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Exemplars science material includes standards-based rubrics that define what work meets a standard, and allows teachers (and students) to distinguish between different levels of performance.
Our science rubrics have four levels of performance: Novice , Apprentice , Practitioner (meets the standard), and Expert .
Exemplars uses two types of rubrics:
- Standards-Based Assessment Rubrics are used by teachers to assess student work in science. (Exemplars science material includes both a general science rubric as well as task-specific rubrics with each investigation.)
- Student Rubrics are used by learners in peer- and self-assessment.
Standards-based science rubric.
This rubric is based on science standards from the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
K–2 Science Continuum
This continuum was developed by an Exemplars workshop leader and task writer, Tracy Lavallee. It provides a framework for assessing the scientific thinking of young students.
This rubric is appropriate for use with younger children. It shows how a seed develops, from being planted to becoming a flowering plant. Each growth level represents a different level of performance.
What I Need to Do
While not exactly a rubric, this guide assists students in demonstrating what they have done to meet each criterion in the rubric. The student is asked in each criterion to describe what they need to do and the evidence of what they did.
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Science writing: advice and examples
Includes advice and samples organized by writing types (lab reports, posters, biology honors theses, research proposals, etc.) and other useful categories (e.g. useful links, integrating graphics and text).
Lab reports: advice & samples Annotated samples, advice about style, evaluation criteria
Science posters: advice & samples Design guides, sample student posters, tips for peer review
Biology honors theses: advice & samples These honors theses have been generously shared by honors students in Biology to be used as models.
Science proposals and grants Annotated samples, writing advice about what committees look for in a proposal, etc.
Useful web links: science journal guidelines for style, citations, etc. Different science journals and associations have different style requirements.
Style advice for science writing
Using graphics in a paper or report Especially to clarify a point
Good examples of science writing can be found here and at the magazine's office site as well.
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The Science Project Portfolio
Science Scope—March 2019 (Volume 43, Issue 7)
By Joan Hedman and Brooke A. Whitworth
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Transform the science fair experience into an authentic summative assessment.
The phrase science fair project likely conjures up images of students working independently on smoldering model volcanoes, catapults, and Rube Goldberg contraptions. To create their projects, students and teachers blindly follow a set of seemingly incomprehensible steps, assembling various pieces. This process continues until the due date arrives, when all the pieces are packaged up for the science fair. Teachers are then expected to assess all the projects in a timely manner while somehow continuing to deliver their curriculum. Eventually, the student receives feedback and, often, a semester-making grade. By that time, everyone is exhausted and relieved it’s over.
A science fair project supposedly improves student motivation and ownership by giving students control of their learning ( McComas 2011 ). However, there are at least a few issues with science fair projects. Even supporters of traditional science fairs acknowledge that students should not work on the entire project by themselves ( McComas 2011 ). The vast majority of students are not motivated by science fairs ( Fisanick 2010 ). Plus, participation in a science fair does not increase students’ knowledge or understanding of science (Osborne 2012).
This article describes our student project portfolio for seventh- and eighth-grade science that seeks to address these concerns with science fair projects. Each student portfolio contains the same set of components, but each student develops their own experiment based on personal interest. Student support—including schedules, lessons, work examples, and templates—accompanies each step of the project as students explore and apply the science and engineering practices. Because portfolios are broken down into components, it is much easier for students to complete assignments and for the teacher to provide feedback to students. Multiple revisions are encouraged. After receiving feedback on an assignment, students can reflect on and revise their work. Portfolio component due dates can be aligned with a school district’s science project due dates so students have ample time to submit their work, receive feedback, and make any necessary revisions. The portfolio’s culminating works (a report and presentation) are authentic summative assessments, encapsulating student learning over a well-defined set of learning goals and performance objectives.
During the second week of school, students are given a written description of the portfolio process to share with their parents at home. The portfolio description includes the following objectives: To provide support and feedback to students as they work on their science fair projects. To reduce stress among parents and students. To improve learning experiences for students. To provide a positive family experience.
Students’ graded assignments are a project proposal, a research paper, part one of their final paper (including introduction, experimental design, and methods), part two of the final paper (including their abstract, data, analysis, and conclusions), and a project display board. There are several portfolio assignments associated with each graded assignment. Figure 1 summarizes the portfolio components while Figure 2 shows how each portfolio component incorporates the Next Generation Science Standards science and engineering practices ( NGSS Lead States 2013 ). Each portfolio component is described below.
For two to three weeks, students identify their interests and develop their scientific questions. It is important for students to be interested in the topic they choose, but it is equally important for their question to be practicably testable. Students begin by generating five testable questions, and then narrowing down their interest using the Comparative Questions and Four Questions worksheets (see Online Supplemental Materials ). These worksheets, along with the Transformations worksheet (see Online Supplemental Materials ), help students identify their independent and dependent variables and discover how they will conduct their experiment. The Transformations worksheet is specifically designed to turn students’ interests into an experimental design. Along with the Factors for Comparison worksheet (see Online Supplemental Materials ), it helps students identify their independent and dependent variables, along with constants, controls, and any uncontrolled factors. With this information, students can successfully complete a project proposal.
The research paper is the most difficult part of the process for students and their parents. Few junior high students have ever had to write this type of paper before. That is why this component is supported with its own sub-schedule and supporting information (see Online Supplemental Materials ). In addition, the Research Explanation Prompt worksheet (modeled after Creswell 2014 ) helps to clarify student thinking on this topic (see Online Supplemental Materials ). The research directory (see Online Supplemental Materials ) provides grade-level appropriate resources to give students a reasonable starting point for their research. Students are assigned one paragraph each week to allow time for feedback, reflection, and revision. Students are also instructed on proper citation methods to help them assemble a works cited page. To streamline grading and feedback, a set of the most common comments for each section was developed and assigned codes. Each student receives a copy of the comment codes (see Online Supplemental Materials ), from which they can easily interpret feedback on their work or rubric.
Report (part one)
The process of writing the research paper helps students develop their purpose and hypothesis, along with the Transformations worksheet. Again, experimental design is typically an area of confusion for students; feedback is essential at this stage so that corrections can be made early. Materials and Procedures sections are supported with worksheets (see Online Supplemental Materials ) and detailed examples as well. As we go through the process with students, we use a sample project— how plants react to different amounts of light—to discuss with students how to progress through that portion of the project.
Report (part two)
Presentation of data is another challenging area for students. Table and graph examples and in-class practice of designing data tables will help students display their data appropriately. Checklists for tables and graphs (see Online Supplemental Materials ) are provided. Direct instruction addresses any concerns about the remaining sections of the report, including analysis, conclusions, limitations, applications, and future research.
The Display Board Advice document (see Online Supplemental Materials ) summarizes both content and format instructions. Typically, students want to just print out their reports and glue them on the display boards. This approach is not encouraged. Rather, students should use the display boards to showcase their project by simplifying and summarizing the results so anyone could easily absorb the impact of the project.
Assessing the portfolio
The teacher grades each portfolio component throughout the project, giving timely and actionable feedback to students, who can respond to the feedback by revising as necessary. This cycle of feedback and revision provides continuous formative assessment opportunities for students. Students do not do peer review on the initial components because they are not ready to provide feedback to one another. However, peer review of the major milestones—research paper, report (part one), report (part two)—are completed using detailed checklists (see Online Supplemental Materials ). Students are summatively assessed using rubrics (see Online Supplemental Materials ) at key milestones throughout the project. In addition, all completed projects are displayed at the all-school science fair, but students may choose whether they want to compete and be judged. Winners of the school science fair proceed to the district-level science fair and may attend the statewide fair if they win the districtwide fair. Students at this age tend to be extrinsically motivated, so recognition and awards often give them enough encouragement to compete. There is a high correlation between well-executed projects and the desire to compete. Around 20% of students opt to compete, with wide variation depending on the particular cohort.
Do not expect junior high students to maintain the project components over several months. Students may throw out or lose portfolio components before the end of the project, and then have to scramble to reproduce those pieces when the final components are due. To address this issue, student portfolios were kept in the classroom in hanging files, and student work was reliably available. However, if students need to access their work at home, an electronic portfolio may be the best solution, as it eliminates the need for storage space and access to physical files. Teachers need to have a plan in place for the collection and management of the portfolio components. One strategy that has been useful this last year is using Google Classroom. Work is saved automatically in Google Documents, and it all can be accessed online.
Positive outcomes from the science project portfolio approach
During the 2014–15 academic year, the first author of this article spent more than 80 hours grading science fair components. Approximately 91% of the 154 junior high students enrolled in the science fair participated. While some students excelled, most students met the minimum requirements of the project. In addition, between 10% and 20% of the submitted projects were clearly not the student’s own work alone. Several projects had apparently been completed by, or with significant help from, parents or other adults. Parts of some projects were plagiarized from the internet. By the time students submitted their work for grading, unfortunately there was no mechanism with which to address these issues. Both plagiarism and parent-completed work prevent learning and make authentic assessment impossible. The portfolio approach is specifically designed to prevent these problems, and it allows a teacher to identify either of them early enough in the process so that recovery is possible.
In the 2015–16 academic year, when the science fair portfolio project was implemented, 195 junior high students were enrolled and expected to produce science fair projects. Only nine students (4.6%) did not complete a project. All the projects were students’ work; no projects were plagiarized. Grading hours dropped from 80 to 60, even though student enrollment had increased by 30%.
The portfolio process breaks down the larger assignments into a series of small, easily graded homework assignments. Students receive meaningful feedback on their homework assignments and are required to review and incorporate the feedback into their projects. Students reach the major milestones of the project by putting together these smaller, graded assignments. Grading the major components is thus streamlined considerably: All the parts have already been graded at least once before. In addition, student academic achievement improved substantially, with the majority of students earning a B or above. The grades represent the summative assessments at the major milestones of the project. Individual schools and districts can, of course, set these milestones however they like.
Differentiating for a low-income school would most likely occur when students are generating ideas for projects they would like to test. In previous years at a Title 1 school, we also expanded the schedule to allow time for the students to do all of their data collection (testing) in class. This allows students to use the school’s resources and levels the playing field by giving all students a supportive environment for designing and conducting their experiments.
The portfolio process provides the support and examples students need to be successful with such a complex set of tasks. In addition, it streamlines the workload so timely and actionable feedback can be provided to students without teachers becoming overwhelmed by the grading at the end.
The science project portfolio transforms the monolithic “science project” into a set of well-defined tasks, each more easily accomplished. Along the way, it improves student learning and family stress levels and reduces teacher time investment.
Online Supplemental Materials
- Comment Codes
- Display Board Advice
- Factors for Comparison worksheet
- Four Questions worksheet
- Materials and Procedures worksheet
- Report Part 1: Peer Review Checklist
- Report Part 2: Peer Review Checklist
- Research Directory
- Research Paper Description and Components
- Research Paper Explanation Prompt
- Research Paper Peer Review Checklist
- Table and Graph Checklists
- Transformation worksheet
Comparative Questions, Four Questions, Research Explanation Prompt, Materials and Procedures, Factors for Comparison, and Transformations worksheets and the research paper sub-schedule, research directory, comment codes, checklists, Display Board Advice document, peer review checklists—
Creswell J.W. 2014. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
Fisanick L. 2010. A descriptive study of the middle school science teacher behavior for required student participation in science fair competitions. A dissertation for Indiana University of Pennsylvania.
McComas W.F. 2011. The science fair: A new look at an old tradition. The Science Teacher 95 (6): 34–38.
NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For states, by states. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. .
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Okay, this is the hardest part of the whole project…picking your topic. But here are some ideas to get you started. Even if you don’t like any, they may inspire you to come up with one of your own. Remember, check all project ideas with your teacher and parents, and don’t do any project that would hurt or scare people or animals. Good luck!
- Does music affect on animal behavior?
- Does the color of food or drinks affect whether or not we like them?
- Where are the most germs in your school? ( CLICK for more info. )
- Does music have an affect on plant growth?
- Which kind of food do dogs (or any animal) prefer best?
- Which paper towel brand is the strongest?
- What is the best way to keep an ice cube from melting?
- What level of salt works best to hatch brine shrimp?
- Can the food we eat affect our heart rate?
- How effective are child-proof containers and locks.
- Can background noise levels affect how well we concentrate?
- Does acid rain affect the growth of aquatic plants?
- What is the best way to keep cut flowers fresh the longest?
- Does the color of light used on plants affect how well they grow?
- What plant fertilizer works best?
- Does the color of a room affect human behavior?
- Do athletic students have better lung capacity?
- What brand of battery lasts the longest?
- Does the type of potting soil used in planting affect how fast the plant grows?
- What type of food allow mold to grow the fastest?
- Does having worms in soil help plants grow faster?
- Can plants grow in pots if they are sideways or upside down?
- Does the color of hair affect how much static electricity it can carry? (test with balloons)
- How much weight can the surface tension of water hold?
- Can some people really read someone else’s thoughts?
- Which soda decays fallen out teeth the most?
- What light brightness makes plants grow the best?
- Does the color of birdseed affect how much birds will eat it?
- Do natural or chemical fertilizers work best?
- Can mice learn? (you can pick any animal)
- Can people tell artificial smells from real ones?
- What brands of bubble gum produce the biggest bubbles?
- Does age affect human reaction times?
- What is the effect of salt on the boiling temperature of water?
- Does shoe design really affect an athlete’s jumping height?
- What type of grass seed grows the fastest?
- Can animals see in the dark better than humans?
Didn’t see one you like? Don’t worry…look over them again and see if they give you an idea for your own project that will work for you. Remember, find something that interests you, and have fun with it.
To download and print this list of ideas CLICK HERE .
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70 Easy Science Experiments Using Materials You Already Have On Hand
Because science doesn’t have to be complicated.
If there is one thing that is guaranteed to get your students excited, it’s a good science experiment! While some experiments require expensive lab equipment or dangerous chemicals, there are plenty of cool projects you can do with regular household items. Regardless of how empty your cabinets may be, we think you are likely to have at least some of these things lying around at home. Watch as your students engineer a bridge, solve environmental issues, explore polymers, or work with static electricity. We’ve rounded up a big collection of easy science experiments that anybody can try, and kids are going to love them!
1. Amplify a smartphone
No Bluetooth speaker? No problem! Put together your own from paper cups and toilet paper tubes.
Learn more: Mum in the Madhouse
2. Send a teabag flying
Hot air rises, and this experiment can prove it! You’ll want to supervise kids with fire, of course. For more safety, try this one outside!
Learn more: Coffee Cups and Crayons
3. Taste the rainbow
Teach your students about diffusion while creating a beautiful and tasty rainbow! You’ll definitely want to have extra Skittles on hand so your class can enjoy a few as well!
Learn more: ToucanBox
4. Watch the water rise
Learn about Charles’s Law with this simple experiment. As the candle burns, using up oxygen and heating the air in the glass, the water rises as if by magic.
Learn more: Team Cartwright
5. Set raisins dancing
This is a fun version of the classic baking soda and vinegar experiment, perfect for the younger crowd. The bubbly mixture causes raisins to dance around in the water.
Learn more: 123 Homeschool 4 Me/Dancing Raisins
6. Race a balloon-powered car
Kids will be amazed when they learn they can put together this awesome racer using cardboard and bottle-cap wheels. The balloon-powered “engine” is so much fun too.
Learn more: ProLab
7. Crystallize your own rock candy
Crystal science experiments teach kids about supersaturated solutions. This one is easy to do at home, and the results are absolutely delicious!
Learn more: Growing a Jeweled Rose
8. Make elephant-sized toothpaste
This fun project uses yeast and a hydrogen peroxide solution to create overflowing “elephant toothpaste.” You can also add an extra fun layer by having the kids create toothpaste wrappers for their plastic bottles.
Learn more: Steve Spangler Science
9. Repel glitter with dish soap
Everyone knows that glitter is just like germs—it gets everywhere and is so hard to get rid of! Use that to your advantage and show kids how soap fights glitter and germs.
Learn more: Living Life & Learning
10. Blow the biggest bubbles you can
Add a few simple ingredients to dish soap solution to create the largest bubbles you’ve ever seen! Kids learn about surface tension as they engineer these bubble-blowing wands.
Learn more: Scholastic/Dish Soap Bubbles
11. Make neon flowers
We love how simple this project is to re-create since all you’ll need are some gerbera daisies, food coloring, glasses, and water. The end result is just so beautiful!
Learn more: My Child Care Academy/Neon Flower
12. Build a Ferris wheel
You’ve probably ridden on a Ferris wheel, but can you build one? Stock up on wood craft sticks and find out! Play around with different designs to see which one works best.
Learn more: Teachers Are Terrific and eHow
13. Learn about capillary action
Kids will be amazed as they watch the colored water move from glass to glass, and you’ll love the easy and inexpensive setup. Gather some water, paper towels, and food coloring to teach the scientific magic of capillary action.
Learn More: 123 Homeschool 4 Me/Capillary Action
14. Demonstrate the “magic” leakproof bag
So simple and so amazing! All you need is a zip-top plastic bag, sharp pencils, and some water to blow your kids’ minds. Once they’re suitably impressed, teach them how the “trick” works by explaining the chemistry of polymers.
Learn more: Paging Fun Mums
15. Design a cell phone stand
Use your engineering skills and items from around the house to design and build a cell phone stand.
Learn more: Science Buddies/Cell Phone Stand
16. Give a balloon face a beard
Equally educational and fun, this experiment will teach kids about static electricity using everyday materials. Kids will undoubtedly get a kick out of creating beards on their balloon person!
Learn more: Go Science Girls/Static Electricity
17. Re-create the water cycle in a bag
You can do so many easy science experiments with a simple zip-top bag! Fill one partway with water and set it on a sunny windowsill to see how the water evaporates up and eventually “rains” down.
Learn more: Grade School Giggles
18. Conduct an egg drop
Put all their engineering skills to the test with an egg drop! Challenge kids to build a container from stuff they find around the house that will protect an egg from a long fall (this is especially fun to do from upper-story windows).
Learn more: Buggy and Buddy/Egg Drop
19. Engineer a drinking straw roller coaster
STEM challenges are always a hit with kids. We love this one, which only requires basic supplies like drinking straws.
Learn more: Frugal Fun for Boys and Girls/Straw Roller Coaster
20. Use apple slices to learn about oxidation
Have students make predictions about what will happen to apple slices when immersed in different liquids, then put those predictions to the test! Finally, have them record their observations.
Learn more: Jennifer Findley/Apple Oxidation
21. Build a solar oven
Explore the power of the sun when you build your own solar ovens and use them to cook some yummy treats. This experiment takes a little more time and effort, but the results are always impressive. The link below has complete instructions.
Learn more: Desert Chica
22. Float a marker man
Their eyes will pop out of their heads when you “levitate” a stick figure right off the table! This experiment works due to the insolubility of dry-erase marker ink in water, combined with the lighter density of the ink.
Learn more: Gizmodo
23. Discover density with hot and cold water
There are a lot of easy science experiments you can do with density. This one is extremely simple, involving only hot and cold water and food coloring, but the visuals make it appealing and fun.
Learn more: STEAMsational
24. Find your way with a DIY compass
Here’s an old classic that never fails to impress. Magnetize a needle, float it on the water’s surface, and it will always point north.
Learn more: STEAM Powered Family
25. Learn to layer liquids
This density demo is a little more complicated, but the effects are spectacular. Slowly layer liquids like honey, dish soap, water, and rubbing alcohol in a glass. Kids will be amazed when the liquids float one on top of the other like magic (except it is really science).
Learn more: Wonder How To
26. Crush a can using air pressure
Sure, it’s easy to crush a soda can with your bare hands, but what if you could do it without touching it at all? That’s the power of air pressure!
Learn more: Frugal Fun for Boys and Girls/Can Crush
27. Make homemade bouncy balls
These homemade bouncy balls are easy to make since all you will need is glue, food coloring, borax powder, cornstarch, and warm water. You will want to store them inside a container like a plastic egg because they will flatten out over time.
Learn more: Come Together Kids/Make Your Own Bouncy Balls
28. Build a Da Vinci bridge
There are plenty of bridge-building experiments out there, but this one is unique. It’s inspired by Leonardo da Vinci’s 500-year-old self-supporting wooden bridge. Learn how to build it at the link, and expand your learning by exploring more about Da Vinci himself.
Learn more: iGame Mom
29. Grow a carbon sugar snake
Easy science experiments can still have impressive results! This eye-popping chemical reaction demonstration only requires simple supplies like sugar, baking soda, and sand.
Learn more: KiwiCo/Carbon Sugar Snake
30. Create eggshell chalk
Eggshells contain calcium, the same material that makes chalk. Grind them up and mix them with flour, water, and food coloring to make your very own sidewalk chalk.
Learn more: Kidspot
31. Make a basic sundial
While people use clocks or even phones to tell time today, there was a time when a sundial was the best means to do that. Kids will certainly get a kick out of creating their own sundials using everyday materials like cardboard and pencils.
Learn more: PBS Kids/Sundial
32. Learn about plant transpiration
Your backyard is a terrific place for easy science experiments! Grab a plastic bag and rubber band to learn how plants get rid of excess water they don’t need, a process known as transpiration.
Learn more: Teach Beside Me
33. Make naked eggs
This is so cool! Use vinegar to dissolve the calcium carbonate in an eggshell to discover the membrane underneath that holds the egg together. Then, use the “naked” egg for another easy science experiment that demonstrates osmosis .
Learn more: Making Memories With Your Kids
34. Make sparks with steel wool
All you need is steel wool and a 9-volt battery to perform this science demo that’s bound to make their eyes light up! Kids learn about chain reactions, chemical changes, and more.
Learn more: The Homeschool Scientist
35. Practice stop-motion animation
This is the perfect experiment for the budding filmmaker since they can decide on a backdrop, characters (toys), and story. Use a good stop-motion animation app to bring the film to life!
Learn more: Tinker Lab/Stop-Motion Animation
36. Turn milk into plastic
This sounds a lot more complicated than it is, but don’t be afraid to give it a try. Use simple kitchen supplies to create plastic polymers from plain old milk. Sculpt them into cool shapes when you’re done!
Learn more: Science Buddies/Milk Into Plastic
37. Levitate a Ping-Pong ball
Kids will get a kick out of this experiment, which is really all about Bernoulli’s principle. You only need plastic bottles, bendy straws, and Ping-Pong balls to make the science magic happen.
Learn more: Buggy and Buddy/Floating Ping-Pong Ball
38. Launch a two-stage rocket
The rockets used for space flight generally have more than one stage to give them the extra boost they need. This easy science experiment uses balloons to model a two-stage rocket launch, teaching kids about the laws of motion.
Learn more: Science Buddies/Two-Stage Rocket
39. Pull an egg into a bottle
This classic easy science experiment never fails to delight. Use the power of air pressure to suck a hard-boiled egg into a jar, no hands required.
Learn more: Left Brain Craft Brain
40. Test pH using cabbage
Teach kids about acids and bases without needing pH test strips! Simply boil some red cabbage and use the resulting water to test various substances—acids turn red and bases turn green.
Learn more: Education Possible
41. Clean some old coins
Use common household items to make old oxidized coins clean and shiny again in this simple chemistry experiment. Ask kids to predict (hypothesize) which will work best, then expand the learning by doing some research to explain the results.
Learn more: Gallykids
42. Clean up an oil spill
Before conducting this experiment, teach your students about engineers who solve environmental problems like oil spills. Then, have your students use provided materials to clean the oil spill from their oceans.
Learn more: Science After School Blogspot/Oil Spill
43. Blow up a balloon—without blowing
Chances are good you probably did easy science experiments like this when you were in school yourself. This well-known activity demonstrates the reactions between acids and bases. Fill a bottle with vinegar and a balloon with baking soda. Fit the balloon over the top, shake the baking soda down into the vinegar, and watch the balloon inflate.
Learn more: All for the Boys
44. Construct a homemade lava lamp
This 1970s trend is back—as an easy science experiment! This activity combines acid/base reactions with density for a totally groovy result.
Learn more: Education.com
45. Whip up a tornado in a bottle
There are plenty of versions of this classic experiment out there, but we love this one because it sparkles! Kids learn about a vortex and what it takes to create one.
Learn more: Cool Science Experiments HQ
46. Explore how sugary drinks affect teeth
The calcium content of eggshells makes them a great stand-in for teeth. Use eggs to explore how soda and juice can stain teeth and wear down the enamel. Expand your learning by trying different toothpaste and toothbrush combinations to see how effective they are.
Learn more: Feels Like Home
47. Monitor air pressure with a DIY barometer
This simple but effective DIY science project teaches kids about air pressure and meteorology. They’ll have fun tracking and predicting the weather with their very own barometer.
Learn more: Edventures With Kids
48. Mummify a hot dog
If your kids are fascinated by the Egyptians, they’ll love learning to mummify a hot dog! No need for canopic jars ; just grab some baking soda and get started.
Learn more: Science Buddies/Science of Mummification
49. Extinguish flames with carbon dioxide
This is a fiery twist on acid-base experiments. Light a candle and talk about what fire needs in order to survive. Then, create an acid-base reaction and “pour” the carbon dioxide to extinguish the flame. The CO2 gas acts like a liquid, suffocating the fire.
Learn more: Sick Science!/YouTube
50. Make a magnifying glass from ice
Students will certainly get a thrill out of seeing how an everyday object like a piece of ice can be used as a magnifying glass. Be sure to use purified or distilled water since tap water will have impurities in it that will cause distortion.
Learn more: STEAMsational/Ice Magnifying Glass
51. Do the Archimedes squeeze
It sounds like a wild dance move, but this easy science experiment demonstrates Archimedes’ principle of buoyancy. All you need is aluminum foil and a container of water.
Learn more: Science Buddies/Archimedes Squeeze
52. Step through an index card
This is one easy science experiment that never fails to astonish. With carefully placed scissor cuts on an index card, you can make a loop large enough to fit a (small) human body through! Kids will be wowed as they learn about surface area.
Learn more: Mess for Less
53. Stand on a pile of paper cups
Combine physics and engineering and challenge kids to create a paper cup structure that can support their weight. This is a cool project for aspiring architects.
Learn more: Science Sparks
54. Mix up saltwater solutions
This simple experiment covers a lot of concepts. Learn about solutions, density, and even ocean science as you compare and contrast how objects float in different water mixtures.
Learn more: Science Kiddo
55. Construct a pair of model lungs
Kids get a better understanding of the respiratory system when they build model lungs using a plastic water bottle and some balloons. You can modify the experiment to demonstrate the effects of smoking too.
Learn more: Surviving a Teacher’s Salary
56. Test out parachutes
Gather a variety of materials (try tissues, handkerchiefs, plastic bags, etc.) and see which ones make the best parachutes. You can also find out how they’re affected by windy days or find out which ones work in the rain.
Learn more: Inspiration Laboratories
57. String up some sticky ice
Can you lift an ice cube using just a piece of string? This quick experiment teaches you how. Use a little salt to melt the ice and then refreeze the ice with the string attached.
Learn more: Playdough to Plato
58. Experiment with limestone rocks
Kids love to collect rocks, and there are plenty of easy science experiments you can do with them. In this one, pour vinegar over a rock to see if it bubbles. If it does, you’ve found limestone!
59. Recycle newspaper into an engineering challenge
It’s amazing how a stack of newspapers can spark such creative engineering. Challenge kids to build a tower, support a book, or even build a chair using only newspaper and tape!
Learn more: STEM Activities for Kids
60. Turn a bottle into a rain gauge
All you need is a plastic bottle, a ruler, and a permanent marker to make your own rain gauge. Monitor your measurements and see how they stack up against meteorology reports in your area.
Learn More: NurtureStore
61. Use rubber bands to sound out acoustics
Explore the ways that sound waves are affected by what’s around them using a simple rubber band “guitar.” (Kids absolutely love playing with these!)
62. Send secret messages with invisible ink
Turn your kids into secret agents! Write messages with a paintbrush dipped in lemon juice, then hold the paper over a heat source and watch the invisible become visible as oxidation goes to work.
Learn more: KiwiCo/Invisible Ink
63. Build a folded mountain
This clever demonstration helps kids understand how some landforms are created. Use layers of towels to represent rock layers and boxes for continents. Then pu-u-u-sh and see what happens!
Learn more: The Chaos and the Clutter
64. Play catch with a catapult
Catapults make fun and easy science experiments, but we like the twist on this one that challenges kids to create a “receiver” to catch the soaring object on the other end.
Learn more: Science Buddies/Ball Launcher Challenge
65. Take a Play-Doh core sample
Learn about the layers of the Earth by building them out of Play-Doh, then take a core sample with a straw. ( Love Play-Doh? Get more learning ideas here. )
Learn more: Line Upon Line Learning
66. Project the stars on your ceiling
Use the video lesson in the link below to learn why stars are only visible at night. Then create a DIY star projector to explore the concept hands-on.
Learn more: Mystery Science
67. Build a better umbrella
Challenge students to engineer the best possible umbrella from various household supplies. Encourage them to plan, draw blueprints, and test their creations using the scientific method.
Learn more: Raising Lifelong Learners
68. Make it rain
Use shaving cream and food coloring to simulate clouds and rain. This is an easy science experiment little ones will beg to do over and over.
Learn more: Mrs. Jones’ Creation Station
69. Use water to “flip” a drawing
Light refraction causes some really cool effects, and there are multiple easy science experiments you can do with it. This one uses refraction to “flip” a drawing; you can also try the famous “disappearing penny” trick .
Learn more: Go Science Kids
70. Send a soda geyser sky-high
You’ve always wondered if this really works, so it’s time to find out for yourself! Kids will marvel at the chemical reaction that sends diet soda shooting high in the air when Mentos are added.
Learn more: Scholastic/Soda Explosion
Looking for even more science fun? Get the best science experiments for grades K-8 here.
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Writing a Hypothesis for Your Science Fair Project
What is a hypothesis.
Once a scientist has a scientific question she is interested in, the scientist reads up to find out what is already known on the topic. Then she uses that information to form a tentative answer to her scientific question. Sometimes people refer to the tentative answer as "an educated guess." Keep in mind, though, that the hypothesis also has to be testable since the next step is to do an experiment to determine whether or not the hypothesis is right!
A hypothesis leads to one or more predictions that can be tested by experimenting.
Predictions often take the shape of "If ____then ____" statements, but do not have to. Predictions should include both an independent variable (the factor you change in an experiment) and a dependent variable (the factor you observe or measure in an experiment). A single hypothesis can lead to multiple predictions, but generally, one or two predictions is enough to tackle for a science fair project.
Examples of Hypotheses and Predictions
What if my hypothesis is wrong.
What happens if, at the end of your science project, you look at the data you have collected and you realize it does not support your hypothesis? First, do not panic! The point of a science project is not to prove your hypothesis right. The point is to understand more about how the natural world works. Or, as it is sometimes put, to find out the scientific truth. When scientists do an experiment, they very often have data that shows their starting hypothesis was wrong. Why? Well, the natural world is complex—it takes a lot of experimenting to figure out how it works—and the more explanations you test, the closer you get to figuring out the truth. For scientists, disproving a hypothesis still means they gained important information, and they can use that information to make their next hypothesis even better. In a science fair setting, judges can be just as impressed by projects that start out with a faulty hypothesis; what matters more is whether you understood your science fair project, had a well-controlled experiment, and have ideas about what you would do next to improve your project if you had more time. You can read more about a science fair judge's view on disproving your hypothesis at Learn More About the Scientific Method .
It is worth noting, scientists never talk about their hypothesis being "right" or "wrong." Instead, they say that their data "supports" or "does not support" their hypothesis. This goes back to the point that nature is complex—so complex that it takes more than a single experiment to figure it all out because a single experiment could give you misleading data. For example, let us say that you hypothesize that earthworms do not exist in places that have very cold winters because it is too cold for them to survive. You then predict that you will find earthworms in the dirt in Florida, which has warm winters, but not Alaska, which has cold winters. When you go and dig a 3-foot by 3-foot-wide and 1-foot-deep hole in the dirt in those two states, you discover Floridian earthworms, but not Alaskan ones. So, was your hypothesis right? Well, your data "supported" your hypothesis, but your experiment did not cover that much ground. Can you really be sure there are no earthworms in Alaska? No. Which is why scientists only support (or not) their hypothesis with data, rather than proving them. And for the curious, yes there are earthworms in Alaska .
What Makes a Good Hypothesis?
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- Random Assignment in Experiments | Introduction & Examples
Random Assignment in Experiments | Introduction & Examples
Published on March 8, 2021 by Pritha Bhandari . Revised on June 22, 2023.
In experimental research, random assignment is a way of placing participants from your sample into different treatment groups using randomization.
With simple random assignment, every member of the sample has a known or equal chance of being placed in a control group or an experimental group. Studies that use simple random assignment are also called completely randomized designs .
Random assignment is a key part of experimental design . It helps you ensure that all groups are comparable at the start of a study: any differences between them are due to random factors, not research biases like sampling bias or selection bias .
Table of contents
Why does random assignment matter, random sampling vs random assignment, how do you use random assignment, when is random assignment not used, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about random assignment.
Random assignment is an important part of control in experimental research, because it helps strengthen the internal validity of an experiment and avoid biases.
In experiments, researchers manipulate an independent variable to assess its effect on a dependent variable, while controlling for other variables. To do so, they often use different levels of an independent variable for different groups of participants.
This is called a between-groups or independent measures design.
You use three groups of participants that are each given a different level of the independent variable:
- a control group that’s given a placebo (no dosage, to control for a placebo effect ),
- an experimental group that’s given a low dosage,
- a second experimental group that’s given a high dosage.
Random assignment to helps you make sure that the treatment groups don’t differ in systematic ways at the start of the experiment, as this can seriously affect (and even invalidate) your work.
If you don’t use random assignment, you may not be able to rule out alternative explanations for your results.
- participants recruited from cafes are placed in the control group ,
- participants recruited from local community centers are placed in the low dosage experimental group,
- participants recruited from gyms are placed in the high dosage group.
With this type of assignment, it’s hard to tell whether the participant characteristics are the same across all groups at the start of the study. Gym-users may tend to engage in more healthy behaviors than people who frequent cafes or community centers, and this would introduce a healthy user bias in your study.
Although random assignment helps even out baseline differences between groups, it doesn’t always make them completely equivalent. There may still be extraneous variables that differ between groups, and there will always be some group differences that arise from chance.
Most of the time, the random variation between groups is low, and, therefore, it’s acceptable for further analysis. This is especially true when you have a large sample. In general, you should always use random assignment in experiments when it is ethically possible and makes sense for your study topic.
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Random sampling and random assignment are both important concepts in research, but it’s important to understand the difference between them.
Random sampling (also called probability sampling or random selection) is a way of selecting members of a population to be included in your study. In contrast, random assignment is a way of sorting the sample participants into control and experimental groups.
While random sampling is used in many types of studies, random assignment is only used in between-subjects experimental designs.
Some studies use both random sampling and random assignment, while others use only one or the other.
Random sampling enhances the external validity or generalizability of your results, because it helps ensure that your sample is unbiased and representative of the whole population. This allows you to make stronger statistical inferences .
You use a simple random sample to collect data. Because you have access to the whole population (all employees), you can assign all 8000 employees a number and use a random number generator to select 300 employees. These 300 employees are your full sample.
Random assignment enhances the internal validity of the study, because it ensures that there are no systematic differences between the participants in each group. This helps you conclude that the outcomes can be attributed to the independent variable .
- a control group that receives no intervention.
- an experimental group that has a remote team-building intervention every week for a month.
You use random assignment to place participants into the control or experimental group. To do so, you take your list of participants and assign each participant a number. Again, you use a random number generator to place each participant in one of the two groups.
To use simple random assignment, you start by giving every member of the sample a unique number. Then, you can use computer programs or manual methods to randomly assign each participant to a group.
- Random number generator: Use a computer program to generate random numbers from the list for each group.
- Lottery method: Place all numbers individually in a hat or a bucket, and draw numbers at random for each group.
- Flip a coin: When you only have two groups, for each number on the list, flip a coin to decide if they’ll be in the control or the experimental group.
- Use a dice: When you have three groups, for each number on the list, roll a dice to decide which of the groups they will be in. For example, assume that rolling 1 or 2 lands them in a control group; 3 or 4 in an experimental group; and 5 or 6 in a second control or experimental group.
This type of random assignment is the most powerful method of placing participants in conditions, because each individual has an equal chance of being placed in any one of your treatment groups.
Random assignment in block designs
In more complicated experimental designs, random assignment is only used after participants are grouped into blocks based on some characteristic (e.g., test score or demographic variable). These groupings mean that you need a larger sample to achieve high statistical power .
For example, a randomized block design involves placing participants into blocks based on a shared characteristic (e.g., college students versus graduates), and then using random assignment within each block to assign participants to every treatment condition. This helps you assess whether the characteristic affects the outcomes of your treatment.
In an experimental matched design , you use blocking and then match up individual participants from each block based on specific characteristics. Within each matched pair or group, you randomly assign each participant to one of the conditions in the experiment and compare their outcomes.
Sometimes, it’s not relevant or ethical to use simple random assignment, so groups are assigned in a different way.
When comparing different groups
Sometimes, differences between participants are the main focus of a study, for example, when comparing men and women or people with and without health conditions. Participants are not randomly assigned to different groups, but instead assigned based on their characteristics.
In this type of study, the characteristic of interest (e.g., gender) is an independent variable, and the groups differ based on the different levels (e.g., men, women, etc.). All participants are tested the same way, and then their group-level outcomes are compared.
When it’s not ethically permissible
When studying unhealthy or dangerous behaviors, it’s not possible to use random assignment. For example, if you’re studying heavy drinkers and social drinkers, it’s unethical to randomly assign participants to one of the two groups and ask them to drink large amounts of alcohol for your experiment.
When you can’t assign participants to groups, you can also conduct a quasi-experimental study . In a quasi-experiment, you study the outcomes of pre-existing groups who receive treatments that you may not have any control over (e.g., heavy drinkers and social drinkers). These groups aren’t randomly assigned, but may be considered comparable when some other variables (e.g., age or socioeconomic status) are controlled for.
If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
- Student’s t -distribution
- Normal distribution
- Null and Alternative Hypotheses
- Chi square tests
- Confidence interval
- Quartiles & Quantiles
- Cluster sampling
- Stratified sampling
- Data cleansing
- Reproducibility vs Replicability
- Peer review
- Prospective cohort study
- Implicit bias
- Cognitive bias
- Placebo effect
- Hawthorne effect
- Hindsight bias
- Affect heuristic
- Social desirability bias
In experimental research, random assignment is a way of placing participants from your sample into different groups using randomization. With this method, every member of the sample has a known or equal chance of being placed in a control group or an experimental group.
Random selection, or random sampling , is a way of selecting members of a population for your study’s sample.
In contrast, random assignment is a way of sorting the sample into control and experimental groups.
Random sampling enhances the external validity or generalizability of your results, while random assignment improves the internal validity of your study.
Random assignment is used in experiments with a between-groups or independent measures design. In this research design, there’s usually a control group and one or more experimental groups. Random assignment helps ensure that the groups are comparable.
In general, you should always use random assignment in this type of experimental design when it is ethically possible and makes sense for your study topic.
To implement random assignment , assign a unique number to every member of your study’s sample .
Then, you can use a random number generator or a lottery method to randomly assign each number to a control or experimental group. You can also do so manually, by flipping a coin or rolling a dice to randomly assign participants to groups.
Cite this Scribbr article
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Bhandari, P. (2023, June 22). Random Assignment in Experiments | Introduction & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 29, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/random-assignment/
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Science Essay Topics
150+ Engaging Science Essay Topics To Hook Your Readers
10 min read
Published on: Dec 1, 2022
Last updated on: Oct 15, 2023
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Have you got a science essay to write but cannot find a good topic?
It can be hard for students to come up with interesting and engaging essay topics.
So check out this list of topics for science essay that are sure to engage your readers.
From physical sciences to genetics and robotics, there's something for everyone on this list. Plus, you'll get tips on how to choose an essay topic for yourself.
So read on!
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Science Essay Topics For Students
School and college students often have to write science essays . But it's difficult for students to think of a science essay topic.
If you are one of those students, this list will help you out!
Science Essay Topics For 5th Graders
- How does climate change affect the environment?
- How do earthquakes happen?
- What is the cause of global warming?
- Why are fossil fuels harmful?
- What is the difference between a virus and a bacterium?
- What are some renewable energy sources?
- The amazing world of minerals: A science fair exploration
- What is the difference between a comet and an asteroid?
- How do galaxies form?
- How does photosynthesis work?
- What is the water cycle, and how does it work?
- What is soil erosion?
Science Essay Topics For Class 8
- The benefits of space exploration
- Earth's climate and how it has changed over time
- Evolution: How it works and the evidence for it
- The human body: Its functions and how it works
- Science in everyday life: Uncovering the hidden wonders
- The solar system: What we know about it
- Microbes: What they are and what they do
- Technology in science: Its impact and future
Science Essay Topics For High School Students
- What is the difference between a scientific theory and a scientific law?
- How does the scientific method work?
- What is the difference between a hypothesis and a theory?
- What are some common elements of chemistry?
- What is the difference between an element and a compound?
- What is the difference between mass and weight?
- Why do scientists use models in their experiments?
- How can scientists use data to support or disprove a hypothesis?
- What is the importance of Peer Review in science?
- How has science evolved over time?
Science Essay Topics For College Students
- How can we prevent pandemics from spreading?
- How does radiation affect living things?
- What is an ecosystem, and how does it work?
- What is energy, and how is it created?
- What are the causes and effects of sea-level rise?
- What is the impact of space exploration on human life?
- What is the importance of biodiversity?
- How can genetic engineering be used to improve our food supply?
- How can nanotechnology be used in medicine and healthcare?
Easy Science Essay Topics For Students
- How does evolution work?
- Discuss the role of science museums in science education.
- What causes climate change?
- Is there evidence of extraterrestrial life?
- What are the effects of global warming?
- What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy?
- How does the human brain work?
- What is the purpose of quantum mechanics?
- How has technology changed communication?
- What are the benefits of stem cell research?
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Science and Technology Topics
Science and technology is a growing field. Here are a few emerging topics related to science and technology.
Information Technology Essay Topics
- The role of technology in modern society
- Exploring the implications of artificial intelligence
- What is machine learning, and how does it work?
- What are the benefits of cloud computing?
- Discuss the role of robots in modern technology
- What is the future of information technology?
- The influence of science fiction on modern technology and society
- The impact of information technology on business
- The impact of information technology on education
- The impact of information technology on healthcare
- The impact of information technology on the environment
Computer Science Essay Topics
Here are some interesting computer science topics.
- The role of computer science in modern society
- Explore the impact of artificial intelligence on people’s lives
- How can algorithms be used to solve complex problems?
- Understanding the basics of coding and software development
- Examining the role of robotics in modern technology
- What does the future of computer science look like?
- The implications of Big Data on our lives
- Exploring the ethical and legal issues surrounding AI and machine learning.
Data Science Essay Topics
- The role of data science in modern society
- What is big data, and how can it be used?
- Explore the implications of artificial intelligence on data science
- The importance of data security and privacy
- Examine the role of machine learning in data science
- What are the basics of coding and software development
- What is the future of data science?
- Explore the ethical and legal issues surrounding data science
Natural Science Essay Topics
- How do natural disasters affect ecosystems?
- Are the effects of pollution reversible?
- What are the different types of renewable energy sources?
- Is deforestation a major contributor to global warming?
- How can we protect marine life from climate change?
- What is the role of genetics and environment in human health?
- What has been the most significant medical discovery?
- How does climate change impact agriculture and food production?
- What are the consequences of overfishing?
- What is the role of technology in sustainable development?
Environmental Science Essay Topics
- The impact of human activity on the environment
- What can be done to protect the environment
- The importance of recycling
- The dangers of pollution
- The need for alternative energy sources
- The threat of climate change
- The impact of deforestation
- The importance of conserving water
- How overpopulation impacts the environment
- Ways to make a home more energy-efficient
Forensic Science Essay Topics
- The use of forensic science in criminal investigations
- The role of forensic science in solving crime
- The training and education required to become a forensic scientist
- The different types of forensic science
- The challenges faced by forensic scientists
- The future of forensic science
- Ethical issues in forensic science
- The Impact of Technology on Forensic Science
- The impact of Forensic Science on Society
- What are the benefits of forensic science
Earth Science Essay Topics
- The causes and effects of tsunamis
- How has climate change affected our planet?
- What are plate tectonics and their impact on Earth’s geology
- Examining the implications of space exploration
- How does soil composition affect plants?
- The causes and effects of ocean acidification
- What impact have humans had on Earth’s biodiversity?
- Examining the greenhouse effect and its effects on Earth’s climate
- Exploring the role of Ozone in protecting our atmosphere
- How does energy from the sun affect life on Earth?
- The importance of preserving endangered species and habitats
Biology Essay Topics
- What is DNA, and how does it work?
- How does our immune system work?
- How do animals adapt to their environment?
- What are the environmental effects of overpopulation?
- Exploring the role of genetics in human behavior
- The impact of hormones on human behavior
- Examining the links between diet and health
- Exploring the role of stem cells in treatments for diseases
- Exploring the impact of viruses on human health
- What is epigenetics and how does it work?
- How can we use biotechnology to improve our food?
Physics Essay Topics
- What is the nature of light?
- Explain the properties of matter and energy
- Explain the laws of motion
- What are the implications of quantum mechanics?
- Explain the structure of atoms and molecules
- What are the basics of thermodynamics
- Explain the properties of waves
- Exploring the principles of electromagnetism
- The implications of relativity on our understanding of the universe
- Exploring the nature of dark matter and dark energy.
- Examining the implications of advanced physics on technology.
- How can particle accelerators be used to further our understanding of the universe?
Health Science Essay Topics
- What are the causes and effects of obesity?
- Explore the implications of alternative medicine
- The role of nutrition in maintaining good health
- How important is exercise for overall health?
- Discuss the benefits of preventive healthcare
- Examine the ethical and legal issues surrounding genetic testing
- How can we use science to address global health challenges
- What are mental illnesses, and how are they treated?
- Explore the implications of advances in medical technology
- What is the role of mental health in overall health and well-being?
- The impact of environmental pollution on public health
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Tips for Choosing a Science Essay Topic
A good topic is a key to a good essay. But choosing a good science essay topic can be tricky.
Here are a few tips to help you choose a good topic.
- Choose a topic that interests you.
When choosing a topic for your science essay, it is important to choose one that you find interesting.
This will make the process much easier and more enjoyable. You will be able to focus on the topic with greater enthusiasm and write about it with more passion.
- Make sure the topic is relevant to your course or field of study.
Your science essay should be relevant to what you have been studying in your course.
Choose a topic related to the material you have been studying in class or researching.
This way, you will already have preliminary knowledge about the topic, making further research easier.
- Make sure the topic is manageable.
Make sure you choose a topic that is manageable and can be adequately explored within the scope of your essay.
Choosing a topic that is too broad or too narrow can make writing difficult.
- Consider the audience.
Think about who will be reading your science essay when choosing a topic.
If you are writing for an academic audience, like your teacher or classmates, select an appropriate and relevant topic.
Considering the preferences of the audience will help you select a better topic.
- Choose a topic that you can comfortably write about.
When selecting a science essay topic, make sure it is one you are comfortable discussing.
This doesn’t mean choosing an easy topic. Instead, find a topic that allows you enough room to explore the subject without becoming overwhelmed.
- Do some preliminary research before making your final decision.
Researching the topic before making a final decision is essential.
This will give you an idea of how much information is available on the subject. Researching will also show you whether you can sufficiently discuss the topic in a short essay.
Moreover, take notes during your research so you may cite them in the essay. Citing your research will make your essay more credible and help you avoid plagiarism .
By following these tips, you should be able to choose a great science essay topic.
The list of topics in this blog has addressed your topic-related difficulties. Moreover, with the tips provided, you will be able to choose a great science essay topic that best suits your needs.
You can also read some science essay examples to learn science essay writing or try our AI essay typer to get some creative and unique science essays for reference.
Are you looking for essay writing assistance? Our science essay writing service can help you out.
Our essay service has years of experience writing science essays for students, we're just a click away!
Frequently Asked Questions
What should i avoid when choosing a science essay topic.
Avoid science topics that are:
- Not interesting for you or your readers
- Not related to your course
- Too broad or too narrow
- Too difficult to research
- Too controversial
How do I determine if a science essay topic is manageable?
When determining if a topic is manageable, check whether enough information is available on the subject. Moreover, consider how effectively you can discuss the topic within the scope of your essay. If you can find information easily and convey it effectively, your topic is good to go.
Betty P. (Natural Sciences, Life Sciences)
Betty is a freelance writer and researcher. She has a Masters in literature and enjoys providing writing services to her clients. Betty is an avid reader and loves learning new things. She has provided writing services to clients from all academic levels and related academic fields.
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Essays on Science
Topics in this Category
- Language and Linguistics
- Scientific Method
- Scientific Theories
- Technology & Engineering
Friend Or Foe for Consumers: Chipotle Food Safety Management
In a world marked by evolving food trends and consumer preferences, the fast-food industry plays a significant role in shaping our dining habits. Chipotle, a prominent player in this realm, has garnered attention for its commitment to providing ‘food with integrity.’ However, as with any…
Contribution of Nikola Tesla: Two Most Fascinating Inventions
I spent the weekend diving deep into a thought-provoking Nikola Tesla essay that delves into his innovative contributions to electricity and their impact on modern technology. Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a famous “crazy scientist” or “electric Jesus” throughout the…
Space Exploration and Resource Allocation
The allocation of resources to space exploration has sparked debates on its value and potential trade-offs. This essay explores both sides of the argument, examining the benefits and drawbacks of investing resources in space exploration, ultimately highlighting the complex considerations that underlie this contentious issue….
The Evolutionary Concept: Survival of the Fittest
Charles Darwin’s theory of “survival of the fittest” is a cornerstone of evolutionary biology that explains the process of natural selection and the adaptation of species over time. This essay delves into the key concepts of the theory, its implications, and its enduring relevance in…
Mathematics in Architecture: the Unseen Blueprint
Introduction Mathematics has been an integral tool in shaping the world of architecture for centuries. The intricate relationship between mathematics and architecture goes beyond simple calculations; it influences design, structure, and aesthetics. This essay delves into the profound role of mathematics in architecture, exploring how…
My Attitude Towards the English Language
Introduction The English language is a dynamic and influential medium of communication that holds a unique place in my life. This essay delves into my personal attitude towards the English language, exploring its significance, challenges, and the role it plays in shaping my interactions, education,…
Applications of Mathematical Principles: Shaping Our World
Introduction Mathematics is more than a subject taught in classrooms; it is the foundation upon which modern society is built. From the technology we use daily to complex scientific discoveries, mathematics plays a pivotal role. This essay explores the diverse applications of mathematical principles across…
Interwoven Expressions: Culture and Language Essay
Introduction Culture and language are inextricably linked, forming a dynamic relationship that influences the way we perceive and interact with the world around us. This essay delves into the profound connection between culture and language, examining how they shape our identities, communication, and the very…
Safeguarding Progress: Importance of Engineering Safety
Introduction The field of engineering plays a critical role in shaping our modern world, from constructing towering skyscrapers to designing intricate electronic systems. Amidst the complexity and innovation, safety stands as an unwavering cornerstone. This essay delves into the paramount importance of safety in engineering…
Fading Voices: Exploring Disappearing Languages
Introduction Languages, as vehicles of culture, identity, and communication, are cornerstones of human diversity. However, the world is witnessing a concerning phenomenon—the rapid disappearance of languages. As languages fade away, they take with them unique knowledge systems, cultural expressions, and ways of thinking. This essay…
The Role of Language in Influencing Thinking
Introduction Language is an intricate tool that not only enables communication but also molds the way we perceive and understand the world around us. The relationship between language and thought has been a subject of fascination for linguists, philosophers, and cognitive scientists for centuries. This…
Sweet Revolution: 'Sugar Changed the World' Essay
Introduction Sugar, a simple and ubiquitous ingredient, has had a profound impact on human history and the world’s development. What began as a natural sweetener transformed into a global commodity that influenced economies, cultures, and societies across continents. This essay explores the journey of sugar…
Shifting Landscapes: Exploring Continental Drift
Introduction The theory of continental drift, proposed by Alfred Wegener in the early 20th century, revolutionized our understanding of the Earth’s geological history. This groundbreaking theory suggests that the continents were once part of a supercontinent called Pangaea and have gradually drifted apart over millions…
Cultural Resilience Through Endangered Language Preservation
Introduction The preservation of endangered languages goes beyond the realm of linguistics; it is a means of safeguarding cultural resilience and empowerment. Endangered languages are not just linguistic entities; they are repositories of identity, history, and a sense of belonging. This essay delves into how…
The Intangible Treasure of Endangered Languages
Introduction The world’s linguistic diversity is at risk as numerous languages face the threat of extinction. Endangered languages are not just collections of words but repositories of culture, history, and human expression. This essay explores the intangible treasures embedded within endangered languages and the urgent…
Linguistic Diversity and Ecological Knowledge
Introduction Endangered languages are not just linguistic entities; they often hold the key to ecological knowledge that has sustained communities for generations. This essay explores the intricate relationship between endangered languages and ecological wisdom, highlighting the urgent need to preserve these languages to safeguard our…
Preserving Key Endangered Languages for Cultural Heritage
Introduction Endangered languages are not just a collection of words; they represent the cultural heritage and identity of communities that have evolved over centuries. The disappearance of these languages threatens to erase rich cultural knowledge, traditions, and unique ways of thinking. This essay explores the…
Journey of Tongues: Learning a New Language
Introduction The pursuit of learning a new language is a voyage that transcends linguistic boundaries, offering a gateway to diverse cultures, enhanced cognitive abilities, and enriched personal experiences. Whether driven by academic, professional, or personal aspirations, the process of acquiring a new language is a…
Crafting Excellence: the Nobel Prize in Literature
Introduction The Nobel Prize in Literature, established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, has been regarded as one of the most prestigious accolades a writer can receive. Throughout its history, the prize has celebrated the works of remarkable authors who have contributed to…
Sugar's Transformative Journey: Changing the World
Introduction Sugar, once a rare and exotic commodity, has transformed the world in profound ways, shaping economies, cultures, and even the course of history. From its origins in ancient civilizations to its central role in the global economy, the journey of sugar underscores the interconnectedness…
If I Could Invent Something, What Would It Be: My Future Invention that Can Change the World
Introduction I’m [NAME] and living in [CITY, COUNTRY]. I’ve just completed my M.Sc in Mathematics. At present, I’m trying to build up my career. My hobby is searching for new inventions and inform people about it. As a student of science, I’ve got an interest…
If I Could Invent Something, What Would It Be: the Dream Invention of Heated Compression Shorts
Nearly every month, a woman experiences her menstrual cycle, involving vaginal bleeding and needed for healthy, hormonal balance. During this time of the month, most women suffer from mild to severe abdominal pain that can prevent them from participating in daily activities. Most common in…
Mathematics in Nature: How We Use Math Outside of School
A science that dates back to the beginning of the 6th century BC when used by the Babylonians to record history and keep track of lunar cycles, mathematics is a necessity that is part of our daily lives due to the many applications it has…
Looking Glass Self Theory: Establishing Identity Through Social Relations
Charles Horton Cooley, a sociologist wanted to understand why humans behave the way they do. He came up with the concept of looking glass self which explains that self is a social product (Yeung & Martin, 2003). The concept of looking glass self is made…
Using Math: How Do You Use Math Outside of School
Introduction History of the Observe Within the every day habitual of humans, math plays an essential position. Math is a topic wherein many issues, like adding, subtracting, dividing, multiplying, preparations, amount, mental capabilities, method of evaluation, shapes’ reasoning, and so forth are dealt. within the…
Predictions on How Will Our Society Be Remembered in 100 Years
Introduction We have no idea how will our society be remembered in 100 years because change is happening so quickly. We know that quantum computing – the introduction of physics into the field of computer science – is going to be extremely important; that computers…
Preparing for the Future Or Focusing on the Present of Nuclear Energy
Technology isn’t free. Whether it be maintaining power for an entire building or just simply charging a cell phone, some type of energy is being used to keep these both functioning. This energy that we use is not going to last forever, and even though…
The Evolution of Animal Experimentation
Researchers frequently gather information about a product or chemical by performing tests on live organisms. However, society pushes to eliminate the usage of animals in the lab. Scientists strive to minimize animal testing, although full elimination is a long way off. Utilized throughout history for…
Research Based Informative Essay About Language Education
The first couple of years of schooling are crucial in laying the basic foundation of language development that will carry a person through the rest of his life. Research suggests that late bloomers in reading never really catch up (American Federation of Teachers, 2004). As…
Why I Want to Study at Bbms Program
Biomedical sciences is what I like to call “the backbone of medicine”, where a doctor diagnoses the patients, a lab technologists will be carrying out the tests to support the diagnosis. Both a doctor and a lab technologist need to work together in order to…
Why Public Health Affects Me
When people are asked to explain what public health is, most do not know exactly how to describe it. When I think of public health I think of a broad spectrum of many different ways that keep a community safe during their everyday lives. Although…
What is Biology and Its Role in Everyday Life
Many of us think that everyday we live normal lives without anything that has to do with it, but you are wong. Biology has something to do with our everyday lives as well as math, but I will mainly focus on Biology. In this essay…
Healthy Soil, Healthy Life: Why Soil Management in South Africa is Important
Introduction The human population is ever increasing which leads to a decrease in the number of resources which are available and important to humans such as water, land and nutrients. The climate is also ever changing, which limits the ability for humans to produce and increase…
Academic English Language Vs Technical English Writing Comparison
All countries or all nations have their culture, lifestyle, and also their language. English language is one of the most necessary language which will be needed in the future. Because English language is used in most countries and most technologies. We can learn English language…
How English Language Has Changed Over Time
There are many species of life which may be more than in a position to talk, but human beings have a unique form of communication. We are the handiest species able to using language as a form of communication. Think approximately the number one humans…
The Importance of Eating Safe and Healthy Food
According to dictionary, a food is any nutritious substance that people or animals eat or drink or that plants absorb in order to maintain life and growth. Eating is one of the key nutrients that nourishes our body and keeps us strong and healthy and…
Evolution Vs Creationism: the Truth Behind Each Theory
For many years, the world has been confronted with two theories that should explain the existence of life and the development of human beings in the world: the theory of evolution and the Creationism. The first one is the scientific discovery that has had the…
Significant Research Experience: Aims and Methods of the Studies
I conducted two research projects during my undergraduate studies and have also accumulated 2.5 years of investment research experience whilst working as a Fixed Income and Currencies Analyst at an Investment Brokerage Firm. My first undergraduate research project was a survey research I conducted in…
The Infamous and Complex Science Behind the Law of Attraction
The Law of Attraction is understood to be the attractive power of the universe, seen to draw similar energies together, it manifests through your mind by drawing you to thoughts and ideas of a similar kind, to people that think like you and situations that…
Space Race: the Introduction of Space and Heated Competition
The establishment of space brought attention to nations around the world. In particular two nations were very eager to compete. These two nations being the Soviet Union, which is present day Russia, and the United States. Both these nations were competing for an event known…
Space Race Rivalry: the Competition of Soviet Union and United States
The United States and the Soviet Union had always been in competition to prove who was the greatest country in the world. A way to prove who was the brightest to compete against each other by using technology to see who was superior in spaceflight…
The Impact of Space Race on the Future of Inventions
The Space Race was born during the beginnings of the Cold War. The Cold War was ultimately a succession of major wars and events that included multiple nations from around the world. It mainly consisted of hard-fought and bloody combat to determine a nation’s superiority…
The Space Race: Scientific and Societal Impacts of the Event
The Space Race between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) post World War II was a major event that affected a myriad of different fields and changed the world as it was. This superpower race intensified the Cold War rivalry…
The Power of Language: Relation of Language and Influence in Various Field
Introduction When we hear the word “power” our first association is the power of one man over another or of one’s strength. In this research paper, we are going to discuss about the power of language. Even though many people do not think so, language…
The Power of Language as a Form of Art Expressions
‘The greatest art and most conquering weapon in the world is language. Human progress and civilization begin with language communication.’ People who have no voice in this world will become scientists and even experts, but they will not become a great leader. The civilization and…
Gmo Labeling: the Risky Practice of Omitting It
If you look at any food label, I can assure you, you are not seeing absolutely everything that’s in that food item. Companies are continually making food labels that don’t include everything used to make it. Food companies are unethically targeting uninformed consumers when they…
Stem Cell Research: the Potential for Both Therapy and Diagnosis
Stem cell, an undifferentiated cell that can split to generate certain descendants cells that remain as stem cells and some cells that are (become specific) supposed to distinguish. Stem cells are a continuous cause of differentiated cells that create up animal and plant tissues and…
Naturalistic Observation of the Child's Development Progress
Purpose of Observation The Purpose of this observation is to document Sally’s development and learning skills. The area I will be focusing on more is on physical (fine and gross) motor skills. Background Information Sally lives at home with her mother, father, and two older…
Stem Cell Research and the Exploitation of Embryonic Stem Cells
What if there was something on the market that had the potential to cure and successfully treat diabetes, heart failure, Parkinson’s disease, and other incurable diseases? Most likely, a majority of people would put their support behind this treatment. Would this glorious cure still carry…
Gmo Labeling and Genetic Engineering: the Significance of Both
“Farmers are being sued for having GMOs on their property that they did not buy, do not want, will not use and cannot sell.” – Tom Wiley. While researching texts written about food labeling mentioning GMO’s and food cloning, I found authors who published works…
Naturalistic Observation of a Leader in an Executive Setting
To observe Executive Leadership Group’s behavior, I have selected Mayor in Carrollton City of Texas, where I reside. I attended two consecutive of Council meeting, which is opened to the public on September 17 and October 15, 2019, 19:00 to 20:00. The seats were almost…
Food Trucks and Implemented Food Safety Regulations
“By law, food trucks need a license to operate so the local health department can track them for inspections. The actual sign looks different from city to city, but in most cases it will have a date, the name of the town and some type…
The Outcome Measures of the Development of Ipv Programs
While general knowledge of IPV has grown since the initial stages of the movement, empirical evidence supporting the effectiveness of prevention strategies and interventions remains scarce (Bender, 2017). Although existing literature suggests that IPV services, such as shelter, mental health services, advocacy, and support groups,…
The Desert Tortoise: Endangered Species in the Desert Ecosystem
The Desert tortoise is in need of protection. Their habitat is being destroyed. Their food sources are being depleted. Soon they will go extinct in the Mojave desert ecosystem. Some ways we can help the tortoises are by helping in restoration projects. We can also…
Adaptations of Camels to the Ecosystem of the Desert
When it comes to camels, classification known as, family: Camelidae, genus: Camelus, the main two researched species are on the Bactrian camel, and the Dromedary camel, they are native to the Asian and Northern African desert regions(Funk, et al. 2018). Deserts have low rainfall and…
Nikola Tesla Through the Lens of Developmental Theories
By looking at developmental theories and applying them to the childhoods of saints and sinners throughout history, we are able to contextualize the way they have turned out, and gain a better understanding of human development. By using these theories and looking at how they…
The Thinking and Ingenuity of Thomas Edison and Nikola Tesla
“They’re different inventors, but you can’t say one is greater, because American society needs some Edisons and it needs some Teslas” – W. Bernard Carlson “Tesla: inventor of the Electrical Age”. Nikola Tesla and Thomas Edison were both brilliant Inventors, but lead drastically different lives….
Nikola Tesla: the Great Inventor of Ac System
You sit down. The chair squeaks a little bit when you reach down to grab your laptop from your bag. You place it on the table, open it up, and turn it on. A black screen with an image of an empty battery flashes. You…
Relevance of Cyborg Manifesto to Tv Series Orphan Black
And finally, a female author as the source for season titles: Donna Haraway, a feminist intellectual whose popular and much-anthologized “Cyborg Manifesto” perfectly matches Orphan Black’s ethical themes and concerns. Her “A Cyborg Manifesto” considers how a cyborg—an enhanced person with added mechanical capabilities—symbolizes being…
The Cyborg Manifesto: the Future of Mankind
After reading Haraway’s text, A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century and listening to the podcast Small Medicine by Genevieve Valentine, while robots are non-human, their aesthetic judgments and moral compass demonstrate personhood. In the podcast, Sofia who is the…
The Cyborg Manifesto: Blurring the Lines Between Machines and Humans
The Cyborg Manifesto is consisted of multiple traits brought together to form both human and cyborg. These characteristics will bring amongst many different details towards one another such as appearance, personality, social status, class, and methods used everyday. How would this differ from both human…
Little Albert Experiment as an Example of Classical Conditioning
John Watson (1878 – 1958), an American psychologist who was deeply influenced by a Russian psychologist, Ivan Pavlov, who is also a behaviourist. Watson further developed his ideology towards psychology mainly based on Pavlov’s works. Watson is known for his famous yet controversial experiment, the…
The Ethics of Watson & Rayner’s Little Albert Experiment
In 1920, most psychologist are well versed with Sigmund Freud (1856) psychoanalysis theory where the focus is on the unconscious mind rather than the conscious mind. It is built on the idea that human’s behaviour is determined by the experiences from their past that are…
Little Albert Experiment: History of Experiments on Human Behavior
There have been many historical experiments on human behavior, however we are going to be focussing on the earliest, to the most controversial, the most successful experiments in history. Over time there have been human behavior experiments that still help psychology experts to this day,…
Human Curiousity: is Space Exploration Worth the Cost
Space Exploration for years has been a priority for humans to explore the outside world and find any life forms, planets and maybe even a future humain place for humans to life in the future. But is it really that worth it. For too long…
Life Without Electricity: Importance of Electricity in Secondary Schools
This study is about the importance of electricity in schools and how this leads to improved academic performance of the schools. The education sector in any nation is an important sector to growth in any economy and it must be treated with priority. Today the…
Correlation of Tuskugee Experiment and Inherent Racism
“I will remember that I remain a member of society, with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.” Throughout history it has proven to be increasingly difficult not to be a hypocrite to…
Including Algebra in School Curriculum: Why Learn Algebra
The study of mathematics, the overarching subject dealing with numbers, manipulation of amounts, rates, and other numerical concepts, has existed for thousands of years. From the ancient Greeks and Arabians who first pioneered fundamental mathematical concepts, to more modern application of math in the fields…
Genetic Mutations and Similarities Between Humans and Animals
Gene mutations affect everyone. They are caused by natural mistakes during replication, mutagens such as some chemicals or radiation, and some viruses. But most of the time, mutations don’t have a big effect on us and they go unnoticed. But it is not uncommon that…
8th Grade Algebra Doesn’t Benefit Everyone: Why Learn Algebra
Abstract This paper identifies some of the reasons why economically-disadvantaged students struggle in 8th grade algebra. It summarizes the push by policymakers to get students to take algebra in 8th grade instead of the traditional 9th grade. It then goes over how low parental education…
Imagining Life Without Electricity Due to Electricity Theft
Electricity theft is an progressively common problem in a lot of countries. The theft of electricity is the major interest of transmission and distribution losses in the supply of electricity not in the generation. Power utilities have revealed huge financial losses due to theft and…
Plato's Theory of Forms in Modern Ideas
Plato was born, the child of Ariston and Perictione, in around 428 BC. His family, on the two sides, was among the most recognized in Athens. He was conceived in Athens into an exceptionally affluent family and as a young fellow was an understudy of…
Space Industry and is Space Exploration Worth the Cost
Introduction After the World War II the rockets and satellites became an inevitable part of the military but in course of time they found civilian applications. For a long time, the space industry was constrained to the government organizations. However today many major private commercial…
Gudelines During Science Experimentation: Why is Lab Safety Important
Preston Brown, a graduate student at Texas Tech University was working on the highly energetic nickel hydrazine perchlorate (NHP) in early January 2010 when an almost fatal accident that scarred him for life occurred. In a series of events that involved disregard for his supervisor’s…
A Discovery that Can Help Solve World Hunger: Genetically Modified Foods
For the year 2019, until October there have been 110 million births and only 46 million deaths. The life expectancy of humans is also steadily increasing and it has more than doubled from the last 2 centuries! As of 2018 the average life expectancy worldwide…
Analyzing the Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy
Some of you might have been in an argument about nuclear power, whether it is a good method to produce energy or rather a detrimental one. We found this topic very captivating but confusing, so we tried to get to grips with it. Before we…
Differences and Similarities Between Humans and Animals, Particularly Chimps
The chimpanzee is claimed to be one of our closest relatives in the animal kingdom; commonly thought to be our genetic “cousin” in genealogy and behavior. Although we have many similarities, we also have differences that are numerous and complex. The Chimpanzee’s place in the…
Medical Advantages and Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy and Weaopons
If a nuclear war or bomb was to occur, it would have a various amount ofnegative effects, or disadvantages, on the earth, plants, animals, and the human population. A majority of living organisms would be significantly harmed or killed. A large factor of a nuclear…
Slang Analysis in a Series for Young Audience: Sex Education
Some researchers claim that slang has become a part of our daily language, especially among young people, and if we think about it, we will realise that it is everywhere (on social media, in conversations, in films, in TV series, etc) (Adams, 2009). In addition,…
Exploring the Slang Words in Malay Language
Background of the Study In everyday life, spoken or verbal language is more widely used than non-verbal or written language. Spoken language as an interaction tool plays a major role in human life from informal to formal situation such as daily conversation, jokes, slogans, documentation,…
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An assignment examples on medical science s is a prosaic composition of a small volume and free composition, expressing individual impressions and thoughts on a specific occasion or issue and obviously not claiming a definitive or exhaustive interpretation of the subject.
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- the presence of a specific topic or question. A work devoted to the analysis of a wide range of problems in biology, by definition, cannot be performed in the genre of medical science s assignment topic.
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- As a rule, an essay suggests a new, subjectively colored word about something, such a work may have a philosophical, historical, biographical, journalistic, literary, critical, popular scientific or purely fiction character.
- in the content of an assignment samples on medical science s, first of all, the author’s personality is assessed - his worldview, thoughts and feelings.
The goal of an assignment in medical science s is to develop such skills as independent creative thinking and writing out your own thoughts.
Writing an assignment is extremely useful, because it allows the author to learn to clearly and correctly formulate thoughts, structure information, use basic concepts, highlight causal relationships, illustrate experience with relevant examples, and substantiate his conclusions.
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Dictionaries and Society: a Cultural, Ethical, and Social Exploration
Melatonin and sleep science: andrew huberman's perspectives on the sleep hormone, andrew huberman's views and contributions to the covid vaccine discourse, andrew huberman's political commentary and activism, why science is important, the teleological argument: the evidence for design, the scopes trial: clash of science and religion in 1920s america, the importance of learning english, the future language: the evolution of communication, topics in this category.
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- Sample Assignments
In addition to the flexibility which comes from the breadth of the computer science discipline, the computer scientist has a wide range of career options. Generally, careers that focus on the development of applications and specialized software for business and scientific areas require the Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts degree. With either degree, students are prepared for employment immediately after graduation. Students with an interest in the development of computer systems, including hardware and major software, will find that the Bachelor of Science degree provides a firm foundation for a career that may require a Master of Science degree and result in employment by a major computer manufacturer. A student hoping to perform advanced computing research or to be a university professor will find that the Ph.D. degree is essential.
The depth, breadth and flexibility of the computer science program includes the ability to apply classroom knowledge to real world projects as part of independent study, directed projects and regular classroom requirements. The following are a sampling of the recent projects students have been involved with
Video Game Creation
Students worked in groups for their final project to create a video game using Java Swing libraries. The project allowed them to apply their knowledge of data storage and organization to a real world software project, and produce readable documentation for a developer. Below are a couple of the projects: Snake, BlackJack and Pong:
Interactive Graphical User Interface
In a recent independent study, a senior computer science major developed an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for molecular dynamics simulations. His GUI could visualize a molecule using three views while stepping through a simulation and checking results. The GUI was built with the TKInter libraries for Python, while the simulation was executed by the open source MDLab (mdlab.sourceforge.net) software.
Biology and the Game of Life
This course offered students a hands-on atmosphere for applied computing in the biological sciences and mathematics. By running simulations of biological cells using Conway’s Game of Life and the Cellular Potts Model (CPM), students study how the application of simple mathematical rules to behavioral entities result in patterns similar to those observed in nature. In the screenshots below, student projects captured foam bubble dispersion, cell sorting analogous to those in the eye, and the slime mould Dictyostelium Discoideum using CompuCell3D which runs the CPM:
Students explored the internal hardware of a computer and for their final project create a machine which can add two numbers using (shown below) breadboards, logic gates and LEDs. The LEDs illuminate to show the result of the addition.
Graphical User Interface Design
Students explored the various design issues which affect the appearance of a graphical user interface and provide the means by which a user may communicate with the underlying applications software, realizing that good design facilitates effective communication. Graphical user interface features such as mouse interaction, menus, dialog boxes, tool bars, error messaging and direct manipulation are evaluated and implemented.
In this particular assignment, students were asked to create simple word processing application in Java, using traditional GUI components, such as menus, dialog boxes, sliders, etc., from the Java Swing GUI widget toolkit.
Students were introduced to the theory and programming issues involved in rendering graphic images. Theory includes the physics of light and surfaces, surface illumination equations, and algorithms for rendering scenes using ray tracing. Visual surface algorithms, 3D viewing transformations and projections, anti-aliasing, 3D model transformation, illumination models, texture mapping, animation, and interactive graphic techniques are also presented.
In this assignment, students were asked to create an animation using a number of graphic objects, with one object demonstrating an attempt to model a real world object as accurately as possible. Object shape and surface properties, such as reflectance and texture, were chosen to realistically model the object. Another object had its surface appearance based at least partially upon the use of a two dimensional “texture” map. The project also demonstrates an object based animation as well as a camera based animation.
Students were encouraged to envision and implement projects in evolutionary computation that are of research level quality. Here is a sample student project, which after additional research and review led to a peer-reviewed publication at a major conference.
Project Title: Communication as a Model for Crossover in Genetic Algorithms
Abstract: We have created an evolutionary model of multiple ant colonies searching for a resource using swarm intelligence and a modified genetic algorithm. In place of the standard crossover we have employed a modified crossover which models communication; we call this a communicative GA (CGA). The communicative crossover operation sums up the moves of the most fit and least fit chromosome. The most frequent high move and low move are selected for altering. For each chromosome, the lowest move is changed into the highest fit chromosome’s most frequent allele. Statistics were recorded in each generation, including; max fitness, min fitness, the average fitness, the average number of generations it took to reach the resource, and the percent of variation of fitness. The statistics were compared to the same model implemented using a standard GA with a crossover.
Our model simulates N different ant colonies competing for one resource. We used N=4 colonies for our experiment. For illustrative purposes we have created a square shaped habitat. The ants’ path towards the resource originates from the colony and the ants may not go off the edge as seen in Figure 1. Six circular tiers were placed radiating outward from the resource representing some indicating factor from the resource. These tiers are used to calculate the fitness of each individual.
Creation of an Expert System
Students use an expert system shell to create expert systems in an area of their choice. Some of the most remarkable Expert Systems created include:
- Advising system for purchasing a boat
- What to do when a hurricane approaches
- Restaurant recommendation system
- Recommendation system for computer games
- Football head coach
- Academic Adviser
- Automobile troubleshooting system
- Recommendation system for music studio equipment
- Surf adviser
- Recommendation system where to spend your vacation
- Kelly R. Debure
- Michael L. Hilton
- Holger Mauch
- Why Computer Science at Eckerd College
Dr. Kelly Debure Professor of Computer Science MPC 208 [email protected] 727-864-7749
St. Petersburg, Florida 33711 800.456.9009 or 727.867.1166
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