Preparation of Research Reports
Research Report - types of reports – content of report – Style of Reporting – Steps in Drafting Reports – Qualities of a good report – Documentation – Citation - Footnotes – References – Bibliography – APA and MLA Format in writing references and bibliography
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- 1. PREPARATION OF RESEARCH REPORTS R.VASANTHAGOPAL PhD University of Kerala
- 2. SYLLABUS Research Report - types of reports – content of report – Style of Reporting – Steps in Drafting Reports – Qualities of a good report – Documentation – Citation - Footnotes – References – Bibliography – APA and MLA Format in writing references and bibliography. 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 2
- 3. Preparation of report is the last step in a research study. The purpose of research is not well served unless the finding are made known to others in the form of a report. Research Report is a written document or oral presentation based on a written document that communicates the purpose, scope, objective(s), hypotheses, methodology, findings, limitations and finally, recommendations of a research project to others.
- 4. GOAL OF RESEARCH REPORT The central goal of report writing: A report is written to be read, by some one else The researcher need to have in mind the intended audience Meant for reading by himself, his supervisor and by his evaluators (In the narrowest possibilities) Readable by his peers and juniors (In the broader possibility) Is of publishable quality (In the best case possibility)
- 5. TYPES OF RESEARCH REPORTS Technical Report: It’s technical in nature Uses technical language suitable for a target audience of researchers, research managers or other people familiar with and interested in the technicalities such as research design, sampling methods, statistical details etc., 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 5
- 6. TYPES OF RESEARCH REPORTS Popular Report Non-technical in nature suitable for a more general audience, interested mainly in the research findings The writing style is designed to facilitate easy and rapid reading and understanding of the research findings and recommendations. Uses as many pictures and graphs 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 6
- 7. TYPES OF RESEARCH REPORTS Interim Report Used in sponsored research When there is a long time lag between data collection and presentation of the result It’s narration of what has been done so far and the out come up to that point. Presents a summary of the findings 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 7
- 8. TYPES OF RESEARCH REPORTS Summary Report Used in case of studies of general nature It’s generally prepared for the general public Non technical in nature Uses as many pictures and graphs It’s too short of 2-3 pages. 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 8
- 9. TYPES OF RESEARCH REPORTS Research Abstract Short summary of a technical report Prepared by doctoral students on the eve of submitting thesis Contains, problem, scope, objectives, methodology, brief summary of the results etc. Research Article Designed for publication in a professional journal It is covering one or two aspects of the study in depth Contains, introduction, concept, objectives, methodology, results and discussion, conclusion and reference 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 9
- 10. STEPS IN DRAFTING REPORTS The Target Audience (Academic community, sponsors, general public) The level of knowledge and understanding of the audience Intended purpose of the report Type of report(either technical or popular) Scope of the report (purpose) Style of reporting Format of the report Outline of the report (scheme of presentation) 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 10
- 11. STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH REPORT Title and Title Page Avoid redundant phrases such as “ A Study of…. Double barreled titles can be effective, stating a broad topic plus a more precise title. Financial Inclusion and Inclusive Growth: An Empirical Study The title page should include the title, name of the candidate, his number, institutional affiliation, month and year. cont…
- 12. SELF HELP GROUPS AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT : AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS IN KERALA Project report submitted to University of Kerala in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Master of Arts in Economics By NANDITA.V (Reg. No.12345) DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS UNIVERSITY OF KERALA TRIVANDRUM-695581 MARCH 2017
- 13. STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH REPORT Abstract A brief summary of the project The abstract should be short, generally within about one page(in two paragraphs) It generally contains- Main motivation, difference from previous works, methodology, major findings etc. cont…
- 14. STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH REPORT Introduction Importance of the topic under study Review of empirical studies relating to the topic undertaken to state the research gap Statement of the problem Significance of the study (Importance and contribution in the domain knowledge) Scope of the study (Area covered) Objectives Methodology (Sample, data source, tools of analysis) Variables used Period of the study Limitations Chapterisation cont…
- 15. STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH REPORT Theoretical Review Aims to give a theoretical understanding of the topic under study Secondary data is the base for theoretical review Presented in a logical order by giving numbers to sections, sub sections and sub-subsections To ensure logical and objective reporting use secondary data from published sources. Use descriptive statistics for analysis cont…
- 16. STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH REPORT Data Analysis(Results and Discussion for a research paper) Start the result section with a descriptive summary of demographic data, if they are useful. Proceed the analysis based on objectives Follow the order for analyzing each independent variable: Secondary literature> Table> Table explanation> descriptive statistics> inferential statistics > interpretation based on hypothesis or theory. Do not include tables taken directly from SPSS. Do not draw conclusions in the results section. Reserve data interpretation for the discussion Figures are preferable to tables, and tables are preferable to straight text. However, many times a figure is inappropriate, or the data come across more clearly if described in narrative form. cont…
- 17. STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH REPORT Summary of findings, conclusion and suggestions (Conclusion for a research paper) Readers usually read the title, abstract, introduction and summary/conclusion. In that sense conclusion is important Describe briefly the introductory part viz. problem, objectives, and methodology Give separate headings for findings, conclusion and suggestions State conclusion crisply the main take away points from your work briefly in the order of objectives (without the technical details) Suggestions based on the findings only The end of every report might be seen as the beginning of a new project. Scope for further research cont…
- 18. STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH REPORT Bibliography (References for a research paper) Follow APA style for bibliography or references Books: Author> year> Title>Place of Publication>Name of the publisher Kothari, C.R., & Gaurav Garg. (2014).Research methodology-Methods and Techniques. New Delhi: New Age International(P) Limited Publishers. Journal Article: Author> year> Title of the article>Name of the Journal> Vol.> No> Page. Roediger, R.(2004). What should they be called? American Psychological Society Observer, 17,5,46-48.
- 19. STRUCTURE OF A RESEARCH REPORT •Title page •Abstract (on a separate single page) • List of Tables(one to a page) •List of Figures (one to a page) •The Body (no page breaks between sections in the body) Chapter 1: Introduction Importance of the topic of study Review of literature Research problem ( Scope and significance of the study Objectives Hypotheses Methodology (Sample, Data Source and Tools of Analysis) Limitations Chapterisation Chapter 2: Theoretical Review (10-15 pages) Chapter 3: Data Analysis Chapter 4: Summary of findings conclusion and suggestions Scope for further research( •Bibliography •Appendices
- 20. QUALITIES OF A GOOD REPORT Simplicity(simple language, Jargons and technical words should be avoided Clarity (The language shall be lucid and straight) Brevity (A report shall not be unnecessarily long) Positivity (it is better to say what should be done and not what should not be done) Punctuation Approach (When a report is written based on personal enquiry or observations, the approach shall be personal and the sentences shall be in the first person and in direct speech; otherwise third person, indirect) 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 20
- 21. QUALITIES OF A GOOD REPORT Readability Accuracy Logical Sequence Proper Form Presentation (A report needs an attractive presentation. It depends on the quality of typing or printing as well as quality of paper used) 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 21
- 22. PRECAUTIONS FOR PREPARING RESEARCH REPORTS It should be long enough to cover the subject but short enough to maintain interest The report should be able to convey the matter as simple as possible. It should ensure precision i.e. you know what you mean It should be free from spelling/grammatical mistakes and prepared in accordance with the technique of composition of report writing such as quotations, footnotes, punctuation etc. It ensures typographical rules Give illustrations (figures and diagrams), if found necessary State scope for further research either as a separate section at the end or included in the conclusion.
- 23. Thank you 26 April 2020Dr.R.Vasanthagopal University of Kerala 23
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UNIT – 5 RESEARCH REPORT.
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