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The Transformation of The Indian Healthcare System

Ankit kumar.

1 Respiratory Medicine, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, IND

The Indian healthcare system is a diverse and complex network of public and private sectors that provide a wide range of medical services to India's 1.4 billion inhabitants. Despite undergoing significant changes over the years, the system continues to face multiple challenges. These challenges include inadequate infrastructure, a shortage of healthcare professionals, urban-rural disparities, limited health insurance coverage, insufficient public healthcare funding, and a fragmented healthcare system. India is grappling with a growing burden of non-communicable diseases, which poses a significant challenge to its healthcare system.

The Indian government has initiated multiple programs to improve the healthcare system. The National Health Mission improves the availability of medical equipment and supplies. This also promotes community participation and engagement in healthcare decision-making and service delivery. The Ayushman Bharat scheme is a health insurance program that provides coverage of up to INR 5 lakhs per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization.

The Indian healthcare system is also witnessing multiple healthcare innovations, ranging from low-cost medical devices to innovative healthcare delivery models. The country's healthcare regulatory system is evolving to ensure patient safety, promote high-quality care, and control costs.

Furthermore, India has emerged as a leading destination for medical tourism due to the relatively low cost of medical procedures, the availability of skilled doctors, and advanced technology. Factors such as cost-effective treatment, advanced technology, a wide range of specialities, alternative medicine, English language proficiency, and ease of travel have contributed to India's growing medical tourism industry.

The Indian healthcare system has made significant progress in recent years. The positive transformation of the Indian healthcare system involves a range of changes and initiatives. Despite challenges, the continued investment in healthcare and innovation provides reasons to be optimistic about the future of healthcare in India.

The structure and organization of healthcare systems vary widely across different countries and regions. Some countries have a predominantly public healthcare system, where the government is responsible for providing healthcare services to the population. Other countries have a predominantly private healthcare system where healthcare services are provided by private hospitals. A well-functioning healthcare system provides high-quality healthcare services to the people, and it should be accessible, affordable, and sustainable over the long term [ 1 ].

The Indian healthcare system is a complex and diverse network made up of the public and private sectors, which offer a range of medical services and infrastructure to the 1.4 billion people living in India. It has undergone significant transformations over the years but still faces several challenges. The public sector includes primary, secondary, and tertiary care facilities managed by the central and state governments. Primary healthcare services are the individual's first point of contact and are provided through primary health centers, community health centers, and sub-centers. Secondary care focuses on acute and specialist services provided by district hospitals. Tertiary care refers to advanced medical services, including specialty and super-specialty services provided by medical colleges. The private sector consists of individual practitioners, nursing homes, clinics, and corporate hospitals [ 2 ].

The Indian healthcare system faces several challenges that impact its ability to deliver quality healthcare services to its large and diverse population [ 3 ]. Some of the key challenges are:

Inadequate infrastructure

India has a shortage of healthcare facilities, especially in rural areas, where the majority of the population resides. Many primary health centers and sub-centers lack essential infrastructure, medical equipment, and resources, making it difficult to provide even basic healthcare services to the population. The insufficient number of healthcare facilities, poorly maintained facilities, inadequate medical equipment and resources, and limited access to advanced healthcare services exacerbate the existing challenges in providing quality healthcare services to the population [ 3 ].

Shortage of healthcare professionals 

India has a significant shortage of healthcare professionals, including doctors, nurses, and paramedical staff. This is a critical challenge facing the Indian healthcare system, affecting the quality and accessibility of healthcare services across the country. The scarcity of trained medical staff has consequences like inadequate patient care. This is particularly evident in rural areas, where the majority of the population resides but has limited access to trained medical professionals. The limited capacity of medical and nursing schools to train healthcare professionals is a contributing factor to the shortage of skilled staff.

Urban-rural disparities

There is a marked disparity in the quality and accessibility of healthcare services between urban and rural areas. Urban areas tend to have better infrastructure, access to skilled professionals, and availability of specialized care, while rural areas often struggle with inadequate facilities and limited human resources.

Financial constraints and health insurance

The high out-of-pocket expenses for healthcare services can be a major burden for many Indians. Health insurance in India is not as widespread as in some other countries. This can lead to delayed or avoided treatments, causing further complications and health issues.

Insufficient public healthcare funding

The Indian government's expenditure on healthcare has historically been low compared to other countries, which contributes to the inadequacy of public healthcare facilities and the high reliance on private healthcare services, which may not be affordable for all citizens.

Fragmented healthcare system and inequity in access to care

The Indian healthcare system is characterized by a complex mix of public and private providers with varying degrees of quality and regulation. Socioeconomic disparities and regional differences in access to healthcare services result in unequal healthcare outcomes for different population groups, with poorer communities and those living in remote areas often facing greater challenges in accessing quality healthcare.

Growing burden of non-communicable and communicable diseases

Non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, have been on the rise in India, putting additional strain on the healthcare system. Despite progress in recent years, India still faces challenges in controlling communicable diseases like tuberculosis, malaria, and HIV/AIDS, which continue to pose significant public health risks.

The positive transformation of the Indian healthcare system is a multifaceted and ongoing process that involves many different changes and initiatives. The statistical data shows that the average life expectancy at birth in India has increased by approximately three years in the last ten years. The government has been working to improve the healthcare system through various initiatives to strengthen primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The Indian government spent two percent of India's gross domestic product (GDP) on healthcare in financial year 2022 and is forecast to reach over 2.5% of the GDP by 2025. In the financial year 2022, the government of India allocated approximately 860 billion Indian rupees to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in the Union Budget. The health tech sector in India secured private equity and venture capital investments worth nearly 1,740 million U.S. dollars in 2021. India's healthcare sector was worth about 280 billion U.S. dollars in 2020, and it was estimated to reach up to 372 billion dollars by 2022. The country's healthcare market had become one of the largest sectors in terms of revenue and employment, and the industry was growing rapidly [ 2 ].

Indians spend approximately 20 percent of their health spending as an out-of-pocket expenditure. In 2019, Indians spent around 55 percent of their total health spending as an out-of-pocket expenditure. This was at 74 percent in 2001, showing a gradual decrease in the share of healthcare expenses that people pay directly to the providers [ 2 ].

Some of the key elements of this positive transformation of India's healthcare system are the National Health Mission, Ayushman Bharat, and medical tourism.

The National Health Mission (NHM) was launched in 2013 and comprises the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM). The NHM aims to strengthen primary healthcare infrastructure and services by upgrading existing facilities, building new ones, and improving the availability of medical equipment and supplies. This initiative also seeks to enhance human resources for health by training and recruiting more doctors, nurses, and paramedical staff, especially in rural areas. The NHM also aims to improve maternal, neonatal, and child health by expanding access to essential services such as antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and immunization programs. Finally, it targets communicable and non-communicable diseases through targeted interventions and public health campaigns. The National Health Mission was allocated a budget of over 290 billion Indian rupees for the financial year 2024 [ 2 ].

Ayushman Bharat is another flagship healthcare initiative launched in 2018. This scheme provides financial protection and health coverage to India's vulnerable populations through Health and Wellness Centers (HWCs) and the Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY). As of December 2022, there were about 117 thousand Ayushman Bharath Health and Wellness Centers (AB-HWCs) across India. AB-HWCs provide free essential medicine, diagnostic services, and teleconsultation. The HWCs aim to provide comprehensive primary healthcare services to rural and urban populations, including preventive, promotive, and curative care. The HWCs focus on maternal and child health, non-communicable diseases, communicable diseases, and palliative care while providing essential drugs and diagnostic services. The PMJAY is a health insurance scheme that provides coverage of up to INR 5 lakhs per family per year for secondary and tertiary care hospitalization. This initiative targets approximately 100 million economically disadvantaged families, covering around 500 million beneficiaries, and covers a range of medical procedures and treatments at empanelled hospitals. PMJAY aims to reduce out-of-pocket expenses and improve access to quality healthcare for India's poorest and most vulnerable populations. Over 217 thousand public health facilities were reported in India as of the financial year 2022. Over 1.4 billion services were performed by outpatient departments across India, a significant increase from the previous year's value of over 1.1 billion [ 2 ].

Digital healthcare

The shift towards digital healthcare in India is transforming the way healthcare services are delivered, particularly in remote areas. Telemedicine, digital health records, and mobile health apps are all being used to improve healthcare service quality and efficiency [ 4 ].

Non-communicable disease prevention and management

India is facing a growing burden of non-communicable diseases, but there are efforts underway to prevent and manage these diseases. This includes initiatives to promote healthy lifestyles, increase awareness of disease prevention, and provide specialized care and treatment for those with chronic conditions.

The penetration of health insurance across India stood at around 35 percent as of the financial year 2018. This was a slight increase compared to the previous year, when penetration levels were about 33 percent. In the financial year 2021, nearly 514 million people across India were covered under health insurance schemes, and the value of premiums for the government-sponsored health insurance schemes across India aggregated to around 43 billion Indian rupees [ 2 ].

Healthcare innovation and regulation

There are many examples of healthcare innovation happening in India, from low-cost medical devices to innovative healthcare delivery models. These innovations have the potential to improve healthcare outcomes and reduce costs in the long term. India's healthcare regulatory system is evolving to ensure patient safety, promote high-quality care, and control costs. The government is taking steps to streamline the regulatory system and ensure that healthcare providers adhere to high standards of care [ 5 ].

The private healthcare sector in India plays a vital role in achieving universal health coverage, as recognized by the government. India offers healthcare services at comparatively low costs, attracting international patients seeking quality treatment at affordable prices. The private healthcare sector has made significant advancements in infrastructure, technology, specialized services, and healthcare access. Private healthcare providers have invested in modern hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic centers equipped with advanced medical technology. They have embraced digital innovations such as electronic medical records, telemedicine, health apps, and remote monitoring systems to improve patient care. Increased health insurance coverage has facilitated access to private healthcare services, with insurance companies collaborating with private hospitals and clinics. The government has encouraged public-private partnerships to enhance healthcare access and infrastructure, particularly in underserved areas. Collaborative efforts between the public and private sectors, along with targeted interventions, can help bridge gaps and create a more inclusive healthcare system.

Medical tourism

India has become a popular destination and thrived due to the availability of advanced treatments at relatively lower costs, the availability of skilled doctors and advanced technology in private hospitals contributing to foreign exchange earnings, and a positive reputation. India has emerged as a popular destination for medical tourism in recent years, attracting patients from around the world. The factors contributing to India's growing medical tourism industry include cost-effective treatment, skilled medical professionals, advanced technology, a wide range of specialties, alternative medicine, English language proficiency, and ease of travel.

Despite the challenges, the Indian healthcare system has made significant positive progress in recent years, particularly in terms of expanding access to healthcare services and improving health outcomes. These government initiatives, programs, and policies address the various challenges faced by the Indian healthcare system and improve access to quality healthcare services for all citizens. The positive transformation of India's healthcare system is ongoing and involves a range of changes and initiatives. While there are still significant challenges to overcome, such as healthcare access disparities and the burden of disease, the continued investment in healthcare and innovation in the sector are reasons to be optimistic about the future of healthcare in India. However, sustained efforts and investments are required to ensure that the benefits of these initiatives reach the intended beneficiaries and lead to lasting improvements in health outcomes.

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

  • Systematic Review
  • Open access
  • Published: 21 May 2024

Human resource shortage in India’s health sector: a scoping review of the current landscape

  • Vini Mehta 1 ,
  • Puneeta Ajmera 2 ,
  • Sheetal Kalra 3 ,
  • Mohammad Miraj 4 ,
  • Ruchika Gallani 5 ,
  • Riyaz Ahamed Shaik 6 ,
  • Hashem Abu Serhan 7 &
  • Ranjit Sah 1 , 8  

BMC Public Health volume  24 , Article number:  1368 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

Metrics details

For healthcare delivery to be optimally effective, health systems must possess adequate levels and we must ensure a fair distribution of human resources aimed at healthcare facilities. We conducted a scoping review to map the current state of human resources for health (HRH) in India and the reasons behind its shortage.

A systematic search was conducted in various electronic databases, from the earliest available date till February 2024. We applied a uniform analytical framework to all the primary research reports and adopted the “descriptive-analytical” method from the narrative paradigm. Inductive thematic analysis was conducted to arrange the retrieved data into categories based on related themes after creating a chart of HRH problems.

A total of 9675 articles were retrieved for this review. 88 full texts were included for the final data analysis. The shortage was addressed in 30.6% studies ( n  = 27) whereas 69.3% of studies ( n  = 61) addressed reasons for the shortage. The thematic analysis of data regarding reasons for the shortage yielded five kinds of HRH-related problems such as inadequate HRH production, job dissatisfaction, brain drain, regulatory issues, and lack of training, monitoring, and evaluation that were causing a scarcity of HRH in India.

There has been a persistent shortage and inequitable distribution of human resources in India with the rural expert cadres experiencing the most severe shortage. The health department needs to establish a productive recruitment system if long-term solutions are to be achieved. It is important to address the slow and sporadic nature of the recruitment system and the issue of job insecurity among medical officers, which in turn affects their other employment benefits, such as salary, pension, and recognition for the years of service.

Peer Review reports

Universal healthcare is recognized as a basic human right by the World Health Organization (WHO). Human resources for health (HRH) are an essential component of effective and high-quality healthcare systems, which are responsible for the maintenance and promotion of good health. In order for health care delivery to be as effective as possible, health systems must have adequate levels and fair distribution of human resources for health [ 1 , 2 ]. HRH are defined as “the stock of all individuals engaged in the promotion, protection or improvement of population health”. This includes both public and private sectors and different domains of health systems, such as personal curative and preventive care, non-personal public health interventions, disease prevention, health promotion services, research, management, and support services (WHO, 2007) [ 1 ]. The HRH is eventually required to carry out policies, conduct processes, prescribe medication, and offer care to the populace. Therefore, it should come as no surprise that nations with low physician densities are thought to do poorly in terms of life expectancy and maternal and child mortality [ 3 , 4 ]. India is one of the 57 nations with a clear shortage of HRH [ 1 , 6 ]. WHO recommends 44.5 doctors, nurses, and midwives per 10,000 inhabitants, whereas the national density was found to be 20.6 [ 7 ]. The current health worker density is noteworthy since it represents a significant improvement from the anticipated 13.6 per 10,000 in 2005 [ 8 ]. However, the distribution of HRH throughout the states is uneven [ 9 , 10 ]. There are notable variances between urban and rural locations in HRH, with urban areas having a doctor density that is four times higher than rural ones. Availability, distribution, and quality of HRH are crucial for achieving universal health coverage (UHC) in lower-to-middle-income countries (LMICs) such as India. There have been multiple studies measuring the HRH shortage. There are also quantitative and qualitative studies looking at the reasons for the shortage. Here, we attempt to provide the most comprehensive scoping review of the estimates of the HRH shortage in India and a critical discussion of the reasons/factors underlying this shortage. To our knowledge, this would be the first review on the matter.

From a policy perspective, it is critical to comprehend how a country with a surplus of human resources structures its shortfall. Despite India’s obvious public health problems, the topic has received little attention from researchers. The academic literature on HRH in India from inception to January 2023 was reviewed here, along with the current state of affairs, trends, and the nature of the shortage. Therefore, this scoping review aims to map the current state of HRH in India and the reasons behind its shortage.

This scoping review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis: Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-SCR) [ 11 ]. A scoping review was most appropriate due to the broad nature of this subject and the range of study designs included. Furthermore, it was necessary to conduct a wide search encompassing studies that examined WHO-Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) benchmarks, Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) guidelines, and India-SDG benchmarks. On 2-11-2022 the completed protocol was prospectively registered with the Open Science Framework ( https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/6S4QB ).

Search strategy

An exhaustive literature search was conducted to identify the shortage and reasons for shortages of HRH in India. Online electronic databases such as PubMed-Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science (WoS), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and EBSCO (Global Health) were searched from the earliest available date till February 2024. Additional sources like Google Scholar, WHO library database (WHOLIS), Public Health Foundation of India Knowledge Repository (PHFI), INDMED, conference proceedings, and cross-references were explored. Non-English language publications were translated into the English language using Google Translate [ 12 ]. Contact with authors was done for any unpublished studies. A detailed search strategy is given in Table  1 for PubMed-Medline and tailored to each database when necessary [Supplementary Table 1 ].

Eligibility criteria

We sought to define and characterize the state of shortage of HRH in India. In order to be included in the review, included studies needed to focus on metrics for shortage measurements such as density estimates, raw/absolute numbers, shortfall, and vacancies. We included studies that analyzed records from national, sub-national (state), district, administrative block, and center-level based on the comprehensive comprehensive list of cadres mentioned in the National Classification of Occupations (NCO) by the Government of India (GoI) [ 13 ], and the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) [ 14 ] by the International Labour Office was selected. Public, private, and public-private partnerships (PPPs), and social/non-governmental/trust were taken into consideration, making the list of cadres comprehensive. In the Indian healthcare industry, health workers are broadly classified as medical health professionals, including paramedical people and non-medical workers. The latter includes numerous categories of non-medical workers. They are classified as healthcare workers. They are classified as healthcare workers since they work in healthcare facilities.

Screening and selection

We imported all search results into Zotero 5.0 and reimported all titles and abstracts into the Excel screening workbook. Two researchers independently screened (VM and RG), first by the title and abstract to verify the agreement between the reviewers on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Case reports, letters, and narrative/historical reviews were not included in the search. The eligibility criteria were refined until a good agreement was reached. Papers without abstracts but with titles suggesting that they were related to the objectives of this review were also selected to screen the full text for eligibility. After selection, full‑text papers were read in detail by two reviewers (PA and SK). Those papers that fulfilled all of the selection criteria were processed for data extraction. Two reviewers (VM and RG) hand-searched the reference lists of all selected studies for additional relevant articles. The level of agreement between the two reviewers, calculated by Cohen’s kappa (k), was 0.92 for titles and abstracts and 0.90 for full texts. Disagreements between the two reviewers were resolved by discussion. If a disagreement persisted, the judgment of a third reviewer (MM) was considered decisive.

Also, studies examining HRH (absolute numbers/shortage/vacancy/shortfall) at national levels in urban and rural locations in India were considered for comparing the density of HRH. We carefully examined the papers to get information on HRH enumeration, openings, and deficits. For uniformity and comparison with WHO criteria, the available data was adjusted as necessary. For instance, all HRH densities are recalculated and given as 10,000 HRH workers.

Data extraction and analysis

Two authors (VM and PA) independently extracted data using specially designed data extraction forms, utilizing Microsoft Excel software. Inter-rater reliability between the two authors was 0.8 for data extraction and analysis. The following informational data fields were used: author/year of publication, location, study design, sample size, study setting, study design, data collection tool, cadre shortages, career stages, employment status, reasons for the shortage, results, and conclusion of the studies. We applied descriptive analysis for objective one and thematic analysis approach for second objective. Since articles might belong to numerous categories, the total number of articles belonging to one category may be smaller than the total number of articles belonging to all other categories. In the text and the supplemental materials, figures depict the distributions of papers by publication year, journal, and therapeutic/practice area. Inductive thematic analysis, as defined by Braun and Clarke [ 15 ], was used to arrange the retrieved data into categories based on related themes. A thorough literature review was conducted and the following steps were undertaken to create a chart of HRH-related challenges in India:

Extensive literature search: For a thorough grasp of the major themes and topics that have surfaced, a comprehensive literature review was conducted.

Developing initial codes: Data was initially coded by determining the meaningful text units related to HRH shortages in India. The key descriptive and interpretative concepts and ideas contained in the data were captured by these codes.

Identify themes: After the initial codes were identified, connections and patterns among them were explored by the reviewers. Similar codes were grouped to generate five themes that reflected the underlying meanings and concepts in the data by utilizing an iterative and inductive method. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion between the authors.

Refine themes: The five themes were refined further in terms of wording and language and finally agreed upon by all the authors ensuring that all of them are coherent and accurately reflect the underlying meanings and ideas within the data.

The available data was modified for uniformity and comparison with WHO-SDG’s benchmarks, Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) guidelines, and India-SDG benchmarks.

Methodological quality appraisal

In line with guidelines for conducting a scoping review, no formal assessment of the methodological quality of the included articles was performed.

Search and selection results

A total of 9,580 articles were retrieved for this review, including 9483 from the databases and 97 from the additional sources. After removing duplicates, 3,155 articles remained for screening the titles. 154 articles were chosen for screening the abstracts, yielding 100 articles eligible for full-text screening. 88 full texts10,16–102 were included for the final data analysis (PRISMA flow diagram in Fig.  1 ). Study characteristics [ 10 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 , 93 , 94 , 95 , 96 , 97 , 98 , 99 , 100 , 101 , 102 ] are described in detail in Supplementary Table 2 . The first research question was addressed in 30.6% of studies ( n  = 27) whereas 69.3% of studies ( n  = 61) addressed the second research question. In Fig.  2 , the publication years are displayed. The first article was published in 1978. 11.3% of articles ( n  = 10) were published before 2010 while 85.2% were published from 2011 to 2020. Highest number of papers ( n  = 10) were published in 2012 and 2017.

figure 1

Flowchart summarizing the article selection process ( n – number of studies)

Articles were categorized into state level (HRH issues of only one state), national level (HRH issues of more than one state/multicentric), and international level (HRH issues of more than one country including India) for ease of understanding. 50% of studies ( n  = 44) were conducted at the state level focussing on the HRH of a single state. 36.3% of studies were multicentric ( n  = 32) and were conducted at the national level including more than one state of India while 13.6% ( n  = 12) were international level studies conducted in more than one country including India 67.7% of studies were based on primary data while 26.8% studies were based on secondary data obtained from different sources. In 5.3% of studies both primary as well as secondary data was used to collect data.

figure 2

Number of studies according to publication years

48.2% of studies were cross-sectional surveys. A questionnaire ( n  = 44, 89%) was used in the majority of the surveys for data collection. Qualitative methods such as interviews were also used in surveys, albeit less frequently ( n  = 16, 17.3%). One study used focus group discussion while in three studies, both interviews as well as focus group discussions were conducted. A mixed method study design (both qualitative and quantitative) was used in 6.4% of studies. In two qualitative studies, the Fujifilm Quick-Snap disposable camera was used to take photographs and conduct thematic analysis.

Studies enumerating more than one cadre were categorized as all HRH ( n  = 33, 37.5%) in the present study. 35.2% ( n  = 31) studies were conducted on doctors, 17% ( n  = 15) on nurses, 5.6% ( n  = 5) on dentists and 4.5% ( n  = 4) on pharmacists (Fig.  3 ).

figure 3

Distribution of studies according to HRH

Eight cross-sectional national-level studies reporting the HRH data in India are presented in this scoping review. The HRH concentrations are compiled in Fig.  3 . Comparable figures have been derived from the data since the WHO views the doctor, nurse, and midwife cadres as vital HRH. The key data sources for the studies were considered to be estimates from the Census, the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO), professional registration bodies, Population data and health-professional statistics, the National Health Profile, and the Indian Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation’s 2011 Report on Health and Family Welfare. Results depict an increase in the density of all HRH and doctors from 19.46 to 6.07 in 2012 to 29.1 and 11.3 in 2019 respectively (Fig.  4 ).

figure 4

National Level HRH densities. NSSO = National Sample Survey Organization; MCI = Medical Council of India; INC = Indian Nursing Council; IMSPI = Indian Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation; WBO = World Bank Open Data; NHP = National Health Profile 2017; ABCE project surveys: Access, Bottlenecks, Costs, and Equity (ABCE) project surveys

Thematic analysis

The thematic analysis of data regarding the second research question yielded five kinds of HRH-related problems that are causing a scarcity of HRH in India. The outcomes of each study are described in Supplementary Tables 3 and codes identified under each theme is shown in Supplementary Table 4 [ 10 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 , 68 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 , 79 , 80 , 81 , 82 , 83 , 84 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 89 , 90 , 91 , 92 , 93 , 94 , 95 , 96 , 97 , 98 , 99 , 100 , 101 , 102 ]. A summary of these themes is provided in Table  2 below:

A detailed description of all the themes are given below:

Theme 1: Inadequate HRH Production and recruitment

“Inadequate HRH production” emerged out to be the first theme in the present review. Eight studies reported this theme as one of the reasons for the HRH shortage in India. With nearly 1.3 billion citizens, India is the second-most populated nation in the world. This puts a tremendous amount of strain on the healthcare system, which needs a sizable number of healthcare staff to meet the population’s healthcare needs [ 80 , 88 ]. Also, India suffers from serious health disparities, with a large divide between urban and rural areas as well as across various states [ 65 , 66 , 88 ]. Healthcare professionals are in insufficient supply in many rural areas and several states, and their distribution is not equitable for instance, in urban Madhya Pradesh (MP), there are 120 doctors per 100,000 people, whereas in rural MP, there are only 12 doctors per 100,000 people [ 22 ]. With an aging population, India is going through a demographic transformation as well [ 65 , 66 , 74 , 75 , 81 ]. The demand for healthcare services will rise as a result, especially for geriatric care, which calls for a qualified staff [ 81 , 88 ]. With a large number of people coming from other nations for medical treatment, India has become a well-liked location for medical tourism. The need for healthcare personnel has expanded as a result, especially in specialized professions. However, there is a limited number of postgraduate (PG) seats in medical courses which makes it challenging to maintain supply as per the demand [ 88 ]. Moreover, there is a lack of a centralized HRH database which hinders effective planning and HRH deployment in certain locations [ 88 ].

Theme 2: Job dissatisfaction

Thirty-nine studies reported that job dissatisfaction is a major contributor to India’s shortage of Human Resources for Health (HRH). In India, a large number of healthcare professionals operate in subpar facilities with insufficient equipment. Burnout, stress, and work unhappiness may result from this [ 10 , 16 , 24 , 26 , 39 ]. Further, healthcare professionals are frequently underpaid, especially in the public sector. Many Indian healthcare employees believe that there are few opportunities for professional growth, which might cause them to feel unmotivated and dissatisfied with their jobs [ 63 , 71 , 75 ]. Therefore, in order to address the lack of HRH in India, it is imperative to address the issue of work unhappiness among healthcare professionals.

Theme 3: Brain Drain

Ten studies reported that for emerging nations like India, where the loss of trained individuals can have a large influence on economic growth and development, brain drain can be a serious issue [ 17 , 31 , 37 , 48 , 68 , 70 , 80 , 85 , 90 , 97 ]. The term “brain drain” describes the emigration of highly educated and competent people from one nation to another [ 31 , 37 ]. The desire for better employment possibilities is one of the primary causes of brain drain. Many highly qualified individuals leave their home nation in quest of better-paying work and living conditions [ 68 , 70 ]. Another factor in brain drain is a lack of employment prospects in a particular field or business. Skilled workers may search for chances abroad if they are unable to obtain employment in their field at home.

In some situations, the pursuit of educational possibilities can result in brain emigration. Professionals with advanced degrees may travel abroad to complete their studies or receive training in an area that is not offered or accessible in their native country [ 68 , 70 , 80 , 85 , 90 , 97 ].

Theme 4: Regulatory concerns

“Regulatory concerns” emerged to be another important theme. Thirty-three studies reported that to ensure an adequate supply of HRH, regulatory concerns must be resolved. A lack of qualified healthcare personnel is caused by inadequate staffing and training regulations. The health department’s protracted delivery of wage benefits and service regularisation, unequal opportunities with regard to job stability, no wage benefits, and non-acknowledgment of prior work experience, extremely complex and dispersed recruitment rules, a slow and erratic recruitment process are the key regulatory issues indicated by majority of studies [ 36 , 42 , 43 , 45 , 47 , 49 , 50 , 67 , 69 ].

Theme 5: lack of training, monitoring and evaluation

Six studies stated that in the absence of proper training healthcare professionals might not be able to pick up the skills and information required to do their professions well. This may result in a lack of qualified healthcare professionals who can deliver high-quality care. Further, without efficient monitoring and evaluation methods, it may be challenging to pinpoint the areas in which healthcare staff need more assistance or training [ 34 , 35 , 40 , 52 , 60 , 83 ]. The expertise and abilities of healthcare professionals may not match the population’s demands as a result, which could contribute to the shortage of HRH.

Theme 6: Regulatory issues

15 studies Workforce expansions are not at pace with population growth and changing dynamics of regional disease burden. Incredibly complex, non-transparent and dispersed recruitment rules, slow and extremely erratic recruitment process, health department’s protracted delivery of wage benefits and service regularisation, unequal opportunities with regard to job stability, no wage benefits, and non-acknowledgement of prior work experience are key regulatory issues. Regular vacancy planning is not done at the district level. The district health societies hire only contractual staff at the district level. Current central civil service rules, recruitment methods, appraisal systems, reward and punishment, and so on are insufficient to address human resource management issues.

This scoping review is aimed at offering a thorough comparative evaluation of research conducted on the scarcity of human resources for the health sector in India, and an analysis of the deficit distribution throughout cadres. Numerous aspects of HRH in India, as well as current and upcoming issues that must be resolved to enhance the availability of health personnel, both nationally and at the state level, have been highlighted. A total of 88 studies that reported HRH densities and reasons for HRH shortages indicated variations in their data sources like sample surveys, censuses, and registries. Thirty-three national level studies examining the HRH data in India were identified. Findings reveal that the number of doctors, nurses, and midwives in India is only one-quarter of the World Health Organization guideline of 2.3/1000 people, indicating a severe general deficit of health professionals. The workforce has an inefficient skill mix because there are at least as many doctors as nurses. Just one-third of the work force are women. Most workers reside in cities and are employed by the private sector [ 37 ].

Studies by Singh et al. and Rao et al. also report overall low numbers of qualified health workers, a high presence of unqualified health workers, particularly in rural areas, and significant differences in qualified health worker distribution between urban and rural areas [ 52 , 69 ]. A framework has been developed to identify the reasons for the underlying shortage, in the form of six themes along with proposed strategies and actions that can assist governments, policy makers and health agencies in planning, creating, and executing efficient strategies for achieving a sustainable health workforce and UHC. It is clear that there are shortages of health workers in some regions of India and in some speciality fields, but it is challenging to assess the scope and type of such shortages due to a dearth of research and health statistics. There is a glaring lack of clarity on whether a connection exists between these shortages and global migration. Although there is no specific policy agenda to control health worker migration in general, policy responses to migration of health workers are typically integrated into wider processes aimed at managing the health workforce. India’s decision-makers have divergent opinions on whether it is necessary or desirable to restrict immigration [ 78 ].

India’s health care systems and services are still developing, therefore facing issues like lack of skilled workers, absenteeism, inadequate infrastructure, and care quality [ 66 , 80 , 99 ]. One important determinant of the availability of health workforce is the density of the health personnel, relative to the population. Poorer health and service utilisation results are found in states with lower health worker densities [ 32 ]. The findings also revealed that public hospital employees were more satisfied with their recruitment and selection process, less committed to their organisation, and had lower levels of occupational stress than private hospital employees [ 41 , 49 ]. Enhancing working conditions, providing the bare necessities in terms of supplies and equipment, providing possibilities for professional growth, and strengthening supervision may prove to be equally significant in boosting employee retention in a desperate human resources situation. Furthermore, there is an unequivocal need to improve the quality of the output in terms of an explicitly stated and standardized competency framework tailored to the Indian context.

Forty-seven studies focussing on the HRH of a single state were conducted at the state level. Studies conducted in Gujarat reported that incredibly complex, non-transparent and dispersed recruitment rules, slow and extremely erratic recruitment process, the health department’s protracted delivery of wage benefits and service regularisation, unequal opportunities with regard to job stability, no wage benefits, and non-acknowledgement of prior work experience are the key factors influencing the HRH in most of the states. As opposed to extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation is more crucial. In order to meet the demands of service providers in terms of motivation, state health departments must address the motivation of health service providers by designing a set of strategies. State health departments, lawmakers, and reformers need to create management strategies that address both intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors [ 77 , 89 ].

Similarly, the study conducted in Mumbai reported that the high rate of burnout syndrome among resident doctors in public sector hospitals had a negative impact on the physical and mental health of medical professionals and lowered their motivation and productivity at work [ 81 ]. Migration of Indian HRH to nations with higher incomes emerged as another significant factor that impacts HRH retention in India. A study conducted at the international level, including India, indicated that it is difficult for India to retain skilled medical personnel due to the movement of Indian HRH to nations with higher incomes, which affects government efforts to make healthcare more accessible throughout the nation [ 17 ]. Low pay and unfavourable working conditions, particularly in the private sector, are the main drivers of Indian HRH leaving India for other countries [ 21 , 75 , 78 , 85 ].

Another significant concern identified by a majority of the research is a lack of HRH databases [ 23 , 28 , 49 , 82 , 90 ]. There is a backlog of shortages because actual HR requirements are not assessed as a result of the lack of routinely updated HR planning. Although having a big workforce, the state health department lacks a specialised HR department to offer assistance with a variety of HR responsibilities. Ad hoc workers who put in long hours do not receive the same perks as regular workers. The existing sanctioning standards require an evidence-based update. Workload-based HRH deployment in different regions will guarantee sufficient availability and equitable distribution, which are required to raise the general standard of healthcare.

Inequitable distribution of HRH, lack of training, limited and poor supervision turned out to be another important factor that influence HRH in India. The most apparent doctor distributional gaps have a significant impact on health outcomes. Lack of or unequal distribution of the medical workforce may also result in inefficient utilisation of physical facilities and equipment, making the infrastructure and equipment investments useless. Zurn et al. also reported that inequitable distribution of healthcare manpower is an important challenge for health policymakers [ 103 ].

Health planners and managers must pinpoint crucial aspects, including training opportunities, which can be methodically handled at the management and policy level in order to solve this issue. Quantification, understanding, and accessibility of crucial elements can surely aid in the development of efficient administrative and human resource policies. The population is growing, and the dynamics of the regional illness burden are changing, yet workforce expansion is not keeping up. The health department’s lengthy delivery of wage benefits and service regularisation, unequal opportunities with regard to job stability, no wage benefits, and non-accountability of prior work experience are important regulatory issues. Further regulatory concerns include excessively complex, unclear, and dispersed hiring standards, a sluggish and inconsistent hiring procedure, and extremely slow and erratic recruitment rules [ 29 , 45 , 55 , 56 , 66 ]. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are frequently employed to take advantage of the resources, skills, and knowledge of the private sector around the world [ 7 ]. In order to complement the public sector, the partnership may look into the resources and experience of the commercial sector. The findings of the present scoping review could assist decision-makers in deciding the future road map to accomplish the sustainable development goals. The study has a number of strengths. Firstly, it adds to the little body of knowledge on the shortage of HRH and the disparities in the publicly financed healthcare system in India. Secondly, the current study not only assessed the shortage of human resources for health (HRH) in India but also identified the key reasons for the shortage.

There are a few limitations as well. WHO’s methodology for determining HRH density requirement thresholds for doctors, nurses and midwives and dentists were the only considerations, thus leaving out other paramedical staff due to non-availability of data in most of the studies. The HRH system in India is divided into public and private sectors and, while the private sector lacks a formal hierarchy of structure, the public health system follows a three-tier model, with primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. In our review we witnessed a lack of literature depicting the shortages of public and private HRH. This is because we followed a scoping review approach and considered reasons for shortages published in the literature which may not be comprehensive. Another limitation is that, due to heterogeneity in the included studies, public and private sector and urban and rural comparisons couldn’t be estimated. Although we have tried to cover all the major databases, we might have missed out some of the important papers due to the non-responsiveness of authors in sharing the complete data. Furthermore, our scoping analysis did not explicitly analyse data from sources such as Rural Health Statistics, National Health Workforce Accounts, and the Periodic Labour Force Survey, which can give critical information on HRH. As a result, the assessment may not fully capture the detailed insights from these main data sources. Further research could benefit from a more direct examination of these primary data sources to gather a greater range of information about the health workforce.

The present scoping review has a few recommendations. Firstly, a comprehensive national database covering HRH cadres in public and private sectors could accurately track the state of HRH in India and make necessary policy changes to improve it. The current skill mix is dominated by doctors and consists of fewer nurses. At the national level, there needs to be a focus on both retaining nurses in the workforce and significantly boosting nursing supply. More focus will be required on the unique role of task shifting and its effects on patient care and well-being. Reduce the current human resource shortfalls in public sector organisations, especially at the primary levels, by making recruiting processes more effective through walk-in interviews or contractual/flexible norms of involvement. To strengthen the HRH in India, we require a comprehensive strategy that covers finance, infrastructure, working conditions, gender and social inequities.

This scoping review reveals that there has been a persistent shortage and inequitable distribution of human resources in India over the years, with the rural expert cadres experiencing the most shortage. The critical challenges in India’s Human Resources for Health (HRH), highlight inadequate HRH production and recruitment, job dissatisfaction, brain drain, regulatory issues, and training deficits as key factors contributing to the HRH shortage. To address these multifaceted challenges, the health department must establish a productive recruitment system to achieve long-term solutions Having clear guidelines for managing human resources and being transparent in how these are put into practice would enhance governance and foster trust among healthcare professionals, thus motivating them to work in the public sector. Therefore, the optimal management of these challenges has the power to promote retention by boosting motivation and preventing voluntary turnover.

Data availability

All data are included in the manuscript. Remaining data can be provided on reasonable request by corresponding author.

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Mehta, V., Ajmera, P., Kalra, S. et al. Human resource shortage in India’s health sector: a scoping review of the current landscape. BMC Public Health 24 , 1368 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-024-18850-x

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Research involvement of medical students in a medical school of India: exploring knowledge, attitude, practices, and perceived barriers

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Introduction Research in the medical discipline significantly impacts society by improving the general well-being of the population, through improvements in diagnostic and treatment modalities. However, of 579 Indian medical colleges, 332 (57.3%) did not publish a single paper from the year 2005 to 2014," indicating a limited contribution from medical fraternity In order to probe in to the cause of this a study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude, practices (KAP) and perceived barriers to research among students of a medical school in Delhi, India.

Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students and the data on academic-cum-demographic information, assessment of knowledge, attitude, practices and barriers to research was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to check the association of various factors with the KAP of research. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results A total of 402 (N) subjects were enrolled in the study. Majority were male (79.6%) and from clinical professional years (57%). Majority (266, 66.2%) of the subjects had adequate knowledge. Of the study subjects (61,15%) having inadequate knowledge of research, sixty percent were from pre- and para-clinical years, while around 70 % of those having good knowledge were from clinical professional years. However, only 16.9% of the participants had participated in a research project, and only 4.72% had authored a publication. Sixty one percent of study subjects having a positive attitude towards research, were from pre- and para-clinical years. Among the study subjects having a positive attitude towards research, over 60% were from pre- and para-clinical years. The barriers for conducting research were mostly; lack of funds/laboratory equipment/infrastructure (85.1%), lack of exposure to opportunities for research in the medical (MBBS) curriculum (83.8%), and lack of time (83.3%). There was a statistically significant association between knowledge and attitude towards research with a professional year of study.

Conclusions The study revealed that while most of the students had a positive attitude towards research as well as an adequate knowledge of research, there was a poor level of participation in research. These challenges can be overcome by incorporating research as a part of the medical school curriculum from early years on, setting aside separate time for research, and establishing student research societies that can actively promote research.

Competing Interest Statement

The authors have declared no competing interest.

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This study did not receive any funding.

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I confirm all relevant ethical guidelines have been followed, and any necessary IRB and/or ethics committee approvals have been obtained.

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The ethics committee of Dr Baba Saheb Ambedkar Medical College and Hospital, New Delhi gave ethical approval for this work.

I confirm that all necessary patient/participant consent has been obtained and the appropriate institutional forms have been archived, and that any patient/participant/sample identifiers included were not known to anyone (e.g., hospital staff, patients or participants themselves) outside the research group so cannot be used to identify individuals.

I understand that all clinical trials and any other prospective interventional studies must be registered with an ICMJE-approved registry, such as ClinicalTrials.gov. I confirm that any such study reported in the manuscript has been registered and the trial registration ID is provided (note: if posting a prospective study registered retrospectively, please provide a statement in the trial ID field explaining why the study was not registered in advance).

I have followed all appropriate research reporting guidelines, such as any relevant EQUATOR Network research reporting checklist(s) and other pertinent material, if applicable.

Email id: jhaabhinav677{at}gmail.com , manas.shah1999{at}gmail.com , Ritikgoyal152{at}gmail.com , drdeepakdhamnetiya{at}gmail.com , apoorv1729{at}gmail.com , raviprakashjha{at}gmail.com , dr.prachi.obg{at}bsamch.in

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A Manifesto for Healthcare Based Blockchain: Research Directions for the Future Generation

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research paper on healthcare sector in india

  • Deepa Kumari   ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-0696-9790 1 ,
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Blockchain has gained significant interest because of its inherent characteristics—decentralization, integrity, immutability, interoperability, transparency, and trustworthiness. Additionally, Blockchain has the potential to revolutionize the healthcare sector, ushering in a novel era. This survey presents some novel insights into blockchain-based electronic health record systems. Its aim is to present the research discoveries regarding the present state of blockchain technology in diverse healthcare application contexts. This paper presents a theoretical survey of various reputed research papers and white papers representing successful implementation. It helps the researchers to assess and understand blockchain-enabled healthcare systems properly. This detailed survey analysis presents the contribution of existing works from the perspective of identified challenges and their respective solutions. This paper presents a graphical survey analysis based on research findings, which helps identify some future exploratory directions for proper research work.

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Kumari, D., Sharma, S., Chawla, M. et al. A Manifesto for Healthcare Based Blockchain: Research Directions for the Future Generation. J. Inst. Eng. India Ser. B (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40031-024-01074-3

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research paper on healthcare sector in india

Wipro collaborates with Centre for Brain Research to pioneer AI-driven health behavior innovations

Wipro’s r&d team, part of lab45, will design and develop a personal care engine – an ai that will take into account an individual’s health history, desired health state, and other behavioral responses..

Wipro, collaboration, Centre for Brain Research, artificial intelligencem machine learning, data analytics, personal care, health behavior innovations, digital app

Wipro Limited on Tuesday announced a collaboration with the Centre for Brain Research (CBR), an autonomous, non-profit research organization, hosted at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc). This partnership, it added, will focus on harnessing the power of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and big data analytics to develop new technologies that will provide precision support towards the prevention and management of long-term health disorders.

Wipro’s R&D team, part of Lab45, will design and develop a personal care engine – an AI that will take into account an individual’s health history, desired health state, and other behavioral responses – to promote healthy aging, positive lifestyle changes, and psycho-social wellbeing to meaningfully improve an individual’s health over time.

research paper on healthcare sector in india

“The personal care engine will focus on reducing and managing the risk of cardiovascular disease and correlated neurodegenerative disorders, by using AI to personalize its interaction with users, optimizing for their long-term health and wellbeing,” the company said in a statement. 

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Wipro will test the engine through a digital app-based trial in collaboration with CBR at IISc, and it will generate evidence regarding the engine’s effectiveness for contexts that are deeply relevant for long-term health outcomes. 

Subha Tatavarti, Chief Technology Officer, Wipro Limited, said, “Wipro is committed to transforming the landscape of healthcare through technological innovation, and we are delighted to be partnering with the CBR and IISc on this journey. Our personal care engine enables wide-ranging applications and benefits for health management. It has the potential to mitigate lifestyle-related conditions and even enhance cognitive and psychosocial functioning.”  

Dr Ajay Chander, Head of Research and Development, Wipro Limited, said, “Our collaboration with CBR will pioneer solutions at the intersection of computing and cognitive sciences, bringing scalable personalized care support for some of the most chronic health challenges globally. Cardiovascular conditions are a particular focus for us, because of their strong association with long-term cognitive issues and the potential for broad health and wellbeing benefits at lower costs.”

Further emphasizing the importance of this partnership, Professor KVS Hari, Director, Centre for Brain Research, said, “Working with Wipro allows us to amplify our scientific expertise through large-scale digital applications. This partnership will accelerate the path from research to real-world solutions in cognitive and overall health.”

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Vertiv Launches AI Hub to Bridge Knowledge Gap in AI Infra Deployment

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  • Published on May 27, 2024
  • by Shyam Nandan Upadhyay

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Vertiv, a global provider of data centres, digital infrastructure and continuity solutions, has launched an AI Hub to address the growing need for expert information on AI infrastructure deployment and strategy. The hub features the industry’s first AI reference design portfolio for critical digital infrastructure.

The Vertiv AI Hub provides partners, customers, and website visitors with access to white papers, industry research, tools, and power and cooling portfolios for retrofit and greenfield applications. The reference design library showcases scalable liquid cooling and power infrastructure supporting current and future chip sets ranging from 10 to 140kW per rack.

“Vertiv has a history of sharing new-to-world technology and insights for the data centre industry,” said Vertiv CEO Giordano Albertazzi. The AI Hub will be frequently updated with new content, including an AI Infrastructure certification program for Vertiv partners, reflecting the rapid changes in the AI tech stack and supporting infrastructure.

“We are committed to providing deep knowledge, the broadest portfolio, and expert guidance to enable our customers to be among the first to deploy energy-efficient AI power and cooling infrastructure for current and future deployments,” Albertazzi further said.

Vertiv also recently inaugurated a new manufacturing facility in Chakan, Pune , to meet the surging demand for data centres and supporting infrastructure solutions in India. This facility complements its existing manufacturing facilities in Ambernath and Pune. 

The new Chakan facility manufactures thermal management products and solutions tailored for data centres, telecommunication, commercial, and industrial applications, catering to both domestic and international markets. 

Albertazzi has noted that India’s emergence as a data center hub in the APAC region is a key reason for building the third manufacturing facility in the country. In the current landscape of the data center market, Mumbai emerges as the largest hub, while Pune stands out as a rapidly growing contender. 

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COMMENTS

  1. The Transformation of The Indian Healthcare System

    The government has been working to improve the healthcare system through various initiatives to strengthen primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare services. The Indian government spent two percent of India's gross domestic product (GDP) on healthcare in financial year 2022 and is forecast to reach over 2.5% of the GDP by 2025.

  2. Health Care System in India : An Overview

    978-93-80449-15-9. Health care is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of. mental and physical well being through the services offered by the medical, nursing ...

  3. Quality Of Health Care In India: Challenges ...

    Abstract. India's health care sector provides a wide range of quality of care, from globally acclaimed hospitals to facilities that deliver care of unacceptably low quality. Efforts to improve ...

  4. India Health System Review

    India Health System Review Health Systems in Transition Vol. 11 No. 1 2022 Written by: Sakthivel Selvaraj, Public Health Foundation of India, Delhi, India Anup K Karan, Indian Institute of Public Health, Delhi, India Swati Srivastava, Medical Faculty and University Hospital, Heidelberg University, Germany Nandita Bhan, Center on Gender Equity and Health, India

  5. Human resource shortage in India's health sector: a scoping review of

    After selection, full‑text papers were read in detail by two reviewers (PA and SK). Those papers that fulfilled all of the selection criteria were processed for data extraction. ... is aimed at offering a thorough comparative evaluation of research conducted on the scarcity of human resources for the health sector in India, and an analysis of ...

  6. The past, present, and future of health economics in India

    There have been several factors that have caused a massive growth of the healthcare sector in India ... and wide range of disorders make it ideal for clinical trials and personalized medicine research. By 2030, India will become the most populated nation on this planet, and approximately 200 million Indians would be at minimum 60-years-old. The ...

  7. Private Sector Presence in Healthcare in India: Econometric Analysis of

    Appropriate role for the private sector in healthcare of India [Monograph of the Independent Commission on Development and Health in India]. VHAI Press. ... Health Services Research, 38(6 Part 1), 1403-1421. Crossref. PubMed. Google Scholar. ... medical practice and health care in India in the era of globalisation: ...

  8. Issues in the Provision of Health Care in India: An Overview

    Abstract. After reviewing health outcomes and policy in India, this paper concludes that there are at least six sets of issues to be addressed about improving the quantity and quality of health services, and ipso facto improving health outcomes, in India. First, the amount of resources earmarked for health needs to increase.

  9. AI in Indian healthcare: From roadmap to reality

    Encouraging collaboration between academia and industry will foster innovation in AI research for healthcare. ... and robotics in the healthcare sector in India is increasing, and is seen as a way to improve the quality of healthcare services. ... a viewpoint paper" Int J Health Pol Manag, 12 (2023), p. 7261, 10.34172/ijhpm.2022.7261. View in ...

  10. (PDF) HEALTHCARE SECTOR IN INDIA: PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES

    In 2018, India's current health spending was 3.54 percent of GDP. China's proportion of current spending. has steadily increased, going fr om 4.47 percent in 2000 to 5.35 percent in 2018, whereas ...

  11. (PDF) A Review of Indian Healthcare Sector

    The overall health sector in India is valued at over US$ 200 billion, growing at a compound annual growth rate of 22.9%. 1 Healthcare delivery consisting of hospitals, diagnostic laboratories and ...

  12. E-health and its Impact on Indian Health Care: An Analysis

    Healthcare sector is progressing towards digitalization in every aspect such as e-consultations, health surveillance, health education and various other healthcare services. Developing countries like India lacks infrastructure to conduct studies to evaluate impact of these e-health services on patient outcomes.

  13. Human resource shortage in India's health sector: a scoping review of

    DOI: 10.1186/s12889-024-18850-x Corpus ID: 269949924; Human resource shortage in India's health sector: a scoping review of the current landscape @article{Mehta2024HumanRS, title={Human resource shortage in India's health sector: a scoping review of the current landscape}, author={Vini Mehta and Puneeta Ajmera and Sheetal Kalra and Mohammad Miraj and Ruchika Gallani and Riyaz Ahamed Shaik ...

  14. Public health priorities for India

    Therefore, an urgent public health need is to co-create key priorities between the key sectors and ministries for successful intersectoral initiatives by sharing the accountability for the right to health across the government as a whole, to achieve the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. To track COVID-19 infections and vaccination, India ...

  15. PDF Digitalization of Healthcare System in India—A Perspective ...

    Henceforth, the paper analyses the perspective of the Indian government on the digitalization of the Indian healthcare system considering the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental (PESTLE) factors. As it is a long-term process, so there is a need to understand these associated elements, so that the planning that ...

  16. PDF Healthcare Sector in India

    As of April 2018, India has 4035 hospitals and 27,951 dispensaries to provide care under health AYUSH. As many as 158,417 sub-centres, 25,743 primary health centres (PHCs) and 5,624 community health centres had been established in India as of March 2018 for provision of healthcare for India's rural populace.

  17. Health insurance sector in India: an analysis of its performance

    Table 2 provides insight into the performance of health insurance sector in India. The growth of health insurance in India has been from Rs.1909 crores for the financial year 2006-2007 to Rs. 33011crores for the financial year 2018-2019. The growth percentage is 1629% i.e. growing at an average rate of 135% per annum.

  18. Health Insurance Sector in India: An Analysis of Its Performance

    Table 2 provides insight into the performance of health insurance sector in India. The growth of health insurance in India has been from Rs.1909 crores for the financial year 2006-2007 to Rs. 33011crores for the financial year 2018-2019. The growth percentage is 1629% i.e. growing at an average rate of 135% per annum.

  19. Research involvement of medical students in a medical school of India

    Introduction: Research in the medical discipline significantly impacts society by improving the general well-being of the population, through improvements in diagnostic and treatment modalities. However, of 579 Indian medical colleges, 332 (57.3%) did not publish a single paper from the year 2005 to 2014," indicating a limited contribution from medical fraternity In order to probe in to the ...

  20. Health Insurance as a Healthcare Financing Mechanism in India: Key

    Similarly, health insurance as a healthcare financing mechanism had gained momentum in India with an increase of 17.16% in gross direct premium on a year-to-year basis, which has reached ₹516.38 billion (US$ 7.39 billion) in FY2020 (Healthcare Industry in India, 2021).

  21. A Manifesto for Healthcare Based Blockchain: Research ...

    Blockchain has gained significant interest because of its inherent characteristics—decentralization, integrity, immutability, interoperability, transparency, and trustworthiness. Additionally, Blockchain has the potential to revolutionize the healthcare sector, ushering in a novel era. This survey presents some novel insights into blockchain-based electronic health record systems. Its aim is ...

  22. Asia-Pacific countries sound the alarm and commit to tackling

    Health leaders from countries and areas of the World Health Organization (WHO) South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions today sounded the alarm and committed to work together to more effectively tackle antimicrobial resistance (AMR). They endorsed a joint position paper on AMR in the human health sector in the Asia-Pacific region at an event held on the sidelines of the World Health ...

  23. Wipro collaborates with Centre for Brain Research to pioneer AI-driven

    Wipro's R&D team, part of Lab45, will design and develop a personal care engine - an AI that will take into account an individual's health history, desired health state, and other behavioral ...

  24. Aspects of Digitalization of Healthcare in India

    India's healthcare industry is self-assured to expand b y $100 billion in 2016 to $280. billion by 2020, generating enormous opportunities for healthcare provider s and health tech firms [1]. T he ...

  25. India: health-tech market size 2025

    LoEstro. "Market size of health-tech sector in India from 2011 to 2022, with estimate for 2025 (in billion U.S. dollars)." Chart. July 11, 2023.

  26. Vertiv Launches AI Hub to Bridge Knowledge Gap in AI Infrastructure

    The Vertiv AI Hub provides partners, customers, and website visitors with access to white papers, industry research, tools, and power and cooling portfolios for retrofit and greenfield applications. The reference design library showcases scalable liquid cooling and power infrastructure supporting current and future chip sets ranging from 10 to ...