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Essay on Conclusion for Unemployment

Students are often asked to write an essay on Conclusion for Unemployment in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

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100 Words Essay on Conclusion for Unemployment

Conclusion for unemployment.

Unemployment is a serious issue that affects individuals and societies. It leads to financial stress, loss of self-esteem, and societal problems like increased crime rates.

Addressing Unemployment

The government and private sectors need to work together to create more job opportunities. Education and training programs can also help equip people with the skills needed for available jobs.

Final Thoughts

While unemployment is a complex problem, with collective efforts, it can be tackled. Everyone deserves the opportunity to work and contribute to their society.

250 Words Essay on Conclusion for Unemployment

Understanding unemployment.

Unemployment is a prevalent socio-economic issue, often seen as a gauge of an economy’s health. It refers to the state where individuals who are capable and willing to work cannot find employment. Its implications are profound, affecting not just the economy but also the social fabric of a nation.

The Consequences of Unemployment

The consequences of unemployment are multifaceted. For individuals, it can lead to financial stress, loss of self-esteem, and mental health issues. On a broader scale, it can result in decreased economic productivity, increased poverty rates, and social unrest. Governments bear the burden of providing unemployment benefits, leading to strained public resources.

Addressing unemployment requires comprehensive strategies that include both short-term and long-term measures. Short-term solutions may involve fiscal stimulus to boost demand and create jobs, while long-term strategies could include improving education and training to equip workers with skills relevant to the evolving job market.

In conclusion, unemployment is a complex issue with far-reaching implications. Its resolution requires a multifaceted approach that addresses both the root causes and the effects. Governments, businesses, and individuals must work together to create robust economies that offer opportunities for all. The future of work is changing rapidly, and adapting to these changes is crucial to ensure that unemployment rates do not escalate. As such, continuous learning and skills development will be paramount in maintaining employability in the face of evolving job markets.

500 Words Essay on Conclusion for Unemployment

Introduction.

Unemployment, a major socio-economic issue, has been a subject of significant concern across the globe. It is a state where individuals who are willing and capable of working cannot find jobs. The causes of unemployment are multifaceted, ranging from economic downturns to technological advancement. This essay aims to provide a conclusion on the issue of unemployment, emphasising its implications, potential solutions, and the role of various stakeholders in addressing this pressing concern.

Implications of Unemployment

Unemployment is not just an economic issue, but a social issue that affects individuals and societies at large. It leads to a waste of human resources, increased poverty, and social instability. Unemployed individuals often face financial hardships, leading to lower living standards and increased rates of mental health issues. On a broader scale, high unemployment rates can lead to decreased economic growth and increased government expenditure on welfare benefits.

Addressing unemployment requires a comprehensive approach that includes both short-term and long-term strategies. Short-term strategies could involve providing financial assistance to the unemployed, offering job training programs, and promoting job sharing. On the other hand, long-term strategies might focus on improving the education system to equip individuals with the skills required for the jobs of the future, promoting entrepreneurship, and fostering a business-friendly environment to encourage job creation.

Role of Stakeholders

Various stakeholders play a critical role in addressing unemployment. Governments can implement policies that promote economic growth, invest in education and training, and provide social safety nets for the unemployed. Businesses, on the other hand, can invest in their employees through training and development, create more job opportunities, and adapt to changing economic conditions. Individuals also have a role to play in mitigating unemployment by continually updating their skills and exploring different job opportunities.

In conclusion, unemployment is a complex issue with far-reaching implications. While it is often seen as an economic problem, its effects extend beyond the economy, impacting the social fabric of societies. Addressing unemployment requires a multi-pronged approach that includes not only economic interventions but also social and educational strategies. All stakeholders, including governments, businesses, and individuals, have a role to play in mitigating this issue. By working together, they can help create a society where everyone has the opportunity to work and contribute to the economy. Therefore, unemployment is not an insurmountable problem, but one that requires concerted effort, innovative thinking, and a commitment to social justice and economic equity.

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Unemployment Essay

500+ words essay on unemployment.

Unemployment is a serious problem among young people. There are thousands of people who do not have any work to do and cannot find work for themselves. Unemployment refers to the situation where a person wants to work but cannot find employment in the labour market. One of the major reasons that contribute to unemployment is the large population of India and the limited availability of resources. In this essay on unemployment, we will discuss all these issues responsible for unemployment in India and how we can overcome this problem. Students must go through this unemployment essay to get ideas on how to write an effective essay on the topic related to unemployment. Also, they can practice more CBSE essays on different topics to boost their writing skills.

Unemployment is measured by the unemployment rate, defined as the number of people actively looking for a job as a percentage of the labour force. The unemployment rate for the year 2013-14 in rural India was 4.7%, whereas it was 5.5% for urban India. In the short term, unemployment significantly reduces a person’s income and, in the long term, it reduces their ability to save for retirement and other goals. Unemployment is a loss of valuable productive resources to the economy. The impact of job loss in rural and regional areas flows through the local community, damaging businesses.

Reason for Unemployment

An unemployed person is one who is an active member of the labour force and is seeking work but is unable to find any work for himself. There are multiple reasons behind the unemployment of a person. One of them is the slow economic growth, due to which jobs in adequate numbers are not created. Excessive dependence on agriculture and slow growth of non-farm activities also limit employment generation. Unemployment in urban areas is mainly the result of substantial rural migration to urban areas. This has also resulted in a labour workforce in cities. The lack of technology and proper machinery has also contributed to unemployment.

The present educational system is based on theoretical knowledge instead of practical work. Thus, it lacks the development of aptitude and technical qualifications required for various types of work among job seekers. This has created a mismatch between the need and availability of relevant skills and training. This results in unemployment, especially among the youth and educated people with high degrees and qualifications. Apart from it, the lack of investment and infrastructure has led to inadequate employment opportunities in different sectors.

Steps to Eliminate Unemployment

Various strategies and proposals have been implemented to generate employment. Many Employment programmes and policies have been introduced and undertaken to boost self-employment and help unemployed people engage in public works. The Government of India has taken several policy measures to fight the problem of unemployment. Some of the measures are the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), National Skill Development Mission, Swarna Jayanti Shahari Rozgar Yojana (SJSRY), Regional Rural Banks (RRBs).

Despite the measures taken by the government, India remains a country experiencing severe unemployment problems. It can be resolved by imparting education in such a way that youth get the necessary skills so as to get employment easily. Setting up various vocational training and vocational courses for undergraduate and postgraduate students will help in finding employment for youth. The government needs to emphasise these courses at the primary level and make them a compulsory part of the curriculum to make students proficient in their early stages of life. Career counselling should be provided within schools and colleges so that students can choose a better career option based on their interests and ability. Government should create more job opportunities for the youth and graduates.

India is a fast-growing economy. There is an enormous scope for improvement in the unemployment sector. The various measures and steps taken by the government to increase the employment rate have succeeded to a great extent. The widespread skill development programmes have gained popularity across the nation. With better enforcement of the strategies, the employment level can be significantly improved. Although, we have to go a long way before we can say that all the people in India will get employment.

We hope this essay on unemployment must have helped students in boosting their essay-writing skills. Keep learning and visiting the BYJU’S website for more study material.

Frequently Asked Questions on Unemployment Essay

Is unemployment still an existing problem in india.

Yes, unemployment is still a serious issue in our country. Steps need to be taken by the government and also by the youngsters in India to improve this situation.

Is it necessary for schoolchildren to be informed about unemployment?

Students at this young age should definitely be informed about this topic as it will motivate them to study and aim for higher scores in exams.

What points are to be added to an essay topic on Unemployment?

Add details about different age groups of people suffering from this state of employment. You can focus on the fact that poverty is an indirect reason for unemployment and vice-versa. Then, suggest steps that can be taken to bring about an improvement in education and increase the percentage of literacy.

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Essays About Unemployment: Top 6 Examples and 5 Prompts

Read our guide to see helpful essay examples and prompts to further your understanding and write essays about unemployment.

Unemployment is an unfortunate circumstance many find themselves in; it is a challenge that civilized society faces today. When people are unemployed, they look for jobs but cannot get them. As a result, they are left without a source of income and cannot adequately provide for themselves and their families. This, in turn, can lead to various issues, including depression.

Unemployment is a social, economic, and political issue. It leaves many people in poverty and prevents people from obtaining a source of income. As a result, politicians capture the eyes of voters by promising to lower the unemployment rate to get elected. 

You can get started by reading these essay examples if you are writing essays about unemployment.

6 Examples of Essays About Unemployment

1. unemployment reflection by christopher haynes, 2. what i learned from nearly a year of unemployment by becca slaughter, 3. why aren’t europe and canada in the same boat as u.s. for unemployment by glen hendrix, 4. a global dilemma: how unemployment creates poverty by tess hinteregger, 5. why has covid-19 been especially harmful for working women by nicole bateman and martha ross, 6. youth day and ordeal of nigerian youth by utomi jerome-mario, essay prompts about unemployment, 1. unemployment during the covid-19 pandemic, 2. the connection between unemployment and crime, 3. unemployment: whose fault is it, 4. the causes of unemployment, 5. the effects of unemployment.

“In order to secure work, we must be prepared to change or upgrade our skills and be willing to relocate if necessary. But some people are not interested in retraining to find work in another field, some people do not have the confidence to go out and look for work, and some refuse to accept a job they feel is below their level. Unless people like this change their attitudes, they will not be able to find work.”

Haynes provides two perspectives on unemployment; first, that the government should do more to address it, and second, that if people want work, they must adjust to make a living. He believes that many are unemployed because they are unwilling to change their skillset or relocate to get a job. Therefore, more should be done to reduce unemployment, but it goes both ways; everyone must put in the effort.  

“I remember feeling embarrassed and powerless. I was angry it wasn’t my decision. I was happy I didn’t have to go back there, yet I was stressed about not having anywhere to go. Ultimately, I felt an overwhelming sadness that left me terrified. While I was overflowing with confusing and contradicting emotions, I somehow felt empty.”

In her essay, Slaughter reflects on her unemployed time and how it changed her. Her previous job was long and stressful, but whenever someone would ask her what she did for a living, she was embarrassed and regretful for not being there anymore. In addition to losing her job, she feels like she lost a part of herself at that time. Thankfully, she got a new job, one less taxing than her previous one. 

“You would think paying all that money year after year to a government whose purpose is to “establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity” would entitle that person to a modicum of “blessings” to insure his “tranquility” and “general welfare” in case of some stupid virus pandemic. It would certainly be the “just” thing to do. And that person’s “posterity” might look a bit less bleak. European governments and Canada did just that. And it’s not even explicitly stated in the preamble to their constitution.”

Hendrix criticizes the United States’ response to the unemployment problem caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, saying that Canada and European nations have done a much better job. He discusses how much better their unemployment benefit system is compared to the U.S. and how it is ironic that the United States, whose constitution says all of these things promoting justice and wellbeing, cannot provide that for its citizens during a global pandemic. 

“While unemployment can create poverty, poverty also reduces the chance of being employed. To ensure that those who are affected by unemployment do not fall into the negative cycle, researchers believe that governments should focus on improving quality education and training all young people so they remain in school.”

Hinteregger, in her essay, explains the link between unemployment and poverty, writing that it leads to the loss of income. People will also have to raise their families in poverty, which perpetuates the cycle of poverty. In addition, the poor may resort to violence to make a living. She points out the sheer irony of this issue, as unemployment causes poverty while poverty may also reduce the chance of being employed. 

“COVID-19 is hard on women because the U.S. economy is hard on women, and this virus excels at taking existing tensions and ratcheting them up. Millions of women were already supporting themselves and their families on meager wages before coronavirus-mitigation lockdowns sent unemployment rates skyrocketing and millions of jobs disappeared. And working mothers were already shouldering the majority of family caregiving responsibilities in the face of a childcare system that is wholly inadequate for a society in which most parents work outside the home.”

Bateman and Ross write about the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on women. Many women are forced to go through so much to provide for their families; however, the lockdowns led to many of them losing their jobs. The unemployment rate for women rose dramatically, by 12 percent, from February to April of 2020. It has been difficult for them to balance work with taking care of their families, women’s primary role as dictated by society. 

“Youth unemployment is potentially dangerous as it sends a signal to all segments of the Nigerian Society. Here in Nigeria, the rate of youth unemployment is high, even at the period of economic normalcy i.e. the oil boom of the 1970s (6.2 per cent); 1980s (9.8 per cent) and the 1990s (11.5 per cent). Youth unemployment therefore is not a recent phenomenon. But if what happened in the 1980s/90s were a challenge of sorts, what is happening presently, going by the latest report by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), is a challenge.”

Jerome-Mario’s essay focuses on several issues affecting the Nigerian youth, including unemployment. The country has a high unemployment rate; over a fourth of the youth population is unemployed. He stresses the importance of the youth using their voice to make a change and to persuade the government to care for its citizens more. 

How COVID-19 contributed to the nursing shortage?

The pandemic and its lockdown policies have undoubtedly caused many people to lose jobs. Look into the impact of COVID-19 on the unemployment rate, particularly during the early months of the pandemic. Which sectors were most affected? Pull data and statistics to show how the public was affected by the covid-19 pandemic in terms of unemployment.

Many say that unemployment leads to higher crime rates. Do you believe this is true? Research how unemployment is linked to crime; examine the effects of unemployment on mental health; and conclude whether this may contribute to the increased likelihood of committing a crime. 

In Haynes’ essay, he claims that employers/the government, and workers are to blame for unemployment. After reading his essay and both arguments, who do you believe is at fault? Explain your response in detail, and make sure to provide a solid base of evidence.

Unemployment has many contributing causes. Assuming a non-pandemic setting, research what causes unemployment and list them down in your essay. Elaborate on each one and, if you can draw connections, explain them as well. 

As a grave issue, unemployment has many severe effects, notably poverty. For your essay, write about the effects of unemployment on a person, both physical and mental. How are they connected? What secondary effects might they produce? For a compelling and argumentative essay, answer these questions using research material and interview data.

For help with this topic, read our guide explaining what is persuasive writing ?If you are interested in learning more, check out our essay writing tips !

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Essay on Unemployment: 100 to 300 Words

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Essay on Unemployment

Writing an essay on unemployment provides an opportunity to explore a critical issue affecting societies worldwide. Unemployment, a multifaceted problem, has far-reaching consequences that touch upon various aspects of individuals, families, and nations. In this essay, we will delve into the complexities of unemployment, examine its causes and consequences, discuss government initiatives, and shed light on potential solutions.

This Blog Includes:

Essay on unemployment in 100 words, essay on unemployment in 200 words, essay on unemployment in 300 words, tips to ace in writing an essay.

Must Read: The Beginner’s Guide to Writing an Essay

Unemployment refers to the condition when individuals, capable and willing to work, are unable to secure gainful employment. It is a pervasive issue across the globe, with varying degrees of impact on societies. Unemployment results in financial instability, and emotional distress, and hampers individual growth. Governments and organizations must collaborate to create opportunities for employment through skill development and policy implementation.

Unemployment, a pressing concern globally, stems from multiple factors that hinder the workforce’s engagement in productive activities. It affects both developed and developing nations, contributing to economic imbalances and social disparities. The consequences of unemployment include reduced income levels, increased poverty rates, and strained government resources. Moreover, the psychological toll it takes on individuals and families can be severe, leading to stress, depression, and strained relationships.

The intricate web of unemployment is spun from a mix of causes, ranging from economic fluctuations to structural shifts in industries. Cyclical unemployment, driven by economic downturns, and structural unemployment, resulting from a mismatch between skills and job openings, are widespread forms. Additionally, technological advancements lead to technological unemployment as machines replace human labour.

Unemployment has cascading effects on societies. Diminished purchasing power affects market demand, thereby impacting economic growth. As unemployment rates rise, so does the burden on social welfare programs and the healthcare system. The phenomenon also fuels social unrest and political instability, making it a challenge governments cannot ignore.

Governments worldwide have initiated strategies to tackle unemployment. Skill development programs, vocational training, and entrepreneurship initiatives are designed to equip individuals with market-relevant skills. Furthermore, promoting labour-intensive industries and investing in sectors with growth potential can generate employment opportunities.

In conclusion, unemployment is a complex issue that necessitates a multi-pronged approach. Governments, industries, and individuals must collaborate to alleviate its impact. Effective policy implementation, education reforms, and the cultivation of entrepreneurial spirit can pave the way towards reducing unemployment rates and fostering a more stable and prosperous society.

Before we dive into the specifics of unemployment, let’s briefly discuss some tips to enhance your essay-writing skills:

  • Understand the Prompt: Ensure a clear understanding of the essay prompt to address all its components effectively.
  • Research Thoroughly: Gather relevant information from credible sources to build a comprehensive and informed essay.
  • Organize Your Thoughts: Create an outline to structure your essay logically, allowing your ideas to flow coherently.
  • Introduction and Conclusion: Craft a compelling introduction to engage your readers, and a succinct conclusion to summarize your key points.
  • Use Clear Language: Express your ideas using clear and concise language, avoiding jargon or overly complex vocabulary.
  • Provide Examples: Illustrate your points with real-life examples to enhance understanding and credibility.
  • Edit and Proofread: Revise your essay for grammar, punctuation, and coherence to ensure a polished final draft.

Also Read: Unemployment v/s Underemployment – What’s Worse?

Unemployment refers to the state in which individuals who are willing and able to work are without gainful employment opportunities. It is a condition where individuals seek jobs but are unable to secure them, leading to financial instability and societal challenges.

Unemployment, as discussed in the essay, is a multifaceted issue encompassing the lack of employment opportunities for willing and capable individuals. It explores various forms of unemployment, its causes, far-reaching consequences on economies and societies, and the role of governments in implementing solutions to mitigate its impact.

Unemployment is the term used to describe the situation where individuals of working age are actively seeking employment but are unable to find suitable job opportunities. It signifies a gap between the available workforce and available jobs, often leading to economic and social challenges within a society.

Unemployment emerges as a prominent thread, influencing economic, social, and psychological realms. As we’ve explored in this essay, comprehending the causes and consequences of unemployment is pivotal in devising solutions. Governments, institutions, and individuals must strive collectively to unravel this issue’s complexities and weave a fabric of employment opportunities, stability, and progress. We hope that this essay blog on Unemployment helps. For more amazing daily reads related to essay writing , stay tuned with Leverage Edu .

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Essay on Unemployment

essay on unemployment

Here we have shared the Essay on Unemployment in detail so you can use it in your exam or assignment of 150, 300, 500, or 1000 words.

You can use this Essay on Unemployment in any assignment or project whether you are in school (class 10th or 12th), college, or preparing for answer writing in competitive exams. 

Topics covered in this article.

Essay on Unemployment in 150-250 words

Essay on unemployment in 300-500 words, essay on unemployment in 500-1000 words.

Unemployment is a pressing issue that affects individuals and societies globally. It refers to the state of being without a job or a source of income despite actively seeking employment. Unemployment poses significant challenges, both economic and social, for individuals and communities.

The consequences of unemployment are far-reaching. Financial instability decreased living standards, and a loss of self-esteem and confidence are common outcomes. Individuals may face difficulties in meeting their basic needs, providing for their families, and planning for the future. Moreover, unemployment can lead to social unrest, increased crime rates, and a strain on public resources.

Addressing unemployment requires a multifaceted approach. It involves creating favorable economic conditions, promoting job growth through investment and entrepreneurship, and providing individuals with the necessary skills and training for employment opportunities. Furthermore, social safety nets, such as unemployment benefits and job placement services, play a crucial role in supporting those who are unemployed.

Efforts to reduce unemployment should also focus on addressing structural issues in the labor market, promoting fair employment practices, and encouraging inclusive growth. Additionally, fostering a supportive environment for innovation, research, and development can stimulate job creation and economic prosperity.

In conclusion, unemployment is a complex issue with wide-ranging implications for individuals and societies. It demands comprehensive strategies that encompass economic policies, skill development, and social support systems. By addressing unemployment effectively, we can strive towards a society where individuals have access to fulfilling work opportunities and can contribute to the overall well-being and prosperity of their communities.

Title: Unemployment – The Economic and Social Challenge

Introduction :

Unemployment is a pressing issue that affects individuals, families, and societies worldwide. It refers to the state of being without a job or a viable source of income despite actively seeking employment. High levels of unemployment have significant economic and social consequences, making it a critical challenge to address.

Causes of Unemployment

Unemployment can stem from various factors. Economic downturns and recessions often result in job losses as businesses struggle to sustain their operations. Technological advancements and automation have also led to job displacement, particularly in industries that rely heavily on manual labor. Globalization and outsourcing practices have contributed to the relocation of jobs to countries with lower labor costs, creating unemployment in certain regions.

Impact of Unemployment

Unemployment has far-reaching implications. Financial instability resulting from joblessness can lead to increased poverty rates, limited access to healthcare, and housing insecurity. It also strains social cohesion, as unemployed individuals may experience psychological distress, low self-esteem, and a loss of purpose. Moreover, long-term unemployment can lead to skills deterioration and a loss of work experience, making it increasingly difficult for individuals to re-enter the labor market.

Addressing Unemployment

Addressing unemployment requires a multi-faceted approach:

Economic Policies: Governments should implement policies that promote economic growth, investment, and job creation. This includes fostering a business-friendly environment, reducing bureaucratic barriers, and providing incentives for entrepreneurship and innovation. Additionally, targeted industry development strategies can identify sectors with growth potential and encourage job creation in those areas.

Education and Skills Development: Investing in education and skills development is crucial to equip individuals with the necessary competencies for available job opportunities. Collaboration between educational institutions, employers, and government agencies can help bridge the skills gap and ensure that individuals are prepared for the changing demands of the labor market. Upskilling and reskilling programs can help unemployed individuals acquire new skills and improve their employability.

Job Creation Initiatives: Governments should prioritize job creation initiatives, particularly in sectors with high growth potential. This can be achieved through infrastructure projects, green technology investments, and support for small and medium-sized enterprises. Public-private partnerships can also play a significant role in stimulating job creation and economic development.

Social Safety Nets: Establishing robust social safety nets is crucial to support those facing unemployment. Unemployment benefits, healthcare coverage, and access to retraining programs can help individuals meet their basic needs and regain economic stability while actively seeking employment. Such support systems alleviate the financial burden and provide a safety net during challenging times.

Conclusion :

Unemployment is a complex and persistent socioeconomic challenge that demands comprehensive solutions. By implementing effective economic policies, investing in education and skills development, promoting job creation, and providing social safety nets, societies can mitigate the impacts of unemployment and strive toward a more equitable and prosperous future. It is essential to address this issue with urgency, as reducing unemployment rates not only improves individual well-being but also fosters economic growth and social cohesion.

Title: Unemployment – A Dual Crisis of Economic Stability and Human Dignity

Unemployment is a complex and pervasive issue that affects individuals, families, and societies at large. It refers to the state of being without a job or a viable source of income despite actively seeking employment. High levels of unemployment have severe economic and social consequences, making it a pressing challenge that demands effective solutions and interventions. This essay aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the causes, impacts, and potential remedies for unemployment, recognizing its multifaceted nature and the need for a holistic approach.

I. Understanding Unemployment

Unemployment can be classified into various types based on its causes and duration. Structural unemployment arises from shifts in the economy, such as technological advancements or changes in market demand, rendering certain jobs obsolete. Cyclical unemployment, on the other hand, is caused by economic downturns and fluctuations in business cycles. Frictional unemployment occurs when individuals are between jobs or in transition, while seasonal unemployment is linked to seasonal variations in certain industries.

II. Economic Implications

Unemployment poses significant challenges to the economy at both micro and macro levels. At an individual level, it leads to a loss of income and financial instability, making it difficult for individuals to meet their basic needs, contribute to the economy, and plan for the future. Moreover, the lack of economic opportunities leads to a decrease in consumer spending, which negatively impacts businesses and reduces their profitability. This, in turn, can trigger downsizing, closures, and a negative cycle of job losses, further exacerbating the unemployment crisis.

On a macroeconomic scale, high unemployment rates hinder economic growth and development. The decline in consumer spending decreases demand for goods and services, creating a ripple effect throughout the economy. Governments also face challenges in generating tax revenues, leading to reduced public investment in infrastructure, education, and healthcare. Additionally, increased government spending on unemployment benefits and social support places a strain on public finances, potentially leading to higher budget deficits or cuts in other areas.

III. Social Consequences

Unemployment not only impacts individuals’ economic well-being but also has profound social implications. Financial instability resulting from joblessness can lead to increased poverty levels, housing insecurity, and limited access to healthcare, further exacerbating social inequalities. The psychological toll of unemployment cannot be overlooked, as individuals may experience feelings of anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, and a loss of purpose. This can strain relationships, lead to social isolation, and create a sense of hopelessness among the unemployed.

Furthermore, long-term unemployment can result in skills deterioration and a loss of work experience, making it increasingly difficult for individuals to re-enter the labor market. This perpetuates a cycle of unemployment and hinders upward social mobility, reinforcing existing inequalities and social divisions.

IV. Causes of Unemployment

Unemployment is influenced by a combination of economic, structural, and policy-related factors. Economic downturns, such as recessions or financial crises, can lead to widespread job losses as businesses struggle to stay afloat. Technological advancements and automation also contribute to job displacement, particularly in industries that rely heavily on manual labor. Globalization and outsourcing practices can result in the relocation of jobs to countries with lower labor costs, further aggravating unemployment in certain regions.

Inadequate education and skills training also contribute to unemployment. Rapid changes in the labor market demand individuals with up-to-date skills and knowledge. Failure to adapt and provide relevant training can leave individuals ill-equipped to secure employment in sectors with higher demand.

V. Addressing Unemployment

Effectively addressing unemployment requires a comprehensive approach that combines economic policies, education and skills development, job creation initiatives, and social safety nets. Some potential strategies include:

  • Economic Policies
  • Education and Skills Development
  • Job Creation and Support
  • Social Safety Nets

Economic Policies:

Governments should implement policies that foster a conducive business environment, promote investment, and stimulate job creation. This may involve reducing bureaucratic barriers, providing incentives for entrepreneurship and innovation, and investing in infrastructure projects to generate employment opportunities.

Education and Skills Development:

A focus on education and skills training is crucial to equip individuals with the necessary competencies for available job opportunities. Collaboration between educational institutions, employers, and government agencies can help bridge the skills gap and align education with labor market needs. Upskilling and reskilling programs should be promoted to ensure individuals can adapt to evolving job requirements.

Job Creation and Support:

Governments should prioritize job creation initiatives in sectors with growth potential, such as renewable energy, healthcare, technology, and infrastructure development. This can be achieved through investment incentives, public-private partnerships, and targeted industry development strategies. Additionally, providing job placement services, vocational training, and financial assistance to unemployed individuals can enhance their employability and facilitate their transition back into the workforce.

Social Safety Nets:

Establishing robust social safety nets is essential to provide temporary relief and assistance to those facing job loss. Unemployment benefits, healthcare coverage, and support for retraining can help individuals meet their basic needs and regain economic stability while actively seeking employment. Such measures help alleviate the negative impacts of unemployment and support individuals during periods of transition.

Unemployment is a dual crisis of economic stability and human dignity, impacting individuals and societies on multiple levels. The economic and social consequences of unemployment demand comprehensive and coordinated efforts to address its causes and mitigate its impacts. By implementing effective economic policies, investing in education and skills development, promoting job creation, and providing robust social safety nets, societies can strive towards reducing unemployment rates and creating a more inclusive and prosperous future for all.

Unemployment Essay for Students and Children

500+ words essay on unemployment.

Unemployment is a very serious issue not only in India but in the whole world. There are hundreds and thousands of people out there who do not have employment . Besides, the problems of unemployment are very severe in India because of the growing population and demand for jobs. Moreover, if we neglect this problem then it will be going to become the reason for the doom of the nation.

Unemployment Essay

What is Unemployment?

Unemployment refers to a situation in which a skilled and talented people wanted to do a job. But cannot find a proper job due to several reasons.

Types of Unemployment

Now we know what is unemployment but unemployment does not only mean that the person does not have a job. Likewise, unemployment also includes people working in areas out of their expertise.

The various types of unemployment include disguised unemployment, seasonal unemployment, open unemployment, technological unemployment, structural unemployment. Besides, some other unemployment is cyclic unemployment, educated unemployment, underemployment, frictional unemployment, chronic unemployment, and casual unemployment.

Above all, seasonal unemployment, under unemployment, and disguised unemployment are the most common unemployment that is found in India.

Reasons for Unemployment

In a country like India, there is much reason for a large section of the population for being unemployed. Some of these factors are population growth, slow economic growth , seasonal occupation, slow growth of the economic sector, and fall in the cottage industry.

Moreover, these are the major reason for unemployment in India. Also, the situation has become so drastic that highly educated people are ready to do the job of a sweeper. Besides, the government is not doing his work seriously.

Apart from all these, a large portion of the population is engaged in the agricultural sector and the sector only provides employment in harvest or plantation time.

In addition, the biggest reason of unemployment in India is its vast population which demands a large number of jobs every year which the government and authorities are unable to provide.

Consequences of Unemployment

If things will go on like the current scenario then unemployment will become a major issue. Apart from this, the following things happen in an economy which is an increase in poverty, an increase in crime rate, exploitation of labor, political instability, mental health, and loss of skills. As a result, all this will eventually lead to the demise of the nation.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Initiative by Government

The government has taken the problem very seriously and have taken measures to slowly reduce unemployment. Some of these schemes includes IRDP (Integrated Rural Development Programme), DPAP (Drought Prone Area Programme), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana, Employment Assurance Scheme, NRY (Nehru Rozgar Yojana), Training for self-Employment, PMIUPEP (Prime Minister’s Integrated Urban Poverty Eradication Program), employment exchange, Employment Guarantee Scheme, development of organized sector, small and cottage industries, employment in forging countries, and Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana and few more.

Besides, these schemes the government also make some rules flexible, so that employment can be created in the private sector also.

To conclude, we can say that the problem of unemployment in India has reached a critical stage. But, now the government and local authorities have taken the problem seriously and working on it to reduce unemployment. Also, to completely solve the issue of unemployment we have to tackle the main issue of unemployment that is the vast population of India.

FAQs about Unemployment

Q.1 Why there is a problem of unemployment in India? A.1 Due to overpopulation and lack of proper skills there is a problem of unemployment in India.

Q.2 Define Disguised unemployment? A.2 Disguised unemployment refers to a form of employment in which more than the required numbers of people work in industry or factory. And removing some employee will not affect productivity.

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Unemployment Essay Writing Guide

Essay paper writing

Academic writing

essay on unemployment with conclusion

Employment is one of the major forces that bring on the economic growth of each country. In addition, unemployment rates can show how economic state of a country changes with time. That is why, it is crucially important to study the causes and effects of unemployment on the economy, social issues, and the life of every individual. Every student can do that by working on a research paper or essay about unemployment.

Luckily, you have come across this article, in which we collected the tips and ideas on how to write the best essay or research paper on unemployment. Stay tuned and read on to know all the intricacies of writing the best academic paper on this topic from scratch, even if you know little or nothing in this field. 

Purpose of writing an unemployment research paper

Let’s start with a discussion on how to write a research paper. Conducting unemployment research, you are encouraged to explore and identify issues that arise when willing workers can’t find a well-paid job or lose jobs as a result of their employers’ inability to maintain the growing rate of production.

Of course, this process affects the economy in general as well as the lives of each and every one of us. Having said that, when you look at this problem analytically and study it from different points of view, using recent data, it allows you to either find solutions to it or encourage other students, activists, or even scholars to further this research and propose their solutions.

unemployment-essay-writing-guide

Unemployment research paper topics

Here are some interesting research topics on unemployment for your consideration: 

  • Karl Marx’s theory of unemployment
  • To what extent can automation be helpful or harmful in the workforce?
  • What are the long-term consequences of unemployment?
  • What is a link between inflation and unemployment?
  • Why is unemployment particularly bad for women?
  • How does the unemployment rate affect the phycological state of people?
  • Unemployment during the Big Depression
  • Unemployment rate during COVID-19 pandemics
  • Automation of labor and unemployment
  • The effects of unemployment on students
  • The unemployment rate in the country of choice
  • Which population is the most vulnerable to unemployment?
  • The link between unemployment and crime rate
  • Ways of reducing unemployment

Unemployment research questions

When you have chosen the topic, it is important to formulate a few unemployment research questions and choose one or a few that you are going to focus on in your work. If your topic is broad, narrow it down to something more specific that you would be able to cover within the given word count. Make sure it is not too narrow to be researchable but specific enough for you to understand what kind of information to look for specifically.

The questions you formulate can be focused on the:

  • Comparison between certain aspects of unemployment.
  • Relationships between variables of your choice.
  • Advantages/disadvantages of certain aspects.
  • Causal relationships between specific variables.
  • Factors contributing to the problem or its solution.

There are a lot of ways to formulate a research question for an unemployment paper, and we suggest that you run the question of your choice by your professor before starting to write.

unemployment-essay-writing-guide2

Unemployment research paper outline

While your outline should include as many details as possible, the main sections it will cover are:

  • Introduction
  • Introductory phrase
  • Background information
  • Statement of hypothesis/thesis statement
  • Body sections:
  • Literature review
  • Methodology
  • Restated hypothesis/thesis
  • Main points of research.
  • Further application/Significance of research.

Tips for writing an essay on unemployment

Writing an academic essay on unemployment might appear like quite a difficult task. In order to make your life easier, we have decided to provide with the best writing tips:

  • Choose the topic which you are genuinely interested in. This way, the writing process will be exciting and productive.
  • Make an outline. This is an essential part of employment essay writing, which helps you to keep your ideas in order and write a well-structured text.
  • Write the first draft. It will help you understand how to present your arguments and evidence as well as frame your essay.
  • Look for well-written examples. There are a lot of sample essays on unemployment on the Web. Therefore, if you are not sure what to focus yours on or how to put your ideas on paper, reading a few examples might help.
  • Proofread your essay. It’s a good idea to revise your paper the next day after you finish writing it. This way, you will notice more grammatical errors and common structural and stylistic mistakes.

Topics for writing an essay on unemployment

  • Essay on educated unemployment
  • Essay on unemployment among graduates
  • Essay on unemployment and poverty
  • Essay on rural unemployment
  • Essay on the evils of unemployment
  • Essay on poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment
  • Essay on poverty and unemployment in specific countries/states
  • Essay on unemployment and underemployment after wars
  • Essay on effects of unemployment (psychological, sociological, financial, etc.)
  • Causes of unemployment essay
  • Essay on reasons for unemployment
  • Essay on the impact of unemployment
  • Causes and effects of unemployment essay
  • Cause and effect of unemployment essay: is there a link between low quality education and unemployment?
  • Argumentative essay on unemployment: should government help the vulnerable population with job search?
  • Cause and effect essay on unemployment and inflation
  • Unemployment problem solution essay
  • Essay on employment and unemployment
  • Essay on unemployment in America
  • Essay on unemployment and its long-term effects

unemployment-essay-writing-guide3

Unemployment essay outline

Whether you are writing a one-page essay on unemployment or a longer well-researched one at the end of the semester, making an outline is an important step you should never skip. Just like with a research paper, an unemployment essay outline also has a specific structure:

  • Unemployment essay introduction. For starters, you need to provide readers with background on the topic and some justifications as to why you have chosen it. At the end of the intro, present your thesis statement with the main points that you will be discussing in more detail further.
  • Body paragraphs. The main part is the most extended and informative section of the whole essay. It usually consists of 3-5 paragraphs (however, there can be more or less, depending on the specific requirements). Each paragraph has to include the argument connected with your thesis statement, which is reinforced with evidence and examples. Make sure that your body paragraphs are logically interconnected. In this case, transition words will be of great help.
  • Conclusion for an essay on unemployment. At the final stage, here comes the time to briefly remind the readers about all the arguments discussed throughout the essay and the thesis statement that you have put forward in the intro. Don’t make new points in a conclusion for an unemployment essay. This is the part where you reflect on what was written without adding factual or statistical info to continue the discussion. In the final sentences of the unemployment essay conclusion, try coming up with a catchy phrase to wrap up everything that you have showcased before effectively and to encourage your readers for further reflections. 

Statistics for your essay on unemployment

We have collected some interesting and somehow shocking statistics, which you can use in your unemployment essay or research paper:

  • Developed countries often cannot offer permanent positions for an excessive number of college graduates, both local residents and international students. This problem creates enormous competition for permanent positions in their chosen fields of study. One great example of such a situation is the US economic recession of 2007-2008 when the employment rate of candidates with bachelor's degrees suddenly dropped to as low as 9%.
  • One of the recent American surveys showed that some of the highest unemployment rates were among Philosophy (6.2%) as well as the English Language (6.4%) and Mass Media (7.4%) graduates. On the other hand, the lowest unemployment rates were fixed in the fields of Industrial Engineering (1.7%) and Medical Technicians (0.9%).
  • Youth are approximately three times more likely to be unemployed than adults (2.7).
  • Among all developing regions, East Asia has the largest unemployment rate.
  • The number of unemployed workers in the world’s developing economies is roughly the same as the population of Bangladesh (156.6 million), the world’s eighth-most populous country.
  • Despite COVID-19 pandemics, the US unemployment rate has fallen to 7.9% (from 8.4%). The most prosperous are the restaurant, retail, and healthcare sectors.

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The Best Essay on Unemployment | Macroeconomics

essay on unemployment with conclusion

Here is an essay on ‘Unemployment’ for class 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Unemployment’ especially written for school and college students.

Unemployment can be divided into different types according to the reasons for its occurrence. For example, there is frictional unemployment, which arises when a person is temporarily unemployed while moving between jobs. Similarly, there is structural unemployment, when people find their skills are not employable because they have become technologically redundant or there is no demand for them in certain regions of the country where they live.

These types of unemployment are easy to explain. By comparison, there is an enduring controversy associated with the attempts to unravel what, if any, are the differences between classical and Keynesian unemployment. The classical economists believed in the Say’s Law of Markets and in wage-price flexibility. The operation of the Say’s Law (which states that demand creates its own supply) and sufficient wage-price flexibility, they believed, would ensure automatic full employment.

Thus, in the classical theory, there was no possibility of unemployment. If there occurred any unemployment it would be of a purely temporary nature. The cause of such unemployment was too high a real wage. And such unemployment would disappear quickly due to fall in real wage.

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The intuition behind the classicists’ analysis of unemployment comes from the standard apparatus of supply and demand curves. They have reached the conclusion that if the labour market does not equilibrate, it must be because the price, i.e., the real wage, is set at an inappropriate (and not at the market-clearing) level.

The demand for labour originates from the profit-maximising decisions of firms. Under competitive conditions, this leads firms to equate the real wage with the marginal product of labour. Hence the demand for labour schedule is a direct reflection of the marginal physical product of labour (MPP L ) function.

With a well-behaved aggregate production function, the MPP L will be a decreasing function of the level of employment, and so the demand for labour varies inversely with the real wage. Consequently, if the supply of labour exceeds the demand and there is a problem of unemployment, then the solution lies with a fall in the real wage as this will increase the quantity of labour demanded and close the unemployment gap.

In his General Theory Keynes disputed the classical analysis of unemployment and the associated policy prescriptions. He introduced the concept of involuntary unemployment that had something to do with inadequate demand in final commodity markets and which could be remedied with the management of demand by fiscal policy and possibly by monetary policy too.

In explaining the cause of unemployment, Keynes focuses on the role of nominal wage inflexibility. In his view, unemployment results from an inflexible money wage which prevents the real wage from adjusting downwards to increase the demand for labour. Thus the unemployment problem originates from an inappropriate real wage.

According to Keynes, the equality of the real wage to the marginal disutility of employment corresponds to the absence of ‘involuntary’ unemployment. (Keynes makes the simplification that the marginal utility of income is constant so that the marginal disutility of employment is the same as the marginal rate of substitution of income for leisure.) Keynes excluded frictional unemployment from involuntary unemployment.

However, it is important to note that Keynes also excluded unemployment “due to the refusal or inability of a unit of labour, as a result of legislation or social practices or of a combination for collective bargaining or of a slow response to change or of mere human obstinacy, to accept a reward corresponding to the value of the product attributable to its marginal productivity”.

Thus, Keynes chose to exclude union wage differentials as well as minimum wage legislation as sources of involuntary unemployment. Clearly, Keynes wanted to focus on a particular type of involuntary unemployment.

Don Patinkin also used the static labour supply definition in his well-known analysis of involuntary unemployment:

The norm of reference to be used in defining involuntary unemployment is the supply curve for labour as long as workers are ‘on their labour supply curve’—that is, as long as they succeed in selling all the labour they want to at the prevailing real wage rate—a state of full employment will be said to exist in the economy.

The above definition of involuntary unemployment based on the labour supply curve was used by the ‘classical’ economists. For example, in 1914 A. C. Pigou proposed measuring involuntary unemployment of a group of persons by the number of hours that these persons would have been willing to provide at the current rate of wages under current conditions of employment.

According to Keynes, however, classical theories (such as Pigou’s) did not admit the possibility of involuntary unemployment by union wage differentials or minimum wage legislation. But Keynes chose to classify this as voluntary.

The Natural Rate of Unemployment (NRU) :

There are two conceptually’ separate reasons why the real wage may fail to adjust to the competitive equilibrium value. Firstly, the institutions of the economy may not correspond to those of a competitive economy: information may be costly, there may be traces of monopoly, etc.

Within this institutional context, markets are assumed to clear and the associated level of unemployment is termed as the ‘natural’ rate of unemployment.

In the language of Milton Friedman:

“The ‘natural rate of unemployment’ is the level that would be ground out by the Walrasian system of general equilibrium equations, provided there is embedded in them the actual structural characteristics of the labour and commodity markets, including market imperfections, stochastic variability in demands and supplies, cost of gathering information and so on”.

Consequently, one way that unemployment might be tackled is through policies which attempt to lower the ‘natural’ rate by removing market imperfections.

A ‘natural’ rate of unemployment is the level of unemployment where inflation is anticipated. For this reason the term the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (NAIRU) is often preferred to the title ‘natural’ to describe the level of unemployment.

The current view is that the natural rate of unemployment is the rate towards which the dynamic system is converging for a given underlying general equilibrium stochastic structure. It takes into account the actual structural characteristics of the labour and commodity markets, including market imperfections, search and mobility costs.

In simple terms, it may be regarded as that level of unemployment which nonetheless remains at full employment.

In truth, NRU is essentially a long-term phenomenon. It is the rate of unemployment towards which the economy gravitates in the long run, subject to the existing imperfections in the labour market which make it difficult for workers to find jobs easily and quickly.

According to Milton Friedman who introduced the term ‘natural rate’ argues that the term ‘natural’ is useful in separating the real forces from the monetary sources. Viewed from this perspective an important feature of the natural rate as emphasised by Friedman (1968) and E. Phelps (1967, 1970) is that it does not correspond to any particular rate of inflation. For any appropriately defined long run, the key implication of this is that there is no long-run trade-off between inflation and unemployment.

Following the Friedman lead, the natural and cyclical rates of unemployment are most often treated as separate and independent components. According to this view, cyclical unemployment is characterised as being included by temporary fluctuations in conditions resulting in temporary deviations of the actual rate from the natural rate of unemployment.

Empirical evidence, however suggests considerable covariance between cyclical and structural unemployment. For example, structural unemployment is likely to increase during recessions since firms in declining industries may find it optimal to accelerate eventual reductions in their labour force at such times. Significant covariance’s of this sort raise fundamental questions about the causality of unemployment as well as whether the natural rate of unemployment is an operative concept.

Since structural unemployment is most often interpreted as a component of the natural rate, this raises serious questions about whether natural and cyclical rates of unemployment are separate, independent and indentifiable components.

To sum up, there are two features of the NRU. Firstly, it is an inherently dynamic concept. Secondly, the natural rate is clearly not a fixed and immutable constant. Variations in the composition of the labour force, the rate of structural change, the flow of information and other factors affecting labour force mobility will change the natural rate.

There is widespread agreement in macroeconomics that when there are informational inadequacies leading to sticky prices and difficulties in forming expectations, unemployment may deviate from its ‘natural’ level.

According to Friedman, the government’s demand management policies may influence the ‘natural’ rate. He argues that the variability of inflation is directly related to the level of inflation.

So, more noise enters into price signals at higher rates of inflation with the result that the ‘natural’ rate rises with the rate of inflation,

In 1980 Tobin argued that “the operational NAIRU gravitates towards the average rate of unemployment actually experienced. Among the mechanisms which produce that result are improvements in unemployment compensation and other benefits enacted in response to higher unemployment, loss of on-the-job training and employability by the unemployed, defections to the informal and illegal economy, and a slowdown in capital formation as business firms lowers their estimates of needed capacity.”

If such hysteresis effects are accepted, then an expansionary demand policy — which leaves unemployment ‘temporarily’ below the ‘natural rate — will have a permanent influence because it contributes to reducing the ‘natural’ rate itself.

Job Search and Frictional Unemployment :

In recent years economists have been concerned with frictional unemployment. One proximate cause of unemployment is the mismatch between workers and jobs. Since labour is not homogeneous, a job loss does not immediately lead to job finding. Workers who are laid-off do not find a job easily and quickly.

Job finding itself is a resource-consuming and a time-consuming endeavour. The unemployment caused both the time required by a worker is called frictional unemployment. Such unemployment occurs because we do not live in the wonderful world of the classical economists.

It occurs because information about job availability is not freely available to workers and, even when it is available, it is imperfect. Moreover, workers are not geographically mobile. There are various barriers to labour mobility.

These two factors conjointly reduce the rate of job finding. Moreover, since workers differ in their abilities and performances and jobs also differ in their characteristics (in terms of rewards and sacrifices) different jobs require different skills and offer different wages. This is why an unemployed worker prefers to spend time and money to search out a job of his liking rather than accepting any job that comes along the line.

Frictional unemployment is also related to shift unemployment. Some unemployment occurs due to shifts in demand for consumer goods used by households and producer (capital) goods used by firms.

Since the demand for labour is an indirect (derived) demand, change in the pattern of demand for goods leads to a change in the demand for labour that is required to produce those goods.

Likewise, since different regions of a country produce different goods, the demand for labour may rise in one region (such as Maharashtra or Gujarat) and fall in another region (Orissa or Bihar). Such unemployment caused by a change in the composition of demand among industries or regions is called shift unemployment.

This is another type of frictional unemployment. Since sectorial shifts are occurring all the time in a dynamic economy, and since workers take some time to move from one sector to another due to lack of marketable skill or adequate information, frictional unemployment is a rule rather than an exception.

Frictional unemployment occurs for various other reasons, for example, when old firms face problems of demand recession (such as the workers of Hindustan Motors), when workers’ job performance is inadequate when judged by any standard, and when workers’ particular skills are not in demand any more. This has happened in cases of silent movie actors or typists or tram drivers in most parts of the world.

Frictional unemployment also occurs when workers voluntarily leave their jobs or move from one part of the country to another part (and try to search out better jobs).

Frictional unemployment occurs due to inter-sectoral imbalance between demand and supply forces, i.e., where there is excess supply of labour in one sector offering higher wages due to the fact that some workers from numerous low-paying sectors have crowded the few high- paying sectors.

Efficiency Wage :

A proximate cause of real wage rigidity and involuntary unemployment is associated with the efficiency wage theory. This concept is based on the famous Marshallian concept — the economy of high wages. Marshall first hypothesized that high wages promote efficiency and low wages retard it.

The idea was put into effect in the American manufacturing industry by Henry Ford who followed the practice of giving higher than the prevailing market wage so that the rate of labour turnover came down to a minimum. Ford’s basic objective was to ensure that his most productive workers did not quit after a short association with the organisation.

The efficiency wage theory explains why firms do not cut wages even when there is excess supply of labour. The theory is based on the belief that a wage cut would lower a firm’s wage bill no doubt, but it would also reduce a firm’s profits by lowering worker efficiency.

Various explanations have been offered to explain how wages affect labour productivity:

(i) Improved Health and Enhanced Productivity:

In less developed countries like India, high wages enable workers to improve their health by having a more nutritional diet. Healthy workers are usually found to be more productive than half-fed worker. So, it is in the Tightness of things to give workers a wage above the equilibrium level in order to maintain a healthy work force.

(ii) Low Labour Turnover:

The higher the wage rate, the stronger the incentive of workers to stay with the firm. If the quit rate can be reduced to a minimum, a firm can achieve economy in terms of the time spent recruiting and training new workers.

(iii) Reducing Adverse Selection:

The overall quality of a firm’s labour force depends on the wages it pays to its employees. A wage cut will force a firm’s best workers to take jobs elsewhere in other firms, leaving the firm with inferior employees who have hardly any opportunity outside the firm. This is an example of adverse selection since workers are more informed about their alternative opportunities outside the firm than the firm (the employer).

This is also known as hidden characteristics. So by paying a low wage, a firm may take the risk of hiring inferior workers (who do not have any opportunity outside the firm). One way of reducing adverse selection is to pay a wage above the equilibrium level. This improves the average quality of the work force. So, labour productivity automatically improves.

(iv) Overcoming the Moral Hazard Problem:

High wages also improve worker effort. The truth is that it is not always possible to monitor the work effort of employees. It is the task of the employees themselves to decide how hard to work. This is known as moral hazard, also known as the hidden action.

This refers to the hidden tendency of workers to put sub-optimal effort if their activities are not perfectly monitored. One way of reducing this moral hazard problem is to pay a high wage. The higher the wage, the higher the cost of the worker of being dismissed.

One way of increasing labour productivity is to pay a higher than market wage. This induces more and more of a firm’s employees not to shirk. The common theme of various efficiency wage theories (presented above in a summary form) is that by paying its workers a high wage, a firm can operate more efficiently.

This is why many firms choose to pay more than the market clearing wage. This induces workers to stay with their firms and not to engage in job search activities. But efficiency wage increases the magnitude of involuntary unemployment and creates real wage rigidity.

Economic Insight: Four Models of Efficiency Wage:

There are four models of efficiency wage. The common feature of all the models is that higher than competitive wage can be profitable. All the models are based on the hypothesis that output depends on worker effort and effort, in its turn, varies directly with the wage rate. The more a firm pays, the more effort it gets.

The models originating from the presumed source of positive effort-wage relationship are of the four types:

1. Shirking Models:

In most jobs, workers enjoy some discretion in deciding how hard they work. Piece rates are often impractical because it is not only difficult but virtually impossible to count the “pieces” and counting is costly. In the shirking models, firms pay above the market wages, engage in some monitoring and fire those workers caught shirking.

By paying above market wages, firms decrease the incentive to shirk, since defection then entails loss of rents. According to shirking models, high wage industries are those with high monitoring costs and/ or industries which bear a relatively high cost of employee shirking.

2. Turnover Models:

Firms may also wish to pay above market clearing wages to reduce turnover. High wages are paid to reduce quits. So it follows, by deduction, that the high-wage industries are those in which turnover costs are the highest.

3. Adverse Selection Models:

According to these models, employers cannot gain an insight into the ability of workers, either as potential entrants or on the job, in a costless fashion. It is assumed that the average quality of the applicant pool increases with the wage rate. The main prediction of these models is that industries which are more sensitive to quality differences, or have higher costs of measuring quality, will offer higher wages.

4. Fair-Wage Models:

The premise of these models is that workers will exert more effort if they feel that they are being treated fairly. This premise gives firms an incentive to pay wages above competitive levels whenever their workers’ perceived fair wage exceeds the competitive wage.

If workers believe that fairness requires firms to share rents with employees, then fair wage models predict that industries with high profits will be those which pay high wages. In Fig. 1, we show profit-wage trade-off. In short, industries’ high wages lead to low profits as is shown by the profit-wage curve pw 1 .

Profit-wage Trade-off

If the wage rate is pushed up from w 1 to w 2 , the rate of profit falls from π 1 to π 0 . In other industries high wages lead to high profit as shown by the curve pw 2 . If the wage rate is pushed up from w 1 to w 2 , the rate of profit goes up from to π 0 to π 1 .

The fair wage models also predict high wages in industries where teamwork and worker expectations are particularly important. However, the four models are not mutually exclusive. Firms might well pay above competitive wages to reduce shirking and, thus, attract high-quality applicants and improve worker morale.

Effect of Minimum Wage on Employment :

Since the government does not hire surplus labour in the way it buys surplus agricultural output, a labour surplus takes the form of unemployment which tends to be higher under minimum wage laws than in a free market. In general, those whose employment prospects are reduced most by minimum wage laws are the young, less experienced and less skilled.

As in all cases, a ‘surplus’ is a price phenomenon. Unemployed workers are not surplus in the sense of being useless or in the sense that there is no work for them. Most of these workers are perfectly capable of producing goods and services, even if not to the same extent as more skilled workers. The unemployed are made idle by wage rates artificially set above the level of their productivity.

Moreover, unemployed youth are prevented from acquiring the job skills and experience which could make them more productive—and, therefore, higher earners—in near future. Due to minimum wage laws, unemployment in European countries is higher than that in the USA. Since Switzerland and Hong Kong do not have minimum wage laws, they have very low unemployment rates. In recent years, some countries have allowed their real minimum wage levels to be eroded by inflation.

Related Articles:

  • Major Causes of Unemployment: Job Search and Wage Rigidity
  • Difference between Voluntary and Involuntary Unemployment
  • Keynes’ Money-Wage Rigidity Model of Involuntary Unemployment
  • Unemployment Rate Calculation Formula

Unemployment Essay Sample

Unemployment is the state of being jobless and seeking employment, or not having a job. It’s one of the most terrifying things that can happen to an individual. The number of unemployed people in the US is increasing and it’s time we took a closer look at what this means for our society. This essay will explore its causes and inferences.

Here is a sample essay on unemployment given by the experts to students. It could be used as a standard essay to write such other essays for the assignments.

Essay Example on Unemployment

  • Thesis Statement of Unemployment Essay
  • Introduction of Unemployment Essay
  • Cause of Unemployment in the World
  • Inferences of the Unemployment in a society of Nation
  • How to deter the Problem of Unemployment at Global Scale
Thesis Statement of Unemployment Essay Unemployment gives rise to anarchy, terrorism, and a threat to the internal security of a nation. I ntroduction of Unemployment Essay Today the most fundamental problem that is engulfing society is the issue of unemployment. People are not able to manage two squares of meals per day. This issue cannot be ignored by us at any point as it is eating the structure of our society like a termite thus making it hollow from the inside. There are many problems that arise due to unemployment like terrorism in society which is dangerous for humankind. The issue could be addressed at the most be getting solutions on the problem of unemployment in society, which acts as the causing effect of terrorism and other problems. Main Body of Unemployment Essay Cause of Unemployment in the World The major cause of unemployment in society is the improper management of resources and giving unequal status to the people of society. Here are some major causes of unemployment given below. Unequal Distribution of resources The economic resources are unequally distributed among the people in a society of the nation at large. As a consequence of which some sections get mighty wealth as compared to others. Excessive deflation Another biggest cause that lies behind the cause of unemployment in society is the excessive deflation in the country. When people have to sell their products below the manufacturing cost they find no profit in the business. There comes a time when this business is closed by the businessmen due to lack of profit in the work. Many people lose their employment due to this reason. Mismanagement of the Banking and Financial Institution Loan and other Financial Help are given to the businessmen easily as compared to the common masses. As a result of which there is not a development of the poor people as they cannot invest money for any innovative purpose by owing a loan from the bank. This corruption is the cause of unemployment in a poor section of society. Get Non-Plagiarized Custom Essay on Unemployment in USA Order Now Inferences of the Unemployment in a society of Nation Here are the main results of unemployment in a given nation of a particular society. Students become the enemy of other’s lives in these states. Terrorism –  In the scarcity of jobs youth people join many terrorist groups for the sake of earning livelihood for their families. Thus the rise of terrorism could be backed by the unemployment problem. Human Trafficking –  The biggest issue of human trafficking is unemployment; many women and men are being transferred across the national and international boundaries for this reason. People do not have enough money to rare their families and thus get involved in such anti-social practices to earn money. Social Riots –  Social riots are also the conclusion of unemployment as communities get irritated when other people from a different community get employment. This emotion of wrath and jealously is very strong which even kills the lives of many innocent. Communal Issues –  Many times it also gives rise to the communal issue when social riots take their final destination. It could be the most serious result of unemployment in any society. How to deter the Problem of Unemployment at Global Scale The issue of unemployment is not a small problem that could be easily uprooted by society. Its roots had gone very deep into society and it is very difficult to eradicate them. It could be done by making certain efforts by every person in the world. Here are some points that could be considered by the people to eradicate the unemployment problem from society or the world at large. Equal Distribution of Economic Resources The economic resources must be equally distributed among the people so that this issue of unemployment and accumulation of wealth could be solved. Though it is a difficult thing to do but still if we make some plans for it, success could be achieved in it. Reduction in Corruption Corruption is a major issue that causes a huge part of the unemployment problems. This could be reduced by the efficient bureaucrats of the nation. Skill Oriented study The education should be skilled oriented so that people can work easily to save their livelihood. The education system should also encourage students to create new jobs and employment generation. Buy Customized Essay on Unemployment At Cheapest Price Order Now Conclusion The above discussions and arguments about unemployment draw a conclusion that though the issue is very big it could be solved by making efforts. Certain plans and strategies are needed to achieve the dream of eradicating the unemployment issue from society. Intelligentsia of the society needs to pay big attention towards this field of unemployment. Thus we can save our world from ill practices like terrorism and riots.

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Essay on unemployment

Essay on unemployment 15 Models

Last updated Friday , 15-03-2024 on 11:20 am

Essay on unemployment is important for every student, and we will write several models for essay on unemployment, such as a short essay on unemployment or a paragraph, or a 250-word essay, a long essay on unemployment.

Unemployment is a serious social problem and has negative effects on both the individual and society. Therefore, we find that writing an essay about it is important and should deal with an introduction and a conclusion as well, and we will present an essay on unemployment with the elements.

There are several models to suit all students, in the primary, preparatory and secondary levels.

Essay on unemployment

Unemployment is one of the biggest problems facing countries, and this problem has increased recently as a result of the spread of the Corona virus (Covid-19), as many factories, companies and stores were closed, export and import stopped, and the tourism sector and other government institutions. stopped working

The high unemployment rate in some countries was a clear indication of the deterioration of their economy and the low level of per capita income.

The government is working to solve this problem to avoid the negative effects that result from it, because unemployment has negative effects on both the individual and society.

Definition of unemployment

Unemployment is defined as the increase in the number of people looking for a job over the number of jobs offered  in the labor market.

The unemployment rate is determined by calculating the percentage by dividing the number of job seekers by the number of the labor force. The labor force means the sum of working people and people looking for jobs.

Undoubtedly, the higher the unemployment rate in society, the more this indicates the existence of major economic problems.

Therefore, we find that there is a continuous follow-up to determine the unemployment rate in society, and to try to develop solutions to this problem.

The main types of unemployment

There is no doubt that every young man dreams of having a job after graduating from university, but this dream is not easily achieved, and the percentage of the unemployed has increased.

And we can define the unemployed as the one who is looking for a job and wants it but does not find it, and we do not mean by it those who do not want to work, such as some rich young people or the elderly and those who receive a pension, and the young people who are still studying, all of these are not from the unemployed, and they are not counted in the unemployment rate in society.

Among the most important types of unemployment are the following:

1- Classic unemployment among young people

Unemployment among young people is one of the most dangerous types of unemployment, because young people are the energy of society, and they are able to work well.

A job is the dream of every young man after he finishes his studies. But often young people are shocked by the bitter reality, after he finished his studies, he could not find any suitable job for him. As a result, young people are forced to do much less work than they had previously dreamed of. In most cases, they are jobs that do not require a great deal of education.

And some of the young people refuse to work, and keep looking for their dream job, and in many cases they do not find it.

2- Disguised unemployment

The name disguised unemployment is called the increase in the number of people who work in a job, more than the number required to complete that work, We see this clearly in government institutions and bodies. Where it is overcrowded with employees and there is no real production commensurate with their number.

Accordingly, the numbers in excess of the need for work are unemployed people, but they receive salaries. The state cannot take measures against them (such as dismissing them or firing them from work) in order to take into account their social conditions.

3- Seasonal unemployment

Seasonal unemployment is unemployment that recurs permanently, because there are some jobs associated with certain times of the year, or related to some projects. Many workers work in this business. When the project or work season ends, these people become unemployed.

4- Long-term unemployment

The number of citizens looking for work is monitored through labor offices and other government institutions.

The numbers who join a job, and the numbers that did not find a job, are monitored. People who are looking for work and they did not find during a period of more than 27 weeks they are called long-term unemployment.

5- Short-term unemployment

The number of citizens looking for work is also monitored through labor offices and other government institutions.

The numbers who join a job, and the numbers that did not find a job, are monitored. Individuals who are looking for work and have not found a job within a period of less than 27 weeks is called short-term unemployment.

6- Cyclical unemployment

Cyclical unemployment also occurs in a large proportion, and it is due to the capital cycle, or because a person moves from one job to another. But in most cases, the period of unemployment is limited, and the individual can join work again.

Causes of unemployment

  • The gap between the number of job seekers and the number of existing jobs. Some may attribute this reason to the increase in population. But we must benefit from human wealth by preparing and training them, and providing job opportunities that benefit both the individual and society.
  • The mismatch between the skills of individuals and the skills required for the labor market. The state bears the biggest mistake in this matter, as the academic preparation of students does not comply with the requirements of the labor market.
  • The high interest rate, which is one of the reasons for the high unemployment rate in society. As businessmen and the rich prefer to put their money in banks if the interest is high, Thus, they do not invest in agriculture, industry, or trade. All of this leads to a lack of job opportunities and an increase in the unemployment rate.
  • Natural disasters, which are also one of the factors that increase the unemployment rate, For example, earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, hurricanes, heavy rain, drought, desertification and other natural phenomena, all of these phenomena have an impact on human life and may lead to unemployment of many of them. Where many people lose their jobs and money as a result of natural disasters.
  • The spread of epidemics is one of the factors that increase the unemployment rate, and we have recently witnessed the impact of the Corona epidemic (Covid-19) on the economy of countries, especially developing countries, where their economy has deteriorated, and many people have lost their jobs and money.
  • Technological development and machine solutions in place of labor was one of the most important causes of the unemployment problem. The problem of unemployment appeared after the Industrial Revolution, in which the machine became more widely used, and the labor force was laid off. The greater the technological progress, the greater the layoff, and the greater the unemployment.
  • Internal or external migration is one of the causes of unemployment. This is like the migration of citizens from the countryside to the cities, which makes the number of people looking for work much greater than the number of jobs.
  • The global recession greatly affects the economy of all countries, especially developing countries, as the world has become intertwined in economic matters, and the movement of trade, import and export, and others. When the economy is weak and buying is scarce, many people lose their jobs and join the unemployed.

The effects of unemployment on the individual

Unemployment has many negative effects on the individual, as it affects all aspects of his life, especially if he is married and has a family he is responsible for.

The biggest problem that a person can face is his inability to provide the necessary money to buy his basic needs and the needs of his family.

1- The low level of income and consequently the deterioration of living conditions, which puts the person under severe psychological pressure.

2- Increasing the financial burden, as the unemployed person cannot compensate for the money he spends, and therefore he will spend all his savings, and after that he will not find what to spend.

3 – Borrowing and the accumulation of debts, happen a lot because there are basic requirements, and it is impossible to dispense with them.

4- The high rate of mental and physical diseases. Undoubtedly, the unemployed person is under great psychological and nervous pressure, which causes him psychological diseases such as depression, stress and anxiety. In addition, he suffers from other diseases such as high pressure, heart disease and others.

5- The tendency to commit suicide is the most dangerous effect caused by unemployment, because the unemployed person who is unable to provide for the needs of his family is under great nervous and psychological pressure, which may lead him to commit suicide if he does not find a solution to his problem.

6- Hatred of society is one of the negative effects resulting from unemployment, because the unemployed person will hate others, and hatred will spread among members of society.

7- Lack of loyalty to the homeland is one of the most dangerous negative effects of unemployment, as a person will hate his homeland and search for another country that provides him with a better living.

The effects of unemployment on society

Unemployment has negative effects on society, as unemployment is closely related to the economy. The stronger the economy, the more projects and job opportunities, and thus the lower the unemployment rate in society.

Certainly, the economy is a sign of the strength or weakness of the state. In recent times, wars have become very economic.

Among the negative effects of unemployment on society are the following:

1- The loss of political stability, and this is a dangerous thing because political instability will lead to a deterioration in the state of the economy.

2- The high crime rate is one of the negative effects of unemployment, as some individuals resort to theft, bribery and other crimes to get money.

3- Family disintegration and the high rate of divorce, as a result of the man’s inability to provide for the family’s needs.

4- Searching for illegal ways to immigrate, and this is what young people always think of without caring about the risks that may take their lives.

5- Weakness of the economy as a result of not benefiting from the workforce.

6- Skilled migration abroad in search of good job opportunities.

7- Increasing financial allocations for subsidy, which helps the economy deteriorate rapidly.

8- The spread of poverty among the classes of citizens and the arrival of large numbers of citizens below the poverty line.

The effect of unemployment on the economy

There is no doubt that the relationship between the economy and unemployment is close, as unemployment is an important indicator of the strength or weakness of the economy.

The higher the unemployment rate, the weaker the economy, and the lower the economic growth. While the low unemployment rate indicates the recovery and strength of the economy.

Among the negative effects of unemployment are:

  • Lack of production, and not benefiting from the unemployed workforce.
  • Consumption of products, and the need to import larger quantities.
  • Increase aid, and borrow from abroad.

All of these negative effects exacerbate economic problems, which may eventually lead to the state’s inability to pay its foreign debts.

The policy adopted to solve the unemployment problem

Encouraging the private sector.

Encouraging small businesses.

Develop education according to the required jobs.

Investing the components of the state to provide job opportunities for young people, such as investing waste lands in agriculture and animal investment, or encouraging small industries that complement other industries.

At the end of a topic about unemployment and its negative effects on both the individual and society, we must advise young people to acquire the largest number of experiences in order to be able to find a job for themselves.

Also, small projects, in which several people participate, are a good solution.

It is also important in order to eliminate the phenomenon of unemployment to study the needs of the labor market, and to make education in line with these needs.

Unemployment Essay in English

Many people suffer from difficulty in getting a good job opportunity. This is because job opportunities are much less than the number of people willing to work. Some of these people prefer unemployment rather than working in jobs below their educational level.

There are some tips that young people should follow in order to get a good job. Including self-development through the diversity of experiences in their specialization.

University study is no longer sufficient, but the young man must develop himself through specialized courses, learn more than one language, learn computer science and other modern sciences.

This is what every individual should do after job opportunities have become few, because unemployment has a negative impact on an individual’s life, whether in the economic, social and health aspects.

Paragraph on unemployment

The problem of unemployment arose with the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, as the machine became more widely used, and thus labor was largely dispensed with. This problem is exacerbated by increasing technological progress. As a result, a large number of individuals cannot find suitable work for them.

And the jobs required a special quality of employees, and they were required to be fully acquainted with the English language and computer science.

Therefore, young people must gain several experiences in order to get a good job, and there is a great development in the requirements of the labor market.

Trade, for example, through the Internet (online shopping) has become the most prevalent, and technology has become more widely used in agriculture and industry as well.

Unemployment solutions essay

The problem of unemployment has become a global problem, and it is important that we look for realistic solutions to this problem. Among these solutions is the encouragement of small projects, which are managed by one individual or a group of individuals, in addition to encouraging investors to establish huge projects that provide many job opportunities for young people.

It is important that education at the secondary and university levels meet the demands of the labor market, so that the student will not be shocked after graduating from university that what he has studied has nothing to do with the needs of the labor market.

Also, allocating funds to subsidize non-workers until they find a job is necessary, in order to avoid the risks that result from the high rate of unemployment in society, such as the high crime rate in society, family disintegration and other social and health problems.

Unemployment Essay in English 250 Words

The problem of unemployment has become a global problem, and it is a serious problem that affects both the individual and society. Therefore, the causes of this problem are studied and followed up, in order to find real solutions.

The causes of the unemployment problem differ from one society to another. There are societies that attribute this phenomenon to overpopulation, and thus encourage families to control birth, provide them with the necessary medicines for this, and use the media to direct families to birth control.

While other countries encourage national and foreign investment, in order to provide job opportunities for their citizens. Other countries encourage the establishment of projects that require many labors, and thus we find that there are many solutions to overcome the problem of unemployment.

It is important for each country to study this phenomenon separately, and to know what its causes are, so that it can develop appropriate solutions to solve the problem of unemployment. Individuals must also develop their skills, and have multiple experiences that qualify them to join the work.

The existence of solutions to the problem of unemployment is very important, because unemployment has negative effects on both the individual and society, and unemployment is considered an indicator of the strength or weakness of the state’s economy.

Unemployment essay introduction

Undoubtedly, the problem of unemployment troubles many countries, especially developing countries. This is because the high rate of unemployment in society leads to political instability.

When the government cannot provide the needs of citizens, by providing them with job opportunities, and they receive a salary sufficient to purchase their needs, then demonstrations, crimes and other acts of violence and sabotage will increase, and all this leads to political instability.

While the rich countries solve this problem by giving unemployment aid, which is an amount of money that is sufficient to purchase the needs of individuals, and is given to unemployed people until they find a suitable job for them.

The high unemployment rate among members of society will lead to an increase in poverty and the spread of psychological and mental illnesses.

Youth unemployment essay

Undoubtedly, young people are the most important group in society, and they must hold great hopes for nations.

Young people are characterized by strength, enthusiasm, and aspiration for a better future. Therefore, the government must provide job opportunities for young people, so that these opportunities are appropriate to their scientific abilities.

It is desirable for young people to arm themselves with science, and to acquire all the experiences that qualify them for the labor market. It has become necessary to learn modern sciences, especially technological sciences, and computer science. English language proficiency has also become a requirement for most jobs. The government must look for real solutions to solve the unemployment problem, because the risks of unemployment are very bad for both the individual and society.

Short essay on unemployment

The unemployment rate is a real indicator of the state’s economy. When the economy is strong, there are huge projects in various fields. Thus, job opportunities will be available to many of the unemployed.

A strong economy is followed by a circulation of money, sales increase, and imports and exports increase. All of this provides many job opportunities for the unemployed youth. Therefore, there must be projects that absorb the unemployed labor force.

The work is beneficial to both the individual and society, whereby the individual can live a decent life and provide for his family’s needs easily. The society can advance economically, and thus it can progress in all other areas, such as health, education and services.

Technology and unemployment essay

Technology has caused the disappearance of many jobs. The machine has become more accurate and faster than the human being. This made many people lose their jobs, especially in the agricultural and industrial fields. Where the agricultural and industrial sectors absorb large numbers of workers and employees. As for today, it has become mainly dependent on machines.

Also, modern jobs require that the employee be qualified to deal with modern technology, Therefore, young people must develop themselves and learn modern sciences, especially technological sciences.

The educational curricula should also be developed, and provide students with skills required in the labor market.

If everyone does what he should do, the unemployment rate in society will decrease.

Unemployment as a social problem essay

Undoubtedly, unemployment is a social problem that affects not only the individual but also his family, and unemployment has negative effects on society as a whole. The causes of unemployment differ from one society to another. But we can define unemployment as the increase in the number of people looking for a job over the number of people required for this job.

In this case, the person may accept a job that is less than his ambitions, and may refrain from working until he finds a job suitable for his academic qualification.

In all cases, there must be various solutions to this problem, such as encouraging foreign investment, establishing large projects, encouraging the private sector, encouraging self-projects and small projects.

All the previous solutions help to solve the unemployment problem to a large extent.

Problem of unemployment essay

There are negative effects of unemployment, some of which pertain to the individual and others to society.

One of the serious negative effects that the individual is exposed to is his lack of money to buy his basic needs and the needs of his family.

At that time, we expect the person to react badly. He may accept a bribe, steal, or kill in order to get money.

Thus, the crime rate in society will increase.

As a result, investors will flee to safer countries. Thus, job opportunities will decrease further, and thus the unemployed will increase and crimes will increase, and so on. The unemployment problem will only get worse if it is not resolved quickly.

One of the problems facing society as a result of the increase in the unemployment rate is the spread of poverty, and thus the increase in financial allocations to provide aid to unemployed people, and this becomes a burden on the economy of poor countries.

Essay on unemployment in 250 words

Unemployment may signal the beginning of the end of the state. In many countries that collapse and declare bankruptcy, the beginning of the matter is the high unemployment rate in them.

When there are fewer projects, less investment and production, and import becomes much greater than export, it will be difficult to solve the problem of unemployment.

As a result, the crime rate in society increases, and it is difficult to control citizens. Demonstrations and anti-government revolutions erupt, causing the state to collapse.

Therefore, the government must find real solutions to the unemployment problem. Such as encouraging the private sector to set up projects that require a lot of manpower, or allow citizens to immigrate to other countries with good job opportunities.

The damages of unemployment do not affect society only, but also affect the individual, causing him economic problems and represented in his inability to provide for his family’s needs, which causes him psychological and nervous pressure. In many cases, people commit suicide because of their inability to earn enough money for their lives.

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Guest Essay

This Is the Best Way for Biden to Talk About the Economy

Joe Biden in casual clothing and speaking into a megaphone.

Mr. Wu is a law professor at Columbia, a contributing Opinion writer and the author of “The Curse of Bigness: Antitrust in the New Gilded Age.” He served on the National Economic Council as a special assistant to the president for competition and tech policy from 2021 to 2023.

Since the early 2000s, most Americans have generally been dissatisfied with the economy, and many are insecure about their place in it. The dissatisfaction peaked during the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009 but persists, even as the economy is growing and unemployment and inflation combined are roughly where they were during the relatively upbeat days of the Kennedy administration. This is a stubborn, long-term disgruntlement.

Unlike short-term economic dissatisfaction, which lends itself to tinkering with interest rates and budgetary trade-offs, long-term dissatisfaction suggests a deeper, structural problem with the economy that requires more drastic measures. It is perhaps the signature achievement of the Biden administration that it has recognized this problem — specifically, the increasingly centralized, unbalanced nature of economic power in the United States over the past four decades — and is trying to address it.

But this policy wisdom also presents a political challenge. The administration’s strategy is unconventionally bold and far-reaching — an attempt to replace today’s toxic form of capitalism with an earlier, fairer model of free enterprise. Viewed through the narrow lens of conventional economic thinking, that strategy is easily misunderstood or overlooked, perhaps especially by its would-be allies in the political center and on the center-left. Today’s familiar left-right economic debates, for example, in which the left wins by taxing and spending and the right wins by cutting taxes, have precious little to do with the more ambitious vision of President Biden’s administration.

Americans are desperate for a fundamentally different, fairer kind of economy, and Mr. Biden is working to give them one. The urgent challenge, politically, is helping voters understand that.

To appreciate the novelty of the Biden administration’s approach to the economy, it is worth remembering that over the past 40 years the orthodoxy on the center-left has been a tax-and-transfer strategy. It has meant tolerating or even encouraging corporate consolidation and profit while maintaining the expectation that those profits would be redistributed in the service of the less powerful and less well-off. The popular metaphor of a national pie suggested focusing first on growing the pie and then on dividing it up equitably.

This logic has been a favorite of those arguing for deregulation and tax cuts since the 1980s. It was also used extensively to promote the World Trade Organization and free trade policies: The idea was that increased profits would be used to compensate displaced workers later on. Today, the same thinking would permit mergers between credit card companies like Discover and Capital One: Even if they charged higher rates and fees, we could always redistribute the profits later.

The problem is that “later” never seems to come. The pie metaphor has always been misleading: An actual pie must be divided before being eaten. But corporate profits aren’t like that. They go directly to the owners and managers and usually stay there. Redistributing profits requires prying money out of some very strong hands, hands that become stronger the wealthier they get. In a political system in which money talks, the pie will rarely get divided.

The Biden administration, in a break with center-left orthodoxy, seeks to address economic inequality not through taxation and transfers but through policies that allow more people and businesses to earn wealth in the first place. That is the meaning of the somewhat mysterious liberal catchphrase “growing from the middle out.” The goal is not the redistribution but the predistribution of wealth, to use a term popularized by the political scientist Jacob Hacker.

This approach calls for a different kind of capitalism — one that opposes the centralization of economic power and favors a market in which wealth can be earned by people and businesses in a broader set of regions, drawn from a wider array of social classes and involving a more diverse set of industries.

Over the past three years of the Biden administration, you can see this philosophy at work in what may seem like different areas. It is at the heart of the Justice Department’s continuing New Deal-style antimonopoly campaign, which has already prevented dozens of unwise mergers (like the recent proposed acquisition of Spirit Airlines by JetBlue Airways). It undergirds Mr. Biden’s renewed support for organized labor, as well as his worker-centered trade policy and the increasingly combative approach to the economic threat posed by China. It explains the reinvigoration of industrial policy on Capitol Hill, most notably through supporting regional manufacturing like the huge semiconductor factories being built in Arizona by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company. It also underlies the administration’s campaign against junk fees across the economy, including the creation of a rule limiting credit card late fees that will save Americans an estimated $10 billion a year.

These efforts are usually discussed and understood separately. But they share an underlying logic: All are aimed at leveling imbalances of economic power, and all assume that the economy works better for most Americans when it is more competitive and when earning power is more broadly distributed. (I worked on some of these issues on the National Economic Council, where I served as a special assistant to the president for competition and tech policy.)

There is arguably nothing more American than the balancing of power. The authors of the Constitution of the United States believed that unaccountable and centralized power was the chief evil facing any nation. Had the founders been familiar with the modern American corporation, surely they would have wanted to check its power.

Americans understand this instinctually. The National Football League, the nation’s most popular and successful sports league, doesn’t allow the richest organizations in places like New York or Los Angeles to build unbeatable teams. It has developed a structure of competition that rebalances power by way of a draft, salary cap and other techniques. No one thinks it unusual that a small city like Kansas City, Mo., can become a football powerhouse. In its own way, the N.F.L. — widely accepted as fair by Americans — provides a model for the U.S. economy.

When overly focused on metrics like growth and employment, economic analysis can fail to grasp how most Americans actually experience the economy. Most people understand all too well that those in the broad economic middle of the country are having a much harder time than their parents did — and that something went seriously astray starting in the early 2000s. They want a more fundamental kind of economic change.

To succeed in the 2024 election, Mr. Biden needs to convince voters that he has begun a long fight against today’s toxic form of capitalism. He needs them to understand that he is making the economy fairer and more productive. He needs to explain that Donald Trump’s invocations of economic grievance are real and justified but that unlike Mr. Trump — who used those grievances to fuel tribal politics while doling out corporate tax cuts and other giveaways to wealthy friends and donors — he is actually doing something about it.

Tim Wu, a law professor at Columbia, is the author of “The Curse of Bigness: Antitrust in the New Gilded Age.” He served on the National Economic Council as a special assistant to the president for competition and tech policy from 2021 to 2023.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

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Home — Essay Samples — Economics — Unemployment — Understanding Unemployment: Types, Causes, and Solutions

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Understanding Unemployment: Types, Causes, and Solutions

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Published: Feb 12, 2024

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Unemployment

  • Hidden unemployment: This refers to cases of unemployment that are not officially recorded. Many instances of unemployment go unreported, and government statistics do not accurately represent the true extent of the problem.
  • Cyclical unemployment: This type of unemployment occurs as a result of fluctuations in the economy. During periods of economic downturn, there is a decrease in job opportunities, leading to a rise in unemployment rates.
  • Seasonal unemployment: Some jobs are only available during specific seasons and are not available year-round. Individuals working in such seasonal jobs are considered unemployed during the off-season (Abbot, 2010).
  • Long-term unemployment: This refers to individuals who have been unemployed for an extended period, usually six months or more. Long-term unemployment can have severe consequences for individuals and society as a whole.
  • Underemployment: Underemployment occurs when individuals are employed in jobs that do not fully utilize their skills and qualifications. They are often working in positions below their educational or experiential level.
  • Hardcore unemployment: This type of unemployment is caused by personal reasons such as mental, psychological, or physical barriers that prevent individuals from securing employment.
  • Structural unemployment: Structural changes in the economy, such as technological advancements or shifts in industries, can lead to job losses and a reduction in work opportunities. This type of unemployment is referred to as structural unemployment.
  • Frictional unemployment: Frictional unemployment occurs when individuals become unemployed due to conflicts or incompatibility between two different jobs or occupations.
  • Economic growth: Economic growth can have both positive and negative effects on unemployment. While economic growth indicates a thriving economy, it can also lead to a decrease in employment opportunities. As the economy grows, certain industries may become obsolete, resulting in job losses.
  • Technology: Technological advancements often lead to job displacement as machines and automation replace human labor. This trend is particularly evident in industries where capital-intensive mechanisms are used, making it more cost-effective to employ machines than humans.
  • Seasonal fluctuations: Certain industries, such as agriculture and tourism, experience seasonal variations in demand. During off-peak seasons, workers in these industries may face unemployment.
  • Microeconomic policies: Changes in microeconomic policies can impact employment levels. The implementation of new policies may lead to economic uncertainty, causing businesses to reduce their workforce or delay hiring.
  • Constraints in economic growth: Economic constraints and uncertainties can discourage companies from hiring new employees. During periods of economic downturn, companies may lay off staff to cut costs.
  • Abbot, L. (2010). Theories of the Labour Market and Employment: A Review. Washington: Industrial Systems Research.
  • Harris, N. (2001). Business economics: theory and application. London: Butterworth-Heinemann.
  • Hooks, G. (2003). Unemployment: Causes and Solutions. New York: Routledge.
  • Symes, E. (1995). Unemployment: A Social Analysis. London: Routledge.

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Should college essays touch on race? Some feel affirmative action ruling leaves them no choice

A group of teenagers of color sit together on a floor

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When she started writing her college essay, Hillary Amofa told the story she thought admissions offices wanted to hear. About being the daughter of immigrants from Ghana and growing up in a small apartment in Chicago. About hardship and struggle.

Then she deleted it all.

“I would just find myself kind of trauma-dumping,” said the 18-year-old senior at Lincoln Park High School in Chicago. “And I’m just like, this doesn’t really say anything about me as a person.”

When the Supreme Court ended affirmative action in higher education , it left the college essay as one of few places where race can play a role in admissions decisions. For many students of color, instantly more was riding on the already high-stakes writing assignment. Some say they felt pressure to exploit their hardships as they competed for a spot on campus.

WASHINGTON, DC - JUNE 29: Kashish Bastola, a rising sophomore at Harvard University, hugs Nahla Owens, also a Harvard University student, outside of the Supreme Court of the United States on Thursday, June 29, 2023 in Washington, DC. In a 6-3 vote, Supreme Court Justices ruled that race-conscious admissions programs at Harvard and the University of North Carolina are unconstitutional, setting precedent for affirmative action in other universities and colleges. (Kent Nishimura / Los Angeles Times)

Supreme Court strikes down race-based affirmative action in college admissions

In another major reversal, the Supreme Court forbids the use of race as an admissions factor at colleges and universities.

June 29, 2023

Amofa was just starting to think about her essay when the court issued its decision, and it left her with a wave of questions. Could she still write about her race? Could she be penalized for it? She wanted to tell colleges about her heritage but she didn’t want to be defined by it.

In English class, Amofa and her classmates read sample essays that all seemed to focus on some trauma or hardship. It left her with the impression she had to write about her life’s hardest moments to show how far she’d come. But she and some classmates wondered if their lives had been hard enough to catch the attention of admissions offices.

This year’s senior class is the first in decades to navigate college admissions without affirmative action. The Supreme Court upheld the practice in decisions going back to the 1970s, but this court’s conservative supermajority found it is unconstitutional for colleges to give students extra weight because of their race alone.

Still, the decision left room for race to play an indirect role: Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr. wrote that universities can still consider how an applicant’s life was shaped by their race, “so long as that discussion is concretely tied to a quality of character or unique ability.”

Scores of colleges responded with new essay prompts asking about students’ backgrounds.

EL SEGUNDO, CA - OCTOBER 27, 2023: High school senior Sam Srikanth, 17, has applied to elite east coast schools like Cornell and Duke but feels anxious since the competition to be accepted at these elite colleges has intensified in the aftermath of affirmative action on October 27, 2023 in El Segundo, California.(Gina Ferazzi / Los Angeles Times)

Post-affirmative action, Asian American families are more stressed than ever about college admissions

Parents who didn’t grow up in the American system, and who may have moved to the U.S. in large part for their children’s education, feel desperate and in-the-dark. Some shell out tens of thousands of dollars for consultants as early as junior high.

Nov. 26, 2023

When Darrian Merritt started writing his essay, his first instinct was to write about events that led to him going to live with his grandmother as a child. Those were painful memories, but he thought they might play well at schools like Yale, Stanford and Vanderbilt.

“I feel like the admissions committee might expect a sob story or a tragic story,” said Merritt, a senior in Cleveland. “I wrestled with that a lot.”

Eventually he abandoned the idea and aimed for an essay that would stand out for its positivity.

Merritt wrote about a summer camp where he started to feel more comfortable in his own skin. He described embracing his personality and defying his tendency to please others. But the essay also reflects on his feelings of not being “Black enough” and being made fun of for listening to “white people music.”

Like many students, Max Decker of Portland, Ore., had drafted a college essay on one topic, only to change direction after the Supreme Court ruling in June.

Decker initially wrote about his love for video games. In a childhood surrounded by constant change, navigating his parents’ divorce, the games he took from place to place on his Nintendo DS were a source of comfort.

Los Angeles, CA - February 08: Scenes around the leafy campus of Occidental College Tuesday, Feb. 8, 2022 in Los Angeles, CA. (Brian van der Brug / Los Angeles Times)

‘We’re really worried’: What do colleges do now after affirmative action ruling?

The Supreme Court’s ban on affirmative action has triggered angst on campuses about how to promote diversity without considering race in admissions decisions.

But the essay he submitted to colleges focused on the community he found through Word Is Bond, a leadership group for young Black men in Portland.

As the only biracial, Jewish kid with divorced parents in a predominantly white, Christian community, Decker wrote he felt like the odd one out. On a trip with Word Is Bond to Capitol Hill, he and friends who looked just like him shook hands with lawmakers. The experience, he wrote, changed how he saw himself.

“It’s because I’m different that I provide something precious to the world, not the other way around,” wrote Decker, whose top college choice is Tulane in New Orleans because of the region’s diversity.

Amofa used to think affirmative action was only a factor at schools like Harvard and Yale. After the court’s ruling, she was surprised to find that race was taken into account even at public universities she was applying to.

Now, without affirmative action, she wondered if mostly white schools will become even whiter.

LOS ANGELES-CA-MARCH 11, 2020: Classes have moved to online only at UCLA on Wednesday, March 11, 2020. (Christina House / Los Angeles Times)

A lot of what you’ve heard about affirmative action is wrong

Debate leading up to the Supreme Court’s decision has stirred up plenty of misconceptions. We break down the myths and explain the reality.

It’s been on her mind as she chooses between Indiana University and the University of Dayton, both of which have relatively few Black students. When she was one of the only Black students in her grade school, she could fall back on her family and Ghanaian friends at church. At college, she worries about loneliness.

“That’s what I’m nervous about,” she said. “Going and just feeling so isolated, even though I’m constantly around people.”

The first drafts of her essay didn’t tell colleges about who she is now, she said.

Her final essay describes how she came to embrace her natural hair. She wrote about going to a mostly white grade school where classmates made jokes about her afro.

Over time, she ignored their insults and found beauty in the styles worn by women in her life. She now runs a business doing braids and other hairstyles in her neighborhood.

“Criticism will persist,” she wrote “but it loses its power when you know there’s a crown on your head!”

Collin Binkley, Annie Ma and Noreen Nasir write for the Associated Press. Binkley and Nasir reported from Chicago and Ma from Portland, Ore.

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Sept. 16, 2023

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essay on unemployment with conclusion

ChatGPT: Tell-tale signs of essays written with AI tools revealed by researchers

R epetition of words, tautology and paragraphs starting with “however” are some tell-tale features of ChatGPT ’s writing style, researchers have found.

The writing style of the artificial intelligence tool is “bland” and “journalistic”, according to a Cambridge University Press and Assessment study.

It comes after the rise of generative AI tools, like ChatGPT, has sparked concerns about cheating among pupils in the education sector.

Researchers compared essays written by three first-year undergraduate students , with the aid of ChatGPT, with 164 essays written by IGCSE students.

These essays were marked by examiners and the undergraduates were then interviewed and their essays were analysed.

The study found essays written with the help of ChatGPT performed poorly on analysis and comparison skills compared to non-ChatGPT-assisted essays.

But ChatGPT-assisted essays performed strongly on information and reflection skills.

Researchers identified a number of key features of the ChatGPT writing style, which included the use of Latinate vocabulary , repetition of words or phrases and ideas, and pleonasms.

Essays written with the help of ChatGPT were also more likely to use paragraphs starting with discourse markers like “however”, “moreover”, and “overall”, and numbered lists with items.

The researchers said ChatGPT’s default writing style “echoes the bland, clipped, and objective style that characterises much generic journalistic writing found on the internet”.

The report said: “The students found ChatGPT useful for gathering information quickly.

“However, they considered that complete reliance on this technology would produce essays of a low academic standard.”

Lead researcher Jude Brady, of Cambridge University Press and Assessment, said: “Our findings offer insights into the growing area of generative AI and assessment, which is still largely uncharted territory.

“Despite the small sample size, we are excited about these findings as they have the capacity to inform the work of teachers as well as students.”

She added: “We hope our research might help people to identify when a piece of text has been written by ChatGPT.

“For students and the wider population, learning to use and detect generative AI forms an increasingly important aspect of digital literacy.”

Register now for one of the Evening Standard’s newsletters. From a daily news briefing to Homes & Property insights, plus lifestyle, going out, offers and more. For the best stories in your inbox, click here .

AI warning

Should college essays touch on race? Some feel the affirmative action ruling leaves them no choice

When the supreme court ended affirmative action, it left the college essay as one of few places where race can play a role in admissions decisions.

Max Decker, a senior at Lincoln High School, sits for a portrait in the school library where he often worked on writing his college essays, in Portland, Ore., Wednesday, March 20, 2024.

Max Decker, a senior at Lincoln High School, sits for a portrait in the school library where he often worked on writing his college essays, in Portland, Ore., Wednesday, March 20, 2024.

Amanda Loman / AP

Like many students, Max Decker of Portland, Oregon, had drafted a college essay on one topic, only to change direction after the Supreme Court ruling in June.

Decker initially wrote about his love for video games. In a childhood surrounded by constant change, navigating his parents’ divorce, the games he took from place to place on his Nintendo DS were a source of comfort.

But the essay he submitted to colleges focused on the community he found through Word is Bond, a leadership group for young Black men in Portland.

As the only biracial, Jewish kid with divorced parents in a predominantly white, Christian community, Decker wrote he felt like the odd one out. On a trip with Word is Bond to Capitol Hill, he and friends who looked just like him shook hands with lawmakers. The experience, he wrote, changed how he saw himself.

“It’s because I’m different that I provide something precious to the world, not the other way around,” wrote Decker, whose top college choice is Tulane, in New Orleans, because of the region’s diversity.

This year’s senior class is the first in decades to navigate college admissions without affirmative action . The Supreme Court upheld the practice in decisions going back to the 1970s, but this court’s conservative supermajority found it is unconstitutional for colleges to give students extra weight because of their race alone.

Still, the decision left room for race to play an indirect role: Chief Justice John Roberts wrote universities can still consider how an applicant’s life was shaped by their race, “so long as that discussion is concretely tied to a quality of character or unique ability.”

Scores of colleges responded with new essay prompts asking about students’ backgrounds.

FILE - Demonstrators protest outside of the Supreme Court in Washington, in this June 29, 2023 file photo, after the Supreme Court struck down affirmative action in college admissions, saying race cannot be a factor.

FILE - Demonstrators protest outside of the Supreme Court in Washington, in this June 29, 2023 file photo, after the Supreme Court struck down affirmative action in college admissions, saying race cannot be a factor.

Jose Luis Magana / AP

Writing about feeling more comfortable with being Black

When Darrian Merritt started writing his essay, his first instinct was to write about events that led to him going to live with his grandmother as a child. Those were painful memories, but he thought they might play well at schools like Yale, Stanford and Vanderbilt.

“I feel like the admissions committee might expect a sob story or a tragic story,” said Merritt, a senior in Cleveland. “I wrestled with that a lot.”

Eventually he abandoned the idea and aimed for an essay that would stand out for its positivity.

Merritt wrote about a summer camp where he started to feel more comfortable in his own skin. He described embracing his personality and defying his tendency to please others. But the essay also reflects on his feelings of not being “Black enough” and getting made fun of for listening to “white people music.”

Related: Oregon colleges, universities weigh potential outcomes of US Supreme Court decision on affirmative action

Essay about how to embrace natural hair

When Hillary Amofa started writing her college essay, she told the story she thought admissions offices wanted to hear. About being the daughter of immigrants from Ghana and growing up in a small apartment in Chicago. About hardship and struggle.

Then she deleted it all.

“I would just find myself kind of trauma-dumping,” said the 18-year-old senior at Lincoln Park High School in Chicago. “And I’m just like, this doesn’t really say anything about me as a person.”

Amofa was just starting to think about her essay when the court issued its decision, and it left her with a wave of questions. Could she still write about her race? Could she be penalized for it? She wanted to tell colleges about her heritage but she didn’t want to be defined by it.

In English class, Amofa and her classmates read sample essays that all seemed to focus on some trauma or hardship. It left her with the impression she had to write about her life’s hardest moments to show how far she’d come. But she and some classmates wondered if their lives had been hard enough to catch the attention of admissions offices.

Hillary Amofa, laughs as she participates in a team building game with members of the Lincoln Park High School step team after school Friday, March 8, 2024, in Chicago. When she started writing her college essay, Amofa told the story she thought admissions offices wanted to hear. She wrote about being the daughter of immigrants from Ghana, about growing up in a small apartment in Chicago. She described hardship and struggle. Then she deleted it all. "I would just find myself kind of trauma-dumping," said the 18 year-old senior, "And I'm just like, this doesn't really say anything about me as a person."

Hillary Amofa, laughs as she participates in a team building game with members of the Lincoln Park High School step team after school Friday, March 8, 2024, in Chicago. When she started writing her college essay, Amofa told the story she thought admissions offices wanted to hear. She wrote about being the daughter of immigrants from Ghana, about growing up in a small apartment in Chicago. She described hardship and struggle. Then she deleted it all. "I would just find myself kind of trauma-dumping," said the 18 year-old senior, "And I'm just like, this doesn't really say anything about me as a person."

Charles Rex Arbogast / AP

Amofa used to think affirmative action was only a factor at schools like Harvard and Yale. After the court’s ruling, she was surprised to find that race was taken into account even at public universities she was applying to.

Now, without affirmative action, she wondered if mostly white schools will become even whiter.

It’s been on her mind as she chooses between Indiana University and the University of Dayton, both of which have relatively few Black students. When she was one of the only Black students in her grade school, she could fall back on her family and Ghanaian friends at church. At college, she worries about loneliness.

“That’s what I’m nervous about,” she said. “Going and just feeling so isolated, even though I’m constantly around people.”

Related: Some Oregon universities, politicians disappointed in Supreme Court decision on affirmative action

The first drafts of her essay didn’t tell colleges about who she is now, she said.

Her final essay describes how she came to embrace her natural hair. She wrote about going to a mostly white grade school where classmates made jokes about her afro.

Over time, she ignored their insults and found beauty in the styles worn by women in her life. She now runs a business doing braids and other hairstyles in her neighborhood.

“Criticism will persist,” she wrote “but it loses its power when you know there’s a crown on your head!”

Ma reported from Portland, Oregon.

The Associated Press’ education coverage receives financial support from multiple private foundations. AP is solely responsible for all content. Find AP’s standards for working with philanthropies, a list of supporters and funded coverage areas at AP.org .

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Should college essays touch on race? Some feel affirmative action ruling leaves no choice

When the supreme court ended affirmative action in higher education, it left the college essay as one of few places where race can play a role in admissions..

Hillary Amofa listens to others member of the Lincoln Park High School step team after...

By The Associated Press

5:20 AM on Mar 28, 2024 CDT

CHICAGO — When she started writing her college essay, Hillary Amofa told the story she thought admissions offices wanted to hear. About being the daughter of immigrants from Ghana and growing up in a small apartment in Chicago. About hardship and struggle.

Then she deleted it all.

“I would just find myself kind of trauma-dumping,” said the 18-year-old senior at Lincoln Park High School in Chicago. “And I’m just like, this doesn’t really say anything about me as a person.”

When the Supreme Court ended affirmative action in higher education, it left the college essay as one of few places where race can play a role in admissions decisions. For many students of color, instantly more was riding on the already high-stakes writing assignment. Some say they felt pressure to exploit their hardships as they competed for a spot on campus.

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Related: Gov. Abbott issues executive order fighting antisemitism at Texas colleges

Amofa was just starting to think about her essay when the court issued its decision, and it left her with a wave of questions. Could she still write about her race? Could she be penalized for it? She wanted to tell colleges about her heritage but she didn’t want to be defined by it.

In English class, Amofa and her classmates read sample essays that all seemed to focus on some trauma or hardship. It left her with the impression she had to write about her life’s hardest moments to show how far she’d come. But she and some of her classmates wondered if their lives had been hard enough to catch the attention of admissions offices.

“For a lot of students, there’s a feeling of, like, having to go through something so horrible to feel worthy of going to school, which is kind of sad,” said Amofa, the daughter of a hospital technician and an Uber driver.

Hillary Amofa (second from left), practices with members of the Lincoln Park High School...

This year’s senior class is the first in decades to navigate college admissions without affirmative action. The Supreme Court upheld the practice in decisions going back to the 1970s, but this court’s conservative supermajority found it is unconstitutional for colleges to give students extra weight because of their race alone.

Still, the decision left room for race to play an indirect role: Chief Justice John Roberts wrote universities can still consider how an applicant’s life was shaped by their race, “so long as that discussion is concretely tied to a quality of character or unique ability.”

“A benefit to a student who overcame racial discrimination, for example, must be tied to that student’s courage and determination,” he wrote.

Scores of colleges responded with new essay prompts asking about students’ backgrounds. Brown University asked applicants how “an aspect of your growing up has inspired or challenged you.” Rice University asked students how their perspectives were shaped by their “background, experiences, upbringing, and/or racial identity.”

Do schools ‘expect a sob story’?

When Darrian Merritt started writing his essay, he knew the stakes were higher than ever because of the court’s decision. His first instinct was to write about events that led to him going to live with his grandmother as a child.

Those were painful memories, but he thought they might play well at schools like Yale, Stanford and Vanderbilt.

“I feel like the admissions committee might expect a sob story or a tragic story,” said Merritt, a senior in Cleveland. “And if you don’t provide that, then maybe they’re not going to feel like you went through enough to deserve having a spot at the university. I wrestled with that a lot.”

Related: Texas colleges risk millions if they break DEI ban, lawmaker says

He wrote drafts focusing on his childhood, but it never amounted to more than a collection of memories. Eventually he abandoned the idea and aimed for an essay that would stand out for its positivity.

Merritt wrote about a summer camp where he started to feel more comfortable in his own skin. He described embracing his personality and defying his tendency to please others. The essay had humor — it centered on a water gun fight where he had victory in sight but, in a comedic twist, slipped and fell. But the essay also reflects on his feelings of not being “Black enough” and getting made fun of for listening to “white people music.”

“I was like, ‘OK, I’m going to write this for me, and we’re just going to see how it goes,’” he said. “It just felt real, and it felt like an honest story.”

The essay describes a breakthrough as he learned “to take ownership of myself and my future by sharing my true personality with the people I encounter. ... I realized that the first chapter of my own story had just been written.”

Ruling prompts pivots on essay topics

Like many students, Max Decker of Portland, Ore., had drafted a college essay on one topic, only to change direction after the Supreme Court ruling in June.

Decker initially wrote about his love for video games. In a childhood surrounded by constant change, navigating his parents’ divorce, the games he took from place to place on his Nintendo DS were a source of comfort.

But the essay he submitted to colleges focused on the community he found through Word is Bond, a leadership group for young Black men in Portland.

Max Decker, a senior at Lincoln High School in Portland, Ore., sits Wednesday, March 20,...

As the only biracial, Jewish kid with divorced parents in a predominantly white, Christian community, Decker wrote he constantly felt like the odd one out. On a trip with Word is Bond to Capitol Hill, he and friends who looked just like him shook hands with lawmakers. The experience, he wrote, changed how he saw himself.

“It’s because I’m different that I provide something precious to the world, not the other way around,” he wrote.

As a first-generation college student, Decker thought about the subtle ways his peers seemed to know more about navigating the admissions process. They made sure to get into advanced classes at the start of high school, and they knew how to secure glowing letters of recommendation.

If writing about race would give him a slight edge and show admissions officers a fuller picture of his achievements, he wanted to take that small advantage.

His first memory about race, Decker said, was when he went to get a haircut in elementary school and the barber made rude comments about his curly hair. Until recently, the insecurity that moment created led him to keep his hair buzzed short.

Related: Dallas approves more than $30 million in contracts to improve sidewalks citywide

Through Word is Bond, Decker said he found a space to explore his identity as a Black man. It was one of the first times he was surrounded by Black peers and saw Black role models. It filled him with a sense of pride in his identity. No more buzzcut.

The pressure to write about race involved a tradeoff with other important things in his life, Decker said. That included his passion for journalism, like the piece he wrote on efforts to revive a once-thriving Black neighborhood in Portland. In the end, he squeezed in 100 characters about his journalism under the application’s activities section.

“My final essay, it felt true to myself. But the difference between that and my other essay was the fact that it wasn’t the truth that I necessarily wanted to share,” said Decker, whose top college choice is Tulane, in New Orleans, because of the region’s diversity. “It felt like I just had to limit the truth I was sharing to what I feel like the world is expecting of me.”

Spelling out the impact of race

Before the Supreme Court ruling, it seemed a given to Imani Laird that colleges would consider the ways that race had touched her life. But now, she felt like she had to spell it out.

As she started her essay, she reflected on how she had faced bias or felt overlooked as a Black student in predominantly white spaces.

There was the year in math class when the teacher kept calling her by the name of another Black student. There were the comments that she’d have an easier time getting into college because she was Black.

Related: Federal appeals court questions legality of Texas immigration law

“I didn’t have it easier because of my race,” said Laird, a senior at Newton South High School in the Boston suburbs who was accepted at Wellesley and Howard University, and is waiting to hear from several Ivy League colleges. “I had stuff I had to overcome.”

In her final essays, she wrote about her grandfather, who served in the military but was denied access to GI Bill benefits because of his race.

She described how discrimination fueled her ambition to excel and pursue a career in public policy.

“So, I never settled for mediocrity,” she wrote. “Regardless of the subject, my goal in class was not just to participate but to excel. Beyond academics, I wanted to excel while remembering what started this motivation in the first place.”

Will schools lose racial diversity?

Amofa used to think affirmative action was only a factor at schools like Harvard and Yale. After the court’s ruling, she was surprised to find that race was taken into account even at some public universities she was applying to.

Now, without affirmative action, she wondered if mostly white schools will become even whiter.

It’s been on her mind as she chooses between Indiana University and the University of Dayton, both of which have relatively few Black students. When she was one of the only Black students in her grade school, she could fall back on her family and Ghanaian friends at church. At college, she worries about loneliness.

“That’s what I’m nervous about,” she said. “Going and just feeling so isolated, even though I’m constantly around people.”

Hillary Amofa is shown at Lincoln Park High School in Chicago on Friday, March 8, 2024.

The first drafts of her essay focused on growing up in a low-income family, sharing a bedroom with her brother and grandmother. But it didn’t tell colleges about who she is now, she said.

Her final essay tells how she came to embrace her natural hair. She wrote about going to a mostly white grade school where classmates made jokes about her afro. When her grandmother sent her back with braids or cornrows, they made fun of those too.

Over time, she ignored their insults and found beauty in the styles worn by women in her life. She now runs a business doing braids and other hairstyles in her neighborhood.

“I stopped seeing myself through the lens of the European traditional beauty standards and started seeing myself through the lens that I created,” Amofa wrote.

“Criticism will persist, but it loses its power when you know there’s a crown on your head!”

By Collin Binkley, Annie Ma and Noreen Nasir of The Associated Press

The Associated Press

The Associated Press

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Unemployment: Causes and Effects Essay

Unemployment is a significant social and economic problem. Not always positive aspects of enterprise development contribute to a decrease in the percentage of unemployed. The negative impact may be cumulative along with phenomena such as inflation external factors, including the pandemic. Difficulties in obtaining an education for low-income families only widen the gap between the rich and the poor, which in America is already the largest in the world (Telford, 2019). Consequently, the leading causes of unemployment are inflation, advanced technology, and lack of education or skills for employment.

Inflation drives up prices in the economy. Naturally, the price of both products and the materials they have produced increases. Employers seek to recoup the costs of inflation by constantly increasing the financial performance of sales. One of these methods is to increase the gross profit ratio by reducing the cost of production. As a result, the company seeks to optimize costs by reducing wages and saving on various employee benefits. This unfair practice leads to layoffs.

One of the vectors of technology development, which is now the most crucial unemployment, is automation. The replacement of human labor brings the company to eliminate the human error factor, the ability to operate robots around the clock, reducing jobs. From an economic point of view, many of yesterday’s professionals consider their position obsolete and remain without skilled work. A possible way out of this situation is to retrain as a consultant to maintain such machines.

The lack of skills can be caused by several reasons, from income inequality that limits access to education to the narrow specialization of a company that requires training. On-the-job training requires, in turn, the cost of human and time resources, which can affect the company’s operations. As a result, many companies do not train employees but want to get a qualified specialist with a high salary immediately. Applicants lacking these skills are forced to remain unqualified, contributing to rising unemployment and shortages.

Telford, T. (2019). Income inequality in America is the highest it’s been since Census Bureau started tracking it, data shows. Washington Post , 26. Web.

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