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essay on environmental pollution in 250 words-Nepal-2022

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                            ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

essay on environment in nepal

Environment simply refers to ours surrounding. All the natural and man-made things that we see are the elements of the environment. Pollution means decline of the original qualities of the elements of the environment like air, water, land, etc. Our environment determines our health and civilization.  

Environmental pollution is one of the greatest threats of the world today. All living being birds, animals, insects, plants and even human beings are victims of pollution. No part of the world now is unaffected by the problem of pollution these days.

Pollution is of different types. They are air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. Pollution causes various kinds of harms. Polluted air causes lung diseases, pain ad asthma. Similarly, when we drink polluted water become ill with diarrhea, dysentery, jaundice, etc. Loud noise harms our ear. However, the greatest harm is the depletion of the ozone layer. It causes increase in temperature in the earth, acid rain and drought.

The main reason of pollution is industrialization and population increase. These two bring about environmental change. Many factories have been established to produce goods. These factories and vehicles like bus, truck, car, motorcycle emit huge quantities of smoke into the atmosphere. Similarly, over population causes deforestation. So the ecological balance of nature is disturbed.

Environmental problem has been a major problem in the cities of Nepal. The industries are located in the cities like Kathmandu, Pokhara, Biratnagar and Chitwan. Population density is also high there. We do not have good system for the disposal of garbage. We link our drainage to the nearby rivers. So the people in these places suffer from different communicable diseases.

It is the duty of the government and citizens to take the initiative to make the world a better place. Awareness in people is essential. If human beings as well as other organisms are to survive, the environment must be kept neat and clean.    


essay on environment in nepal

For the well-being of living beings, fresh air is the most important element . Air pollution is the undesirable change in the physical or biotic elements of the environment which may cause adverse effects to the biotic community . Pollutants can be divided into two categories on the basis of their production. They are:

         i.             PRIMARY POLLUTANTS:

                                           They can be defined as the pollutants which are directly emitted to the environment from the source. For example: nitrogen derivatives, oxides, halogens, etc.

       ii.             SECONDARY POLLUTANTS:

                                             They can be defined as the pollutants which are not directly emitted but are formed when primary pollutants chemical react in the atmosphere. For example: ozone, formaldehyde, acetyl nitrate, etc.

Dust particles which are emitted from industries and factories, pollutants from burning coal and improper management of waste products, smoke emitted from vehicles, etc. are the major causes of air pollution.


A)     natural resources:.

                                       These sources of air pollution are directly related to the activities of the nature. Examples: volcano eruption, forest fire, dust storms, etc.


                                       The sources of air pollution which are not naturally made but caused due to human activities are called artificial sources. Examples: CO, CO 2 , NO, NO 2 , SO 2 , Cl 2 , NH 3 , etc. gases produced by burning fuel, industrialization, over population, deforestation, automobile, nuclear explosions, etc.


Air pollution may cause various short and long term effects in the elements of the environment and human health. The effects caused due to air pollution are:


                                          When various gases and dust particles mix in the atmosphere, it makes the sky blurry which is often termed as haze. This is the reason why people living in city areas cannot enjoy the clear sky. Due to fog and smog, people cannot see nearby objects clearly which makes it much risky to drive vehicles and fly airplanes due to reduced visibility.


                                                      The areas where air pollution is high, solar radiation is absorbed by dust particles and moved to various place. Due to this, the amount of solar radiation required to reach the surface cannot get there and there will be the reduction of solar radiation. On the other hand, the temperature of other areas increases drastically which is harmful to living beings.


                                      Various greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, ozone, Sulphur dioxide, etc. formed due to air pollution act like a blanket in the atmosphere, which traps the radiation and it does not let the heat escape to outer space. This causes rapid increase in the temperature of the earth. This is known as greenhouse effect.


                                           Sunlight is very important for plants to prepare food through photosynthesis. But increasing air pollution causes reduction in solar radiation due to which plants do not get enough light for their proper growth and development. This causes inhibition in biological growth of plants.


                                                                                     Air pollution has contributed directly to the deteriorating health condition oh humans. Gases like carbon monoxide causes headache, nausea, difficulty in breathing, etc. Nitrogen oxide causes stinging of the eyes, coughing, headache, dry throat, congestion, etc. It may also cause insomnia, laziness, etc.


                                                                       The chemicals causing ozone layer depletion are mainly chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, methyl bromide, etc. which are emitted due to air pollution. These compounds decompose in the atmosphere and form nascent hydrogen, chlorine, bromine, etc. which deplete the ozone layer.

g.     ACID RAIN:

                                      The process of deposition of acid gases like Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, etc. from the atmosphere on land in the form of rain is called Acid rain. In the atmosphere these oxides are unable to remain in the gaseous state and hence they react with moisture to form acids which fall into the earth as acid rain. Buildings, mountains, statues, bridges, etc. are corroded by acid rains.


                                                                                                 Over a long period of time, air pollution can damage various monuments and buildings of historical importance permanently lowering their esteem. We can take the example of Taj mahal in India which is being damged due to excessive pollution.


                                                       Air pollution causes dust as well as gases to collect in the atmosphere which increases the temperature in some places and decreases the temperature in other places. Due to this, ice melts and it may cause floods in some regions and drought in others.


In order to prevent any further air pollution, the following measures can be implemented:

1.     The emission of air pollutants from industries should be controlled by using electrostatic precipitators of filter.

2.     The industrial areas should be constructed far from human settlements.

3.     Over population should be controlled.

4.     Some cheap fuels with higher Sulphur content should be banned and the use of disuphurized coal should be encouraged.

5.     Roadside plantation of trees should be done along the side of the roads which help to minimize the content of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide.

6.     Alternate sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, etc. should be used instead of petroleum products.

7.     Various awareness programmes about the effects of air pollution should be conducted.


essay on environment in nepal

 Water in its purest form is colorless and odourless. But due to various human as well as natural activities, many pollutants enter the sources of water and make them polluted. This causes the water to be unsafe for daily usage. Water pollution can be defined as any undesirable changes in physical and biotic element of water. It degrades the quality of water which may cause serious health hazards.

Sources of water pollution.

   Although water pollution is caused by both humans and natural activities, mostly humans are only responsible for this problem. Natural causes may be mixing of dust in sources of water, production of bacteria and harmful germs in water. Thus, the causes of water pollution can be summarized below:

a)           Sewage water:

    The liquid waste discharged from industrial as well as domestic Sources is called sewage. This sewage without any treatment is directly discharged into sources of water like rivers, lakes, etc. This activity has resulted in spread of water borne diseases as well as the depletion of aquatic life.

b)  Contaminated from industries:  

     Along with the production of various useful products from industries, they also produce various chemical, papers and radioactive substances which are directly discharged into the sources of water without any treatment. Thus, the water will neither be capable of holding aquatic life nor will it be fit for human consumption.

c)           Agricultural wastes: 

     Farmers use various poisonous chemicals like DDT, BHC, Aldrin, etc. to kill pests and insects and increase the crop yield. But, sometimes farmers use these fertilizers in excessive amount due to lack of knowledge about their use. During the rainy season or due to human causes, such harmful chemicals mix with sources of water and kill all the aquatic lives in the water. It may also cause harm to humans as well.

d)  Obstruction in flow of water: 

If there is any sort of obstruction in the flow of water, it may cause all the pollutants to get collected in the source of water. This may cause the water to get more polluted which can be a reason for the end of the aquatic life .

e) Oily pollution: 

Oil is an important fuel. But it is one of the major causes of water pollution. Through various means such as leakage in oil tanks, spilling and washing vehicles, etc. oil reaches the water surface and it decreases the oxygenation in water which kills the aquatic life.

f) Radioactive substances:

  Radioactive substances released from mines through various means mix with sources of water. Due to this, it may be Lethal to plants and animals including humans.

Measures to control water pollution

Water pollution can be minimized by the following activities:

1.  Wastes ejected from homes and factories must be recycled by implementing recycling facilities.

2.  Dead bodies of living beings must be properly disposed either by burning or burying.

3.  The surrounding environment of sources of water must be kept clean by planting trees and preserving them.

4.  The use of compost manure should be encouraged during cultivation rather than using pesticides, insecticides and other harmful fertilizers.

5.  Proper drainage system must be built for efficient collection and treatment of wastes.

6. Various legal measures must be implemented for the protection of rivers and   use of safe water .


essay on environment in nepal

Soil is a vital part for living beings because it provides a habitat to animals, plants, insects, human and basically every living being in the world. Soil provides necessary moisture as well as minerals to support plants life. Plants prevent erosion and many natural disasters. Many insects and microbes live in soil. Therefore, soil is an important element for insects, plants, animals and humans.

The degradation of soil due to the presence of various unwanted chemicals altering the natural state of the soil is called soil pollution . It is harmful to plants as well as any other forms of life. Uneducated farmers use insecticides, pesticides and various fertilizers in excess amount which not only degrades the quality of soil such as soil texture, water holding capacity, porosity, etc. but also minimizes crop yield. This also kills various useful animals living inside the soil. Soil pollution is mostly found in urban and industrialized areas. If land is polluted, to neither plants can develop properly nor is it suitable for animals.

essay on environment in nepal

Sources of soil pollution

Land gets polluted because of various reasons. There are various sources of land pollution such as domestic wastes, use of harmful chemicals, industrial wastes, use of fertilizers, acid rain, etc. The wastes emitted from sources are the main pollution of soil. The major reasons for the pollution of land are as follows:

a)     Domestic wastes

Many products, both edible and non- edible, are used in our daily life. Domestic wastes include waste products such as dust, excreta, broken utensils, plastic, contaminated food etc. When these wastes come in contact with land, it may produce many harmful microbes which also supports in the formation of various diseases. If lots of wastes get deposited in a certain place, it may act as a breeding place for various bacteria. Land pollution may also decrease the fertility of soil.

b)      Excessive use of pesticides

Farmer's main job is to cultivate various crops. However, sometimes various insects and pests attack their crops. In order to protect the crops from any damage, many chemical compounds are used. These chemicals protect the crops from harmful insects. But they also pollute the soil. Due to this reason, insecticides, fungicides, weedicides, etc. are considered as  pollutants. The most dangerous substances that cause harm to the soil are DDT, dialdrin, Aldrin, parathion, etc.

                c) Industrial waste

                          Many useful objects are manufactured by industries. However, some other objects which cause pollution are also emitted. The substances which are thrown from factories include chemicals, metals, nonmetals, waste products, living wastes, etc. which cause harm to the natural quality of the soil which pollutes it and degrades the crop yield. It may also adversely harm the living animals in the polluted soil.

        d)         Use of chemical fertilizers

Many fertilizers are used to increase the productivity and fertility of the soil. If it is used in proper amount, it may increase the crop yield. However, excessive use of these fertilizers is the major cause of soil pollution. Fertilizers contain various elements such as Arsenic (As), Barium (Ba), Calcium (Ca), Cobalt (Co), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb) etc. These elements are responsible for killing various useful living organisms in the soil and also causing imbalance in the nutrients of the soil.

e)                   Municipal Wastes

Municipalities are the major sources of waste products. These waste products most often do not get disposed in the right area due to which the soil gets contaminated. These waters are both organic and inorganic and are responsible for the depletion of fertility of the soil.

f)                    Acid rain

Basically, the presence of any sorts of acid in rain is regarded as acid rain. The major compounds causing acid rain are sulphuric acid (H2S04), nitric acid (HN03), hydrochloric acid (HCI), Carbonic acid (H2C03).


1.     The use of harmful chemical fertilizers must be replaced by compost mature in order to maximize the crop yield.

2.     The use of pesticides and insecticides must be minimized and other methods of controlling pests which do not contaminate the soil must be used.

3.     Proper disposal of domestic wastes should be established.

4.     The irrigation of fields using polluted water must be discouraged.

5.     The radioactive substances emitted from factories and laboratories must be appropriately disposed.

6.     Proper drainage system must be built for the disposal human excreta.

7.     Afforestation must be done in order to prevent the soil erosion from natural disasters such as floods, landslides, etc.

8.     The use of materials that do not decay over a certain period of time must be minimized.

9.     Farmers must be trained and educated through various programmes on proper use of fertilizers.

10.        Awareness programmes must be conducted to aware the people about the harmful effects of soil pollution.

11.        Soil conservation methods should be implemented to preserve the soil.

                                             Chemical Pollution

essay on environment in nepal


Environmental deterioration due to unscientific and improper use of chemical substances is called chemical pollution.  Our environment is getting increasingly unhygienic and polluted day by day because of this chemical pollution. In general, chemical pollution is excessive in the areas with high population density.

Some causes of chemical pollution are as follows:

1.     Chemical fertilizers:

 Chemical fertilizers and insecticides used by the farmers constitute the major part of chemical pollution. The chemicals contained in fertilizers get dissolved in water and reach rivers, streams and ponds. This process supports the excessive growth of algae and other immaterial grasses. This obviously results   in over-exploitation of oxygen in the water when they decay after their death. It brings a gradual reduction in the number of organisms in the water as they have to undergo oxygen deficiency.

2.     Insecticides:  

The use of insecticides has a negative impact on useful plants and organisms as well. DDT, BHC, methoxychloride, etc. are commonly used insecticides which kill many useful insects and hamper the growth of some plants. This chemical is stored in plants and animals and harms them causing chronic and infectious diseases. Many animals who feed on dead animals (death is caused by insecticides) are badly affected by insecticides.

Dieldrine, aldrin, cobalt, lead, mercury, etc. directly pollute our environment. The use of lead containing petrol is seriously injurious to our health. Scientists are making efforts to produce lead free petrol. The industries established on the bank of rivers, seas and oceans excrete a great amount of mercury that affects fish and other aquatic animals the sea. Many people were killed because of eating the fish containing profuse level of mercury in 1950 in Japan.

3.     Refuses and waste materials :

 Dirt and waste materials are the main causes of environmental pollution. The rapid degradation of our environment is probably owing to improper disposal of dirt and garbage being increasingly collected day to day. The noxious substances in the dirt spread out in the air and water causing rise in atmospheric pollution.

4.     Plastic:  

Plastic is used to make utensils, bags, pipes and many other things. The things made by plastic are not decomposed; it ultimately creates an alarming problem in the environment. This gives off poisonous gas on being burnt. Hence, it is really essential to develop the recycling process of waste plastic in order to save the environment from being polluted.

3.  Smoke from the means of transport and industries :

Greenhouse effect  is on the rise due to the increasing quantity of      carbon dioxide in the air. it has resulted in global temperature increment and dreadful droughts. high temperature accelerates the melting of snow in the polar regions causing the sea surface to rise higher. the lands along the edge of the sea will then come under water. dust and smoke cause chronic lung diseases in animals. moreover, dense smoke has a negative effect on the environment. it causes lung diseases., 4. colours used in foodstuffs :.

 Many people prefer to use different colours in foodstuffs and drinks like tea, coffee, chocolate, etc. to make them attractive to look. This kind of use of colours in food is ruinous to our health. It increases the possibility of death by causing diseases like cancer.

  5. Synthetic clingers:

  control measures of chemical pollution.

l. Rules and regulations are to be made to establish industries, factories and other thermal plants far from residential areas. 

2. Farmers are suggested for the use of organic fertilizers rather than chemical fertilizers.

3. Trainings should be given to farmers for the wise and proper use of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.

 4. The waste water, dyes and other liquids released from industrial areas must be purified before mixing them into water bodies.

 5. Noxious smokes from industries should not be allowed spread in the air.

 6.People must be conscious of the results of using harmful substances in food.

7.Unnecessary use of fertilizers and insecticides should not be done. 

8. Vehicles and industries should be kept in proper conditions.

Pollution control is basically integral to maintain natural balance. Today it is a bounded duty of all of us to protect our environment from being deteriorated. Scientists have been engaged in finding out easier methods of environmental preservation. 

   Management of bio-degradable and non-biodegradable wastes

Solid waste is considered as any sort of bio-degradable and non-biodegradable garbage such as food wastes, construction debris, plastic, clothes etc . Primarily, the amount of solid waste is increasing day by day in urban areas in an alarming rate. The increase in the amount of domestic as well as industrial wastes due to over population causes environmental imbalance.

The unwanted or unusable wastes from industrial, commercial, agricultural operations and even from community activities are called solid wastes. Some kinds of wastes around us are garbage refuse, plastic, broken metals, glass pieces, clothes, rocks, green wastes, paper, etc. On the basis of the characteristics, solid wastes can be classified into biodegradable and non-biodegradable solid wastes. 

  Biodegradable wastes

The wastes which consist of organic matter and can be decomposed into their simpler components such as carbon dioxide, water, methane and other organic molecules by micro-organisms in a short time period are called biodegradable wastes. Kitchen wastes, dead animals, clothes, paper, human wastes, manures, etc. are the biodegradable wastes.

           Non-biodegradable wastes

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essay on environment in nepal

Environment Health Issues and Water Quality in Nepal

  • peachyessay
  • January 27, 2020
  • Sample Essay , Sociology


Nepal’s geographic location is in the south of Asia, and It is a landlocked nation surrounding its boundary with China and India. The country exercises federal parliamentary republic. Nepal has a traditional economic system where a large population is involved in agriculture, where the allocation of available resources is made from primitive methods. For health programmes, the country only contributes around 5% while the rest comes from various private or public NGOs and donations from the rest of the world. The current population of Nepal is estimated at over 27 million, with 42% of people living below the poverty line and 27% with improved access to sanitation according to the World Bank (, 2019). One of the critical challenges is related to water pollution and water scarcity — the diverse geographical features, from tall mountains to vast plains. Water used by people of this region is freshwater, and the problem of contamination is almost the same in all areas. This report is a detailed investigation based on water quality in Nepal, its environmental health aspects on people of that area and its effects, the current status of the issue, key challenges, obstacles and controversies.

Background to the environment health issue

The Health issues that are prevalent in Nepal are found to be of inferior standards and do not have the resources to reach maximums of the masses.  This is seen mostly in rural areas due to less or no access, low availability, lack of health education and conflicting ritual beliefs. Most of the rural people are located in hilly or mountainous regions with a lack of proper infrastructure making it difficult for primary health care programmes run by both government and NGOs (Budhathoki et al. 2016). The rural health care facility is often affected due to inadequate funding, and most of the health care programmes are centric and run in the capital city of Kathmandu.

In remote villages, the only mode of transportation is by foot, resulting in the delay of treatment and so the death rate is also high due to lack of proper treatment. Political affluence in Nepal is also affecting health care programs as most of the programs are capital centric, resulting in the exclusion of primary health care needs of the rest of Nepal. Due to old age beliefs and lack of political will, the country has failed to decentralise, thus limiting its political, social and geographical strength.

Drinking water is a basic human necessity, but a large portion of Nepalese people cannot access safe and adequate drinking water. In this part of Asia water used by people is mainly groundwater and the problem of contamination is high in all geographical regions, i.e. flat plain called terai, mid-hill and mountainous region, waterborne disease is a significant problem. In 2009 the United Nations human development had reported about the major social concerns in Nepal through the UN Development Report. About 35% of the women who are of the age of reproduction and some of whom are already pregnant are found to suffering micronutrient deficiency. This is observed among the children as well, especially those under the age of 5. Only 24 percent out of 100 children meet with minimally acceptable diet and consume iron-rich food, and only half of the pregnant women take recommended iron supplementation during pregnancy. The most triggering factor for deteriorating nutrition in Nepal is high diarrheal disease morbidity exaggerated due to lack of access to proper sanitation and the common practice open defecation.

However, the government of Nepal has recently introduced national nutrition programmes under the department of health services with its ultimate goal of providing adequate health facility to every Nepali family with proper sanitation awareness (Pokhare et al. 2016), mental and social upgrowth, human capital development and survival.

People or population affected

People living in towns are subject to drink supply water which is polluted whereas people living in remote village areas their condition is even worse as they have to rely on surface water or rain falling from small brooks running from mountains. The surface water is polluted from industrial garbage and domestic waste . Groundwater is mostly used in Terai region where Physico-chemical parameters are more significant problems than the microbial problem.

Without a doubt, the local sewage system is one of the vital sources of water pollution which pours into lakes and rivers. In some rural areas tubewells is the only solution of the water source, but recently it has been found that groundwater, especially in the regions of terai is contaminated by arsenic. The Terai region belt consists of sedimentary layers, gravel deposits interlocked with flood plains carried by rivers which are highly vulnerable to arsenic contamination.(a.vaidya 2019). Seasonal factors are also significant from the dry season starting in the month of March to rainy season ending in the month of September is more prone to water diseases. Living in unhygienic environmental situation risk of food and water contamination is high, children are mostly affected to waterborne, suffering from malnutrition they have a low immune system and are more prone to diseases and an estimated 44000 children die every year in Nepal from waterborne diseases by many surveys conducted by UNICEF report 2009.

Review of current status for an environmental health issue

The capital Kathmandu is located on the area of mid-hills in the country Nepal. Both the surface water and groundwater has been used for the purpose of drinking in the Kathmandu. The particular quality of the drinking water is urbanized majorly in the specific area of mid hill. The municipality named Dharan has also been found contaminated heavily there a suggestion had been given to take immediate action for eliminating the problem on the matter of public health issue through the particular researcher. The particular quality of water and both sources have been contaminated with a general form of faecal coliform. The main reason for the contamination issue in the specific urban area that includes the capital city Kathmandu is the particular source of Kathmandu. There are many issues that can be seen in the city such as issue in the reservoir, lack of the specific system of treatment, the urbanization issue which is unplanned, issue in the distribution system, lack of proper sanitation and there is no specific sewerage system is maintained in the city.

There have various districts where the people fit in a pipe directly to the rivers and streams and the water for drinking, washing, cooking and other daily use. The water is being used for drinking purpose, and almost 72% of the particular sources have been found with a specific microbial contamination issue from both the tap and reservoir. This generally can be seen in the area of Myagdi, which is a district within the particular area of mid hill zone. The main reason is they open defecation in the contamination issues where the drinking water has been affected in the reservoir, source and the particular supply system for the specific district of Kaski. The proper management of distribution system , sewage, reservoir and waste can definitely make a solution of the microbial contamination issue which is required along with particular awareness to the people about the sanitation and water quality. If a better quality of the water can be provided, then it can solve the issue in the capital city Kathmandu.

The government of Nepal has been mentioned the improved supply system of water can reduce the contamination issues, and the citizens of Nepal are getting a good quality of the water . Still, the specific researches have been shown that the particular claimed storage system and the supply of water had been contaminated and that is entirely not safe for drinking purpose. Another solution can be mentioned over here that is chlorination that is not popular among the people of the capital city Kathmandu. The chlorination has not been used in the city because of its unpleasant taste and smell.

The proportion of water and water consumption from different sources

(Source: Nicholson et al. 2018)

As shown in the graph without access to the government of Nepal, the private well and network of piped are using the water of amount 38 lcd in the season of summer. The people who use the government connection those use the amount of 40 lcd and the people who use the private well those use the amount of 70 lcd in the season of summer. Both the private and government connection users have been used the most amounts that are 98 lcd in the season of summer.

Most of the users are from middle wealth or poor who uses less than considered amount of the water. Although 52% of households use 60 lcd in the season of summer, that reflects a significant variation and a severe inadequacy to the water that has been consumed through the specific households.

Household’s water consumption

(Source: Shrestha et al. 2019)

A difference can be seen for the use of other water sources that are based on the wealth group. Some specific differences can also be noted that the particular contribution of different sources of water in the consumption of total water of the household that varies in the wealth status that chart has been mentioned under this paragraph. The household those are poor they generally consume less water for their use from the government connection (Mokssit et al. 2018). They fulfil their needs from the taps and public well and from other water sources of the private vendors. The other household who are wealthier they depend on the free of cost tanker water, own private well and water sources which is public.

Water consumption from different sources

(Sources: Ogata et al. 2019)

The lack of piped water supply access has been increased through a specific financial and economic burden in the household. The particular impact on the economy of the household can be seen because they buy water from private vendors. It has a great impact on the households who are poor because they spend a considerable amount of money on purchasing the water and consuming less as they have a very limited capacity to pay for the water. It has some multiple effects to make the household expenditure and also has some health impacts because the poor households are using the water from unhealthy sources.

The unmanageable supply of the water system with the fragmented cluster of the people who are living in the area of topographically challenged places. A specific research has been shown the lack of decent water quality that has been seen in the capital city Kathmandu of the country Nepal. There are some few studies that have been given approval to the Multiple Survey of Indicator in Nepal. The particular study has been focused on the region that has been illustrated a clear picture of the specific area that should be carried out for further research in the future.

Key challenges obstacles and controversies

Nepal is a nation with the current population of 28 million people, and this is the poorest of nations in this world. Only the population of 43% is living under the poverty line, and there has only 28 % with a proper access to sanitation. There are several issues that have been faced by the Nepal, and these challenges relate to the water scarcity and water pollution. The specific environmental contamination for drinking the water from the source, such as through a conveyance system. This can spread various infections and several diseases like dysentery, cholera, hepatitis, typhoid and worm. There are several harmful materials can be seen in the drinking water such as pesticides, heavy metals and poisonous creatures. These can reach the drinking water through several routes, and the quality of the water can be deteriorated .

A rapid growth of the population can be seen in the country like Nepal, so for this particular reason, the human activities like disposal of the wastes can be seen, so maximum sources of the water are being polluted. Unscientific disposal of the wastes from the house and other agricultural sectors in the rural village, open defecation has been increased the particular base in microbiological contamination in particular water sources that can be from a ground source, spring and stream (Iqbal et al. 2018). The specific quality of issue in the water can be caused because of chemical and physical parameters, and these have a significant impact on the public health . In the region of Terai, the specific drawdown in the particular water table is another issue because some tubewell has become non functional . The particular issue has been associated with the Tubewell of the Tarain, and that can be correctly attributed to the lack of feasibility that does not include the water quality in the consideration.

The lack of a proper monitoring system and the particular lack of consumer awareness have been included in the maintenance and repair. A provision in the water treatment that is beyond the affordability for the human resources . Frequent landslides and the process of intensive erosion in the hill area that creates destruction to the distribution and transmission system. Commitment, responsibility, actions and guidelines have not been clearly defined in the particular legislation, policies and institutional framework in either the grass root base or national level (Rai et al. 2019). For supplying the quality water , the specialist authorities have some special consideration for the preparation of guidelines of the quality for drinking water and some specific inventories for both the quantity and quality of the water coverage. The particular target of the Nepal government is to supply the water up to the amount of 90 percent water in the rural area and up to the amount of 100 percent water for the urban area. The previous target that has been attributed through the Nepal government that has not been achieved.


Practices of good hygiene, clean water and basic toilets are the essential need for the development of Nepal. Without the mentioned needs, the lives of a million people will be at risk as an example for the children sanitation and water-related disease is one of the significant causes of death. There are many children that die every day from the particular preventable diseases because of the poor quality of the water, lack of hygiene and sanitation (Tosi et al. 2018). There are almost 3.6 million people who do not have access to using the service of essential water and nearly 10.9 million people do not have access to improved sanitation. Nepal has been made the specific progress for expanding the access of sanitation and water in the last few years in spite of several challenges such as difficulty in conflict, terrains and poverty. There are many households who are using improved sanitation facility and also an improved water source. The primary goal of this particular study is to develop and evaluate the selected parameters for the treatment of the claimed water which is available in the valley of Kathmandu so that a specific efficacy of water treatment contamination can be assessed (Maharjan et al. 2018). The particular measurement for the quality parameters had been judged that is based on the quality of national drinking water standards of the Nepal. The specific pH value for the filtered sample of water is beyond the standard level in the time of particular analysis. The pH is not related directly to the risk of health that is essential for the specific disinfection technique of applying the chlorine. There are two samples of the filtered water that has higher conductivity rather than the specific standard limit. The particular conductivity of electricity is a specific measure for the total ion content of the water. The presence of contamination and salt with the specific wastewaters helps to increase the particular conductivity of water. Nepal Academy of Science and Technology had been conducted the climate, and environmental studies in their laboratory and the sample of water had been examined for microbiological and physicochemical quality for exploring the specific contamination issues.

This particular study has been shown the considered microbial contamination of tanker water, filtered water, bottled water and jar water. Some concentration of ammonia is the highest in the tanker water rather than jar water and filtered water. The bottled water is completely safe rather than using other sources of drinking water, and also it has many risks of the specific coliform contamination. This study has been shown the particular contribution for understanding the interconnection in water pollution and the direct connection with public health . Although the water may not always be in the best quality as perceived. This is the reason it has been recommended that water consumption of the human has been appropriately treated because of bacterial contamination. And it should be before the consumption. The particular result of this analysis has been indicated the specific need for identifying the point of critical control with the particular production stages to minimize the specific possible risk.

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Pollution in Nepal

Modern day Nepal is one of the most polluted and impoverished places in the world. Kathmandu has dangerous levels of air and water pollution, making certain regions of the city nearly unlivable. Additionally, problems like littering and excessive carbon emissions are causing problems for both people and the environment. Many or most issues regarding air and water pollution can be traced back to the waste disposal system found in most urban and rural regions in Nepal, or rather, lack thereof. Without any convenient way to dispose of trash, people living on hillsides in the Himalayas either burn their trash or throw it into a river, reassured that the cool mountain waters will wash away the numerous scraps and debris. This creates many problems for both people and ecosystems found in Nepal, one of them being excessive water pollution. Groundwater remains to be a major source of water for over 1.5 million people in Nepal, and one study conducted in 2002 showed there to be iron, manganese, and mercury concentrations far exceeding the guideline values. Yet another study conducted in 2006 showed not only high levels of iron, arsenic, and mercury that exceeded Nepalese guidelines, but also found Escherichia Coli (E Coli) bacteria in 72% of all water samples. Those without access to basic sanitation rely on local surface water sources like rivers for bathing and washing clothes. Likewise, because Nepal is one of the poorest regions of the world (with the average person having a GDP of 700 U.S dollars) only 27% of Nepal’s 27.47 million people have access to basic sanitation. Consequently, people living in Nepal are at high risk for such water-borne diseases as diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, and cholera. Sadly, children under the age of f... ... middle of paper ... ...tween exposure to particulate matter and respiratory problems such as asthma and bronchitis. Children, whose immune and respiratory systems are still developing, are more susceptible to the negative effects of particulate matter exposure, and are more likely to develop chronic respiratory diseases that a full-grown adult. Likewise, because these particles are so small, they can travel long distances and are able to affect regions far from the area where they were originally produced. Furthermore, fine particles such as these are particularly drawn to water and consequently contribute to acid rain, which can kill trees, destroy the leaves of plants, and can permeate soil. In addition to PM2.5, black carbon (BC) is the strongest light-absorbing component of particulate matter. Likewise, BC has many of the same sources of PM2.5, including fossil fuels and biofuels.

In this essay, the author

  • Explains that kathmandu is one of the most polluted and impoverished places in the world.
  • Explains that nepal's waste disposal system creates many problems for people and ecosystems, including excessive water pollution. groundwater is a major source of water for 1.5 million people in nepal.
  • Explains that water pollution disrupts photosynthesis in aquatic plants and affects ecosystems that depend on them.
  • Explains that air pollution in nepal has reached high levels over the last few decades. particulate matter is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air.
  • Explains that black carbon (bc) is the strongest light-absorbing component of particulate matter and has many of the same sources of pm2.5, including fossil fuels and biofuels.

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Bangladesh’s outlook for the environment is unwelcoming. Severely degraded is the result of the aquatic and floodplain ecosystems. Due to siltation, the process by which a path or channel is gradually choked or obstructed with silt, has made the wetland ecosystems lose connections with larger water bodies. “Poverty with rapid population growth, the absence of a proper land-use policy, and other forces compel people in Bangladesh to exploit natural resources” (Whyte 53). Natural events that have caused land loss are cyclones and floods while urban sprawl and infrastructure development have reduced land. Water pollution, arsenic concentration in groundwater, air pollution, and other natural disasters are all things that play into the environment of Bangladesh. Water pollution affects them because water availability is highly dependent in the physical geography of the country and monsoon climate. In the long run, the high levels of arsenic can cause serious health problems. These problems include skin ailments, damage to internal organs, skin and lung cancer, and finally, death. Vehicular emissions and industrial emissions are the two sources of air pollution. Air pollution has also been a serious problem causing 500,000 premature deaths and 4 to 5 million new cases of chronic bronchitis every year. Floods are...

The Pros And Cons Of Air Pollution

Respiratory problems (such as asthma) and skin cancer, just to name a few. Air pollution has a big impact on your respiratory health. Human lungs house tiny sacs, called alveoli. (7) Alveoli take oxygen from blood and release carbon dioxide. When pollution such as smog for example, is inhaled it can trigger the sacs to become restricted, in turn, making it hard for the person to breathe. People under 14 and older adults are much more likely to experience pollution related respiratory problems, due to weaker

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They are particles of various sizes that are freely suspended in the atmosphere. Resitoglu’s article says,”...It is documented that inhaling of these particles may cause to important health problems such as premature death, asthma, lung cancer, and other cardiovascular issues”(18). Particulate matter leads to so many different types of diseases because it comes in many different forms. Baltensperger’s article says, “The exposure occurred under realistic conditions, and the first results indicate that SOA...may induce distinct effects on lung cells”(152). Secondary organic aerosols damage the lungs on the cellular

Environmental Issues In Southeast Asia Case Study

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Threat of Ganges River Pollution in India

With the tremendous pace of population growth in the cities located on the banks of the Ganges notwithstanding, the infrastructure to control and treat the proportionately increasing wastes has been inefficient and largely a dampener. Nearly four million people as on today use the river watershed for their daily activities; this includes 1.6 million residents of Varanasi where Ganga waters are the densest and largest. “Recent water samples collected in Varanasi revealed fecal coli form counts of about 50,000 bacteria per 100 millilitres of water, 10,000% higher than the government standard for safe river bathing”. These alarming statistics indicate the risk of manifestation of the pollutants in form of a plethora of water borne diseases such as cholera, hepatitis, typhoid and amoebic dysentery

Water Pollution In Bhutan Essay

Bhutan is blessed with natural gift of rich environment and fresh water .Poeple of the country is blessed with clean environment and fresh drinking water as of now comparing to other developing nations. With increase in development activities Bhutan’s water is also getting polluted, risking for safe drinking water. The online dictionary meaning of Water pollution means when water bodies

PM10 in Christchurch and the Impact It Has on Health

Of the deaths in Christchurch related to PM10 particle exposure, an estimated 48% were caused through the particle exposure through wood burning, 31% from traffic and 21% to other sources (Palmer and Mann, 2011).


Efforts to improve the standard of living for humans--through the control of nature and the development of new products--have also resulted in the pollution, or contamination, of the environment. Much of the world's air, water, and land is now partially poisoned by chemical wastes. Some places have become uninhabitable. This pollution exposes people all around the globe to new risks from disease. Many species of plants and animals have become endangered or are now extinct. As a result of these developments, governments have passed laws to limit or reverse the threat of environmental pollution.

Environmental Problems In Dhak The Environmental Environment Of Dhaka

Now a days environmental conditions of Dhaka is not in equilibrium.Air ,water and noise pollution are very dangerous for human health, ecosystem and economis growth of Dhaka.Environmental degradation of Dhaka is also caused due to poverty , overpopulation,and lack of awareness in the people of Dhaka .

Environmental Problems in India

statistics shows that the total pollution of India in 2012 is up to 1,240,000,000. The

Position Paper about Trash in Campus

Pollution is so harmful to human beings. Polluted water can cause many kinds of diseases, such as diarrhea, enteritis, and so on. And sometimes the diseases even take man’s life. Dirty air or air-borne garbage causes stinging eyes and running nose. Pollutants are destructive. They will cause runs in stockings and crack rubber tires and they always eat away at stone and rust iron. Time and time again, there are serious accidents that polluted the air. For example, At 1986 there was a bad accident at a nuclear power station in Russia. A cloud of radiation crossed the whole Europe. It is said that 125,000 people died in Russia as a result of illnesses caused by that accident. In 1984 there was an accident at a factory in India and a dangerous cloud gas covered the town of Bhopal. Over 2,500 people were killed that night, and hundreds and thousands of people were injured. Many of the injured lost their sight, and it really dangerous, even in our imagination.

Goals Of The United Nations: Sustainable Development Goals

According to the sustainable goals, by the year 2030, people are required to have both universal as well as equitable access to affordable and safe drinking water (Holden et al. 58). Further, they are needed to have access to equitable and adequate hygiene as well as sanitation. However, this is a matter that the United Nations has consistently faced in its path towards sustainability. The shortage of water has been linked to a majority of deaths happening across the globe. In this case, an estimated one out of five individuals living today cannot access clean water. In addition, more than double of the same number do not get access to basic sanitation in which water is always a necessity. In some of the nations, nearly 52 percent of the population does not have access to safe drinking water. As a result of that, it ends up being by poor health. In addition to that, on a daily basis, an estimated 4000 kids across the world end up dying as a result of diarrhea-linked ailments (Bakker 70). This is a number that would see a considerable reduction if the United Nations was fully capable of ensuring that they have access to clean water meant for sanitation. The issue of poverty in some of these places also means that these people cannot afford to get access to the clean water. The United Nations has also established that the world does not have enough water. Across the globe,

A Lack of Clean Drinking Water

Have you ever had to walk miles away just to get clean drinking water, or don’t even not have access to clean drinking water? People all over the world, even in North America, don’t have access to clean drinking water or have to walk very far just to drink water. The main areas where this problem is prominent is in third world countries, and this is due to the lack of money and sanitation (Millions Lack Safe Water). Due to this lack of sanitation, water borne diseases can grow and infect people who consume it. Clean water is very important for life, and within this paper I will explain why we need it, how it can affect us, and what it will take to obtain clean water.

Importance Of Clean Water Essay

People from many developing countries are suffering from the scarcity of clean water, while the rest of the country simply take for granted. Habitants of rural poor communities such as Sub-Saharan Africa, are living in a water stressed environment. Residents of these communities have to walk miles at time just to gather water from streams and ponds, even though the water source may contain water-borne disease that can make them very sick. In the rural places that don’t have access to safe clean water, it is very difficult to prevent the spread of viruses. The consumption of contaminated water can be dangerous for health reasons and several people have passed away from these water-borne diseases. Some of these diseases include Cholera, Typhoid, Dysentery, Giardiasis, and Malaria. These unfortunate diseases are currently the cause of numerous deaths, especially in small children. The availability of clean water can prevent many problems in low income communities. The available resources for clean water are very rare, so these water sources need to pass through a process of water sanitation in order to just be sustainable to drink, “The world’s surface is made up of approximately 80% water, which is an indestructible substance. Of this water approximately 97% is salt water, 2% frozen in glaciers, and only 1% is available for drinking water supply using traditional treatment methods” (Thornton). Therefore, properly treated or disinfected

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Write Essay on environmental pollution. SEE 2074/2075 -Essay

  • environment pollution in nepal

The decrease in quality of the good environment is called environment pollution. Environment pollution raises alarm when there is negative change in quality of air , water, land in physical, biological, chemical characteristics of these natural element.

There are three types of pollution : 

  • air pollution 
  • land pollution
  • water pollution
  • noise pollution

Pollution in environment causes degradation of the natural resources and causes difficulties in health of human being.Leading to poor health and hardship in survival of humans. We as human require certain environment to survive which is not possible if the pollution increases. Pollution harms all living beings in the nature. Even though the main cause of pollution are humans, the wildlife and other living organism are suffering due to environmental pollution. 

It ruins the natural, cultural beauties created by humans.The main cause of rising environmental pollution are the increase in number of industries. The main cause of environment pollution are industries, use of pesticide, insecticide, chemical fertilizers, smoke, dust, noise, radiation and pollution filth. 

Due to the unorganized urbanization, most of the cities of Nepal are badly impacted. It is one of the major problems in cities of Nepal. We can see dust, sewage and garbage unorganized and directly in contact with the population in cities of Nepal. Kathmandu has been badly affected and has become a highly concerned area in pollution in the world despite the financial and technical support form globe to reduce it's pollution. The plan and techniques if not implemented correctly are of no use. 

There is a deep rooted relationship between enthronement and pollution. So, we must remember if the environment is polluted of an area , the health of the people in the area will be worse.Therefore, it is high time that we are conscious about the waste we produce and  we all unite to make our country clean and healthy. 

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Nepal ecology.

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            Earth without forests is a picture that most of the world could not conceive. Forests cover much of the planet's land area. They are extremely important to humans and the natural world. For humans, they have many aesthetic, recreational, economic, historical, cultural and religious values. Timber and other products of forests are important economically both locally and as exports. They provide employment for those who harvest the wood or products of the living forest. Herbalists, hunters and collectors of fungi, nuts, bamboo and berries are able to utilize such resources. Other non-wood forest products come in the form of medicinal compounds, dyes and fabrics. There are many people who are dependent on forestlands for their livelihoods. One-third of the world's people depend on wood for fuel as a significant energy source. Some indigenous peoples are completely dependent on forests. As well as providing a home for some people, the forest environment provides a popular setting for tourism, which includes hiking, camping, bird watching and other outdoor adventure or nature study activities.              A major condition of deforestation is poverty. Although poverty is not a cause of deforestation, it is a condition of life that the majority of people in this world must endure. While greed and power can be the motivations of some groups in society that deforest, survival and the desire to escape from poverty is what drives most people. Poverty is the socioeconomic environment that limits peoples' economic options, .              2.              damages health, limits the formation of rural capital, reduces income generating opportunities, and limits institutional and infrastructure development. It is an underlying condition that facilitates deforestation. There is some evidence from the industrialized countries of the North that suggests as societies become more economically secure they reach a point where the economic development pressures that drive deforestation are replaced by a growing environmental concern and a greater appreciation of environmental values.

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essay on environment in nepal

There are many types of ecology and some include population ecology, conservation biology, nutrient cycles, extinction and biodiversity, agricultural ecology and many more. ... Other subjects that have connection with ecology are zoology, taxonomy, physiology, and mathematics. People who specialize in ecology are called ecologists. ... Still other ecologists record data for articles and reports and even teach ecology. Many people, companies, and organizations have conducted studies about ecology. ...

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2. The Street Children of Nepal

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3. Can Nepal Survive a Democracy

Analytical Essay: Can Nepal Survive a Democracy? ... In Nepal, Maoists are often known as terrorists. Terrorism doesn't make Nepal an attractive spot to go sightseeing. ... No one can flee the huge Maoists armies or the Nepalese firing back. ... Any form of democracy in Nepal would be better than a Maoist dictatorship. ...

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4. Nepal and the Happiness Index

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5. New Zealand and Nepal - comparison

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6. Ecology essay

Ecology essay Ecology, the study of the interactions of organisms with their physical environment as well as each other, has struck biologists as the focus of study for decades. Within these interactions lies a concept of evolution know as the "arms race". In a never ending arms race, the battle...

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7. Religious Freedom in Nepal

essay on environment in nepal

The Italian priests first passed through Nepal on 1662A.D on their route to Tibet. ... People from Nepal often visited India. ... Nepal's law prohibited conversion of religion. ... The leaders were from Nepal. ... The churches started to grow in Nepal during the 1970s. ...

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8. Fighting The Sex Trafficking Industry

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The governments of India and Nepal are only recently beginning to help stop these criminals. The local police are assisting Maiti Nepal in raids on the brothels to rescue many sex slaves from their captors. ... I feel that the creators" of Maiti Nepal determination to end the inhumane treatment of women in their countries is admirable. ... They have been crying out for help from the Indonesian and Nepalese governments while living without resources that they need. ... This article told of the huge efforts the women of the Maiti Nepal Organization are making. ...

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As an evidence of sexism in Asia that is depriving women of education, occupation, health care opportunities, let's look at the sad reality in Nepal and other Asian countries. According to a report released in November 2000 by The Mahbub Ul Had Human Development Center in Kathmandu city, Nepalese women did not have enough access to education as statistics shows that two thirds of the illiterate population in the region were women. ... Not only in Nepal has sexism caused the inequality in career opportunities, but in the Philippines, Indonesia and other Asian countries. ... As an example f...

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Environmental Determinants of Health in Nepal Essay

Outlining the environmental determinant of health, identifying the approaches to improve a health status and equity, reflecting on the process of taking the photo.

The determinants of health are a series of personal, social, economic, and environmental factors that impact populations. The social determinants of health are formed by the impact of the distribution of power and resources at the global, national, and local levels, which, in turn, is the effect of policies (Badland et al., 2014). The selected digital photograph illustrates the environmental determinants of health and the relationship with the category of social justice. The photo depicts the earthquake in Nepal, reflecting environmental, social, and personal challenges, which directly influence the determinants of health. One may note that social factors are closely related to the functional state and protective reactions of the body as well as behavior (de Andrade et al., 2014). This factor, in turn, defines the likelihood of some diseases, including mental disorders. Due to the high temperature of air and limited physical activity of people, the risk of the cardiovascular system and kidney diseases increases. More to the point, it promotes the development of inflammation of respiratory organs and rheumatism.

This photo of the earthquake in Nepal shows the environmental problem, which directly influences people’s health. In particular, there are homes of people who lived in a remote area and had to leave this place due to the threat to their lives. Since a person is a part of nature, environmental factors affect him or her, even though there are many abiotic and biotic factors. First of all, the direct cause of disruption and the emergence of a pathological process is composed of various factors of the environment (World Health Organization, 2018). It is quite apparent that, for example, the relationships of the geographical distribution of some pathological conditions such as frostbite, heatstroke, mountain sickness, and creeping corneal ulcers are associated with climatic zones, altitude above sea level, and the intensity of ultraviolet radiation.

Second, the biotic components of the earthquake may contain etiologic agents in the form of pathogenic microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, which is dangerous for animals and plants. The role of the environment and different periods can also be traced via various violations related to nutrition, a lack of food resources of animal and vegetable origin, as well as mineral salts in different regions of the Earth. Bircher and Kuruvilla (2014) state that “environmental determinants based on the definition of environmental health, include all the physical, chemical, and biological factors external to a person and all the related factors impacting behaviors” (p.364). Thus, the following factors and their groups influence the formation of population health: climate, surface, groundwater, the geological structure of the territory, soil cover, flora, and fauna. Lifestyles and socio-economic conditions, including the quality of medical care as well as environmental pollution, also matter.

The most common approach to understanding the concept of equity is adequate access to medical care. The first effective way to influence the environmental determinants of health is to ensure that healthcare services are available to people suffering from the earthquake. The government should necessarily include active primary medical service, prevention of diseases, and health promotion programs.

Changes in the determinants of health – in lifestyle and conditions life – should be planned, including advocacy, health promotion, disease prevention, and primary health care (Donkin, Goldblatt, Allen, Nathanson, & Marmot, 2018). The government should initiate the reorientation of health services.

The second approach that may be considered in terms of enhancing health conditions is the collaboration of healthcare and Earthquake Preparedness and Response organizations. According to Baack and Alfred (2013), nurses and other care providers should be ready for emergencies to provide timely and relevant services. The study by Baack and Alfred (2013) shows that many nurses were confused with completing the questionnaire that targeted their knowledge and skills related to emergency services. They were unaware of how to behave with patients and how to plan their treatment process. The response to disasters proved to be a critical topic that needs to be covered during training in terms of additional education. The findings of the mentioned study also demonstrate that self‐regulation of behavior, also known as motivation, is an important factor (Baack & Alfred, 2013). It impacts nurses’ risk identification and adequate response to patients’ needs that require immediate actions. Based on this study, it becomes evident that nurses, especially those working in seismic zones, should be provided with special training in collaboration with organizations that monitor and control natural disasters.

The introduction of a social support program is the second approach that may be used to improve the health status of people whose houses were destructed. One of the most critical features of earthquakes is that they lead to poverty. Social exclusion, poor housing conditions, and weak health systems are among the essential social causes of many diseases. Experts claim that “the poor and disadvantaged suffer disproportionately, but those in the middle of the social gradient are also affected” (Allen, Balfour, Bell, & Marmot, 2014, p. 392). The factors that can change the situation with the health status are income level, education, employment, and working conditions. These issues are critical to assist people to find a good job and address poverty. In this connection, the development of public health policies may strengthen community action in the interests of health and eliminating socially conditioned health inequities (United Nations, 2016). It is important to use different tools of the statutory ordinance as well as combine hard and soft law.

While working on this assignment, I understood that there are various determinants of health among which environmental and social ones are closely intertwined. The process of taking the photo made me think that earthquakes are rather destructive events that lead to diseases and social challenges such as poverty. The selected photo shows that destroyed housing is not suitable for living without additional mending. Often, people have no opportunity to repair them as they have physical damage and stress. In this regard, I believe that the collaboration of healthcare and earthquake monitoring organizations is one of the most relevant, promising, and vitally essential actions that may be implemented.

Today, environmental problems today are of a political and interstate nature. Therefore, experts should study and analyze these aspects to find a solution to facilitate the negative impacts of earthquakes. In terms of health, the environmental determinant discussed in this paper is critical to the well-being of people. In my point of view, the paramount role of health care professionals is to help them in adapting to life after the disaster. Even though the process of treatment may be long and challenging, it is important to ensure that these patients receive high-quality care and proper attention.

Allen, J., Balfour, R., Bell, R., & Marmot, M. (2014). Social determinants of mental health. International Review of Psychiatry, 26 (4), 392-407.

Baack, S., & Alfred, D. (2013). Nurses’ preparedness and perceived competence in managing disasters. Journal of Nursing Scholarship , 45 (3), 281-287.

Badland, H., Whitzman, C., Lowe, M., Davern, M., Aye, L., Butterworth, I., … Giles-Corti, B. (2014). Urban liveability: Emerging lessons from Australia for exploring the potential for indicators to measure the social determinants of health. Social Science & Medicine, 111 (6), 64-73.

Bircher, J., & Kuruvilla, S. (2014). Defining health by addressing individual, social, and environmental determinants: New opportunities for health care and public health. Journal of Public Health Policy, 35 (3), 363–386.

de Andrade, L. O. M., Pellegrini Filho, A., Solar, O., Rígoli, F., de Salazar, L. M., Serrate, P. C. F.,… Atun, R. (2015). Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: Case studies from Latin American countries. The Lancet , 385 (9975), 1343-1351.

Donkin, A., Goldblatt, P., Allen, J., Nathanson, V., & Marmot, M. (2018). Global action on the social determinants of health. BMJ Global Health , 3 (1), 1-7.

United Nations. (2016). Healthy environment, healthy people . Web.

World Health Organization. (2018). The determinants of health . Web.

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IvyPanda. (2021, July 1). Environmental Determinants of Health in Nepal.

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IvyPanda . (2021) 'Environmental Determinants of Health in Nepal'. 1 July.

IvyPanda . 2021. "Environmental Determinants of Health in Nepal." July 1, 2021.

1. IvyPanda . "Environmental Determinants of Health in Nepal." July 1, 2021.


IvyPanda . "Environmental Determinants of Health in Nepal." July 1, 2021.

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Good Example Of Essay On Conservation In Nepal

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Nepal , Conservation , Development , Water , Sustainability , Solar Energy , Environmental Justice , Nature

Published: 03/08/2023


Pollution in Bishumati River in Nepal (photo courtesy of NTNC)

N epal has experienced rapid growth and urbanization in Nepal is on an upward trend. However, the effect of the increase in human population in the urban areas and the discharge of untreated industrial effluent into water sources has led to pollution of rivers in Nepal (Bajracharya & Newton, 2006). Currently, pollution of water is the most serious issue on public health. Many studies conducted in Nepal have shown that public water supply is of poor quality since the water is contaminated with bacteria. The major sources of water pollution in Nepal have been identified as physical pollutants which are the radioactive substances emitted by nuclear power plants, industrial sources which contain both organic and inorganic effluents, oil spillage from tankers and automobiles and pesticides and fungicides (Bajracharya & Newton, 2006). The inorganic and organic effluents produce Sulphur compounds that reduce the amount of oxygen available for reducing aquatic biodiversity. It is also estimated that 75% of water pollution in Nepal is as a result of the discharge of untreated raw sewage into water bodies, these have led to the spread of water-borne diseases in Nepal. The release of hot water through industrial discharge has also resulted in thermal pollution. Conservation measures to combat the environmental degradation experienced in Nepal has seen the emergence of community-based organizations to support the actions of both the local government and international agencies. For example, the Wildlife Conservation Nepal is a non-governmental body and it advocates for the protection of wildlife in various environment and not only those in protected areas. The second of such organization is The National Trust for Nature Conservation, which came into being in 1982 through an act of parliament (Baral & Heinen, 2007). The organization has seen the successful implementation of over 200 projects aimed at conserving the natural environment. Clean Energy Nepal is an international NGO that has aims to address the degradation of the natural environment through the continued use of fossil fuels. CEN advocates for the use of clean energy and has launched campaigns in Nepal to create public awareness and influence public opinion on the use of clean energy. The United Nations Development Program established its offices in Nepal in the year 1963 and has been involved in the efforts of poverty alleviation. Climate Change Network Nepal, a semi-formal body, brings together seven other organizations (Bajracharya & Newton, 2006). Their coming together was to influence the government of Nepal to ratify the Kyoto Protocol and also to create public awareness on issues concerning climate change. This is in line with Sustainable Development Goal number 13 which aims at undertaking timely actions and strategies to combat climate change. The efforts of all these international, local and non-governmental organizations in Nepal is to conserve the environment and enhance sustainable development and are in line with the sustainable development goals (Baral & Heinen, 2007).

Animals at a wildlife conservation center in Annapuma, Nepal (photo courtesy of WCN)

Sustainable Development Goal number 11 aims at making cities and human dwelling environments safe. In Nepal, the actions of international organizations like ICIMOD (International Center for Integrated Mountain Development) pursues the agenda of making sustainable the livelihood of those living in the mountain regions of Nepal specifically the Himalayan area. The activities of ICIMOD also extends to other countries for example Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, amongst others (Bajracharya & Newton, 2006). The agenda National Trust for Nature Conservation promotes conservation of natural resources; this is in line with Sustainable Development Goal number12 which aims at ensuring sustainable production and production patterns. Through NTNC, practices that encourage sustainable use of natural resources like agroforestry, organic farming and use of alternative sources of energy are encouraged and these help in the achievement of SD goal number 12. Together, these organizations and the legislations in Nepal have impacted on the conservation of natural resources in Nepal.

Bajracharya, S. B., Furley, P. A., & Newton, A. C. (2006). Impacts of community-based conservation on local communities in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal. Biodiversity & Conservation, 15(8), 2765-2786. Baral, N., & Heinen, J. T. (2007). Decentralization and people's participation in conservation: a comparative study from the Western Terai of Nepal. The International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 14(5), 520-531.


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