- Publication Recognition
How to Make a PowerPoint Presentation of Your Research Paper
- 4 minute read
- 94.4K views
Table of Contents
A research paper presentation is often used at conferences and in other settings where you have an opportunity to share your research, and get feedback from your colleagues. Although it may seem as simple as summarizing your research and sharing your knowledge, successful research paper PowerPoint presentation examples show us that there’s a little bit more than that involved.
In this article, we’ll highlight how to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper, and what to include (as well as what NOT to include). We’ll also touch on how to present a research paper at a conference.
Purpose of a Research Paper Presentation
The purpose of presenting your paper at a conference or forum is different from the purpose of conducting your research and writing up your paper. In this setting, you want to highlight your work instead of including every detail of your research. Likewise, a presentation is an excellent opportunity to get direct feedback from your colleagues in the field. But, perhaps the main reason for presenting your research is to spark interest in your work, and entice the audience to read your research paper.
So, yes, your presentation should summarize your work, but it needs to do so in a way that encourages your audience to seek out your work, and share their interest in your work with others. It’s not enough just to present your research dryly, to get information out there. More important is to encourage engagement with you, your research, and your work.
Tips for Creating Your Research Paper Presentation
In addition to basic PowerPoint presentation recommendations, which we’ll cover later in this article, think about the following when you’re putting together your research paper presentation:
- Know your audience : First and foremost, who are you presenting to? Students? Experts in your field? Potential funders? Non-experts? The truth is that your audience will probably have a bit of a mix of all of the above. So, make sure you keep that in mind as you prepare your presentation.
Know more about: Discover the Target Audience .
- Your audience is human : In other words, they may be tired, they might be wondering why they’re there, and they will, at some point, be tuning out. So, take steps to help them stay interested in your presentation. You can do that by utilizing effective visuals, summarize your conclusions early, and keep your research easy to understand.
- Running outline : It’s not IF your audience will drift off, or get lost…it’s WHEN. Keep a running outline, either within the presentation or via a handout. Use visual and verbal clues to highlight where you are in the presentation.
- Where does your research fit in? You should know of work related to your research, but you don’t have to cite every example. In addition, keep references in your presentation to the end, or in the handout. Your audience is there to hear about your work.
- Plan B : Anticipate possible questions for your presentation, and prepare slides that answer those specific questions in more detail, but have them at the END of your presentation. You can then jump to them, IF needed.
What Makes a PowerPoint Presentation Effective?
You’ve probably attended a presentation where the presenter reads off of their PowerPoint outline, word for word. Or where the presentation is busy, disorganized, or includes too much information. Here are some simple tips for creating an effective PowerPoint Presentation.
- Less is more: You want to give enough information to make your audience want to read your paper. So include details, but not too many, and avoid too many formulas and technical jargon.
- Clean and professional : Avoid excessive colors, distracting backgrounds, font changes, animations, and too many words. Instead of whole paragraphs, bullet points with just a few words to summarize and highlight are best.
- Know your real-estate : Each slide has a limited amount of space. Use it wisely. Typically one, no more than two points per slide. Balance each slide visually. Utilize illustrations when needed; not extraneously.
- Keep things visual : Remember, a PowerPoint presentation is a powerful tool to present things visually. Use visual graphs over tables and scientific illustrations over long text. Keep your visuals clean and professional, just like any text you include in your presentation.
Know more about our Scientific Illustrations Services .
Another key to an effective presentation is to practice, practice, and then practice some more. When you’re done with your PowerPoint, go through it with friends and colleagues to see if you need to add (or delete excessive) information. Double and triple check for typos and errors. Know the presentation inside and out, so when you’re in front of your audience, you’ll feel confident and comfortable.
How to Present a Research Paper
If your PowerPoint presentation is solid, and you’ve practiced your presentation, that’s half the battle. Follow the basic advice to keep your audience engaged and interested by making eye contact, encouraging questions, and presenting your information with enthusiasm.
We encourage you to read our articles on how to present a scientific journal article and tips on giving good scientific presentations .
Language Editing Plus
Improve the flow and writing of your research paper with Language Editing Plus. This service includes unlimited editing, manuscript formatting for the journal of your choice, reference check and even a customized cover letter. Learn more here , and get started today!
- Manuscript Preparation
Know How to Structure Your PhD Thesis
- Research Process
Systematic Literature Review or Literature Review?
You may also like.
The Importance of Using Strategic Keywords in Research Papers
How to Write and Improve your Researcher Profile
How to Submit a Paper to a Conference
How to Write an Academic Blog Post and Get Noticed
Lay Summary: Promote Your Work Outside Academia
How to Network at an Academic Conference
Article Metrics: Measure the Impact of Your Publications
Using Social Media to Promote Research
Input your search keywords and press Enter.
Princeton Correspondents on Undergraduate Research
How to Make a Successful Research Presentation
Turning a research paper into a visual presentation is difficult; there are pitfalls, and navigating the path to a brief, informative presentation takes time and practice. As a TA for GEO/WRI 201: Methods in Data Analysis & Scientific Writing this past fall, I saw how this process works from an instructor’s standpoint. I’ve presented my own research before, but helping others present theirs taught me a bit more about the process. Here are some tips I learned that may help you with your next research presentation:
More is more
In general, your presentation will always benefit from more practice, more feedback, and more revision. By practicing in front of friends, you can get comfortable with presenting your work while receiving feedback. It is hard to know how to revise your presentation if you never practice. If you are presenting to a general audience, getting feedback from someone outside of your discipline is crucial. Terms and ideas that seem intuitive to you may be completely foreign to someone else, and your well-crafted presentation could fall flat.
Less is more
Limit the scope of your presentation, the number of slides, and the text on each slide. In my experience, text works well for organizing slides, orienting the audience to key terms, and annotating important figures–not for explaining complex ideas. Having fewer slides is usually better as well. In general, about one slide per minute of presentation is an appropriate budget. Too many slides is usually a sign that your topic is too broad.
Limit the scope of your presentation
Don’t present your paper. Presentations are usually around 10 min long. You will not have time to explain all of the research you did in a semester (or a year!) in such a short span of time. Instead, focus on the highlight(s). Identify a single compelling research question which your work addressed, and craft a succinct but complete narrative around it.
You will not have time to explain all of the research you did. Instead, focus on the highlights. Identify a single compelling research question which your work addressed, and craft a succinct but complete narrative around it.
Craft a compelling research narrative
After identifying the focused research question, walk your audience through your research as if it were a story. Presentations with strong narrative arcs are clear, captivating, and compelling.
- Introduction (exposition — rising action)
Orient the audience and draw them in by demonstrating the relevance and importance of your research story with strong global motive. Provide them with the necessary vocabulary and background knowledge to understand the plot of your story. Introduce the key studies (characters) relevant in your story and build tension and conflict with scholarly and data motive. By the end of your introduction, your audience should clearly understand your research question and be dying to know how you resolve the tension built through motive.
- Methods (rising action)
The methods section should transition smoothly and logically from the introduction. Beware of presenting your methods in a boring, arc-killing, ‘this is what I did.’ Focus on the details that set your story apart from the stories other people have already told. Keep the audience interested by clearly motivating your decisions based on your original research question or the tension built in your introduction.
- Results (climax)
Less is usually more here. Only present results which are clearly related to the focused research question you are presenting. Make sure you explain the results clearly so that your audience understands what your research found. This is the peak of tension in your narrative arc, so don’t undercut it by quickly clicking through to your discussion.
- Discussion (falling action)
By now your audience should be dying for a satisfying resolution. Here is where you contextualize your results and begin resolving the tension between past research. Be thorough. If you have too many conflicts left unresolved, or you don’t have enough time to present all of the resolutions, you probably need to further narrow the scope of your presentation.
- Conclusion (denouement)
Return back to your initial research question and motive, resolving any final conflicts and tying up loose ends. Leave the audience with a clear resolution of your focus research question, and use unresolved tension to set up potential sequels (i.e. further research).
Use your medium to enhance the narrative
Visual presentations should be dominated by clear, intentional graphics. Subtle animation in key moments (usually during the results or discussion) can add drama to the narrative arc and make conflict resolutions more satisfying. You are narrating a story written in images, videos, cartoons, and graphs. While your paper is mostly text, with graphics to highlight crucial points, your slides should be the opposite. Adapting to the new medium may require you to create or acquire far more graphics than you included in your paper, but it is necessary to create an engaging presentation.
The most important thing you can do for your presentation is to practice and revise. Bother your friends, your roommates, TAs–anybody who will sit down and listen to your work. Beyond that, think about presentations you have found compelling and try to incorporate some of those elements into your own. Remember you want your work to be comprehensible; you aren’t creating experts in 10 minutes. Above all, try to stay passionate about what you did and why. You put the time in, so show your audience that it’s worth it.
For more insight into research presentations, check out these past PCUR posts written by Emma and Ellie .
— Alec Getraer, Natural Sciences Correspondent
- Share on Tumblr
- Online Degree Explore Bachelor’s & Master’s degrees
- MasterTrack™ Earn credit towards a Master’s degree
- University Certificates Advance your career with graduate-level learning
- Top Courses
- Join for Free
How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper (Project-Centered Course)
Taught in English
Some content may not be translated
Financial aid available
167,027 already enrolled
Gain insight into a topic and learn the fundamentals
Instructor: Mathis Plapp
Included with Coursera Plus
Details to know
Add to your LinkedIn profile
See how employees at top companies are mastering in-demand skills
Earn a career certificate
Add this credential to your LinkedIn profile, resume, or CV
Share it on social media and in your performance review
There are 4 modules in this course
What you will achieve:
In this project-based course, you will outline a complete scientific paper, choose an appropriate journal to which you'll submit the finished paper for publication, and prepare a checklist that will allow you to independently judge whether your paper is ready to submit. What you'll need to get started: This course is designed for students who have previous experience with academic research - you should be eager to adapt our writing and publishing advice to an existing personal project. If you just finished your graduate dissertation, just began your PhD, or are at a different stage of your academic journey or career and just want to publish your work, this course is for you. *About Project-Centered Courses: Project-Centered Courses are designed to help you complete a personally meaningful real-world project, with your instructor and a community of learners with similar goals providing guidance and suggestions along the way. By actively applying new concepts as you learn, you’ll master the course content more efficiently; you’ll also get a head start on using the skills you gain to make positive changes in your life and career. When you complete the course, you’ll have a finished project that you’ll be proud to use and share.
In this section of the MOOC, you will learn what is necessary before writing a paper: the context in which the scientist is publishing. You will learn how to know your own community, through different exemples, and then we will present you how scientific journal and publication works. We will finish with a couple of ethical values that the academic world is sharing!
8 videos 4 readings 5 quizzes 2 discussion prompts
8 videos • Total 28 minutes
- Introduction by Mathis Plapp • 1 minute • Preview module
- Let me walk you through the course • 3 minutes
- French version of the class • 0 minutes
- Why is publishing important? • 3 minutes
- "KYC": Know Your Community • 4 minutes
- How journals work: the review process • 4 minutes
- Presentation of scientific journals • 4 minutes
- Ethical Guidelines • 5 minutes
4 readings • Total 40 minutes
- Teaching team • 10 minutes
- Breakthroughs! • 10 minutes
- Additional contents • 10 minutes
- Examples of guidelines • 10 minutes
5 quizzes • Total 150 minutes
- Why is publishing important? • 30 minutes
- Know your community • 30 minutes
- How journals work: the review process • 30 minutes
- Communication with the editorial board • 30 minutes
- Ethical Guidelines and intellectual property • 30 minutes
2 discussion prompts • Total 20 minutes
- Your thoughts • 10 minutes
- Compatibility between paper submission and editorial board • 10 minutes
Before writing: delimiting your scientific paper
A good paper do not loose focus throughout the entirety of its form. As such, we are going to give you a more detailed view on how to delimit your paper. We are going to lead you through your paper by taking a closer look at the paper definition which will ensure you don't loose focus. Then we will explain why the literature review is important and how to actually do it. And then we will guide you with advices as to how to find the so-what of your paper! This is important as research is all about so-what!
6 videos 1 reading 5 quizzes 4 discussion prompts
6 videos • Total 26 minutes
- Paper definition "KYP", Know Your Paper • 3 minutes • Preview module
- How to: the literature review 1/2: find a good literature review • 3 minutes
- How to: the literature review 2/2: construction of your own literature review • 6 minutes
- How to: the research design • 3 minutes
- How to: the gap • 4 minutes
- Presentation of Zotero: aggregate references • 4 minutes
1 reading • Total 10 minutes
- Books and tools • 10 minutes
- Literature Review • 30 minutes
- Main ideas • 30 minutes
- The Gap? • 30 minutes
- So, what? • 30 minutes
- Think about it • 30 minutes
4 discussion prompts • Total 40 minutes
- Compatibility between paper and journal • 10 minutes
- Understanding how the literature review is structured • 10 minutes
- Finding Useful References: Difficulties & Strategies for Success. • 10 minutes
- Comparing different research designs on the same subject • 10 minutes
Writing the paper: things you need to know
In this part of the MOOC, you will learn how to write your paper. In a first part, we will focus on the structure of the paper, and then you will be able to see how to use bibliographical tools such as zotero. Finally you will be required to write your own abstract and to do a peer review for the abstract of the others, as in real academic life!
5 videos 2 readings 2 quizzes 1 peer review 2 discussion prompts
5 videos • Total 27 minutes
- The structure of an academic paper • 7 minutes • Preview module
- On writing an academic paper, preliminary tips • 6 minutes
- How to: the bibliography • 3 minutes
- The abstract • 6 minutes
- Zotero: online features • 3 minutes
2 readings • Total 20 minutes
- Important readings before writing a paper • 10 minutes
- More detailed information on how to write your article • 10 minutes
2 quizzes • Total 60 minutes
- The bibliography • 30 minutes
- Please, try by yourself • 30 minutes
1 peer review • Total 60 minutes
- Peer reviewing of an abstract • 60 minutes
- Comparing different constructions of papers • 10 minutes
- Discussing abstracts • 10 minutes
After the writing: the check list
After writing the paper comes the time of reading your paper a few times in order to get everything perfect.In this section you will learn how to remove a lot of mistakes you might have been writing. In the end, you will have to build your own checklist corresponding to your own problems you want to avoid. After this, your article can be submitted and will hopefully be accepted!!
5 videos 3 readings 1 peer review 1 discussion prompt
5 videos • Total 36 minutes
- How to avoid being boring? • 5 minutes • Preview module
- The main mistakes to look for: format • 3 minutes
- 1. The researcher • 9 minutes
- 2. The editor • 13 minutes
- Constructing your checklist • 4 minutes
3 readings • Total 30 minutes
- Avoiding mistakes • 10 minutes
- Format and Writing Readings • 10 minutes
- Tips • 10 minutes
- Now it is your turn: the checking list • 60 minutes
1 discussion prompt • Total 10 minutes
- Several content worth taking a look at • 10 minutes
We asked all learners to give feedback on our instructors based on the quality of their teaching style.
École polytechnique combines research, teaching and innovation at the highest scientific and technological level worldwide to meet the challenges of the 21st century. At the forefront of French engineering schools for more than 200 years, its education promotes a culture of multidisciplinary scientific excellence, open in a strong humanist tradition.\n L’École polytechnique associe recherche, enseignement et innovation au meilleur niveau scientifique et technologique mondial pour répondre aux défis du XXIe siècle. En tête des écoles d’ingénieur françaises depuis plus de 200 ans, sa formation promeut une culture d’excellence scientifique pluridisciplinaire, ouverte dans une forte tradition humaniste.
Recommended if you're interested in Education
University of Cape Town
Research for Impact
O.P. Jindal Global University
Introduction to Academic Writing
Johns Hopkins University
Introduction to Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
University of London
Understanding Research Methods
Why people choose coursera for their career.
Showing 3 of 2496
Reviewed on Apr 11, 2020
The content was very good and explanation was excellent just there was a slight problem with instructors accent but don't worry you will get used to it no time but the course is excellent and helpful
Reviewed on Jun 20, 2020
It was really helpful to me, I hope it will be useful to all researchers who are intensively working for publishing papers in journals. I thank all course instructors who handled the video sessions.
Reviewed on Jun 2, 2020
Good, and friendly. There is no teacher involved, only students, so it's more like listening to your fellow classmates, who are little better than you. The interview with the publisher was good.
Open new doors with Coursera Plus
Unlimited access to 7,000+ world-class courses, hands-on projects, and job-ready certificate programs - all included in your subscription
Advance your career with an online degree
Earn a degree from world-class universities - 100% online
Join over 3,400 global companies that choose Coursera for Business
Upskill your employees to excel in the digital economy
Frequently asked questions
When will i have access to the lectures and assignments.
Access to lectures and assignments depends on your type of enrollment. If you take a course in audit mode, you will be able to see most course materials for free. To access graded assignments and to earn a Certificate, you will need to purchase the Certificate experience, during or after your audit. If you don't see the audit option:
The course may not offer an audit option. You can try a Free Trial instead, or apply for Financial Aid.
The course may offer 'Full Course, No Certificate' instead. This option lets you see all course materials, submit required assessments, and get a final grade. This also means that you will not be able to purchase a Certificate experience.
What will I get if I purchase the Certificate?
When you purchase a Certificate you get access to all course materials, including graded assignments. Upon completing the course, your electronic Certificate will be added to your Accomplishments page - from there, you can print your Certificate or add it to your LinkedIn profile. If you only want to read and view the course content, you can audit the course for free.
What is the refund policy?
You will be eligible for a full refund until two weeks after your payment date, or (for courses that have just launched) until two weeks after the first session of the course begins, whichever is later. You cannot receive a refund once you’ve earned a Course Certificate, even if you complete the course within the two-week refund period. See our full refund policy Opens in a new tab .
Is financial aid available?
Yes. In select learning programs, you can apply for financial aid or a scholarship if you can’t afford the enrollment fee. If fin aid or scholarship is available for your learning program selection, you’ll find a link to apply on the description page.
You are using an outdated browser . Please upgrade your browser today !
How to Write and Publish a Research Paper in 7 Steps
What comes next after you're done with your research? Publishing the results in a journal of course! We tell you how to present your work in the best way possible.
This post is part of a series, which serves to provide hands-on information and resources for authors and editors.
Things have gotten busy in scholarly publishing: These days, a new article gets published in the 50,000 most important peer-reviewed journals every few seconds, while each one takes on average 40 minutes to read. Hundreds of thousands of papers reach the desks of editors and reviewers worldwide each year and 50% of all submissions end up rejected at some stage.
In a nutshell: there is a lot of competition, and the people who decide upon the fate of your manuscript are short on time and overworked. But there are ways to make their lives a little easier and improve your own chances of getting your work published!
Well, it may seem obvious, but before submitting an academic paper, always make sure that it is an excellent reflection of the research you have done and that you present it in the most professional way possible. Incomplete or poorly presented manuscripts can create a great deal of frustration and annoyance for editors who probably won’t even bother wasting the time of the reviewers!
This post will discuss 7 steps to the successful publication of your research paper:
- Check whether your research is publication-ready
- Choose an article type
- Choose a journal
- Construct your paper
- Decide the order of authors
- Check and double-check
- Submit your paper
1. Check Whether Your Research Is Publication-Ready
Should you publish your research at all?
If your work holds academic value – of course – a well-written scholarly article could open doors to your research community. However, if you are not yet sure, whether your research is ready for publication, here are some key questions to ask yourself depending on your field of expertise:
- Have you done or found something new and interesting? Something unique?
- Is the work directly related to a current hot topic?
- Have you checked the latest results or research in the field?
- Have you provided solutions to any difficult problems?
- Have the findings been verified?
- Have the appropriate controls been performed if required?
- Are your findings comprehensive?
If the answers to all relevant questions are “yes”, you need to prepare a good, strong manuscript. Remember, a research paper is only useful if it is clearly understood, reproducible and if it is read and used .
2. Choose An Article Type
The first step is to determine which type of paper is most appropriate for your work and what you want to achieve. The following list contains the most important, usually peer-reviewed article types in the natural sciences:
Full original research papers disseminate completed research findings. On average this type of paper is 8-10 pages long, contains five figures, and 25-30 references. Full original research papers are an important part of the process when developing your career.
Review papers present a critical synthesis of a specific research topic. These papers are usually much longer than original papers and will contain numerous references. More often than not, they will be commissioned by journal editors. Reviews present an excellent way to solidify your research career.
Letters, Rapid or Short Communications are often published for the quick and early communication of significant and original advances. They are much shorter than full articles and usually limited in length by the journal. Journals specifically dedicated to short communications or letters are also published in some fields. In these the authors can present short preliminary findings before developing a full-length paper.
3. Choose a Journal
Are you looking for the right place to publish your paper? Find out here whether a De Gruyter journal might be the right fit.
Submit to journals that you already read, that you have a good feel for. If you do so, you will have a better appreciation of both its culture and the requirements of the editors and reviewers.
Other factors to consider are:
- The specific subject area
- The aims and scope of the journal
- The type of manuscript you have written
- The significance of your work
- The reputation of the journal
- The reputation of the editors within the community
- The editorial/review and production speeds of the journal
- The community served by the journal
- The coverage and distribution
- The accessibility ( open access vs. closed access)
4. Construct Your Paper
Each element of a paper has its purpose, so you should make these sections easy to index and search.
Don’t forget that requirements can differ highly per publication, so always make sure to apply a journal’s specific instructions – or guide – for authors to your manuscript, even to the first draft (text layout, paper citation, nomenclature, figures and table, etc.) It will save you time, and the editor’s.
Also, even in these days of Internet-based publishing, space is still at a premium, so be as concise as possible. As a good journalist would say: “Never use three words when one will do!”
Let’s look at the typical structure of a full research paper, but bear in mind certain subject disciplines may have their own specific requirements so check the instructions for authors on the journal’s home page.
4.1 The Title
It’s important to use the title to tell the reader what your paper is all about! You want to attract their attention, a bit like a newspaper headline does. Be specific and to the point. Keep it informative and concise, and avoid jargon and abbreviations (unless they are universally recognized like DNA, for example).
4.2 The Abstract
This could be termed as the “advertisement” for your article. Make it interesting and easily understood without the reader having to read the whole article. Be accurate and specific, and keep it as brief and concise as possible. Some journals (particularly in the medical fields) will ask you to structure the abstract in distinct, labeled sections, which makes it even more accessible.
A clear abstract will influence whether or not your work is considered and whether an editor should invest more time on it or send it for review.
Keywords are used by abstracting and indexing services, such as PubMed and Web of Science. They are the labels of your manuscript, which make it “searchable” online by other researchers.
Include words or phrases (usually 4-8) that are closely related to your topic but not “too niche” for anyone to find them. Make sure to only use established abbreviations. Think about what scientific terms and its variations your potential readers are likely to use and search for. You can also do a test run of your selected keywords in one of the common academic search engines. Do similar articles to your own appear? Yes? Then that’s a good sign.
This first part of the main text should introduce the problem, as well as any existing solutions you are aware of and the main limitations. Also, state what you hope to achieve with your research.
Do not confuse the introduction with the results, discussion or conclusion.
Every research article should include a detailed Methods section (also referred to as “Materials and Methods”) to provide the reader with enough information to be able to judge whether the study is valid and reproducible.
Include detailed information so that a knowledgeable reader can reproduce the experiment. However, use references and supplementary materials to indicate previously published procedures.
In this section, you will present the essential or primary results of your study. To display them in a comprehensible way, you should use subheadings as well as illustrations such as figures, graphs, tables and photos, as appropriate.
Here you should tell your readers what the results mean .
Do state how the results relate to the study’s aims and hypotheses and how the findings relate to those of other studies. Explain all possible interpretations of your findings and the study’s limitations.
Do not make “grand statements” that are not supported by the data. Also, do not introduce any new results or terms. Moreover, do not ignore work that conflicts or disagrees with your findings. Instead …
Be brave! Address conflicting study results and convince the reader you are the one who is correct.
Your conclusion isn’t just a summary of what you’ve already written. It should take your paper one step further and answer any unresolved questions.
Sum up what you have shown in your study and indicate possible applications and extensions. The main question your conclusion should answer is: What do my results mean for the research field and my community?
4.9 Acknowledgments and Ethical Statements
It is extremely important to acknowledge anyone who has helped you with your paper, including researchers who supplied materials or reagents (e.g. vectors or antibodies); and anyone who helped with the writing or English, or offered critical comments about the content.
Learn more about academic integrity in our blog post “Scholarly Publication Ethics: 4 Common Mistakes You Want To Avoid” .
Remember to state why people have been acknowledged and ask their permission . Ensure that you acknowledge sources of funding, including any grant or reference numbers.
Furthermore, if you have worked with animals or humans, you need to include information about the ethical approval of your study and, if applicable, whether informed consent was given. Also, state whether you have any competing interests regarding the study (e.g. because of financial or personal relationships.)
The end is in sight, but don’t relax just yet!
De facto, there are often more mistakes in the references than in any other part of the manuscript. It is also one of the most annoying and time-consuming problems for editors.
Remember to cite the main scientific publications on which your work is based. But do not inflate the manuscript with too many references. Avoid excessive – and especially unnecessary – self-citations. Also, avoid excessive citations of publications from the same institute or region.
5. Decide the Order of Authors
In the sciences, the most common way to order the names of the authors is by relative contribution.
Generally, the first author conducts and/or supervises the data analysis and the proper presentation and interpretation of the results. They put the paper together and usually submit the paper to the journal.
Co-authors make intellectual contributions to the data analysis and contribute to data interpretation. They review each paper draft. All of them must be able to present the paper and its results, as well as to defend the implications and discuss study limitations.
Do not leave out authors who should be included or add “gift authors”, i.e. authors who did not contribute significantly.
6. Check and Double-Check
As a final step before submission, ask colleagues to read your work and be constructively critical .
Make sure that the paper is appropriate for the journal – take a last look at their aims and scope. Check if all of the requirements in the instructions for authors are met.
Ensure that the cited literature is balanced. Are the aims, purpose and significance of the results clear?
Conduct a final check for language, either by a native English speaker or an editing service.
7. Submit Your Paper
When you and your co-authors have double-, triple-, quadruple-checked the manuscript: submit it via e-mail or online submission system. Along with your manuscript, submit a cover letter, which highlights the reasons why your paper would appeal to the journal and which ensures that you have received approval of all authors for submission.
It is up to the editors and the peer-reviewers now to provide you with their (ideally constructive and helpful) comments and feedback. Time to take a breather!
If the paper gets rejected, do not despair – it happens to literally everybody. If the journal suggests major or minor revisions, take the chance to provide a thorough response and make improvements as you see fit. If the paper gets accepted, congrats!
It’s now time to get writing and share your hard work – good luck!
If you are interested, check out this related blog post
[Title Image by Nick Morrison via Unsplash]
David Sleeman worked as Senior Journals Manager in the field of Physical Sciences at De Gruyter.
You might also be interested in
Academia & Publishing
15 Holiday Reads for the Intellectually Curious
How “second-hand libraries” breathe new life into old buildings, subscribe to open: how to make the shift to open access more inclusive, visit our shop.
De Gruyter publishes over 1,300 new book titles each year and more than 750 journals in the humanities, social sciences, medicine, mathematics, engineering, computer sciences, natural sciences, and law.
Pin It on Pinterest
Papers and Presentations
Main navigation, presenting at a conference provides many opportunities to professionalize your work.
- Develop the skill to write succinctly about your work in a compelling way.
- Receive valuable feedback on your presentation.
- Learn about the latest developments in your field or discipline.
- Meet your peers and other researchers from different schools and learn about possible graduate programs.
Talk to your faculty mentor about submitting abstracts to appropriate conferences in your field.
Undergraduate Research Student Grants support students presenting their work at peer reviewed scholarly conferences. Learn more about Undergraduate Research Conference Grants here .
Publishing a paper
Complete your independent project by writing a research paper, for possible submission to journals at Stanford or outside Stanford. You may also consider presenting your work in more accessible forms in newspapers, magazines, radio, and on the web.
Seek recommendations from your faculty mentor about the appropriate outlet for your work.
Consider the opportunities for publication offered by the Stanford Undergraduate Research Journal and other student journals on campus.
Volunteer Project Presentation
Undergraduate Research also encourages current student volunteers to present their project posters or to speak about their project experiences to students who are not yet engaged in these pursuits. Some of these info session events may be dorm presentations with Undergraduate Research staff, and you may like to consider contributing especially to your first year or sophomore year dorms. Please indicate the sites where you would like to give such a presentation. You will be playing a part in guiding students as they explore their interests and begin their own independent projects!
- Locations and Hours
- UCLA Library
- Research Guides
- Research Tips and Tools
Advanced Research Methods
- Presenting the Research Paper
- What Is Research?
- Library Research
- Writing a Research Proposal
- Writing the Research Paper
Writing an Abstract
Oral presentation, compiling a powerpoint.
Abstract : a short statement that describes a longer work.
- Indicate the subject.
- Describe the purpose of the investigation.
- Briefly discuss the method used.
- Make a statement about the result.
Oral presentations usually introduce a discussion of a topic or research paper. A good oral presentation is focused, concise, and interesting in order to trigger a discussion.
- Be well prepared; write a detailed outline.
- Introduce the subject.
- Talk about the sources and the method.
- Indicate if there are conflicting views about the subject (conflicting views trigger discussion).
- Make a statement about your new results (if this is your research paper).
- Use visual aids or handouts if appropriate.
An effective PowerPoint presentation is just an aid to the presentation, not the presentation itself .
- Be brief and concise.
- Focus on the subject.
- Attract attention; indicate interesting details.
- If possible, use relevant visual illustrations (pictures, maps, charts graphs, etc.).
- Use bullet points or numbers to structure the text.
- Make clear statements about the essence/results of the topic/research.
- Don't write down the whole outline of your paper and nothing else.
- Don't write long full sentences on the slides.
- Don't use distracting colors, patterns, pictures, decorations on the slides.
- Don't use too complicated charts, graphs; only those that are relatively easy to understand.
- << Previous: Writing the Research Paper
- Last Updated: Sep 18, 2023 4:52 PM
- URL: https://guides.library.ucla.edu/research-methods
Basics of research paper publishing
processes involved in paper submission and publication are explained
More Related Content
What's hot ( 20 )
Viewers also liked
Viewers also liked ( 20 )
Similar to Basics of research paper publishing
Similar to Basics of research paper publishing ( 20 )
Recently uploaded ( 20 )
- 1. By: A’zam Shams
- 2. Publishing research papers When the paper writing is finished and the authors consider the paper to be worth publishing, the next step is to submit it for publication (e.g. to a conference, a journal or a book editor). The selective focus here is on journal articles and conference papers.
- 3. Processes of Publishing a Journal Article A) Identifying a target journal B) Following the journal’s instructions C) Submitting the paper D) Understanding the decision process E) Revising a paper F) Answering queries G) Reviewing proofs
- 5. A) Identifying a target journal After preparing a manuscript, your next step is to choose a journal for the publication of your research. There are several criteria that should be considered in accurately selecting a journal for manuscript submission.
- 6. Criteria 1 The most common yet avoidable reason for journal rejection is mismatch between the manuscript and the journal aims and scope. First, determine whether the subject matter of your article matches that of the target journal. Consider the sort of research that the journal focuses on. Is it theoretical or applied? Match between the subject of your article and the journal's aim and scope.
- 7. Criteria 2 What is the readership and target audience? If your paper is highly specialized or technical, you’ll do better to publish in a journal with a small but very specific target audience. Reaching the right readership can sometimes be more important than reaching a wide readership.
- 8. Criteria 3 Is the journal highly visible? Once your paper is published, it should be easy to find by other researchers. Journal visibility plays an important role in this regard. Is the journal available online? Publishing in journals that are only circulated in print can seriously limit the number of people coming across or reading your work.
- 9. Criteria 4 What is the “CV value of publication”? Some authors put a premium on journal prestige. Here are some factors to consider. Editorial board members. Prestigious journals usually have eminent researchers as members of their Editorial Board. Visit the journal website to check the names on the Editorial Board. Are the Board members well-known in your field of study? Journal sponsorship. Is the journal owned or sponsored by a prestigious society in your field? What is the journal's impact factor? Don’t just look at the actual impact factor, since impact factor values vary by field. Consider the impact factor relative to those of similar journals within your field.
- 10. Criteria 5 What is the journal’s turnaround time? How many issues does the journal publish in a year? A monthly journal is much more likely to review your article quickly compared with a journal that only publishes once a year. Some journals list the date submitted and date accepted. Comparing these dates will give an approximate idea of the turnaround time.
- 11. Checklist for journal selection While you choose a journal for publication, you should ensure the following: Does the subject of your article match the journal's subject focus? Does the journal accept the article type you intend to submit? Is the journal read by your target audience? Does the journal have an online edition? Is the journal's impact factor in line with your requirements? Is the journal regarded as a prestigious one in its field by colleagues and peers? What is the turnaround time for articles submitted to the journal? How many times a year is the journal published? What are the publication charges? Is the length and structure of your manuscript acceptable to the journal?
- 12. B) Following the journal’s instructions Read the instructions to authors before starting to prepare your paper, regard them while preparing your paper and check the them again before submitting your paper. Look at some recent issues of the journal. Doing so can help you gear your paper to the journal.
- 13. -What categories of article does the journal publish? -What is the maximum length of articles? -What is the maximum length of abstracts? -Does the journal have a template for articles? If so, how can it be accessed? -What sections should the article include? What are the guidelines for each? -What guidelines should be followed regarding writing style? -How many figures and tables are allowed? What are the requirements for them? -In what format should references appear? Is the a maximum number of references? -In what electronic format should the paper be prepared? Some Questions the Instructions May Answer:
- 14. C. Submitting the Paper Traditional submission (by mail) Electronic submission Inclusion of a cover letter (conventional or electronic) Completion of required forms
- 15. Letter for the submission Dear Editor Please regard my article titled : “Speech Acts and Language Functions Found in Conversation Models ob Prospect 1” for publication in your journal of “IJLLALW”. I undertake that my article is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. I am looking forward to hearing from you at your earliest convenience. Sincerely yours A’zam Shams MA
- 16. Some Categories of Editors at Journals The main roles (except authors) involved in the journal editing and publishing process and their responsibilities are as follows: (Helpful to know because you might interact with each) Reviewer: Each journal has an editorial board that includes a number of reviewers who are responsible for reviewing submitted manuscripts assigned to them by an editor. Having reviewed a paper, each reviewer independently advises the editor whether to accept or reject the paper. Editor-in-chief: The most important function of an editor- in-chief (can also be a group of persons) is to make the final decision whether to accept or reject a submitted paper.
- 17. Associate editor: In case a journal has a board of associate editors, then for each submission an associate editor is assigned as an intermediary between the authors, the reviewers and the editor-in-chief. Associate editors handle the communication with the corresponding authors and they control the reviewing process, including the selection of reviewers and processing of revisions. Based on the reviewers’ recommendations, they make a recommendation to the editor whether to accept or reject a submitted manuscript.
- 18. Initial Screening by the Journal For appropriateness of subject matter For compliance with instructions For overall quality (sometimes)
- 19. Dear author, Thank you very much for considering the international journal of language learning and applied linguistics world to publish your research paper. Your paper will be checked in terms of Plagiarism using www.Plagscan.com . If the similarity is less than 20%, it will be sent to two reviewers. You will receive the review result and further instructions soon. Best regards, Article Submission
- 20. Peer Review Evaluation by experts in the field Purposes: To help the editor decide whether to publish the paper. To help the authors improve the paper, whether or not the journal accepts it.
- 21. D) Understanding the decision process Based on the peer reviewers’ advice, the editor’s own evaluation, the amount of space in the journal, other factors Options: Acceptance without revision (a rare event) Acceptance with minor revisions Revise (major changes – usually with additional experiments required; Editor usually sends the revised manuscript back to one or more of original reviewers) Reject (with encouragement to re-submit after extensive revisions and addition of new experimental data to address the flaws/issues in the original manuscript) Reject (submit to another journal)
- 22. review result I am writing with regard to the paper that you submitted for possible publication in the international journal of language learning and applied linguistics world (ijllalw). I am glad to inform you that based on the reviewers’ comments your paper has been ACCEPTED to be published in the current issue with minor revision required. In order to receive the detailed review results and the comments of both reviewers for the better enhancement of the manuscript, please sign and send the copyright form along with the publication fee payment not later than 2 days. You can pay the publication fee through Pay Pal or Bank transfer. To pay the publication fee through Pay Pal, please pay the fee (165 USD, 25 $ EXTRA AS PAYPAL TAX) to [email protected]. If you wish to use bank transfer, please find the necessary information in the attached file. For bank transfer, please pay 170 USD (30 USD extra as the bank transfer commission). Best regards,
- 23. E. Revising a Paper The goal is to improve the paper and get it accepted for publication. So Revise and resubmit promptly. Include a letter saying what revisions were made. If you received a list of requested revisions, address each in the letter. If you disagree with a requested revision, explain why in your letter. Try to find a different way to solve the problem the editor or reviewer identified.
- 24. review details Dear author, Thank you very much for paying the publication fee. Attached you can find the review result for the paper that you submitted to the IJLLALW. The reviewers may have made some changes in RED. Please, use the attached file to revise your paper. Please 1) Insert your paper in the journal template and format the paper as mentioned in the review details form. 2) Highlight your changes in BLUE so that we can easily find out what revisions you have made. 3) After highlighting the changes in the main paper in BLUE, you should complete the REVIEW CHECKLIST and send it to the journal with the final revised paper inserted in the template. In the REVIEW CHECKLIST, in every section including the abstract, introduction and …you should explain in short, how you have answered the reviewers’ comments (if any comment has been given). 4) Refer to the review result form for further possible comments. 5) Send the revised version (with changes highlighted in BLUE) and the cover letter not later than 5 days. 6) The final version should only be sent in word file. VERY IMPORTANT NOTE: AFTER THE FINAL SUBMISSION, THE PAPER WILL BE PUBLISHED AND INDEXED SOON. ANY CORRECTIONS IN THE NAMES OR AFFILIATIONS OF THE AUTHORS AFTER THE PAPER IS PUBLISHED RESULTS IN MULTIPLE UPLOADING OF THE SAME MATERIAL WHICH COSTS THE JOURNAL 40 USD. THIS AMOUNT SHOULD BE PAID BY THE AUTHORS. Best regards,
- 25. F. Answering Queries Queries: questions from the manuscript editor Some topics of queries: Inconsistencies Missing information Ambiguities Other Advice: Respond promptly, politely, and completely yet concisely.
- 26. G. Reviewing proofs After acceptance, authors are sent proofs of their manuscript but only changes to the title, author list, spelling, grammar, formatting, or scientific errors will be permitted. All corrections must be approved by the publishing team. When all editorial issues are resolved, your paper will be formally accepted for publication.
- 27. Final Step First, Celebrate Publication of Your Paper! Then: Some journals publish the paper online as a PDF file of the final manuscript that was accepted for publication (days to weeks).
- 28. final revised paper & review checklist Dear author, I am glad to inform you that your paper has been published now. Many thanks once again for considering the international journal of language learning and applied linguistics world as an academic place to share your latest findings with other scholars. Best regards,
- 29. Do’s and Don’ts When Submitting Papers Do look into whether the journal has page charges or submission fees, or fees for color illustrations or photos, or reprint charges. Do prepare a cover letter for your paper including the name of the manuscript , the names of the authors, academic degree, position, affiliation, the address, telephone number, e-mail address. Don’t interpret the editor’s decision letter too literally. Usually there are qualifiers in the decision letter like: “We can only accept your paper after major revisions” or “Your paper is not acceptable in its current form. Should you choose to revise your paper….”. These are generally statements that are leaving the door open for you to revise, rebut and resubmit.
- 30. Processes of Publishing a Conference Paper The review system at scientific conferences is quite similar to the journal paper review system, at least in computer science. Nevertheless, there are some differences in the publishing process, which are explained in this section. Generally, papers published in conference proceedings do not have a reputation as high as journal papers. This is particularly true for the natural and social sciences. Several months before the conference date, the conference chairs issue a call for papers (often referred to as ‘CFP’ in both written and oral communications) to invite authors to submit papers to be published in the conference proceedings and to be presented at the conference venue.
- 31. CFP information The CFP, which can normally be downloaded from the conference website, comprises the following information: Title, acronym and venue: for example, Eighth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning (EC-TEL 2013), Paphos, Cyprus. General information/theme: this section can be found on most CFPs describing the scope or special theme of the conference, i.e. putting the main topic of the conference in the light of current developments. Topics of interest: encloses a list of topics of particular interest for the respective conference’s subject area. During the submission process in the conference management system, the author usually has to select a subset of the topics that best fit the submission. This selection is mostly relevant for assigning peer reviewers, who also select a subset of the conference topics as their area of expertise.
- 32. Submission guidelines: most CFPs comprise a section where general guidelines for submissions are communicated to the authors. Additionally, if the conference proceedings are published by a well-established publisher, the publisher is also mentioned in the CFP. Deadlines: this section lists a number of deadlines to be met by authors. Typically, these include at least: Submission deadline: this is the deadline for submitting the complete paper. There are also some conferences that initially require an extended abstract for various reasons (e.g. pre-selection or paper bidding by the program committee) and then a full paper submission. Most submission deadlines are firm, whereas failure to meet the deadline results irreversibly in not being considered for presentation and/or publication. Since conferences take place in different time zones, the exact submission deadline has to be taken into account by the authors. Since most conferences are annual events, researchers in the community know well in advance when paper will be due for submission.
- 33. Notification date: this is the date when the author is notified of acceptance or rejection. The notification date given is often not very accurate, as the program committee cannot anticipate the number of submissions, to mention one reason; also, the peer reviewers often fail to submit their reviews on time. Thus, the review process may take longer than expected. Conferences that use peer review to decide whether a submission should be accepted or not typically emit one of only two messages to each submitting author at the notification date: – Accept: the paper has been accepted and will be published in the conference proceedings. However, reviewers may have suggested minor modifications to be incorporated in the published paper. Usually, acceptance letters (or mails) sent by organizers include the invitation (typically the obligation) to orally present the paper at the conference. This is a very good opportunity to receive immediate feedback in discussions with peers after the presentation. – Reject: the paper was rejected and will not be published in the conference proceedings. Most reviewers supply valuable comments to authors on how to improve the rejected paper. Unlike journals, most conferences do not consider the option of asking authors for revision. Papers are normally either accepted or rejected right away.
- 34. Some conferences implement a rebuttal process, which allows authors to respond to the reviews before a final decision is made. The reviewers may then elect to change their reviews based on the arguments brought forth by authors during the rebuttal period. This can go either way, i.e. result in lower or higher scores. Depending on the reputation of the conference and the response to the call for papers, the acceptance rate will vary significantly among different conferences. Most serious conferences disclose the acceptance rate in the preface to the proceedings and/or on their website. The top conferences in computer science usually have an acceptance rate of 10–15% or lower. Most other conferences with a good reputation will typically accept no more than one quarter of the submissions.
- 35. Camera-ready paper deadline: in case of acceptance, this is the submission deadline for ‘camera-ready’ papers, i.e. final versions to be included in the conference proceedings. At some conferences, failure to meet this deadline may result in the accepted paper not being included in the conference proceedings. As with journals, it is vital to meet all deadlines and to comply with all guidelines (such as paper formatting instructions). See Figure 4 for an example of the ‘important dates’ section in the website of the Eighth European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2013. Note that in this example the submission deadline was extended once. Such extensions of the submission deadline are common, yet not a rule. Other information: Other information of interest, e.g. call for workshops to be collocated with the conference, tutorials, panel discussion proposals, demonstrations and information on sponsors, publisher, invited speakers.
- 37. What is an Impact Factor ? A journal’s “impact factor” is an annual measure of the extent to which articles in that journal are cited.
- 38. ISI Journals and Impact Factors The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) was founded by Eugene Garfield in 1960. It was acquired by Thomson Scientific & Healthcare in 1992, became known as Thomson ISI. ISI publishes the annual Journal Citation Reports (JCR) which list the Impact Factor for the journals. A list of over 14,000 journals is maintained by the ISI.
- 39. Why submit to an ISI Journal? If published: better visibility, higher credibility, good incentive If rejected: valuable experience with free useful reviews. If your paper is of high quality but submitted to a non-ISI journal, you have wasted a rare chance
- 40. What makes a paper publishable in ISI journals? Title: interesting and new. Relevant literature –why this research is important and what is the missing information. Presents new knowledge (novelty). Methodology clearly explained. Professional presentation and followed guidelines to authors. Fall under fields (s) prescribed by the journal. Good English: clarity
How to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper?
Academic presentations could be based on research in progress, unfinished work or the full drafts of a research paper. An academic presentation is a sort of like an advertisement for the paper than an attempt to present all the information in the paper. You need to focus on what is important, highlighting the bold outcomes and results is the key here. The below format is a very basic design showing you how to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper:
- Introduction (1 slide)
- Research Questions/Hypotheses (1 slide)
- Literature Review/Theory (1 slide)
- Methods & Data Collection (1 slide)
- Data Presentation/Findings (3-5 slides)
- Conclusion (1 slide)
Obviously, this is just a general guideline. It is however important that you focus on your findings, future implication of your work and limitation since it is the potential for future research. During a presentation method and data collection sections should be kept short. Though, this all depends on the nature of the work.
To create a presentation from a full-length paper or article, you can pull out the most important parts of the article, based on the above list or based on the subheadings in your own article.
For the introduction, you can use the same compelling introduction you use in your paper. In the PowerPoint presentation, it is a good idea to find a picture that describes the aim of your research. Visuals are considered very effective tools for keeping the audience interested and for conveying a point.
Your next slide should contain your research questions mentioned in your introduction as well.
Then, spend no more than a minute contextualizing your research questions and project within the literature. Don’t make the mistake of spending too much time reviewing what others have written about your topic. You just want to illustrate the fact that your work contributes to existing research in the field. People don’t come to conferences to hear literature reviews, they want new information and mind-blowing findings. They want to see the real implications of the findings to the global challenges at hand. The concrete practical solutions.
Think about the questions people might have such as: what data set did you use? How many interviews did you carry out? How many months of participant observation did you complete? What is the timeframe for the data? The geographical observations. Give just enough information to validate your findings for the methodology section.
You should be able to go through all of the above in the first five minutes so that you can spend as much of your time as possible sharing the rich detail of your own data and analyses. If you have ethnographic data, you can tell one story from the field for each point you want to make. For statistical data, you can present a table with findings for each finding you wish to highlight. For interview data, you can use one interview quotes for each theme you plan to highlight.
Once you bold out the significant findings, you can leave a minute or two for your conclusion. Again make sure you use visuals, story format, case studies, quotes, even videos to explain your result to make it very appealing to the audience.
As you make each slide, remember to put a few words as possible on each slide, and place an image on each slide to convey your points visually.
Building A Research Team: Finding Collaborators through Academic Conferences
As a researcher, building a strong research team is crucial for the success of your projects. However, finding collaborators with the right expertise and skills
The Gateway to Publication Success: Transformative Power of Conference Attendance
A conference can be an excellent opportunity to meet like-minded people, discover the newest developments in your field, and even promote your work. Publishing your
The Art of Abstract Writing: Tips to Create Impactful Abstracts for your Research Papers
Whether you’re a seasoned researcher or a student working on your first academic paper, you need to be equipped with valuable tips and tricks to
Giving Effective Virtual Presentations – 7 Rules to Follow
Giving effective virtual presentations is a skill. And, as with any skill, you can master it with the right tools and practice. Be mindful that
Acavent is a worldwide organizer of scientific conferences, workshops and exhibitions. Our international company headquarter is based in Vilnius, Lithuania and we already has 9 years of experience in events industry. Acavent specifies in creating an academic environment for those who seek for new ideas, new achievements, high skilled academic people and colleagues in all of the world.
Useful links, contact details.
- : +370-64517211
- : +370-66110330
- : +32-78482424
- : +33-185149737
© 2023, ACAVENT. All rights reserved
Engage With us
Subscribe to our newsletter & stay updated!
" * " indicates required fields
How to publish paper in journal
Feb 09, 2016
570 likes | 903 Views
This article meets your needs in how to publish the papers in journal in a simple way.<br>for more info log on to www.ijesc.org<br><br>EDITOR_IJESC
- research papers
- international journal
- research paper
- published research papers
- read academic journals related
How to publish papers in journals
Step 1.Familiarize yourself with potential publications.
The most vital part of the research have published the questions and studies in your field. You need me to be more attentive and cautious on how other research papers are written: the format, the type of articles (quantitative studies versus qualitative ones, primary research, review of existing papers), the writing style, the subject matter, and the vocabulary. • Read academic journals related to your field of study. International Journal of Engineering Science and Computing http://ijesc.org • Search online for published research papers, conference papers, and journal articles. • Consult the professor for better suggestions in reading the articles.
Step 2.Choose the publication that best suits your research paper
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCE AND COMPUTING (http://ijesc.org)
Every publication has its own style and tone of writing. Decide what fits better in a journal that is highly technical. Know your audience and write accordingly to their interests and concentrate on the keywords.
Step3. Prepare your manuscript
Format your research paper for special guidelines. Most journals provide a document called "Instruction to Authors" or "Author's Guide". This guide will help you how to submit your paper and will provide details of the review process.
Step 4.Ask a colleague and/or professor to review your research paper
They should analyze and edit your paper for grammar, spelling errors, typos, clarity, conciseness and verify your content. They should be clearly written, easy to follow, and appropriate. Have two or three people review your paper, more if possible
Step 5.Revise your paper
It is likely you will go through three or four drafts before final submission of your research paper. This will greatly increase your chances of being published
Step 6.Submit your article. • Go back to the Author's Guide to review submission requirements. Some journals allow online submission (example - http://ijesc.org/submit-manuscripts) while others prefer a hard copy.
Step 7.Keep trying. • Many times the journals will ask you to revise your paper and resubmit. Study them carefully and make the necessary changes. Do not get over-attached to your original submission. Instead, remain flexible and rework the paper in light of the feedback you received. Use all of your skills as a researcher and a writer to create a superior paper. Even if you are ultimately rejected by your "target" publication, continue to re-write your research paper and submit it to any other publications.
Sources and Citations • http://ijesc.org • http://ijesc.org/international-journal/authors-guidelines • http://ijesc.org/international-journal/get-free-reminder-alerts • http://ijesc.org/international-journal/about-this-journal • http://ijesc.org/articles-in-press.php?msg=1&page=article
EDITOR_IJESC • Thanks for watching • Regards
- More by User
How to publish a paper in Nature
How to publish a paper in Nature Leslie Sage Senior Editor, Physical Sciences Nature Summary Nature publishes ~7% of submissions we want only the best, most important work papers should be written clearly to explain why the work is important
2.14k views • 30 slides
How to Easily Publish In an International Biotechnology Journal
Tips and Tricks for Dummies b y Stalis Norma Ethica. How to Easily Publish In an International Biotechnology Journal. Publishing International Journal. 1. 3. 2. Prepare your manuscript and other files. Submit your journal. Select your proper journal. Be brave to try. 1.
249 views • 13 slides
How to publish
How to publish. Jeff McDonnell Dept. Forest Engineering, Resources and Mgmt. Oregon State University. How journals work. How journals work a few of the ones that I’ve had experience with. Hydrological Processes Water Resources Research Journal of Hydrology
358 views • 21 slides
How to Write a (Journal) Paper
How to Write a (Journal) Paper. After Reading the Instructions for Authors Don Ylvisaker , UCLA. Writing Have something to say? If so, want people to read it? . Writing Have something to say? If so, want people to read it?
535 views • 30 slides
How to publish a world class paper?
How to publish a world class paper?. M. Arfan Ikram, MD PhD Department of Epidemiology, Radiology, Neurology Erasmus MC Rotterdam. Goal of publishing. Not to get the publication, PhD, position Not to publish in NEJM, JAMA, etc Not to achieve high H-index
271 views • 15 slides
Short INTRODUCTION How to Publish A Scientific Paper
Short INTRODUCTION How to Publish A Scientific Paper. Widodo, Ph.D Med. Sc. WHY do we publish?. To present new, original results or methods To rationalize (reinterpret) published results To review the field or to summarize a particular subject To obtain more fundd for research EGO .
321 views • 15 slides
How to write a journal paper
How to write a journal paper. Jeff McDonnell, Oregon State University. Outline. The topdown approach to paper writing Components of the paper How journals “work”. Don Siegel. These ideas influenced by. My own experiences with paper writing
565 views • 33 slides
How to Publish in an International Journal
How to Publish in an International Journal. Joel Huber Kunming University of Science and Technology 20 September 2009. Prepare for a journey that. Will take longer than you expect Will force you to leave your comfort zone as you Learn new ideas Develop new skills
309 views • 20 slides
How to write and publish a scientific paper in hydrology
How to write and publish a scientific paper in hydrology. Getachew Mohammed Jef Dams Jiri Nossent. Outline. Introduction Writing Publishing Conclusions. Why we publish?. Personal Main metric for your work/succes Academic duty Promotion and Tenure/PhD Getting a job
429 views • 21 slides
How to publish in (different) journals ?
How to publish in (different) journals ? . Erik Driessen & Janneke Frambach. What will we discuss ?. How to target your paper to a journal What kind of considerations go into chosing a journal How to handle the reviews. Which journal ?. Who wants to publish a paper?
311 views • 18 slides
How to write and publish a SCI paper
How to write and publish a SCI paper. Shaobing Peng International Rice Research Institute. Presentation at Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan, 7 June 2006. 芙蓉学者 系列讲座. 解读 SCI 及其影响因子. SCI 论文写作与发表技巧. 大 田研究也需要黄金标准. Outline. Why publish? Eighteen steps in writing a SCI paper
860 views • 63 slides
How to write Journal Paper?
How to write Journal Paper?. DuYong. How to write Journal Paper?. Publications? Book Journal Paper Conference Paper Technical Report. How to write Journal Paper?. Understand Journal Paper? Structure? How Many Journal Papers? Publishing Company? Journal Quality? Manager Editor?
669 views • 15 slides
How to publish. Jeff McDonnell Dept. Forest Engineering, Resources and Mgmt. Oregon State University. A quick recap of previous comments on publishing. It’s your only portable currency Key prerequisite for getting a job Main factor in promotion and tenure decisions
532 views • 47 slides
How to Publish Your Medical Research in a Reputed Journal
This article explains how to Publish Your Medical Research in a Reputed Journal
93 views • 8 slides
Submit Your Research Paper | Publish Research Paper | IJARIIT Journal
Submit your research paper now IJARIIT is a leading international journal for journal publication,research paper , thesis etc. It is a journalintended for researchers in all fields related to science, computers, maths, engineering etc.Go ahead and quickly submit your paper now.
103 views • 9 slides
Publish Your Paper in International Journal Corner
International Journal Corner is a single platform that covers all possible academic fields under its broad umbrella.
107 views • 9 slides
How to publish research paper in Scopus indexed
If you are looking to publish your latest research paper in Scopus index journal?We have a team of papers writers and content writers who will guide students and write the research paper for students. because writing a research paper is not easy for every student. student-facing lots of problems and issues at the time of paper writing. For more call us at 91-9041262727
95 views • 6 slides
How to Publish a Paper: Statistics and Writing Tips
How to Publish a Paper: Statistics and Writing Tips. Kristin Sainani, PhD, Stanford University. Outline. 1. Making a Data Analysis Plan 2. Analyzing Your Data 3. Creating Tables and Figures 4. Writing Up Your Findings. 1. Make a data analysis plan before analyzing the data.
376 views • 37 slides
How to Write and Publish an Experimental Research Paper
How to Write and Publish an Experimental Research Paper. Where to Publish?. Scientific journals Conferences and workshops Conference proceedings Posters Talks Books Book chapters Technical reports Seminar presentations Popular science magazines. Scientific Journals.
128 views • 12 slides
Which Journal to Publish in and How
Which Journal to Publish in and How. Barbara Gastel , MD, MPH Professor, Texas A&M University Knowledge Community Editor, AuthorAID. Deciding Whether (or When) to Publish. Some factors to consider: quality of the work, extent of the work, interest to others Suggestions:
180 views • 17 slides
Publish or Perish How to Write & Publish a Scientific Paper
Publish or Perish How to Write & Publish a Scientific Paper. ... a session prepared ... by Ladislav Šoltés. Institute for Heart Research. Institute of Normal & Pathological Physiology. Institute of Experimental Pharmacology & Toxicology. Slovak Academy of Sciences.
201 views • 16 slides
How to Write and Publish a Scientific Research Paper?
How to Write and Publish a Scientific Research Paper?. Dr. N. AUDINARAYANA Professor and Head. Dept. of Sociology & Population Studies Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences Bharathiar University COIMBATORE – 641 046 E-mail: [email protected]. Day (1983) - A Scientific Paper is
281 views • 19 slides
How to publish research paper in Scopus indexed - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
How to publish research paper in Scopus indexed
If you are looking to publish your latest research paper in scopus index journalwe have a team of papers writers and content writers who will guide students and write the research paper for students. because writing a research paper is not easy for every student. student-facing lots of problems and issues at the time of paper writing. for more call us at +91-9041262727 – powerpoint ppt presentation.
- Tips and Tricks
- Scopus is the one of the most preferred journal for research paper publishing by masters and Phd students. So every student to publish their paper in Scopus and IEEE journal.
- If you are looking to publish your latest research paper in Scopus index journal?
- Here are some tips by which you can get approval of your paper easiler.
- Always Choose the Right Journal
- Prepare your Research paper according to the journal format.
- Read all the term and condition before submitting your research paper to the journal.
- Check the upcoming issue date for paper publishing.
- E2Matrix is the Jalandhar based Research Institute in Punjab. We are always available here for you to guide you for paper publishing.
- We help masters and Ph.D. student in research paper writing for Scopus level paper.
- We have a team of papers writers and content writers who will guide students and write the research paper for students. because writing a research paper is not easy for every student. student-facing lots of problems and issues at the time of paper writing.
- We will solve that problem and help them with writing. We always provide you plagiarism-free research paper to you.
- For more Information
PowerShow.com is a leading presentation sharing website. It has millions of presentations already uploaded and available with 1,000s more being uploaded by its users every day. Whatever your area of interest, here you’ll be able to find and view presentations you’ll love and possibly download. And, best of all, it is completely free and easy to use.
You might even have a presentation you’d like to share with others. If so, just upload it to PowerShow.com. We’ll convert it to an HTML5 slideshow that includes all the media types you’ve already added: audio, video, music, pictures, animations and transition effects. Then you can share it with your target audience as well as PowerShow.com’s millions of monthly visitors. And, again, it’s all free.
About the Developers
PowerShow.com is brought to you by CrystalGraphics , the award-winning developer and market-leading publisher of rich-media enhancement products for presentations. Our product offerings include millions of PowerPoint templates, diagrams, animated 3D characters and more.
Exobrains for research evaluation and paper writing
- Published: 10 December 2023
- Eric Lichtfouse ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-8535-8073 1 ,
- Chuxuan Gong 2 ,
- Wei Qiu 2 &
- Jie Han ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0001-6790-0650 3
Cite this article
Avoid common mistakes on your manuscript.
The fact that scientists could be fooled by abstracts written by an artificial intelligence chatbot (Else 2023 ) implies that such tools will soon represent 'exobrains' to carry out tasks such as scientific writing and research evaluation (Fig. 1 ). Here we have tested ChatGPT for evaluating a full-length review article, and we were impressed by the results that humans often cannot deliver, such as summarizing a 7,000-word research paper into sensible, bullet-point listed findings in less than 30 seconds. Although answers from such large language models are not flawless, ChatGPT appears as an exobrain—similar to the physical exoskeletons that humans could use—to amplify their intelligence. Could we use ChatGPT to evaluate papers and measure research performance? Here the ChatGPT evaluation of one of our review articles reveals the intriguing performance of the chatbot.
ChatGPT is a large language model developed by OpenAI, a US company deploying artificial intelligence technologies. The model was released to the public on 30 November 2022. More information at https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt . Image credit: AJ Cann/Flickr
We asked ChatGPT what are the strengths and weaknesses of our recent review article on food transmission of the 2019 coronavirus (Dai et al. 2023 ). For strengths, ChatGPT produced concisely the following conclusions:
The paper provides clear evidence from China that the coronavirus can be transmitted through frozen and chilled food products.
The paper offers valuable insights and lessons for the world by examining the case of China's experience with the virus.
The paper provides a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the virus and how it is transmitted.
These conclusions do represent what we think are the key points of the paper. This is surprising because selection of few important points out of several pages of text requires deep understanding of their meaning.
For weaknesses, ChatGPT yielded the following:
The paper does not provide any solutions or recommendations for how to prevent the spread of the virus through frozen and chilled food products.
The paper does not address the potential implications of its findings in terms of global food safety and regulatory policies.
The paper does not delve into the economic impacts of the virus on the global food supply chain.
These valid points are intriguing because our review does not contain any section, paragraph or even a single sentence explaining its limitations. This denotes the ability of ChatGPT to critically evaluate the manuscript with what it thinks is a sound paper on the topics discussed. Therefore, we presume that ChatGPT has analyzed publications on a similar topic to yield its own standards of a high-quality review. This is astounding because critical evaluation denotes intelligence, and as a consequence, artificial intelligence could be used to evaluate research, at least partly, e.g., as an instant second opinion without proactive human bias. Artificial intelligence could also be used to improve writing by revealing what is missing from the draft before one finalizes a manuscript.
Then we asked again the same question and unexpectedly got different answers. For instance, on ‘weaknesses’ it answered:
The paper focuses exclusively on evidence from China, which may limit its applicability to other countries and contexts.
The paper relies heavily on anecdotal evidence and case studies, rather than more rigorous scientific studies. This could weaken its overall argument.
The paper does not consider potential counterarguments or limitations to its argument, such as the possibility that other factors, e.g., close contact with infected individuals, may have played a larger role in the outbreaks described.
The paper could benefit from more in-depth analysis and discussions of the policy and logistical challenges involved in implementing increased surveillance and testing of frozen and chilled food products .
First, these deep arguments would have been very useful to us to improve the manuscript prior to submission. Second, there are at least three possible reasons for the fact that ChatGPT does not give the same answers: (1) The knowledge base changed as the models changed from the first to the second time the question was asked, i.e., Playground—OpenAI API (GPT-3 series) versus ChatGPT; this is possible but would unlikely affect the answers substantially. (2) ChatGPT answers are generated somewhat randomly, so the same questions always generate different answers, sometimes substantially; in that case, ChatGPT is less consistent than a human scientist who should give essentially the same answer to the same question within a short time span. (3) More interestingly, ChatGPT may have memorized the question when asked firstly, then it understood that we were not satisfied because we asked the same question again in a different conversation. This again denotes intelligence. Whatever the origin of those different answers, the results imply that large language models have the ability to evaluate research outputs, at least for initial screening. Moreover, these models could be used to improve manuscripts by revealing major scientific flaws and providing constructive criticism.
Overall, ChatGPT and other large language models appear as 'exobrains' that are likely to be used for many tasks in science such as research evaluation and paper writing. After all, if research evaluation and paper writing can be summarized as 'sound comparison of new results versus existing knowledge', then models could do that, at least partly. This would surely save time and money of scientists, laboratories, universities and funding bodies.
Dai H, Tang H, Sun W et al (2023) It is time to acknowledge coronavirus transmission via frozen and chilled foods: undeniable evidence from China and lessons for the world. Sci Total Environ 868:161388. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.161388
Article CAS Google Scholar
Else H (2023) Abstracts written by ChatGPT fool scientists. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-023-00056-7
Article Google Scholar
This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 42277209) and the Key Research and Development Program of Xianyang (Grant No. L2022ZDYFSF042).
Authors and affiliations.
State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
International Science & Technology Cooperation Base of Xi’an Municipality, Guyiheng Technologies Ltd., Xixian New Area, Xi’an, 712000, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
Chuxuan Gong & Wei Qiu
School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
Correspondence to Eric Lichtfouse or Jie Han .
EL and JH declare that they are Chief Editors of Environmental Chemistry Letters.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Rights and permissions
Reprints and Permissions
About this article
Lichtfouse, E., Gong, C., Qiu, W. et al. Exobrains for research evaluation and paper writing. Environ Chem Lett (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-023-01672-5
Published : 10 December 2023
DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-023-01672-5
Share this article
Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:
Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.
Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative
- Find a journal
- Publish with us
Introducing Gemini: our largest and most capable AI model
Dec 06, 2023
Making AI more helpful for everyone
A note from Google and Alphabet CEO Sundar Pichai:
Every technology shift is an opportunity to advance scientific discovery, accelerate human progress, and improve lives. I believe the transition we are seeing right now with AI will be the most profound in our lifetimes, far bigger than the shift to mobile or to the web before it. AI has the potential to create opportunities — from the everyday to the extraordinary — for people everywhere. It will bring new waves of innovation and economic progress and drive knowledge, learning, creativity and productivity on a scale we haven’t seen before.
That’s what excites me: the chance to make AI helpful for everyone, everywhere in the world.
Nearly eight years into our journey as an AI-first company, the pace of progress is only accelerating: Millions of people are now using generative AI across our products to do things they couldn’t even a year ago, from finding answers to more complex questions to using new tools to collaborate and create. At the same time, developers are using our models and infrastructure to build new generative AI applications, and startups and enterprises around the world are growing with our AI tools.
This is incredible momentum, and yet, we’re only beginning to scratch the surface of what’s possible.
We’re approaching this work boldly and responsibly. That means being ambitious in our research and pursuing the capabilities that will bring enormous benefits to people and society, while building in safeguards and working collaboratively with governments and experts to address risks as AI becomes more capable. And we continue to invest in the very best tools, foundation models and infrastructure and bring them to our products and to others, guided by our AI Principles .
Now, we’re taking the next step on our journey with Gemini, our most capable and general model yet, with state-of-the-art performance across many leading benchmarks. Our first version, Gemini 1.0, is optimized for different sizes: Ultra, Pro and Nano. These are the first models of the Gemini era and the first realization of the vision we had when we formed Google DeepMind earlier this year. This new era of models represents one of the biggest science and engineering efforts we’ve undertaken as a company. I’m genuinely excited for what’s ahead, and for the opportunities Gemini will unlock for people everywhere.
By Demis Hassabis, CEO and Co-Founder of Google DeepMind, on behalf of the Gemini team
AI has been the focus of my life's work, as for many of my research colleagues. Ever since programming AI for computer games as a teenager, and throughout my years as a neuroscience researcher trying to understand the workings of the brain, I’ve always believed that if we could build smarter machines, we could harness them to benefit humanity in incredible ways.
This promise of a world responsibly empowered by AI continues to drive our work at Google DeepMind. For a long time, we’ve wanted to build a new generation of AI models, inspired by the way people understand and interact with the world. AI that feels less like a smart piece of software and more like something useful and intuitive — an expert helper or assistant.
Today, we’re a step closer to this vision as we introduce Gemini , the most capable and general model we’ve ever built.
Gemini is the result of large-scale collaborative efforts by teams across Google, including our colleagues at Google Research. It was built from the ground up to be multimodal, which means it can generalize and seamlessly understand, operate across and combine different types of information including text, code, audio, image and video.
Gemini is also our most flexible model yet — able to efficiently run on everything from data centers to mobile devices. Its state-of-the-art capabilities will significantly enhance the way developers and enterprise customers build and scale with AI.
We’ve optimized Gemini 1.0, our first version, for three different sizes:
- Gemini Ultra — our largest and most capable model for highly complex tasks.
- Gemini Pro — our best model for scaling across a wide range of tasks.
- Gemini Nano — our most efficient model for on-device tasks.
We've been rigorously testing our Gemini models and evaluating their performance on a wide variety of tasks. From natural image, audio and video understanding to mathematical reasoning, Gemini Ultra’s performance exceeds current state-of-the-art results on 30 of the 32 widely-used academic benchmarks used in large language model (LLM) research and development.
With a score of 90.0%, Gemini Ultra is the first model to outperform human experts on MMLU (massive multitask language understanding), which uses a combination of 57 subjects such as math, physics, history, law, medicine and ethics for testing both world knowledge and problem-solving abilities.
Our new benchmark approach to MMLU enables Gemini to use its reasoning capabilities to think more carefully before answering difficult questions, leading to significant improvements over just using its first impression.
Gemini surpasses state-of-the-art performance on a range of benchmarks including text and coding.
Gemini Ultra also achieves a state-of-the-art score of 59.4% on the new MMMU benchmark, which consists of multimodal tasks spanning different domains requiring deliberate reasoning.
With the image benchmarks we tested, Gemini Ultra outperformed previous state-of-the-art models, without assistance from optical character recognition (OCR) systems that extract text from images for further processing. These benchmarks highlight Gemini’s native multimodality and indicate early signs of Gemini's more complex reasoning abilities.
See more details in our Gemini technical report .
Gemini surpasses state-of-the-art performance on a range of multimodal benchmarks.
Until now, the standard approach to creating multimodal models involved training separate components for different modalities and then stitching them together to roughly mimic some of this functionality. These models can sometimes be good at performing certain tasks, like describing images, but struggle with more conceptual and complex reasoning.
We designed Gemini to be natively multimodal, pre-trained from the start on different modalities. Then we fine-tuned it with additional multimodal data to further refine its effectiveness. This helps Gemini seamlessly understand and reason about all kinds of inputs from the ground up, far better than existing multimodal models — and its capabilities are state of the art in nearly every domain.
Learn more about Gemini’s capabilities and see how it works .
Gemini 1.0’s sophisticated multimodal reasoning capabilities can help make sense of complex written and visual information. This makes it uniquely skilled at uncovering knowledge that can be difficult to discern amid vast amounts of data.
Its remarkable ability to extract insights from hundreds of thousands of documents through reading, filtering and understanding information will help deliver new breakthroughs at digital speeds in many fields from science to finance.
Gemini unlocks new scientific insights
Understanding text, images, audio and more
Gemini 1.0 was trained to recognize and understand text, images, audio and more at the same time, so it better understands nuanced information and can answer questions relating to complicated topics. This makes it especially good at explaining reasoning in complex subjects like math and physics.
Gemini explains reasoning in math and physics
Our first version of Gemini can understand, explain and generate high-quality code in the world’s most popular programming languages, like Python, Java, C++, and Go. Its ability to work across languages and reason about complex information makes it one of the leading foundation models for coding in the world.
Gemini Ultra excels in several coding benchmarks, including HumanEval , an important industry-standard for evaluating performance on coding tasks, and Natural2Code, our internal held-out dataset, which uses author-generated sources instead of web-based information.
Gemini can also be used as the engine for more advanced coding systems. Two years ago we presented AlphaCode , the first AI code generation system to reach a competitive level of performance in programming competitions.
Using a specialized version of Gemini, we created a more advanced code generation system, AlphaCode 2 , which excels at solving competitive programming problems that go beyond coding to involve complex math and theoretical computer science.
Gemini excels at coding and competitive programming
When evaluated on the same platform as the original AlphaCode, AlphaCode 2 shows massive improvements, solving nearly twice as many problems, and we estimate that it performs better than 85% of competition participants — up from nearly 50% for AlphaCode. When programmers collaborate with AlphaCode 2 by defining certain properties for the code samples to follow, it performs even better.
We’re excited for programmers to increasingly use highly capable AI models as collaborative tools that can help them reason about the problems, propose code designs and assist with implementation — so they can release apps and design better services, faster.
See more details in our AlphaCode 2 technical report .
More reliable, scalable and efficient
We trained Gemini 1.0 at scale on our AI-optimized infrastructure using Google’s in-house designed Tensor Processing Units (TPUs) v4 and v5e. And we designed it to be our most reliable and scalable model to train, and our most efficient to serve.
On TPUs, Gemini runs significantly faster than earlier, smaller and less-capable models. These custom-designed AI accelerators have been at the heart of Google's AI-powered products that serve billions of users like Search, YouTube, Gmail, Google Maps, Google Play and Android. They’ve also enabled companies around the world to train large-scale AI models cost-efficiently.
Today, we’re announcing the most powerful, efficient and scalable TPU system to date, Cloud TPU v5p , designed for training cutting-edge AI models. This next generation TPU will accelerate Gemini’s development and help developers and enterprise customers train large-scale generative AI models faster, allowing new products and capabilities to reach customers sooner.
A row of Cloud TPU v5p AI accelerator supercomputers in a Google data center.
Built with responsibility and safety at the core
At Google, we’re committed to advancing bold and responsible AI in everything we do. Building upon Google’s AI Principles and the robust safety policies across our products, we’re adding new protections to account for Gemini’s multimodal capabilities. At each stage of development, we’re considering potential risks and working to test and mitigate them.
Gemini has the most comprehensive safety evaluations of any Google AI model to date, including for bias and toxicity. We’ve conducted novel research into potential risk areas like cyber-offense, persuasion and autonomy, and have applied Google Research’s best-in-class adversarial testing techniques to help identify critical safety issues in advance of Gemini’s deployment.
To identify blindspots in our internal evaluation approach, we’re working with a diverse group of external experts and partners to stress-test our models across a range of issues.
To diagnose content safety issues during Gemini’s training phases and ensure its output follows our policies, we’re using benchmarks such as Real Toxicity Prompts , a set of 100,000 prompts with varying degrees of toxicity pulled from the web, developed by experts at the Allen Institute for AI. Further details on this work are coming soon.
To limit harm, we built dedicated safety classifiers to identify, label and sort out content involving violence or negative stereotypes, for example. Combined with robust filters, this layered approach is designed to make Gemini safer and more inclusive for everyone. Additionally, we’re continuing to address known challenges for models such as factuality, grounding, attribution and corroboration.
Responsibility and safety will always be central to the development and deployment of our models. This is a long-term commitment that requires building collaboratively, so we’re partnering with the industry and broader ecosystem on defining best practices and setting safety and security benchmarks through organizations like MLCommons , the Frontier Model Forum and its AI Safety Fund , and our Secure AI Framework (SAIF) , which was designed to help mitigate security risks specific to AI systems across the public and private sectors. We’ll continue partnering with researchers, governments and civil society groups around the world as we develop Gemini.
Making Gemini available to the world
Gemini 1.0 is now rolling out across a range of products and platforms:
Gemini Pro in Google products
We’re bringing Gemini to billions of people through Google products.
Starting today, Bard will use a fine-tuned version of Gemini Pro for more advanced reasoning, planning, understanding and more. This is the biggest upgrade to Bard since it launched. It will be available in English in more than 170 countries and territories, and we plan to expand to different modalities and support new languages and locations in the near future.
We’re also bringing Gemini to Pixel . Pixel 8 Pro is the first smartphone engineered to run Gemini Nano, which is powering new features like Summarize in the Recorder app and rolling out in Smart Reply in Gboard, starting with WhatsApp — with more messaging apps coming next year.
In the coming months, Gemini will be available in more of our products and services like Search, Ads, Chrome and Duet AI.
We’re already starting to experiment with Gemini in Search, where it's making our Search Generative Experience (SGE) faster for users, with a 40% reduction in latency in English in the U.S., alongside improvements in quality.
Building with Gemini
Starting on December 13, developers and enterprise customers can access Gemini Pro via the Gemini API in Google AI Studio or Google Cloud Vertex AI .
Google AI Studio is a free, web-based developer tool to prototype and launch apps quickly with an API key. When it's time for a fully-managed AI platform, Vertex AI allows customization of Gemini with full data control and benefits from additional Google Cloud features for enterprise security, safety, privacy and data governance and compliance.
Android developers will also be able to build with Gemini Nano, our most efficient model for on-device tasks, via AICore, a new system capability available in Android 14, starting on Pixel 8 Pro devices. Sign up for an early preview of AICore .
Gemini Ultra coming soon
For Gemini Ultra, we’re currently completing extensive trust and safety checks, including red-teaming by trusted external parties, and further refining the model using fine-tuning and reinforcement learning from human feedback (RLHF) before making it broadly available.
As part of this process, we’ll make Gemini Ultra available to select customers, developers, partners and safety and responsibility experts for early experimentation and feedback before rolling it out to developers and enterprise customers early next year.
Early next year, we’ll also launch Bard Advanced , a new, cutting-edge AI experience that gives you access to our best models and capabilities, starting with Gemini Ultra.
The Gemini era: enabling a future of innovation
This is a significant milestone in the development of AI, and the start of a new era for us at Google as we continue to rapidly innovate and responsibly advance the capabilities of our models.
We’ve made great progress on Gemini so far and we’re working hard to further extend its capabilities for future versions, including advances in planning and memory, and increasing the context window for processing even more information to give better responses.
We’re excited by the amazing possibilities of a world responsibly empowered by AI — a future of innovation that will enhance creativity, extend knowledge, advance science and transform the way billions of people live and work around the world.
More about Gemini
Explore our collection to find out more about Gemini, the most capable and general model we’ve ever built.
Get more stories from Google in your inbox.
Done. Just one step more.
Check your inbox to confirm your subscription.
You are already subscribed to our newsletter.
You can also subscribe with a different email address .
NotebookLM adds more than a dozen new features
Bard gets its biggest upgrade yet with Gemini
Pixel 8 Pro — the first smartphone with AI built in — is now running Gemini Nano, plus more AI updates coming to the Pixel portfolio
Members of fort peck tribes and googlers meet to learn, celebrate and support socially beneficial technology.
A team of Googlers focused on responsible innovation visited the Fort Peck Tribes in Montana to engage in relationship-building and bidirectional learning.
Meet Asia Pacific’s award winning app and game developers
Meet Asia’s inspiring developers creating apps for global audiences
Let’s stay in touch. Get the latest news from Google in your inbox.
- View all journals
- Explore content
- About the journal
- Publish with us
- Sign up for alerts
- 28 November 2023
A 27,000-year-old pyramid? Controversy hits an extraordinary archaeological claim
- Dyani Lewis
You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar
You have full access to this article via your institution.
Gunung Padang is “an amazing, important and cool site”, but whether it is the world’s oldest stone structure is contested. Credit: Ali Trisno Pranoto/Getty
A headline-grabbing paper 1 claiming that a structure in Indonesia is the oldest pyramid in the world has raised the eyebrows of some archaeologists — and has now prompted an investigation by the journal that published it, Nature has learnt.
The paper, published in the journal Archaeological Prospection on 20 October, garnered headlines around the world. Its central claim is that a pyramid lying beneath the prehistoric site of Gunung Padang in West Java, Indonesia, might have been constructed as far back as 27,000 years ago.
That would make it much older than the first colossal Egyptian pyramid, the 4,600-year-old Pyramid of Djoser. It would also mean that it pre-dates the oldest known megalithic site, Göbekli Tepe in Turkey, which was built by stone-masons around 11,000 years ago. And it would completely rewrite what is known about human civilization in the area. “The pyramid has become a symbol of advanced civilization,” says paper co-author Danny Hilman Natawidjaja, a geologist at the National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN) in Bandung, Indonesia. “It’s not easy to build pyramids. You need high masonry skills,” he says.
It’s exactly such claims that have left many fellow researchers cold. Lutfi Yondri, an archaeologist at BRIN, says his work has shown that people in the region inhabited caves between 12,000 and 6,000 years ago, long after the pyramid was supposedly built, and no excavations from this period have revealed evidence of sophisticated stonemasonry.
“I’m surprised [the paper] was published as is,” says Flint Dibble, an archaeologist at Cardiff University, UK. Although the paper presents “legitimate data”, he says, its conclusions about the site and its age are not justified.
Gunung Padang comprises five stepped stone terraces, with retaining walls and connecting staircases, that sit atop an extinct volcano. Between 2011 and 2014, Natawidjaja and colleagues investigated the site using several ground-penetrating techniques to determine what lies beneath the terraces.
They identified four layers, which they conclude represent separate phases of construction. The innermost layer is a hardened lava core, which has been “meticulously sculpted”, according to the paper.
Subsequent layers of rocks “arranged like bricks” were built over the top of the oldest layer. The layers were carbon-dated, using soil lodged between rocks obtained from a core drilled out of the hill. The first stage of construction, according to the paper, occurred between 27,000 and 16,000 years ago. Further additions were made between 8,000 and 7,500 years ago, and the final layer, which includes the visible stepped terraces, was put in place between 4,000 and 3,100 years ago.
Dibble says there is no clear evidence that the buried layers were built by humans and were not the result of natural weathering and the movement of rocks over time. “Material rolling down a hill is going to, on average, orient itself,” he says. But Natawidjaja says that the column-shaped stones were too large and orderly to have simply rolled there: “The neatly arranged, shaped and massive nature of these rocks, some weighing up to 300 kilograms, dismisses the likelihood of transportation over significant distances.”
The authors also report finding a dagger-shaped stone. “This object’s regular geometry and distinct composition, and its materials unrelated to the surrounding rocks, signify its man-made origin,” says Natawidjaja. But Dibble says it’s unlikely that the rock was shaped by humans. There’s no evidence of “working or anything to indicate that it’s man-made”, he says.
The Gunung Padang site featured in the 2022 Netflix documentary Ancient Apocalypse , hosted by British author Graham Hancock, who promotes an idea that an advanced global civilization was wiped out 12,000 years ago at the end of the last ice age. The authors acknowledge Hancock for proofreading their paper.
Natawidjaja says that because Gunung Padang was constructed before the end of the last ice age, it shows that people from that time were capable of building complex structures, and “this makes it a very interesting monument”.
But Bill Farley, an archaeologist at Southern Connecticut State University in New Haven, says the paper has not provided evidence that an advanced civilization existed during the last ice age. The 27,000-year-old soil samples from Gunung Padang, although accurately dated, do not carry hallmarks of human activity, such as charcoal or bone fragments, he says. Archaeological records show that the transition from hunter-gatherer societies to complex societies occupying large settlements occurred after the commencement of the Holocene 11,700 years ago. The oldest known city is the 9,000-year-old site of Çatalhöyük in what is now Turkey 2 .
Archaeological Prospection and its publisher, Wiley, have since launched an investigation into the paper. Eileen Ernenwein, an archaeological geophysicist at Tennessee State University in Johnson City, who is co-editor of the journal said in an e-mail to Nature : “The editors, including me, and Wiley ethics team are currently investigating this paper in accordance with Committee on Publication Ethics guidelines.” She declined to elaborate on the nature of the concerns raised.
Farley says that people should celebrate Gunung Padang for what it is — “an amazing, important and cool site” — rather than because it can be written into any particular narrative about the development of human civilization.
Natawidjaja says that he hopes the controversy does not cause animosity in the community. “We are really open to any researchers around the world who would like to come to Indonesia and do some research programme on Gunung Padang,” he says. “We know very little about our human history.”
Nature 624 , 15-16 (2023)
Natawidjaja, D. H. et al. Archaeol. Prospect . https://doi.org/10.1002/arp.1912 (2023).
Article Google Scholar
Orton, D. et al. Antiquity 92 , 620–639 (2018).
Reprints and Permissions
Cosmic-ray particles reveal secret chamber in Egypt's Great Pyramid
Humanity’s oldest art is flaking away. Can scientists save it?
News Feature 06 DEC 23
The genetic legacy of the expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples in Africa
Article 29 NOV 23
Forty slaughtered horses mark site of ancient mass sacrifices
Research Highlight 22 NOV 23
How to slay your zombies
Career Column 08 DEC 23
Is AI leading to a reproducibility crisis in science?
News Feature 05 DEC 23
Why I launched Malaysia’s first scientific newspaper
Career Q&A 04 DEC 23
Ancient DNA uncovers past migrations in California
News & Views 22 NOV 23
Mechanical Engineering – Smart Manufacturing Faculty Senior Lecturer / Lecturer
University of Doha for Science and Technology (UDST) is the first national applied University in the State of Qatar, offering applied Bachelor's an...
University of Doha for Science and Technology
Research Group Head, BeiGene Institute
A cross-disciplinary research organization where cutting-edge science and technology drive the discovery of impactful Insights
Pudong New Area, Shanghai
ECNU Seeking Global Talents
Founded in 1951, and based in Shanghai, East China Normal University (ECNU) is one of the top research universities in China. Directly under the Mi...
East China Normal University
4-year Group leader position
A 4-year Group leaders’ position at the Hellenic Pasteur Institute on one (1) of : A. Host- Pathogen Interactions or B. Antimicrobial Resistance
Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Greece (GR)
Hellenic Pasteur Institute
Postdoc (f/m/d) (Nanophotonics / Biophysics) in the field of high-resolution fluorescence imaging
The Rudolf Virchow Center has a vacancy for a Postdoc (f/m/d) (Nanophotonics / Biophysics) in the field of high-resolution fluorescence imaging.
Würzburg (Stadt), Bayern (DE)
University of Würzburg - Rudolf Virchow Center
Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.
- Explore articles by subject
- Guide to authors
- Editorial policies