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Broadening participation in community problem solving: A multidisciplinary model to support collaborative practice and research

Roz d. lasker.

Center for the Advancement of Collaborative Strategies in Health, Division of Public Health, The New York Academy of Medicine, 1216 Fifth Avenue, Room 452, 10029-5293 New York, NY

Elisa S. Weiss

Over the last 40 years, thousands of communities—in the United States and internationally—have been working to broaden the involvement of people and organizations in addressing community-level problems related to health and other areas. Yet, in spite of, this experience, many communities are having substantial difficulty achieving their collaborative objective, and many funders of community partnerships and participation initiatives are looking for ways to get more out of their investment. One of the reasons we are in this predicament is that the practitioners and researchers who are interested in community collaboration come from a variety of contexts, initiatives, and academic disciplines, and few of them have integrated their work with experiences or literatures beyond their own domain. In this article, we seek to overcome some of this fragmentation of effort by presenting a multidisciplinary model that lays out the pathways by which broadly participatory processes lead to more effective community problem solving and to improvements in community health. The model, which builds on a broad array of practical experience as well as conceptual and empirical work in multiple fields, is an outgrowth of a joint-learning work group that was organized to support nine communities in the Turning Point initiative. Following a detailed explication of the model, the article focuses on the implications of the model for research, practice, and policy. It describes how the model can help researchers answer the fundamental effectiveness and “how-to” questions related to community collaboration. In addition, the article explores differences between the model and current practice, suggesting strategies that can help the participants in, and funders of, community collaborations strengthen their efforts.

The Full Text of this article is available as a PDF (185K).

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.



Police Support for Community Problem-Solving and Broken Windows Policing

  • Published: 03 July 2015
  • Volume 41 , pages 220–235, ( 2016 )

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community problem solving paper

  • Michael J. Jenkins 1  

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This paper explores overall police officer acceptance of tactics and tenets of broken windows and community problem-solving policing. It assesses differential support for each by police officer characteristics (i.e., race/ethnicity, gender, rank, education level, years of service, and assignment). This study presents the findings of a survey of 227 sworn police personnel from two urban police departments. Univariate analyses reveal the levels of support that police have for certain police tactics and tenets of broken windows and community problem-solving policing. Regression analyses examine the relationship between key officer characteristics and support for these tactics and tenets as measured by respondents’ agreement with various items and indices. Findings include support for community problem-solving (and also a reliance on traditional policing methods); a lag in investigators’ acceptance of community problem-solving; and differences by officer race/ethnicity, education, rank, and assignment in indices related to broken windows and rapid response policing. The differential acceptance of broken windows and rapid response tactics by race/ethnicity suggests interesting implications for future studies of race/ethnicity and broken windows policing. The greater acceptance of certain tactics by patrol officers supports current moves toward innovating in police investigations’ bureaus.

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The author thanks Drs. Maria Tcherni, Bryn Herrschaft, and the reviewers for their helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper.

This research was funded in part by grant number 420276 from the Bodman Foundation.

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Jenkins, M.J. Police Support for Community Problem-Solving and Broken Windows Policing. Am J Crim Just 41 , 220–235 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-015-9302-x

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Received : 12 March 2015

Accepted : 18 June 2015

Published : 03 July 2015

Issue Date : June 2016

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s12103-015-9302-x

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How to Write a Problem Solution Paper

Last Updated: July 22, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Stephanie Wong Ken, MFA . Stephanie Wong Ken is a writer based in Canada. Stephanie's writing has appeared in Joyland, Catapult, Pithead Chapel, Cosmonaut's Avenue, and other publications. She holds an MFA in Fiction and Creative Writing from Portland State University. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 148,956 times.

A problem solution paper focuses on a particular problem or set of problems. As the essay writer, you will then need to come up with a solution or several solutions to the stated problem. Problem solution papers are common on exams, as they allow you to explore an issue and use critical thinking to respond with a solution. To write a problem solution paper, start by outlining the paper. Then, follow the structure of a problem solution paper and polish the paper so it is at its best when you turn it in.

Starting the Paper

Step 1 Identify the situation.

  • For example, you may have a main situation like, “obesity and poor fitness,” or “trigger warnings on college campuses.”
  • If you get to choose the situation, make a list of groups you belong to, such as “school,” “family,” “race,” “culture”,” or “local community.” Then, identify a situation or issue you have encountered as a member of one of these groups.

Step 2 Determine the key components of the paper.

  • In the situation component, you will paraphrase the prompt of the paper in your own words.
  • In the problem component, you will state the problem or problems and explain what they are in your own words.
  • In the solution component, you will state your solution or solutions to the problem. You will also explain how it will address the problem.
  • In the evaluation component, you will list the main ideas in the paper and offer a prediction or recommendation based on your solution to the problem.
  • There will only be one situation presented to you in the prompt for the paper. You can then have multiple problems and multiple solutions that link back to the situation.

Step 3 Use the block structure for the outline.

  • Introduction section, where you discuss the situation
  • Transition sentence or paragraph
  • Conclusion section, where you discuss the evaluation

Step 4 Try the chain structure for the outline.

  • Problem 1 and Solution to Problem 1
  • Problem 2 and Solution to Problem 2
  • Problem 3 and Solution to Problem 3

Writing the Paper

Step 1 State the situation in your own words.

  • For example, if the situation in the paper prompt is “obesity and poor fitness,” you may focus on specific aspects of the situation in the introduction. You may look at how the consumption of unhealthy food and the overuse of cars plays into obesity and poor fitness in society.

Step 2 Research the problem or problems.

  • If you cannot find a lot of outside material on the problem, you can collect your own data for the paper. Do this by making a survey that you give to people who are affected by the problem. You can also interview people associated with the problem, or with possible solutions.
  • For example, if you were researching the problem “trigger warnings on college campuses,” you may interview college representatives at your university or college. You may also talk to students on campus.
  • Most problem solution papers written for exams do not require you to cite any outside sources. You may need to cite your sources if you are writing the problem solution paper for a class.

Step 3 Create a strong...

  • For example, if you were writing about the situation “obesity and poor fitness,” you may have the following thesis statement: “Obesity and poor fitness can lead to a decrease in life expectancy, and it is essential that individuals and governments work together to tackle this issue by improving their citizen's diet and fitness.”

Step 4 Identify your solutions.

  • For example, you may come up with a solution that addresses a lack of resources by adding support, money, or more staff. Or you may come up with a solution that addresses the problem by changing an existing practice or habit.

Step 5 Support your solutions with specific examples.

  • For example, if one of your solutions to the problem of obesity and poor fitness is to encourage people to cook at home, you may list a few specific ways people can do this. You may suggest that national eating healthy at home campaign is created, offering recipes online that take less than 30 minutes to prepare at home.

Step 6 Wrap up the paper with an evaluation.

  • For example, you may end up a call to action like, “With rising levels of obesity in our country, it is essential that we take action now to address this serious issue.”

Polishing the Paper

Step 1 Confirm the paper follows a clear structure or outline.

  • You can create a reverse outline using your paper as a guide, where you go through each section and confirm it follows the outline you started with.

Step 2 Check for spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

  • You can also show the paper to a peer, friend, or family member and get them to proofread it for you.

Step 3 Revise the paper to fit the word count.

  • If you are writing the problem solution paper for a class assignment, you may still have a set word count. Check that your paper falls within this word count.
  • ↑ https://www.jccc.edu/student-resources/academic-resource-center/writing-center/files/problem-solution-paper.pdf
  • ↑ http://www.eapfoundation.com/writing/essays/problemsolution/
  • ↑ https://grammar.yourdictionary.com/grammar/writing/how-to-write-a-problem-solution-essay.html
  • ↑ https://www.shsu.edu/centers/academic-success-center/writing/handouts/modes/essays/9.-.Problem.Solution.Essay.pdf
  • ↑ https://clt.library.jwu.edu/c.php?g=1028305&p=7459493
  • ↑ https://clt.library.jwu.edu/c.php?g=1028305&p=7459493#s-lg-box-wrapper-27749528

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Stephanie Wong Ken, MFA

A problem solution paper focuses on a particular issue and should include one or more solutions to it. You’ll need to begin the paper by stating the situation in your own words. For example, the situation could be “obesity and core fitness.” Include a thesis statement at the end of your introduction, which could be something like, “Obesity can lead to decreased life expectancy, making it imperative for governments and people to tackle this issue by improving diet and fitness.” The following sections should deal with identifying all of the problems arising from the situation and proposing solutions to them. Try to give examples to explain each solution. For instance, if you say the growth of obesity can be stopped by improving people’s diets, you could propose a national healthy eating campaign. Finally, you should conclude by evaluating the whole paper and making recommendations about how to implement your solutions. For tips from our Writing co-author on how to plan an outline for your problem solving paper, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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  • Essay on Social Issues

Free Community Problems Essay

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Social Issues , Problem Solving , Youth , Children , Violence , Crime , Community , Family

Published: 12/02/2019


Community Problem solving Paper

Problem solving is a psychological method that identifies problems and finds ways of solving them. It is a process of discovering and analyzing a problem in a given community in a bid to come up with a solution to this problem. Problem solving involves some steps referred to as problem solving cycle by researchers. This includes strategy development and knowledge organization, though people tend to skip some steps to reach a desired solution (Cherry, 2011). Problem solving therefore involves: 1) Problem identification. This is the process of realizing existence of certain problem. This is not a simple task and requires some time since problem solving depends on how well the problem is identified.2) Problem definition-in order for a problem to be solved, it has to be well defined.3) Formation of strategy. A strategy that is to be followed in problem solving is then formed. This depends on the problem situation and individuals.4) Organizing the information. This involves collection of enough and available information. This helps in preparation in aid of finding a lasting solution.5) Resource allocation. Here, resources include time and money where problem solving becomes a priority. It depends on how important a problem is and therefore more resources should be allocated in solving this problem.6) Monitoring of progress. For effective problem solving exercise, the progress should be monitored and see whether the strategies used will meet the required goals.7) Results evaluation. Upon reaching a solution, evaluation of the results should be done which determines if the solution made suits the problem (Cherry, 2011). One of the problems that a community faces is crime related problems. Crime is referred as violation of law. This calls for law enforcers to use legal action to combat crime. Of the most crime observed in communities is violence against children including sexual abuse, murder and abduction (National Crime Prevention Council, 2001). In my community, cases of children violence are very rampant. This has led to community-based programs to come to the aid of these children. Koinonia Community is one of the programs in our community that teach youth on violence and how to solve a problem through making a critical decision. Recently, study conducted shows that many children spend most of their precious time thinking about violence. The strategy used by the Koinonia Community Program is to teach children on how to say no to violent reaction to conflict. This engages them to solving problems in a positive and nonviolent way. Koinonia program also helps the youth to deal with problems of drug abuse, sexual abuse and other related crimes. At Koinonia, youth are empowered through thinking critically and provided with skills that help them in decision-making in an attempt to shun temptations that may influence vices. Violence among children has also concerned the law enforcers and initiatives have been created to solve this problem. One of the initiatives that have seen a success to problem solving is the community policing. This is an effort by the police and the community to collaborate in problem identification in a given community and search for a lasting solution (National Crime Prevention Council, 2001). For a community to benefit from community policing, it has to come out and report all manners of crime to help the police to their investigations. Community policing involves three components. These include problem solving, change management and partnership. In partnership process of problem solving the police and the community must come together in fighting crime. Problem solving identifies problems and comes out with a lasting solution to a problem. In change management, the police department to enable the community involve themselves. Problem Oriented Policing (P.O.P) is method used by police to come up with long-term results to crime related problems. In my community, police and the Koinonia community program are working together in crime identification and determine the main causes of the problem. On conducting an interview with the Koinonia program coordinator, Mr.Calvin Claine confirmed to me that community has embraced this program and are coming out in numbers to protect their children from crime. He says that the police department has taken actions against the perpetrators of children violence. According to the police department, crime has declined drastically and mainly due to the establishment of the community policing strategies. Mr. Calvin says they have strategies that help the program to be a success. These include; influencing the youth by offering special skills to combat violence and teach them that violence is a behavior that can be learned. The Koinonia program collaborates together with different other organizations in different communities such as the youth groups and churches in a bid to combat violence and promote communications skills and effect positivity in decision making in children and the youth. In addition, the program engages the youth in activities that will alleviate their mind from violence and promote togetherness in their homes and the community at large. Mr. Calvin claims that the empowerment of the youth is the main if not the only way out to violence prevention (National Crime Prevention Council, 2001). On conclusion, the policy makers should enact laws that support the children protection. Otherwise, the whole generation will go to the dogs meaning that the youth will not be people to count on in the near future. Moreover, parents should come out and teach their children morals that help them to live peacefully with every member of the community.

Cherry, K. (2011). What Is Problem Solving? Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/problemsolving/f/problem-solving-steps.htm National Crime Prevention Council. (2001). Strategy: Violence Prevention And Problem Solving Education For Children. Retrieved from: http://www.ncpc.org/topics/bullying/strategies/strategy-violence-prevention-and-problem-solving-education-for-children


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Computer Science > Neural and Evolutionary Computing

Title: bmr and bwr: two simple metaphor-free optimization algorithms for solving real-life non-convex constrained and unconstrained problems.

Abstract: This paper presents two simple yet powerful optimization algorithms named Best-Mean-Random (BMR) and Best-Worst-Randam (BWR) algorithms to handle both constrained and unconstrained optimization problems. These algorithms are free of metaphors and algorithm-specific parameters. The BMR algorithm is based on the best, mean, and random solutions of the population generated for solving a given problem; and the BWR algorithm is based on the best, worst, and random solutions. The performances of the proposed two algorithms are investigated by implementing them on 26 real-life non-convex constrained optimization problems given in the Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC) 2020 competition and comparisons are made with those of the other prominent optimization algorithms. Furthermore, computational experiments are conducted on 30 unconstrained standard benchmark optimization problems including 5 recently developed benchmark problems having distinct characteristics. The results proved the better competitiveness and superiority of the proposed simple algorithms. The optimization research community may gain an advantage by adapting these algorithms to solve various constrained and unconstrained real-life optimization problems across various scientific and engineering disciplines.
Comments: 28 pages, 5 figures, original paper
Subjects: Neural and Evolutionary Computing (cs.NE)
 classes: C.1.3; I.2.6; I.5
Cite as: [cs.NE]
  (or [cs.NE] for this version)

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  • Section 1. An Introduction to the Problem-Solving Process

Chapter 17 Sections

  • Section 2. Thinking Critically
  • Section 3. Defining and Analyzing the Problem
  • Section 4. Analyzing Root Causes of Problems: The "But Why?" Technique
  • Section 5. Addressing Social Determinants of Health and Development
  • Section 6. Generating and Choosing Solutions
  • Section 7. Putting Your Solution into Practice


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  • Main Section
Learn how to solve problems effectively and efficiently by following our detailed process.

What is a problem?

Why is a group process particularly important, what is the problem-solving process.

"We must try to trust one another. Stay and cooperate."  - Jomo Kenyatta, (1891 - 1978), former president of the Republic of Kenya

Imagine for a moment that your coalition's mission is to encourage development in a traditionally poor downtown neighborhood. Your first goal is to recruit members, but you find a lack of interest among area residents. So you work for months to convince people to join, and meet with some modest success. Then, at your first all-coalition meeting, you find that members don't want to work together. The students you have recruited don't trust the police officers who have shown up; the police officers, in turn, pay no attention to the students; and an argument has broken out in one corner of the room between a few fundamentalist Christians and gay rights activists. Your head is in your hands. You are halfway through your grant, and it seems that you haven't made any headway whatsoever towards your stated goal. What are you going to do now?

Problems are a fact of life at home, at play, and at work. Unfortunately, problems aren't always isolated cases. They tend to be like onions - you peel away one problem only to find another, and then another, and you can't solve the problem you were first interested in until you solve a variety of related problems. For example, you can't increase safety at a crosswalk until you hire more crossing guards. And nobody will apply for the job until you can increase the salary.

In short, we will always be confronted with problems, so the importance of problem solving can't be overstated. That's why this chapter of the Tool Box is focused wholly on the subject. Because most of us labor in groups or coalitions that are working together on an issue, we will focus primarily on the group problem-solving process.

So, what's a problem? How would you define one? We usually define a problem fairly negatively: a problem is a hassle, it's a pain in the neck. This is often true, but more generally, a problem can be considered the difference between what is , and what might or should be. And believe it or not, problems have their advantages, too. What are some of the good things about problems?

  • Most problems are solvable (or partially solvable, or at least improvable). We can do something about them. The task may seem overwhelming (it surely did when David fought Goliath, or when suffragettes worked to give women the right to vote), but it's not hopeless. Our optimistic assumption is that we can change the world.
  • Problems are opportunities to make some good things happen. If it weren't for problems, what would be our motivation to create change?
  • Problems are also challenges . They call upon the best of our abilities, and ask us to go beyond what we thought we could do. They make life interesting, and, at least sometimes, fun. Without problems, life could be pretty boring.

You don't agree? Think of all of the games based on problem solving. Chess is thousands of years old and is still as popular as ever, based on the number of books you might find on it at your local bookstore. The Rubik's Cube was a national rage some years back. True, the stakes may be very different between a chess game and finding a way to connect with local young people. But both can present a challenge that stretches us in the same ways.

With all this in mind, what is "problem solving?" A good definition can be found in Lead on! The complete handbook for group leaders. The authors define problem solving as "an individual or collaborative process composed of two different skills: (1) to analyze a situation accurately, and (2) to make a good decision based on that analysis."

Why are we focusing on a collaborative process in this chapter? Well, for several reasons. You probably already do a lot of individual problem solving , and there's a good deal of merit in that. But many of the problems and challenges we face as members of our organizations affect everyone in the group. It makes sense then, that everyone is part of the solution. And, as the saying goes, two heads are better than one - so just imagine what can be accomplished with a room full of dedicated people!

Now, let's change the emphasis for a moment. Why are we focusing on a collaborative process in this chapter? Maybe your group is used to doing things haphazardly on an as-absolutely-necessary basis. Why should you take more time (already a precious commodity among most groups) to go through a lengthy process?

  • Effective group processes enhance a group's ability to solve problems and make decisions. When working with more than just a couple of people, solving a problem with a set process becomes more manageable.
  • It increases the group's efficiency and productivity.
  • It increases the group's participation - more people tend to be involved, and, as a result,
  • It increases group satisfaction. This means, among other things, that the group is more likely to want to take on other problems. And when they do so, they'll be better placed to solve them.

Like any other process, there are many different tasks that need to be done to properly solve problems. And again, like any other process, skipping some of the steps will make the job more difficult in the long run. Here is a brief explanation of each of the steps, to be discussed in more detail in the following sections:

  • Running effective meetings - Since your work will be in a group, the first thing you need to understand is how to hold a good meeting. You may have the problem-solving process down pat, but that won't make any difference if nobody shows up at your meeting, or if no one pays attention to what goes on.
  • Developing facilitation skills - Strong facilitation skills go hand in hand with running an effective meeting. A good facilitator helps diffuse explosive emotions, makes sure everyone's voice is heard, and steers the group towards the best decisions.
  • Developing recorder skills - Again, these skills are part of running an effective meeting. A good recorder works hand in hand with the facilitator, and together, they make sure that not only are everyone's opinions heard, they are also seen, remembered, and followed up on. Having a good recorder is one of the most important parts of setting up an effective meeting.
  • Defining and analyzing the problem - This is the core of the problem solving process. Sometimes, the real problem isn't originally apparent.
  • Generating and choosing solutions
  • Putting your solution into practice - If you have followed the process carefully, you'll be surprised at how easy implementing it actually is!

In Summary:

As we said before, the world is full of problems, and some of them look pretty challenging, to say the least. But the rewards are great. Solutions that are well thought out and carefully implemented can work. How much can you do?

Print Resources

Avery, M., Auvine, B., Streibel, B., & Weiss, L. (1981). A handbook for consensus decision making: Building united judgement . Madison, WI: Center for Conflict Resolution.

Dale, D., & Mitiguy, N. Planning, for a change: A citizen's guide to creative planning and program development .

Dashiell, K.A. (1990). Managing meetings for collaboration and consensus Honolulu, HI: Neighborhood Justice Center of Honolulu, Inc.

Interaction Associates, Inc. (1987). Facilitator institute handbook . San Francisco, CA: Author.

Lawson, L., Donant, F., & Lawson, J. (1982). Lead on! The complete handbook for group leaders . San Luis Obispo, CA: Impact Publishers.

Meacham, W. (1980). Human development training manual . Austin, TX: Human Development Training.

Morrison, E.(1994). Leadership skills: Developing volunteers for organizational success . Tucson, AZ: Fisher Books.  


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Elektrostal Population157,409 inhabitants
Elektrostal Population Density3,179.3 /km² (8,234.4 /sq mi)

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Elektrostal Geographical coordinatesLatitude: , Longitude:
55° 48′ 0″ North, 38° 27′ 0″ East
Elektrostal Area4,951 hectares
49.51 km² (19.12 sq mi)
Elektrostal Altitude164 m (538 ft)
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8 July02:53 - 11:31 - 20:0801:56 - 21:0601:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
9 July02:55 - 11:31 - 20:0801:57 - 21:0501:00 - 01:00 01:00 - 01:00
10 July02:56 - 11:31 - 20:0701:59 - 21:0423:45 - 23:17 01:00 - 01:00
11 July02:57 - 11:31 - 20:0502:01 - 21:0223:57 - 23:06 01:00 - 01:00
12 July02:59 - 11:31 - 20:0402:02 - 21:0100:05 - 22:58 01:00 - 01:00
13 July03:00 - 11:32 - 20:0302:04 - 20:5900:12 - 22:51 01:00 - 01:00
14 July03:01 - 11:32 - 20:0202:06 - 20:5700:18 - 22:45 01:00 - 01:00

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Located next to Noginskoye Highway in Electrostal, Apelsin Hotel offers comfortable rooms with free Wi-Fi. Free parking is available. The elegant rooms are air conditioned and feature a flat-screen satellite TV and fridge...

Located in the green area Yamskiye Woods, 5 km from Elektrostal city centre, this hotel features a sauna and a restaurant. It offers rooms with a kitchen...

Ekotel Bogorodsk Hotel is located in a picturesque park near Chernogolovsky Pond. It features an indoor swimming pool and a wellness centre. Free Wi-Fi and private parking are provided...

Surrounded by 420,000 m² of parkland and overlooking Kovershi Lake, this hotel outside Moscow offers spa and fitness facilities, and a private beach area with volleyball court and loungers...

Surrounded by green parklands, this hotel in the Moscow region features 2 restaurants, a bowling alley with bar, and several spa and fitness facilities. Moscow Ring Road is 17 km away...

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  11. 94 Examples of Community Problems

    A list of common community problems. Community problems are local issues that can only be solved by engaging the people in a place. Community problems can potentially be solved by communities themselves but often requires support such as funding by governments, corporate partners or nonprofits. Solving community problems may also require government support such as laws, regulations, policies ...

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    2 Community Problem-Solving Paper Introduction This paper will explore a specific problem in the community that has been solved through a law enforcement initiative. This paper will focus on an interview conducted with the person or persons responsible for creating and administering the program. The specific problem in this community is the prevalence of gang-related violence and drug-trafficking.

  13. 143 Problem-Solution Essay Topic Ideas

    After you have chosen your topic, you can find instructions on how to develop your ideas, find a unique solution to the problem, and organize your essay in this guide to writing a problem-solving paper. 4 Parts of Problem-Solution. Describe a problem vividly. Propose a solution. Argue that the solution is practical, feasible, cost-effective ...

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  16. [2407.11149] BMR and BWR: Two simple metaphor-free optimization

    This paper presents two simple yet powerful optimization algorithms named Best-Mean-Random (BMR) and Best-Worst-Randam (BWR) algorithms to handle both constrained and unconstrained optimization problems. These algorithms are free of metaphors and algorithm-specific parameters. The BMR algorithm is based on the best, mean, and random solutions of the population generated for solving a given ...

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  19. Elektrostal

    In 1938, it was granted town status. [citation needed]Administrative and municipal status. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Elektrostal City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Elektrostal City Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated as Elektrostal Urban Okrug.

  20. Section 1. An Introduction to the Problem-Solving Process

    With all this in mind, what is "problem solving?" A good definition can be found in Lead on! The complete handbook for group leaders. The authors define problem solving as "an individual or collaborative process composed of two different skills: (1) to analyze a situation accurately, and (2) to make a good decision based on that analysis."

  21. Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast, Russia

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  22. Jewish Calendar 2012 Elektrostal', Moscow Oblast, Russia

    This subscription is a 4-year perpetual calendar feed with events for the current year (2023) plus 3 future years. Step-by-step: Outlook 365 for Windows