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• 1. EDU-01 ASSIGNMENT TOPIC - SCIENTIFIC METHOD (UNIT II) Submitted by AMINA SHIRIN N S Roll no: 15 1st B.Ed Mathematics
• 2. INTRODUCTION Scientific Method The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. Every problem might have been solved through a specific procedure. Scientists have also adopted some specific procedures and thereby contributed to scientific inventions. The procedure adopted by the scientists to find out the facts and scientific truths is called 'Scientific Method'. It is evident that if the scientific method is followed by the teachers and students in the class room, the teaching-learning process would be effective. This has been proved by various researches. So it is imperative that the student-teacher should get the knowledge and the skill of execution about scientific method. The main aim of science teaching is to impart training in scientific method and scientific attitude. While confronting with problems, the attitude of analyzing and approaching on the basis of scientific method is known as scientific attitude. Objectives of Scientific method: ● to develop the scientific attitude ● to develop the scientific temper ● to aware the problems affiliated with science ● to know the relationship between the nature and biotic factors. ● to have the curiosity and creativity in Science and its applications. ● to acquire the skills of ○ data collection, ○ data processing and analysis, ○ deriving the conclusion, ○ validating the results and ○ application of the facts (validated methods and results)
• 3. Steps in Scientific Method: The Scientific methods has the following steps to be done: 1, Realizing the problem 2, Defining the problem 3, Analyzing the problem 4, Collecting data / information 5, Analyzing the information 6, Framing hypothesis 7, Verifying the hypothesis 8, Finding the solution 9, applying the solutions in the life situations. Although procedures vary from one field of inquiry to another, the underlying process is frequently the same from one field to another. The process in the scientific method involves making conjectures (hypothetical explanations), deriving predictions from the hypotheses as logical consequences, and then carrying out experiments or empirical observations based on those predictions. Not all steps take place in every scientific inquiry (nor to the same degree), and they are not always done in the same Overview of the Scientific Method:
• 4. 1. Realizing the problem: This is the first step of the scientific method. Each and every happening of nature makes the students plunge in wonder. So that students are very curious to know the reasons for various happenings and matters in nature. The urge to find out the truth for any scientific happening, is the first step which helps to solve the problem in scientific method. It is essential for a teacher to introduce a concept in the form of problem and arouse the interest of the students to find out solutions for the same. Such activities can develop the skills of enquiry among the learners. 2. Defining the problem : After sensing the problem clearly, it should be defined clearly so that the problem could be solved. This is the next step in Scientific Method. Only after defining the problem clearly, it is possible to plan methods and strategies to solve the problem. Students themselves can find out and write clear definitions using relevant words with the help of the teacher. Suitable definition can be selected from them. In this step, the teacher should define the problem sensed. Learner should acquire the knowledge about the problem and to define the problem and its components. (For example The Polluted water can causes the diseases. The Teacher should explain the definitions for Pollution and Microbes and their activity to the students. Also teacher give guidelines to approach the problem and its components.
• 5. 3. Analyzing the problem: This is the third step in Scientific method which classifies and arranges the problem and its components. The learner should analyse the problem in to parts to find out the details of each part to understand the actual dimensions of the problem. 4, Collecting data / information: Designing the Methods using available resources and techniques to solve the problem and collecting data accordingly is the important step in the scientific method. Data related to the problem can be collected under the following ways: 1. Collection of data through observation 2. Collection of data through experiments 3. Collection of data by surveying literature 4. Discussion with experts While collecting the data, the information should be clearly recorded without any prejudice and bias. Teacher should help the students to gather the data related to the problem. 5. Analyzing the information Analysis of Information collected develops the scientific attitude among the learners. The collecting of information can reveal the uniqueness and the diversity of the problem and its dimensions. Only on the basis of analysis of information formulating the hypothesis can be done. The irrelevant data and information can be discarded by this method.
• 6. The teacher should support the learner for analysis of information. By this skills of classification and comparison can be developed among the learners. 6. Framing hypothesis: Formulation of hypothesis or tentative solutions (Framing hypothesis) is the important step in the scientific method. Tentative solutions are derived from analyzing various data on the basis of organizing and grouping the data according to their similarities and dissimilarities. In this way, many tentative solutions can be obtained to the given problem. They are called as hypotheses. All hypotheses cannot be the solutions to a problem. One among them will be the suitable solution to the problem. Students can be encouraged to formulate hypothesis on the basis of collected data by observation or by experiments. Teacher formulates an hypothesis as an example and students are trained to build other hypotheses with the guidance of teacher. Hypotheses built by the teacher or students may be accepted or rejected after the verification and validation. 7. Verifying the hypothesis. Evaluation of hypothesis or verification of hypothesis is essential to find out the appropriate one which is most likely to be correct. On the basis of hypotheses, further data collected through the repeated experiments are analyzed and the most appropriate hypothesis need be selected. The tentative solutions may be discarded when there is lack of validity and experimental proof. This step inculcates the learner to do the experiments and decision making skills on
• 7. the basis of results of experiments and hypothesis formulation. Example: Various uncontrolled activities of human society is responsible for Pollution. The awareness of pollution and its effect is required for mankind. The control of human interventions can reduce the pollution. Example: Testing the water in the laboratory. Interview with the public about the awareness of pollution and its effects. 8. Finding the solution A hypothesis must be tested in variety of environments and from the results of the tests and experiments a valid hypothesis is selected. Selected and confirmed hypothesis is tested again and again. According to its consistency it becomes final solution to the problem and it can be announced as the result. This activity makes the learner self reliant and develop his decision making and problem solving skills scientifically. The teacher has to assist in this process to derive a valid hypothesis in his problem. 9. Applying the solutions in the life situations: The derived results must be generalized. The generalized result can be utilized whenever the situations happened alike. The learner can apply the same or similar type of methods for problem solving. The teacher must be a guide and give necessary guidelines to the learner whenever he/ she need the help in learning or problem solving.
• 8. Merits of Scientific Method.  Learners always try to solve their problem themselves  Learning process is independent  Highly motivated learning by experience is also felt  Learning by doing enhances the motivation and self confidence in learning.  Learner solves the problems scientifically and arrive new valid solutions too.  Learner receives good skills and training from the scientific method  Learners can develop their skills in data collection and analysis. CONCLUSION The scientific method is the process by which science is carried out.As in other areas of inquiry, science (through the scientific method) can build on previous knowledge and develop a more sophisticated understanding of its topics of study over time.This model can be seen to underlie the scientific revolution in learning process.
• Applied Mathematics

## Scientific Method - Assignment

Name ___________________

1. Read the scientific method packet

2. Using a highlighter, highlight any words you did not immediately know. Use the

space below to write down three of these previously unknown words and give a

definition for each.

• __________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

3. Grace is a marine biologist who hypothesized that squid would swim faster in warm

water than in cold water. She conducted her experiment following the scientific

method. Her data did not support her hypothesis; the squid swam at the same rate

despite the change in the water temperature. What should Grace do next?

4. Why is the research collection (background information) part of the scientific method

so important?

5. A researcher wants to know if a person’s mood can be improved by taking an herbal

vitamin each day. Propose a hypothesis that could be used to begin to investigate

this question.

6. How Penicillin Was Discovered

In 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming was studying Staphylococcus bacteria growing in culture dishes. He noticed that a mold called Penicillium was also growing in some of the dishes. A clear area existed around the mold because all the bacteria that had grown in this area had died. In the culture dishes without the mold, no clear areas were present.

Fleming hypothesized that the mold must be producing a chemical that killed the bacteria. He decided to isolate this substance and test it to see if it would kill bacteria.

Fleming transferred the mold to a nutrient broth solution. This solution contained all the materials the mold needed to grow. After the mold grew, he removed it from the nutrient broth. Fleming then added the nutrient broth in which the mold had grown to a culture of bacteria. He observed that the bacteria died which was later used to develop antibiotics used to treat a variety of diseases.

• Identify the problem:

• What was Fleming's hypothesis?

• How was the hypothesis tested?

• Should the hypothesis be supported or rejected based on the experiment?

## Scientific Method - Sequencing

Use what you know about the scientific method to number each paragraph below from one to six with one being the part that occurred first. Underline one word in each paragraph that helped you determine which step of the scientific method the scientist was using.

______ Dr. Eijkman did some research and found that people with the disease could not

eat and became paralyzed. He also found that the disease was not caused by

bacteria. He learned that chickens who ate polished rice instead of whole grain

rice were getting BeriBeri disease.

______ Dr. Eijkman recorded that only chickens that ate polished rice during his test got

______ Dr. Eijkman made an educated guess, “If polished rice is missing some

important substance, then the lack of this substance could be causing the disease.”

______ In 1897, a strange nerve disease attacked the people in the Dutch East Indies.

The disease was BeriBeri disease. A scientist named Dr. Eijkman wondered

why everyone was getting sick, even the chickens.

______ Dr. Eijkman tested his idea by giving one group of chickens polished rice and

another group whole grain rice.

______ Dr. Eijkman decided that the way to prevent BeriBeri disease was for people to

eat whole grain rice since polished rice lacked some important nutritional

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## General Biology I Assignment on Scientific Method

• Based on your observations of the world around you, pose a question about some biological phenomenon of interest to the group. What is your question about what you have observed?
• Develop an experiment to test your hypothesis. What would you do  what steps would you perform to see if you get your predicted results? What equipment and/or supplies would you need? What specific numbers/data would you need to gather, and how would you go about gathering and analyzing the data? What would be your control group ? What ONE factor will be varied in your experimental group? How much repetition do you need to have? What sorts of statistics would be needed?
• When the rough drafts are due, if there is time, we may exchange papers in class. In that case, your group will read and evaluate another groups paper using the evaluation form provided. Papers will be turned in for my comments and suggestions, and then returned to you for revision. As time allows on the date the final copies are due, we may again exchange papers in class so that your group can again evaluate another groups paper, then papers will be turned in for my evaluation.
• Note that if you are enrolled in this college-level course, I expect you to be able to read and write at a college level. So that you are able to communicate your points to others in an intelligible manner, I do expect you to correctly use the grammar, sentence structure, spelling, etc. that you have learned in your high school and college-level composition courses. If the grammar and sentence structure used in your paper is so incorrect that it interferes with your ability to effectively communicate your point, unless you seek the help of someone like the people in the Learning Center (or an English faculty member), your grade will suffer. To encourage students to get the help they need, in the past I have been known to take rough drafts to the Learning Center (so students must make an appointment to see someone there to get them back), rather than returning them directly to students.
• It is expected that the rough draft will be as close to a finished paper as possible, so that I can give useful advice on what needs to be fixed before the final paper is turned in. A list of ideas, hastily scribbled in pencil on a ragged sheet of notebook paper is not a rough draft! If you dont give me anything with which to work, I cannot give you useful feedback on what needs to be improved, resulting in a low score on your final paper. If you totally change the topic of your paper after I see and give feedback on the rough draft, again, you lose the benefit of useful feedback, resulting in a low score on your final paper.
• All participating members of a group will receive the same grade as each other, so make sure the names of all who helped are on the rough draft and final paper when turned in. I am not here to play policeman  if you feel that someone didnt contribute his/her fair share, then it is up to your group to deal with that situation. If you feel a persons name does not belong on the paper, it is your groups responsibility to discuss that with the person and resolve the problem yourselves. If your employeer/boss/supervisor asked you, as a group, to work together on a project, I doubt that (s)he would tolerate a) people who refuse to try to work in a group (lack of babysitter or lack of time, etc. would probably get you fired), b) people who say theyre part of a group, but dont do their share of the work, c) other group members who whine about someone rather than figuring out a creative solution to the problem on their own, or d) groups who dont get their work done. By signing up for this class, you implicitly agreed to spend the time needed to try to learn the material and complete required class-related activities. If you cant find time in your schedule to complete the required assignments, you should consider withdrawing from the class and retaking it later when you can schedule the needed time. You are adults.

The total possible is 100 points. Here is a sample of the grade sheet that will be used to evaluate the project. You are encouraged to use this as a checklist to make sure your paper contains all these things and is correctly organized.

Each of the following areas is worth two points each, for a possible total of 100 points. For each question, an answer of yes is worth 2 pt., an answer of sort-of is worth 1 pt., and an answer of no is worth 0 pt. For questions regarding grammar, 0 to 2 errors in that category will count as a yes answer, 3 to 5 errors will count as a sort-of answer, and over 5 will count as a no answer.

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<strong>The</strong> <strong>Scientific</strong> <strong>Method</strong>.<strong><strong>Read</strong>ing</strong> <strong>Assignment</strong>: <strong>Read</strong> <strong>Chapter</strong> 1 <strong>but</strong> pay particular attention to sections 1.1 & 1.2.Homework: see the web site for homework.http://web.fccj.org/~smilczan/psc/homewkmid.htmlLecture:Why do Scientists do what they do?Over the years, I think that the answers seem to fall into two categories:1.2.It is my personal opinion that the structure of science is better suited for the latter <strong>but</strong> as Idiscuss the scientific method, you be the judge.Figure 1: A graphical view of the <strong>Scientific</strong> method.<strong>The</strong> scientific method involves a cyclic process of observation, hypothesis andexperimentation. Lets begin with these three.• Observation: <strong>The</strong>re are two types of observations, qualitative (theproduct is blue) or qualitative (the reaction produced 17.0 grams ofproduct. Observations are often the catalyst to formulating a problem.<strong>The</strong>y are also important in our experiments.• Hypothesis: A hypothesis is a possible explanation for an observation.• Experiment: An experiment is something we do to test the hypothesis• <strong>The</strong>ory: A theory (or model) is a set of tested hypothesis that gives anoverall explanation of some part of nature.• Law: A law is a summary of observed behavior.

If an experiment is consistent with the hypothesis then the explanation becomes a theory.A behavior that has been observed innumerable times is called a natural law. A theorymay be tested many times and involve modification or it may have to discarded entirelyif experiments show it to be inconsistent with observed behavior. <strong>The</strong>ories are useful tous because they have predictive power and so therefore allow us to make somethinguseful. <strong>The</strong> philosophical question is, “If these theories are consistent with what we see,is that a truth about the world?”One of the interesting aspects of science is that one theory often builds on another. <strong>The</strong>more a theory has been tested, the more faith we put in to it. After a while we pretend itis the “truth”, <strong>but</strong> how do we know for sure? In this class we will say that the shape ofwater is bent. We are using many theories in this discussion. We are presupposing thatatoms exist. <strong>The</strong> existence of molecules uses theories and laws of physics such as thelaws of electrostatic attraction and the laws of motion and the theories of the existence ofsubatomic particles such as electrons and protons.Figure 2: A pictorial description of a theory (green) and its relationship to theother theories that it builds on (blue). What if one of them was wrong (red)?What if one of the underlying theories is wrong?What if atoms do not exist does the fact that we expect allow us to find them?What if we are just a giant computer simulation?

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