such as sugar extraction. The development of synthetic dyes made crop-based colorants redundant, strongly reducing or even eliminating cultivation of the herb madder or indigo plants. These developments formed the basis of major technological changes in agriculture and food through the twentieth century.

Patterns of Technology Development

The twentieth century brought an enormous amount of technology developed for and applied to agriculture. These developments may be examined by highlighting the patterns of technology in three areas—infrastructure, public sector, and commercial factory—as if they were seen in cross section. The patterns are based on combined material and institutional forces that shaped technology.

A major development related to infrastructure concerns mechanization and transport. The combustion engine had a significant effect on agriculture and food. Not only did tractors replace animal and manual labor, but trucks and buses also connected farmers, traders, and markets. The development of cooling technology increased storage life and the distribution range for fresh products. Developments in packaging in general were very important. It was said that World War I would have been impossible without canned food. Storage and packaging is closely related to hygiene. Knowledge about sources and causes of decay and contamination initiated new methods of safe handling of food, affecting products and trade as well as initiating other innovations. In the dairy sector, for example, expanding markets led to the growth and mergers of dairy factories. That changed the logistics of milk collection, resulting in the development of on-farm storage tanks. These were mostly introduced together with compression and tube systems for machine milking, which increased milking capacity and improved hygiene conditions. A different area of infrastructure development is related to water management. Over the twentieth century, technologies for irrigation and drainage had implications for improved ‘‘carrying capacity’’ of the land, allowing the use of heavy machinery. Improved drainage also meant greater water discharge, which in turn required wider ditches and canals. Water control also had implications for shipping and for supplies of drinking water that required contractual arrangements between farmers, governing bodies, and other agencies.

During the twentieth century, most governments supported their agricultural and food sectors. The overall interest in food security and food safety moved governments to invest in technologies that increased productivity and maintained or improved quality. Public education and extension services informed farmers about the latest methods and techniques. Governments also became directly involved in technological development, most notably crop improvement. Seed is a difficult product to exploit commercially. Farmers can easily put aside part of the harvest as seed for the next season. Public institutes for plant breeding were set up to improve food crops—primarily wheat, rice, and maize—and governments looked for ways to attract private investment in this area. Regulatory and control mechanisms were introduced to protect commercial seed production, multiplication, and trade. Private companies in turn looked for methods to make seed reproduction less attractive to farmers, and they were successful in the case of so-called hybrid maize. The genetic make-up of hybrid maize is such that seeds give very high yields in the first year but much less in the following years. To maintain productivity levels, farmers have to purchase new seed every season. Developments in genetic engineering increased the options for companies to commercially exploit seed production.

Most private companies that became involved in genetic engineering and plant breeding over the last three decades of the twentieth century started as chemical companies. Genetic engineering allowed for commercially attractive combinations of crops and chemicals. A classic example is the herbicide Roundup, developed by the chemical company Monsanto. Several crops, most prominently soy, are made resistant to the powerful chemical. Buying the resistant seed in combination with the chemical makes weed control an easy job for farmers. This type of commercial development of chemical technologies and products dominated the agricultural and food sector over the twentieth century. Artificially made nitrogen fertilizers are one such development that had a worldwide impact. In 1908, Fritz Haber, chemist at the Technische Hochschule in Karlsruhe, fixed nitrogen to hydrogen under high pressure in a laboratory setting. To exploit the process, Haber needed equipment and knowledge to deal with high pressures in a factory setting, and he approached the chemical company BASF. Haber and BASF engineer Carl Bosch built a crude version of a reactor, further developed by a range of specialists BASF assigned to the project. The result was a range of nitrogen fertilizer products made in a capital and knowledge-intensive factory environment. This type of development was also applied to creating chemicals such as DDT for control of various pests (dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane), developed in 1939 by Geigy researcher Paul Mu¨ ller and his team. DDT may exemplify the reverse side of the generally positive large-scale application of chemicals in agricultural production—the unpredictable and detrimental effects on the environment and human health.

The commercial factory setting for technology development was omnipresent in the food sector. The combination of knowledge of chemical processes and mechanical engineering determined the introduction of entirely new products: artificial flavorings, products, and brands of products based on particular food combinations, or new processes such as drying and freezing, and storing and packaging methods.

Patterns of Technology Development in the Western World

Technological developments in agriculture and food differ with regard to geography and diverging social and economic factors. In regions with large stretches of relatively flat lands, where soil conditions are rather similar and population is low, a rise in productivity is best realized by technologies that work on the economies of scale. The introduction of mechanical technologies was most intensive in regions with these characteristics. Beginning early in the twentieth century, widespread mechanization was a common feature of Western agriculture, but it took different forms. In the Netherlands, for example, average farm size was relatively small and labor was not particularly scarce. Consequently, the use of tractors was limited for the first half of the twentieth century as emphasis was placed on improved cultivation methods. Tractors became widely used only after the 1950s when equipment became lighter and more cost-effective and labor costs rose sharply. The result was an overall increase of farm size in these regions as well. The Dutch government changed the countryside with a land policy of connecting and merging individual parcels as much as possible. This huge operation created favorable conditions for expansion; but where the land was already under cultivation, the only way to expand was to buy up neighboring farms. The effect was a considerable reduction in the number of farm units. An exception to this process was the Dutch greenhouse sector, in which improvements in construction, climate regulation, and introduction of hydroponic cultivation, increased production without considerable growth of land per farm unit.

The Dutch greenhouse sector is also an exemplary case of technological support in decision making and farm management. In Western countries a vast service sector emerged around agriculture and food. This process in fact started early in the twentieth century with the rise of extension services, set up as government agencies or private companies. Experimental methods based on multivariate statistics, developed by the British mathematician Karl Fisher, are the major tool in turning results of field experiments into general advisories. In keeping with the development of modern computers, digital models of crop growth and farming systems became more effective. Computer programs help farmers perform certain actions and monitor other equipment and machinery; yet even in the most technologically advanced greenhouses, the skilled eye of the farmer is a factor that makes a considerable difference in the quality and quantity of the final product.

The means by which agriculture in the West raised productivity have been questioned. Doubts about the safety of food products and worries over the restoration of nature’s capacity became recurrent issues in public debate. Moreover, technological advances in tandem with subsidies resulted in overproduction, confronting national and international governing bodies with problems in trade and distribution, and a public resistance against intensive agriculture, sometimes called agribusiness. Technology is neither good nor bad; much of the knowledge underlying technologies with a detrimental effect also helps detect polluting factors and health hazards. Although a substantial part of research and technological efforts are aimed at replacing and avoiding harmful factors, many such ‘‘clean’’ technologies are commercially less interesting to farmers and companies. Subsidies and other financial arrangements are again being used to steer technology development, this time in the direction of environmentally friendly and safe forms of production.

Patterns of Technology Development in Less Developed Countries

From the beginning of the twentieth century, scientific and technological developments in the agricultural and food sector were introduced to less developed countries either by Western colonizing powers or by other forms of global interaction. The search for improved farming methods and new technology were mostly institutionalized at existing botanical gardens and established in previous centuries. Plant transfer and economic botany were a major modality of twentieth century technological improvement in less developed countries.

The early decades of the century featured an emphasis on technological improvement for plantation agriculture. Plantation owners invested in scientific research for agriculture, often supported by colonial administrations. The gradual abolition of slavery during the nineteenth century, increasing labor costs, was a reason to invest in technology. Other factors were more specific to particular sectors; for example, the rise of European beet sugar production encouraging cane sugar manufacturers to invest in technological improvement. Another example was the emergence of the automobile industry, which initiated a boom in rubber production.

Most colonial administrations launched programs, based on the combination of botanical and chemical research, to improve food crop production in the first decades of the twentieth century. It was recognized that dispersion of new technologies to a small number of plantation owners was different from initiating change among a vast group of local food crop producers. The major differences concerned the ecology of farming (crop patterns and soil conditions) and the socioeconomic conditions (organization of labor or available capital). Agronomists had to be familiar with local farming systems, occasionally resulting in pleas for a technology transfer that would better meet the complexity of local production. The overall approach, however, was an emphasis on improvement of fertilization and crop varieties. Transfer of the Western model gained momentum in the decades after World War II. Food shortages in the immediate postwar years encouraged European colonial powers to open up large tropical areas for mechanized farming. Unfortunately, the result was largely either a short-lived disaster, as in the case of the British-run groundnut scheme in Tanzania, or a more enduring problem, as in case of the Dutch-run mechanized rice-farming schemes in Surinam. The 1940s also saw the beginnings of a movement that came to be known as the ‘‘green revolution.’’ Driven by the idea that hunger is a breeding ground for communism, American agencies initiated a research program for crop improvement, primarily by breeding fertilizer-responsive varieties of wheat and rice. Agencies were put together in a Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Technological progress was realized by bringing together experts and plant material from various parts of the world. Modified breeding techniques and a wide availability of parent material resulted in high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice. Encouraged by lucrative credit facilities, farmers, especially in Asia, quickly adopted the new varieties and the required chemicals for fertilization and pest control. Research on the adoption process of these varieties made clear that many farmers modified the seed technology based on specific conditions of the farming systems. In areas where such modifications could not be achieved—primarily rice growing regions in Africa—green revolution varieties were not very successful. Based on these findings, CGIAR researchers began to readdress issues of variation in ecology and farming systems. This type of research is very similar to that done by colonial experts several decades earlier. However, because of decolonization and antiimperialist sentiments among Western nations, much of this earlier expertise has been neglected. This is just one of the opportunities for further research in the domain of agriculture and food technology.

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Agriculture Topics For Students

Agriculture Topics For Students: A Comprehensive Guide

As an educator, I firmly believe that agriculture topics for students play a pivotal role in their education. Agriculture, the backbone of our society, encompasses a wide range of relevant and essential subjects for students to understand.

In this comprehensive guide, I will delve into the importance of studying agriculture and the benefits of learning about agriculture, as well as provide valuable insights on agriculture research topics suitable for both students and high school students.

Table of Contents

The Importance of Studying Agriculture

Studying agriculture is vital for students as it allows them to develop a deep understanding of the fundamental concepts and principles that sustain our food systems. By learning about agriculture, students gain insights into the processes involved in food production, the importance of sustainable farming practices, and the challenges farmers face in an ever-changing world.

Moreover, agriculture education fosters essential skills such as critical thinking, problem-solving, and scientific inquiry.

Through hands-on experiences, students learn to apply theoretical knowledge to real-world situations, enabling them to become well-rounded individuals capable of making informed decisions about food, agriculture, and environmental issues.

Benefits of Learning about Agriculture

Learning about agriculture offers numerous benefits for students. Firstly, it promotes environmental awareness and instills a sense of responsibility towards the planet. By understanding the impact of agricultural practices on ecosystems, students can actively contribute to developing sustainable solutions that ensure the long-term viability of our natural resources.

The Importance of Studying Agriculture

Secondly, studying agriculture enhances students’ appreciation for farmers’ hard work and dedication. It exposes them to the challenges faced by those who work tirelessly to feed the world’s growing population. This understanding cultivates empathy and gratitude, encouraging students to support local farmers and make conscious choices that promote sustainable and ethical practices.

Lastly, agriculture education opens doors to a wide range of career opportunities. From agricultural engineering to food science, students with a background in agriculture have a wealth of career paths to choose from.

By immersing themselves in agriculture topics, students can explore their passions and develop skills that are highly demanded in the agricultural industry.

Agriculture Research Topics for Students

Research is an integral part of agriculture education , as it allows students to delve deeper into specific areas of interest and contribute to the body of knowledge in the field. Here are some agriculture research topics that students can explore:

  • The impact of climate change on crop productivity
  • The role of biotechnology in improving agricultural yields
  • Sustainable farming practices for small-scale farmers
  • The effects of pesticides on pollinators and biodiversity
  • The importance of soil health in sustainable agriculture
  • Urban agriculture and its potential for food security
  • The benefits of organic farming for human health and the environment

These research topics offer a starting point for students to develop their research questions and methodologies. By selecting a topic aligned with their interests and passions, students are more likely to remain engaged and motivated throughout the research process.

Agriculture Research Topics for High School Students

High school students can also delve into agriculture research topics tailored to their understanding and academic capabilities. Here are some agriculture research topics suitable for high school students:

  • The impact of food deserts on urban communities
  • The role of genetically modified organisms in agriculture
  • The importance of crop rotation in sustainable farming
  • The effects of irrigation techniques on water conservation
  • The potential of vertical farming in urban environments
  • The benefits of community gardens for social cohesion
  • The role of bees in pollination and food production

These research topics offer high school students the opportunity to explore agriculture-related subjects within the framework of their academic curriculum. By researching these topics, students can develop critical thinking skills and gain a deeper understanding of the complex interplay between agriculture, the environment, and society.

How to Choose the Right Agriculture Topic

Selecting the right agriculture topic is crucial for a successful research project. Here are some tips to help students choose the most suitable agriculture topic:

Identify your interests: Choose a topic that aligns with your passions and curiosity. This will ensure that you remain motivated and engaged throughout the research process.

Consider the scope: Select a topic that is neither too broad nor too narrow. It should be wide enough for in-depth research but narrow enough to be manageable within the given time frame.

Research the existing literature: Before finalizing a topic, review the literature to ensure enough research material is available. This will help you avoid redundant or unexplored areas of study.

Seek guidance: Consult your teachers, mentors, or agricultural professionals for their insights and recommendations. They can provide valuable advice and suggest potential research topics based on their expertise.

Resources for Finding Agriculture Research Topics

Finding the right agriculture research topic can sometimes be challenging. However, several resources help students search for a suitable topic. Here are some resources to consider:

Academic Journals: Browse through reputable academic journals in agriculture to identify current trends and potential research topics.

Online Databases: Use databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, or Web of Science to search for agriculture-related articles, research papers, and literature reviews.

Professional Associations: Explore the websites of professional agricultural associations and organizations. They often provide valuable resources, research publications, and suggested research topics.

University Libraries: Visit your university library and consult with the librarians. They can guide you toward relevant books, journals, and databases to help you find the right agriculture research topic.

By utilizing these resources, students can broaden their knowledge base and discover exciting research topics that align with their academic interests.

Tips for Conducting Agriculture Research

Conducting agriculture research requires a systematic and organized approach. Here are some tips to help students conduct their research effectively:

Develop a research plan: Outline your research objectives, methodologies, and timelines. This will help you stay focused and organized throughout the research process.

Collect relevant data: Gather data from credible sources such as scientific journals, government reports, or agricultural research institutes. Ensure the data is pertinent to your research topic and supports your objectives.

Analyze the data: Use appropriate statistical tools or qualitative analysis techniques to analyze the collected data. This will allow you to draw meaningful conclusions and support your research findings.

Seek guidance and feedback: Regularly consult your teachers, mentors, or agricultural professionals for their advice and feedback on your research progress. They can provide valuable insights and help you refine your research methodology.

Maintain accurate records: Keep detailed records of your research process, including data, methodologies, and sources. This will ensure transparency and facilitate the writing process when presenting your research findings.

Presenting Your Agriculture Research Findings

Presenting your agriculture research findings is a crucial step in the research process. Here are some tips to help you effectively communicate your research:

Structure your presentation: Organize your research findings logically and coherently. Use clear headings and subheadings to guide your audience through your research process and conclusions.

Utilize visual aids: Incorporate graphs, charts, and images to represent your data and findings visually. Visual aids can enhance audience understanding and engagement.

Practice your presentation: Rehearse your presentation multiple times to ensure a smooth and confident delivery. Consider recording yourself to identify areas for improvement and refine your speaking skills.

Engage your audience: Encourage participation by asking questions, facilitating discussions, or incorporating interactive elements into your presentation. This will enhance audience engagement and promote a deeper understanding of your research findings.

Be prepared for questions: Anticipate potential questions and prepare thoughtful responses. This will demonstrate your expertise and enhance your credibility as a researcher.

Conclusion: The Impact of Agriculture Education on Students

In conclusion, studying agriculture topics is of paramount importance for students. It equips them with essential knowledge about food production, sustainability, and environmental stewardship and fosters critical thinking, problem-solving, and empathy.

By learning about agriculture, students develop an appreciation for the hard work of farmers, gain insights into global challenges, and explore a wide range of career opportunities.

Whether conducting research on agriculture topics or presenting their findings, students can actively contribute to the field of agriculture and positively impact society. Therefore, I encourage students to embrace agriculture education, choose research topics that align with their passions, and leverage the available resources to embark on a journey of discovery and growth.

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Watch CBS News

What is Project 2025? What to know about the conservative blueprint for a second Trump administration

By Melissa Quinn , Jacob Rosen

Updated on: July 11, 2024 / 9:40 AM EDT / CBS News

Washington — Voters in recent weeks have begun to hear the name "Project 2025" invoked more and more by President Biden and Democrats, as they seek to sound the alarm about what could be in store if former President Donald Trump wins a second term in the White House.

Overseen by the conservative Heritage Foundation, the multi-pronged initiative includes a detailed blueprint for the next Republican president to usher in a sweeping overhaul of the executive branch.

Trump and his campaign have worked to distance themselves from Project 2025, with the former president going so far as to call some of the proposals "abysmal." But Democrats have continued to tie the transition project to Trump, especially as they find themselves mired in their own controversy over whether Mr. Biden should withdraw from the 2024 presidential contest following his startling debate performance last month.

Here is what to know about Project 2025:

What is Project 2025?

Project 2025 is a proposed presidential transition project that is composed of four pillars: a policy guide for the next presidential administration; a LinkedIn-style database of personnel who could serve in the next administration; training for that pool of candidates dubbed the "Presidential Administration Academy;" and a playbook of actions to be taken within the first 180 days in office.

It is led by two former Trump administration officials: Paul Dans, who was chief of staff at the Office of Personnel Management and serves as director of the project, and Spencer Chretien, former special assistant to Trump and now the project's associate director.

Project 2025 is spearheaded by the Heritage Foundation, but includes an advisory board consisting of more than 100 conservative groups.

Much of the focus on — and criticism of — Project 2025 involves its first pillar, the nearly 900-page policy book that lays out an overhaul of the federal government. Called "Mandate for Leadership 2025: The Conservative Promise," the book builds on a "Mandate for Leadership" first published in January 1981, which sought to serve as a roadmap for Ronald Reagan's incoming administration.

The recommendations outlined in the sprawling plan reach every corner of the executive branch, from the Executive Office of the President to the Department of Homeland Security to the little-known Export-Import Bank. 

President Donald Trump speaks during a meeting with advisers in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, D,C., on June 25, 2019.

The Heritage Foundation also created a "Mandate for Leadership" in 2015 ahead of Trump's first term. Two years into his presidency, it touted that Trump had instituted 64% of its policy recommendations, ranging from leaving the Paris Climate Accords, increasing military spending, and increasing off-shore drilling and developing federal lands. In July 2020, the Heritage Foundation gave its updated version of the book to then-White House Chief of Staff Mark Meadows. 

The authors of many chapters are familiar names from the Trump administration, such as Russ Vought, who led the Office of Management and Budget; former acting Defense Secretary Chris Miller; and Roger Severino, who was director of the Office of Civil Rights at the Department of Health and Human Services.

Vought is the policy director for the 2024 Republican National Committee's platform committee, which released its proposed platform on Monday. 

John McEntee, former director of the White House Presidential Personnel Office under Trump, is a senior advisor to the Heritage Foundation, and said that the group will "integrate a lot of our work" with the Trump campaign when the official transition efforts are announced in the next few months.

Candidates interested in applying for the Heritage Foundation's "Presidential Personnel Database" are vetted on a number of political stances, such as whether they agree or disagree with statements like "life has a right to legal protection from conception to natural death," and "the President should be able to advance his/her agenda through the bureaucracy without hindrance from unelected federal officials."

The contributions from ex-Trump administration officials have led its critics to tie Project 2025 to his reelection campaign, though the former president has attempted to distance himself from the initiative.

What are the Project 2025 plans?

Some of the policies in the Project 2025 agenda have been discussed by Republicans for years or pushed by Trump himself: less federal intervention in education and more support for school choice; work requirements for able-bodied, childless adults on food stamps; and a secure border with increased enforcement of immigration laws, mass deportations and construction of a border wall. 

But others have come under scrutiny in part because of the current political landscape. 

Abortion and social issues

In recommendations for the Department of Health and Human Services, the agenda calls for the Food and Drug Administration to reverse its 24-year-old approval of the widely used abortion pill mifepristone. Other proposed actions targeting medication abortion include reinstating more stringent rules for mifepristone's use, which would permit it to be taken up to seven weeks into a pregnancy, instead of the current 10 weeks, and requiring it to be dispensed in-person instead of through the mail.

The Alliance Defending Freedom, a conservative legal group that is on the Project 2025 advisory board, was involved in a legal challenge to mifepristone's 2000 approval and more recent actions from the FDA that made it easier to obtain. But the Supreme Court rejected the case brought by a group of anti-abortion rights doctors and medical associations on procedural grounds.

The policy book also recommends the Justice Department enforce the Comstock Act against providers and distributors of abortion pills. That 1873 law prohibits drugs, medicines or instruments used in abortions from being sent through the mail.

US-NEWS-SCOTUS-ABORTION-PILL-NEWSOM-TB

Now that the Supreme Court has overturned Roe v. Wade , the volume states that the Justice Department "in the next conservative administration should therefore announce its intent to enforce federal law against providers and distributors of such pills."

The guide recommends the next secretary of Health and Human Services get rid of the Reproductive Healthcare Access Task Force established by the Biden administration before Roe's reversal and create a "pro-life task force to ensure that all of the department's divisions seek to use their authority to promote the life and health of women and their unborn children."

In a section titled "The Family Agenda," the proposal recommends the Health and Human Services chief "proudly state that men and women are biological realities," and that "married men and women are the ideal, natural family structure because all children have a right to be raised by the men and women who conceived them."

Further, a program within the Health and Human Services Department should "maintain a biblically based, social science-reinforced definition of marriage and family."

During his first four years in office, Trump banned transgender people from serving in the military. Mr. Biden reversed that policy , but the Project 2025 policy book calls for the ban to be reinstated.

Targeting federal agencies, employees and policies

The agenda takes aim at longstanding federal agencies, like the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. The agency is a component of the Commerce Department and the policy guide calls for it to be downsized. 

NOAA's six offices, including the National Weather Service and National Marine Fisheries Service, "form a colossal operation that has become one of the main drivers of the climate change alarm industry and, as such, is harmful to future U.S. prosperity," the guide states. 

The Department of Homeland Security, established in 2002, should be dismantled and its agencies either combined with others, or moved under the purview of other departments altogether, the policy book states. For example, immigration-related entities from the Departments of Homeland Security, Justice and Health and Human Services should form a standalone, Cabinet-level border and immigration agency staffed by more than 100,000 employees, according to the agenda.

The Department of Homeland Security logo is seen on a law enforcement vehicle in Washington on March 7, 2017.

If the policy recommendations are implemented, another federal agency that could come under the knife by the next administration, with action from Congress, is the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau.

The agenda seeks to bring a push by conservatives to target diversity, equity and inclusion, or DEI, initiatives in higher education to the executive branch by wiping away a slew of DEI-related positions, policies and programs and calling for the elimination of funding for partners that promote DEI practices.

It states that U.S. Agency for International Development staff and grantees that "engage in ideological agitation on behalf of the DEI agenda" should be terminated. At the Treasury Department, the guide says the next administration should "treat the participation in any critical race theory or DEI initiative without objecting on constitutional or moral grounds, as per se grounds for termination of employment."

The Project 2025 policy book also takes aim at more innocuous functions of government. It calls for the next presidential administration to eliminate or reform the dietary guidelines that have been published by the Department of Agriculture for more than 40 years, which the authors claim have been "infiltrated" by issues like climate change and sustainability.

Immigration

Trump made immigration a cornerstone of his last two presidential runs and has continued to hammer the issue during his 2024 campaign. Project 2025's agenda not only recommends finishing the wall along the U.S.-Mexico border, but urges the next administration to "take a creative and aggressive approach" to responding to drug cartels at the border. This approach includes using active-duty military personnel and the National Guard to help with arrest operations along the southern border.

A memo from Immigration and Customs Enforcement that prohibits enforcement actions from taking place at "sensitive" places like schools, playgrounds and churches should be rolled back, the policy guide states. 

When the Homeland Security secretary determines there is an "actual or anticipated mass migration of aliens" that presents "urgent circumstances" warranting a federal response, the agenda says the secretary can make rules and regulations, including through their expulsion, for as long as necessary. These rules, the guide states, aren't subject to the Administration Procedure Act, which governs the agency rule-making process.

What do Trump and his advisers say about Project 2025?

In a post to his social media platform on July 5, Trump wrote , "I know nothing about Project 2025. I have no idea who is behind it. I disagree with some of the things they're saying and some of the things they're saying are absolutely ridiculous and abysmal. Anything they do, I wish them luck, but I have nothing to do with them."

Trump's pushback to the initiative came after Heritage Foundation President Kevin Roberts said in a podcast interview that the nation is "in the process of the second American Revolution, which will remain bloodless if the left allows it to be."

The former president continued to disavow the initiative this week, writing in another social media post  that he knows nothing about Project 2025.

"I have not seen it, have no idea who is in charge of it, and, unlike our very well received Republican Platform, had nothing to do with it," Trump wrote. "The Radical Left Democrats are having a field day, however, trying to hook me into whatever policies are stated or said. It is pure disinformation on their part. By now, after all of these years, everyone knows where I stand on EVERYTHING!"

While the former president said he doesn't know who is in charge of the initiative, the project's director, Dans, and associate director, Chretien, were high-ranking officials in his administration. Additionally, Ben Carson, former secretary of Housing and Urban Development under Trump; John Ratcliffe, former director of National Intelligence in the Trump administration; and Peter Navarro, who served as a top trade adviser to Trump in the White House, are listed as either authors or contributors to the policy agenda.

Still, even before Roberts' comments during "The War Room" podcast — typically hosted by conservative commentator Steve Bannon, who reported to federal prison to begin serving a four-month sentence last week — Trump's top campaign advisers have stressed that Project 2025 has no official ties to his reelection bid.

Susie Wiles and Chris LaCivita, senior advisers to the Trump campaign, said in a November statement that 2024 policy announcements will be made by Trump or his campaign team.

"Any personnel lists, policy agendas, or government plans published anywhere are merely suggestions," they said.

While the efforts by outside organizations are "appreciated," Wiles and LaCivita said, "none of these groups or individuals speak for President Trump or his campaign."

In response to Trump's post last week, Project 2025 reiterated that it was separate from the Trump campaign.

"As we've been saying for more than two years now, Project 2025 does not speak for any candidate or campaign. We are a coalition of more than 110 conservative groups advocating policy & personnel recommendations for the next conservative president. But it is ultimately up to that president, who we believe will be President Trump, to decide which recommendations to implement," a statement on the project's X account said.

The initiative has also pushed back on Democrats' claims about its policy proposals and accused them of lying about what the agenda contains.

What do Democrats say?

Despite their attempts to keep some distance from Project 2025, Democrats continue to connect Trump with the transition effort. The Biden-Harris campaign frequently posts about the project on X, tying it to a second Trump term.

Mr. Biden himself accused his Republican opponent of lying about his connections to the Project 2025 agenda, saying in a statement that the agenda was written for Trump and "should scare every single American." He claimed on his campaign social media account  Wednesday that Project 2025 "will destroy America."

Congressional Democrats have also begun pivoting to Project 2025 when asked in interviews about Mr. Biden's fitness for a second term following his lackluster showing at the June 27 debate, the first in which he went head-to-head with Trump.

"Trump is all about Project 2025," Pennsylvania Sen. John Fetterman told CNN on Monday. "I mean, that's what we really should be voting on right now. It's like, do we want the kind of president that is all about Project '25?"

Rep. Jim Clyburn of South Carolina, one of Mr. Biden's closest allies on Capitol Hill, told reporters Monday that the agenda for the next Republican president was the sole topic he would talk about.

"Project 2025, that's my only concern," he said. "I don't want you or my granddaughter to live under that government."

In a statement reiterating her support for Mr. Biden, Rep. Frederica Wilson of Florida called Project 2025 "MAGA Republicans' draconian 920-page plan to end U.S. democracy, give handouts to the wealthy and strip Americans of their freedoms."

What are Republicans saying about Project 2025?

Two GOP senators under consideration to serve as Trump's running mate sought to put space between the White House hopeful and Project 2025, casting it as merely the product of a think tank that puts forth ideas.

"It's the work of a think tank, of a center-right think tank, and that's what think tanks do," Florida Sen. Marco Rubio told CNN's "State of the Union" on Sunday.

He said Trump's message to voters focuses on "restoring common sense, working-class values, and making our decisions on the basis of that."

Ohio Sen. J.D. Vance raised a similar sentiment in an interview with NBC's "Meet the Press," saying organizations will have good ideas and bad ideas.

"It's a 900-page document," he said Sunday. "I guarantee there are things that Trump likes and dislikes about that 900-page document. But he is the person who will determine the agenda of the next administration."

Jaala Brown contributed to this report.

Melissa Quinn is a politics reporter for CBSNews.com. She has written for outlets including the Washington Examiner, Daily Signal and Alexandria Times. Melissa covers U.S. politics, with a focus on the Supreme Court and federal courts.

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Agriculture

Browse agriculture topics/papers by subfields, agriculture research papers/topics, anti-cattle rustling device for local community.

Abstract Cattle rustling has become a threat and a major crime in Nigeria recently. To minimize this, there is a need to ensure cattle safety and provide substantial security when rearing cattle both in ranches and open fields. This necessitates the need to deploy technology to attenuate cattle rustling. This study developed and tested an animal tracking device using the Internet of Things (IoT). The developed system consists of three units that were interfaced together. These units are the G...

Effect of Agricultural Productivity on Nigeria's Economic Growth, (1991-2022)

ABSTRACT This study analyzed the effect of agricultural productivity on Nigeria’s economic growth during the 1991-2022 period. The specific objectives of the study were to examine the effect of agricultural productivity on Nigeria’s economic growth from 1991-2022; examine the contribution of agricultural sector to Nigeria’s economic growth; Investigate the relationship between agricultural productivity and overall economic growth in Nigeria from 1991-2022; make recommendations for pol...

Hyphaene compressa, an important palm in the arid and semi-arid regions of Kenya

Abstract Background: Peasant agroecosystems in Kenya are considered to be a continuum of integrated traditional farming systems and natural ecosystem conservancy programs. Hyphaene compressa (doum palm) exists in arid and semi-arid lands (ASAL) of Kenya. While research in these areas is focusing on new plants to be brought to the areas, there is no focus on doum palm, which is already adapted to these areas. Scanty ethnobotanical knowledge exists in the form of unpublished material. The stud...

High-Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Salt-Tolerant QTLs at Seedling Stage in Upland Cotton Using Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS)

Abstract/Overview Over 6% of agricultural land is affected by salinity. It is becoming obligatory to use saline soils, so growing salt-tolerant plants is a priority. To gain an understanding of the genetic basis of upland cotton tolerance to salinity at seedling stage, an intra-specific cross was developed from CCRI35, tolerant to salinity, as female with Nan Dan (NH), sensitive to salinity, as the male. A genetic map of 5178 SNP markers was developed from 277 F2:3 populations. The map sp...

Communication and Uptake of Integrated Soil Fertility Management and Soil Water Conservation Technologies by Farmers in Tharaka-Nithi County, Kenya

Abstract Integrated soil fertility management and soil water conservation practices are possible solutions to persistent soil quality decline and low availability of soil moisture which are affecting agricultural productivity in the dry lands of Tharaka-Nithi County. Nonetheless, the rate of uptake of these technologies and practices by smallholder farmers has stagnated over the years despite recommendations for their use. Lack of effective communication between the extension agents and rese...

Gender Influence on Soil Fertility and Water Management Technologies Uptake among Smallholder Farmers in Tharaka Nithi County

Abstract Degraded landscapes and soil water stress are long-standing problems to smallholder agriculture in the drylands. Despite the important roles of soil and water conservation in restoring degraded landscapes and improving agricultural productivity, the technologies are yet to be adopted to their fullest extent. This can be attributed to gender-linked disparities in agricultural technology utilization. This study, therefore, sought to evaluate gender-specific choice and use-intensity de...

Technology Adoption, Production and Market Participation among Smallholder Indigenous Chicken Farmers in Tigania West Sub-County, Meru County

Abstract Majority of the Kenyan population resides in rural areas and are characterised by high levels of poverty due to low income and food insecurity. Poultry production and in particular indigenous chicken has been recognised as an avenue to improve livelihoods among rural households through provision of income. Besides, the enterprise contributes to socioeconomic and nutritional requirements of rural and peri-urban populations. Despite this potential, chicken production continues to enco...

Farm-Level Supply and Value Addition of Mangoes among Small-Scale Producers in Machakos County

Abstract Mango (Mangifera indicia L.) is one of the most suitable fruit crops in arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya. Its production in Machakos County has generally been fluctuating over the past few years, such that there is no consensus whether the production is increasing or decreasing. In addition, there is a paucity of knowledge about the quantity of mangoes supplied by small-scale farmers. Upon harvest, the mango fruit is highly perishable, therefore farmers have taken up farm-level val...

On the Computationally Efficient Numerical Solution to the Helmholtz Equation

Abstract Named after Hermann L. F. von Helmholtz (1821-1894), Helmholtz equation has obtained application in many elds: investigation of acaustic phenomena in aeronautics, electromagnetic application, migration in 3-D geophysical application, among many other areas. As shown in [2], Helmholtz equation is used in weather prediction at the Met O ce in UK. Ine ciency, that is the bottleneck in Numerical Weather Prediction, arise partly from solving of the Helmholtz equation. This study investig...

Qtl Mapping for Salt Tolerance in an Intra-Specific Upland Cotton at Seedling Stage Using Ssr Markers

Abstract/Overview Cotton is a moderately salt-tolerant crop, but its salt tolerance threshold is not more than 7.7 ds•m−1. The seedling stage of cotton is the highly sensitive to salinity and the effects can be quantified by measuring morphological and physiological traits. The purpose of this study was to identify QTLs related with salinity tolerance at seedling stage. Meanwhile where they were localized in the genome, investigate the relationships between the traits at seedling stag...

A comparison of CO2 fluxes via eddy covariance measurements with model predictions in a dominant subtropical forest ecosystem

Abstract/Overview CO2 fluxes were measured continuously for twelve months (2003) using eddy covariance technique at canopy layer in a dominant subtropical forest in South China. Our results showed that daytime maximum CO2 fluxes of the whole ecosystem varied from −15 to −20 µmol m−2 s −1 5 . The peaks of CO2 fluxes appeared earlier than the peaks of solar radiation. Contribution of CO2 fluxes in a subtropical forest in the dry season was 53% of the annual total from the whole for...

Seasonal dynamics in carbon dioxide fluxes of the herbaceous layer of a moist Kenyan savannah

Abstract/Overview Strong seasonal variability in African carbon source/sink relationship is considered the continent’s most significant contribution to the global carbon cycle. Alternating dry and wet periods dictate ecosystem carbon exchange and productivity of tropical African savannah. We examined the seasonal and daily trends in ecosystem CO2 exchange in the herbaceous layer of a humid Kenyan savannah devoid of grazing. Microclimate, soil moisture, soil and tissue nitrogen, abovegro...

Functional convergence in water use of trees from different geographical regions: a meta-analysis

Abstract/Overview Functional convergence in water use of trees across species from diverse geographic locations was examined using data on tree water use parameters, with the intention of gaining an understanding on the capacity for water transport for trees with varying structural and functional traits. Wood density (ρw), which is reported to have a negative exponential relation with sap flow density (SFD), showed a bell-shaped curve when the daily SFD data from 101 tree species belongi...

Effects of nitrogen deposition on soil organic carbon fractions in the subtropical forest ecosystems of S China

Abstract/Overview Experiments were conducted between 2003 and 2008 to examine how N additions influence soil organic C (SOC) and its fractions in forests at different succession stages in the subtropical China. The succession stages included pine forest, pine and broadleaf mixed forest, and old‐growth monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest. Three levels of N (NH4NO3)‐addition treatments comprising control, low‐N (50 kg N ha–1 y–1), and medium‐N (100 kg N ha–1 y–1) were est...

Seed dispersal by Tana River mangabeys in fragmented gallery forests

Abstract/Overview Data collected on a free ranging group of Tana River mangabeys (Cercocebus galeritus) indicates that this endangered primate species, which has previously been regarded as a seed predator, plays an important role in seed dispersal and do contribute to the regeneration of a highly fragmented gallery forest. We observed fruit handling behavior and the post-dispersal fate of seeds ingested by the mangabeys. The two main fruit handling behaviors observed, fruit swallowing an...

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals (livestock), plants and fungi to produce food, feed, fiber and many other desired products to sustain and enhance life. The study of agriculture can lead to a variety of careers, including those associated with consulting, farming, management and research. Afribary publishes latest agriculture topics for students. Browse through Agriculture projects, agriculture project topics, Agriculture thesis, seminars, research papers etc. All papers and research works in agriculture and its sub-fields.

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Four new CSE department heads begin in 2024-25

Portrait of four new department heads

Professor James Kakalios of the School of Physics and Astronomy was one of four new department heads named by CSE Dean Andrew Alleyne. These new department heads bring a wealth of academic, research, and leadership abilities to their departments.   

School of Physics and Astronomy

Professor James Kakalios   has been appointed   as the new department head for the School of Physics and Astronomy. Kakalios started his five-year term on July 1, 2024.

Since joining the School of Physics and Astronomy in 1988, Kakalios has built a research program in experimental condensed matter physics, with particular emphasis on complex and disordered systems. His research ranges from the nano to the neuro with experimental investigations of the electronic and optical properties of nanostructured semiconductors and fluctuation phenomena in neurological systems.

During his time at the University of Minnesota, Kakalios has served as both director of undergraduate studies and director of graduate studies. He has received numerous awards and professorships including the University’s Taylor Distinguished Professorship, Andrew Gemant Award from the American Institute of Physics, and the Award for Public Engagement with Science from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He is a fellow of both the American Physical Society and AAAS. 

In addition to numerous research publications, Kakalios is the author of three popular science books— The Physics of Superheroes , The Amazing Story of Quantum Mechanics , and The Physics of Everyday Things .

Kaklios received a bachelor’s degree from City College of New York and master’s and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Chicago.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science

Professor Kevin Dorfman has been appointed as the new d epartment h ead for the Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science (CEMS). Dorfman started his five-year term on July 1, 2024.

Dorfman joined the University of Minnesota faculty in January of 2006 and was quickly promoted up the ranks, receiving tenure in 2011, promotion to professor in 2015, and named a Distinguished McKnight Professor in 2020. He previously served as the director of undergraduate studies in chemical engineering from 2018-2022, where he headed a large-scale revision of the chemical engineering curriculum and saw the department through its most recent ABET accreditation. 

His research focuses on polymer physics and microfluidics, with applications in self-assembly and biotechnology. He is particularly well known for his integrated experimental and computational work on DNA confinement in nanochannels and its application towards genome mapping. Dorfman’s research has been recognized by numerous national awards including the AIChE Colburn Award, Packard Fellowship in Science and Engineering, NSF CAREER Award, and DARPA Young Faculty Award.

Dorfman received a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from Penn State and a master’s and Ph.D. in chemical engineering from MIT. 

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering

Professor Archis  Ghate has been appointed as the new Department Head for the Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering after a national search. Ghate will begin his five-year term on July 8, 2024. 

Ghate is an expert in operations research and most recently served as the Fluor Endowed Chair in the Department of Industrial Engineering at Clemson University. Previously, he was a professor of industrial and systems engineering at the University of Washington. He has won several research and teaching awards, including an NSF CAREER Award. 

Ghate’s research in optimization spans areas as varied as health care, transportation and logistics, manufacturing, economics, and business analytics. He also served as a principal research scientist at Amazon working on supply chain optimization technologies. 

Ghate received bachelor’s and master’s degrees, both in chemical engineering, from the Indian Institute of Technology. He also received a master’s degree in management science and engineering from Stanford University and a Ph.D. in industrial and operations engineering from the University of Michigan.

Department of Mechanical Engineering

Professor Chris Hogan has been appointed as the new department head for the Department of Mechanical Engineering. Hogan started his five-year term on July 1, 2024.

Hogan, who currently holds the Carl and Janet Kuhrmeyer Chair, joined the University of Minnesota in 2009, and since then has taught fluid mechanics and heat transfer to nearly 1,000 undergraduates, advised 25+ Ph.D. students and postdoctoral associates, and served as the department’s director of graduate studies from 2015-2020. He most recently served as associate department head. 

He is a leading expert in particle science with applications including supersonic-to-hypersonic particle impacts with surfaces, condensation and coagulation, agricultural sprays, and virus aerosol sampling and control technologies. He has authored and co-authored more than 160 papers on these topics. He currently serves as the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Aerosol Science . Hogan received the University of Minnesota College of Science and Engineering’s George W. Taylor Award for Distinguished Research in 2023.

Hogan holds a bachelor’s degree Cornell University and a Ph.D. from Washington University in Saint Louis.

Rhonda Zurn, College of Science and Engineering,  [email protected]

University Public Relations,  [email protected]

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IMAGES

  1. FREE 10+ Agricultural Research Samples & Templates in PDF

    agriculture topics for research papers

  2. Agriculture Research

    agriculture topics for research papers

  3. (PDF) history of agriculture research in india

    agriculture topics for research papers

  4. 130 Excellent Agriculture Research Topics

    agriculture topics for research papers

  5. FREE 10+ Agricultural Research Samples & Templates in PDF

    agriculture topics for research papers

  6. Encyclopedia of Agriculture Research (2 Volume Set)

    agriculture topics for research papers

VIDEO

  1. Agriculture Topics For Presentation

  2. AGRICULTURE POLICY INSTITUTE STENOTYPIST PAST PAPER 2024

  3. UPPSC AGRICULTURE VACANCY 2024

  4. GUESS PAPER || FUND. OF PLANT PATHOLOGY || PPATH-121 B.Sc. AGRICULTURE SECOND SEMESTER. || PPATH-121

  5. School of Agriculture: Where Tradition Meets Innovation

  6. Post Harvest Management 🎯💯👨‍🌾 #agta #cropscience #agriculture #viral #video #shorts

COMMENTS

  1. 130 Best Agricultural Research Paper Topics & Writing Tips

    Such agricultural research paper topics allow revealing the topic of fishery and agricultural procurement. Students can concentrate on many aspects of the payback of farms and fisheries. The topics are quite extensive, and you can find a lot of research on the Internet for choosing trust sources. Trout breeding in freshwaters.

  2. 114 Agriculture Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    Published: Jan 27, 2024. Inside This Article. 114 Agriculture Essay Topic Ideas & Examples. Agriculture plays a vital role in the development and sustainability of societies around the world. From crop cultivation to animal husbandry, agriculture encompasses a wide range of practices that affect our food production, environment, and economy.

  3. Agriculture

    Agriculture is the cultivation of plants, animals, and some other organisms, such as fungi, for the production of food, fibre, fuel, and medicines used by society. Food systems innovations ...

  4. 45 Research Project Ideas in Agriculture

    In this article, we will present 45 research project ideas in agriculture that can help address some of the most pressing issues facing the industry today. These research projects cover a wide range of topics, from soil health and crop yields to livestock farming, aquaculture, and food systems, providing a comprehensive overview of the latest ...

  5. 100 essential questions for the future of agriculture

    A previous paper about the top 100 questions of importance to the future of global agriculture was published almost a decade ago, with contributors primarily comprising experts and representatives from agricultural organizations. 4 Our collection was intended for a broad community, including scientists, engineers, farmers, entrepreneurs ...

  6. Agriculture Research Paper Topics

    Agriculture Research Paper Topics. See our list of agriculture research paper topics. The development of agriculture—the raising of crops and animals for food—has been fundamental to the development of civilization. Farming brought about the settlement of farm communities, which grew into towns and city-states.

  7. Advancing agricultural research using machine learning algorithms

    This research was funded in part by the Wisconsin Soybean Marketing Board, The North Central Soybean Research Program (S.P. Conley), and the USDA National Institute of Food and Federal ...

  8. Outlook on Agriculture: Sage Journals

    Outlook on Agriculture is a peer reviewed journal, published quarterly, which welcomes original research papers, reviews and perspectives on current developments in agricultural science and associated disciplines for an international and … | View full journal description. This journal is a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

  9. Frontiers in Agronomy

    Advances in Computer Vision and Sensing Technologies for Smart Farming. This exciting journal investigates how agronomy will develop in the 21st century as we address climate change, focus on food systems and find ways to produce enough, waste less, and recycle more.

  10. Internet of Things for the Future of Smart Agriculture: A Comprehensive

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of emerging technologies for the internet of things (IoT)-based smart agriculture. We begin by summarizing the existing surveys and describing emergent technologies for the agricultural IoT, such as unmanned aerial vehicles, wireless technologies, open-source IoT platforms, software defined networking (SDN), network function virtualization (NFV ...

  11. Articles

    Comparing the Efficiency of Sunflower, Marigold and Spinach Plants for Their Phytoextraction Ability of Zinc and Copper in Contaminated Soil. Agricultural Research is a multi-disciplinary journal covering all disciplines of agricultural sciences to promote global research. The official publication ...

  12. (PDF) Farming: Innovations for Sustainable Agriculture

    The integration of technology and innovation is a key aspect of water resources. engineering in modern farming. Advanced sensor-based monitoring systems. enable real-time data collection on soil ...

  13. 187 Agriculture Essay Topics & Research Titles + Examples

    This paper aims to analyze the origins of agriculture - what was a foraging economy and way of life like, as well as compare foragers and farmers. Climate Change and Its Potential Impact on Agriculture and Food Supply. The global food supply chain has been greatly affected by the impact of global climate change.

  14. Land

    A comprehensive understanding of the impact of land fragmentation on collective action is essential for rural governance in developing countries. Prior publications have argued that land fragmentation impedes the sustainable development of agricultural economies and rural societies, while the connection between humans and nature has not been considered comprehensively. Therefore, the ...

  15. Frontiers in Plant Science

    Recent Advances in Big Data, Machine, and Deep Learning for Precision Agriculture, Volume II. The most cited plant science journal advances our understanding of plant biology for sustainable food security, functional ecosystems and human health.

  16. Home

    Agricultural Research is a multi-disciplinary journal covering all disciplines of agricultural sciences to promote global research. The official publication of the National Academy of Agricultural Sciences (NAAS), India. Focuses on new and emerging fields and concepts in agricultural sciences. Provides a forum for Agricultural Scientists to ...

  17. 176 Agriculture Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

    The Agriculture, Energy, and Transportation Infrastructure: Main Threats. Thus, the purpose of the work is to analyze the food/agricultural, energy, and transport sectors of critical infrastructure in terms of physical, cyber, or natural disaster threats. The Impact of Acetamiprid on Agriculture.

  18. Agribusiness: Articles, Research, & Case Studies on Agribusiness

    From HBS Alumni Bulletin. Key concepts include: The case examines the complex political and economic underpinnings of the ethanol industry. By investing in corn-based ethanol, farmers reduce their exposure to corn prices, but at the expense of exposure to the oil market. The case promotes greater understanding of the way materials and energy ...

  19. 118+ Agriculture Research Topics

    List of Agriculture Research Paper Topics. Sustainable Development Strategies in High-Yielding Agriculture. Integrated Pest Management Approaches for Crop Improvement. Organic Farming and Its Impact on Soil Health and Fertility. Assessing the Ecological and Economic Dimensions of Soil Degradation.

  20. INTRODUCTION

    Some discussion of the basic concepts that guide sustainable agriculture research and education activities may be useful. Definitions of key terms, such as sustainable agriculture, alternative agriculture, and low-input sustainable agriculture, are drawn from Alternative Agriculture and a recent paper (Benbrook and Cook, 1990).

  21. Agriculture and Food Technology Research Paper Topics

    This page lists 19 topics and provides an overview of agriculture and food technology development. 1. Activated Carbon. Activated carbon is made from any substance with a high carbon content, and activation refers to the development of the property of adsorption. Activated carbon is important in purification processes, in which molecules of ...

  22. Topics

    Natural Resources, Conservation, and Environment. Topics relating to the environment, including, weather and climate change, conservation practices, environmental justice, invasive species and soil.

  23. Agriculture Topics For Students: A Comprehensive Guide

    Here are some agriculture research topics suitable for high school students: The impact of food deserts on urban communities. The role of genetically modified organisms in agriculture. The importance of crop rotation in sustainable farming. The effects of irrigation techniques on water conservation.

  24. What is Project 2025? What to know about the conservative blueprint for

    Here is what to know about Project 2025: What is Project 2025? Project 2025 is a proposed presidential transition project that is composed of four pillars: a policy guide for the next presidential ...

  25. United States

    Browse all topics. Topics. Agriculture and fisheries. Climate change. Development. Digital. Economy. Education and skills. Employment. Environment. Finance and investment. Governance. ... Reports and research papers. Research and working papers with deep dives and findings. Policy papers and briefs.

  26. Agriculture Research Papers, Project Topics

    The study of agriculture can lead to a variety of careers, including those associated with consulting, farming, management and research. Afribary publishes latest agriculture topics for students. Browse through Agriculture projects, agriculture project topics, Agriculture thesis, seminars, research papers etc.

  27. Four new CSE department heads begin in 2024-25

    He has authored and co-authored more than 160 papers on these topics. He currently serves as the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Aerosol Science. Hogan received the University of Minnesota College of Science and Engineering's George W. Taylor Award for Distinguished Research in 2023.Hogan holds a bachelor's degree Cornell University and a ...