Mastery-Aligned Maths Tutoring

“The best thing has been the increase in confidence and tutors being there to deal with any misunderstandings straight away."

FREE daily maths challenges

A new KS2 maths challenge every day. Perfect as lesson starters - no prep required!

FREE daily maths challenges

Maths Problem Solving: Engaging Your Students And Strengthening Their Mathematical Skills

Meriel Willatt

Maths problem solving can be challenging for pupils. There’s no ‘one size fits all’ approach or strategy and questions often combine different topic areas. Pupils often don’t know where to start. It’s no surprise that problem solving is a common topic teachers struggle to teach effectively to their pupils.

In this blog, we consider the importance of problem solving and share with you some ideas and resources for you to tackle problem solving in your maths classroom, from KS2 up to GCSE.

What is maths problem solving?

Why is maths problem solving so difficult, how to develop problem solving skills in maths, maths problem solving ks2, maths problem solving ks3, maths problem solving gcse.

Maths problem solving is when a mathematical task challenges pupils to apply their knowledge, logic and reasoning in unfamiliar contexts. Problem solving questions often combine several elements of maths.

We know from talking to the hundreds of school leaders and maths teachers that we work with as one to one online maths tutoring providers that this is one of their biggest challenges: equipping pupils with the skills and confidence necessary to approach problem solving questions.

The Ultimate Guide to Problem Solving Techniques

The Ultimate Guide to Problem Solving Techniques

Download these 9 ready-to-go problem solving techniques that every pupil should know

The challenge with problem solving in maths is that there is no generic problem solving skill that can be taught in an isolated maths lesson. It’s a skill that teachers must explicitly teach to pupils, embed into their learning and revisit often.

When pupils are first introduced to a topic, they cannot start problem solving straight away using it. Problem solving relies on deep knowledge of concepts. Pupils need to become familiar with it and practice using it in different contexts before they can make connections, reason and problem solve with it. In fact, some researchers suggest that it could take up to two years to do this (Burkhardt, 2017). 

At Third Space Learning, we specialise in online one to one maths tutoring for schools, from KS1 all the way up to GCSE. Our lessons are designed by maths teachers and pedagogy experts to break down complex problems into their constituent parts. Our specialist tutors then carefully scaffold learning to build students’ confidence in key skills before combining them to tackle problem solving questions.

sample problem solving maths lessons

In order to develop problem solving skills in maths, pupils need lots of different contexts and word problems in which to practise them and the opportunity to engage in mathematical talk that draws on their metacognitive skills. 

The EEF suggests that to develop problem solving skills in maths, teachers need to teach pupils:

  • To use different approaches to problem solving
  • Use worked examples
  • To use metacognition to plan, monitor and reflect on their approaches to problem solving

Below, we take a closer look at problem solving at each stage, from primary school all the way to GCSEs. We’ve also included links to maths resources and CPD to support you and your team’s classroom teaching.

At lower KS2, the National Curriculum states that pupils should develop their ability to solve a range of problems. However, these will involve simple calculations as pupils develop their numeracy skills. As pupils progress to upper KS2, the demand for problem solving skills increases. 

“At this stage, pupils should develop their ability to solve a wider range of problems, including increasingly complex properties of numbers and arithmetic, and problems demanding efficient written and mental methods of calculation. With this foundation in arithmetic, pupils are introduced to the language of algebra as a means for solving a variety of problems.” National curriculum in England: mathematics programmes of study (Upper key stage 2 – years 5 and 6)

KS2 problem solving can often fall into the trap of relying on acronyms, such as RICE, RIDE or even QUACK. The most popular is RUCSAC (Read, Underline, Calculate, Solve, Answer, Check). While these do aim to simplify the process for young minds, it encourages a superficial, formulaic approach to problem solving, rather than deep mathematical thinking. Also, consider how much is wrapped up within the word ‘solve’ – is this helpful?

We teach thousands of pupils KS2 maths problem solving skills every week through our one to one online tutoring programme for maths. In our interventions, we encourage deep mathematical thinking by using a simplified version of George Polya’s four stages of problem solving. Here are the four stages:

Understand the problem

  • Devise a strategy for solving it
  • Carry out the problem solving strategy
  • Check the result

We use UCR as a simplified model: Understand, Communicate & Reflect. You may choose to adapt this depending on the age and ability of your class.

For example:

Maisy, Heidi and Freddie are children in the same family. The product of their ages is a score. How old might they be?

There are three people.

There are three numbers that multiply together to make twenty (a score is equal to 20). There will be lots of answers, but no ‘right’ answer.


To solve the word problem we need to find the numbers that will go into 20 without a remainder (the factors).

The factors of 20 are 1, 2, 4, 5, 10 and 20.

Combinations of numbers that could work are: 1, 1, 20 1, 2, 10 1, 4, 5 2, 2, 5.

The question says children, which means ‘under 18 years’, so that would mean we could remove 1, 1, 20 from our list of possibilities. 

In our sessions, we create a nurturing learning environment where pupils feel safe to make mistakes. This is so important in the context of problem solving as the best problem solvers will be resilient and able to overcome challenges in the ‘Reflect’ stage. Read more: What is a growth mindset

Looking for more support teaching KS2 problem solving? We’ve developed a powerpoint on problem solving, reasoning and planning for depth that is designed to be used as CPD by primary school teachers, maths leads and SLT. 

The resource reflects on how metacognition can enhance reasoning and problem solving abilities, the ‘curse’ of real life maths (think ‘Carl buys 60 watermelons…) and how teachers can practically implement and teach strategies in the classroom.

You may also be interested in: 

  • Developing Thinking Skills At KS2
  • KS2 Maths Investigations
  • Word problems for Year 6

At KS3, the importance of seeing mathematical concepts as interconnected with other skills, including problem solving, is foregrounded. The National Curriculum also stresses the importance of a strong foundation in maths before moving on to complex problem solving.

“Mathematics is an interconnected subject in which pupils need to be able to move fluently between representations of mathematical ideas. The programme of study for key stage 3 is organised into apparently distinct domains, but pupils should build on key stage 2 and connections across mathematical ideas to develop fluency, mathematical reasoning and competence in solving increasingly sophisticated problems” National curriculum in England: mathematics programmes of study (Key stage 3)

“Decisions about progression should be based on the security of pupils’ understanding and their readiness to progress to the next stage. Pupils who grasp concepts rapidly should be challenged through being offered rich and sophisticated problems before any acceleration through new content in preparation for key stage 4.” National curriculum in England: mathematics programmes of study (Key stage 3)

For many students, the transition from primary to secondary school can be a huge challenge.

Especially in the aftermath of the Covid-19 pandemic and the resultant school closures, students may arrive into Year 7 with various learning gaps and misconceptions that will hold them. Some students may need focused support to plug these gaps and grow in confidence.

You can give pupils a smoother transition from KS2 to KS3 with personalised one to one online tuition with specialist tutors with Third Space Learning. Our lessons cover content from Years 5-7 and build a solid foundation for pupils to develop their problem solving skills. Pupils are supported towards independent practice through worked examples, questioning and support slides.

KS3 problem solving maths activities

The challenge for KS3 maths problem solving activities is that learners may struggle to get invested unless you start with a convincing hook. Engage your young mathematicians on topics you know well or you know they’ll be invested in and try your hand at designing your own mathematical problems. Alternatively, get some inspiration from our crossover ability and fun maths problems .

Since the new GCSE specification began in 2015, there has been an increased focus on non-routine problem solving questions. These questions demand students to make sense of lots of new information at once before they even move on to selecting the strategies they’ll use to find the correct answer. This is where many learners get stuck.

In recent years, teachers and researchers in pedagogy (including Ofsted) have recognised that open ended problem solving tasks do not in fact lead to improved student understanding. While they may be enjoyable and engage learners, they may not lead to improved results.

SSDD problems (Same Surface Different Depth) can offer a solution that develops students’ critical thinking skills, while ensuring they engage fully with the information they’re provided. The idea behind them is to provide a set of questions that look the same and use the same mathematical hook but each question requires a different mathematical process to be solved.

ssdd questions example problem solving maths

Read more about SSDD problems , tips on writing your own questions and download free printable examples. There are also plenty of more examples on the NRICH website.

Worked examples, careful questioning and constructing visual representations can help students to convert the information embedded in a maths challenge into mathematical notations. Read our blog on problem solving maths questions for Foundation, Crossover & Higher examples, worked solutions and strategies.

Remember that students can only move on to mathematics problem solving once they have secure knowledge in a topic. If you know there are areas your students need extra support, check our Secondary Maths Resources library for revision guides, teaching resources and worksheets for KS3 and GCSE topics.


Every week Third Space Learning’s specialist online maths tutors support thousands of students across hundreds of schools with weekly online 1 to 1 maths lessons designed to plug gaps and boost progress.

Since 2013 these personalised one to 1 lessons have helped over 150,000 primary and secondary students become more confident, able mathematicians.

Learn how the programmes are aligned to maths mastery teaching or request a personalised quote for your school to speak to us about your school’s needs and how we can help.

Related articles

Free Year 7 Maths Test With Answers And Mark Scheme: Mixed Topic Questions

Free Year 7 Maths Test With Answers And Mark Scheme: Mixed Topic Questions

What Is A Number Square? Explained For Primary School Teachers, Parents & Pupils

What Is A Number Square? Explained For Primary School Teachers, Parents & Pupils

What Is Numicon? Explained For Primary School Teachers, Parents And Pupils

What Is Numicon? Explained For Primary School Teachers, Parents And Pupils

30 Problem Solving Maths Questions And Answers For GCSE

30 Problem Solving Maths Questions And Answers For GCSE

FREE Guide to Maths Mastery

All you need to know to successfully implement a mastery approach to mathematics in your primary school, at whatever stage of your journey.

Ideal for running staff meetings on mastery or sense checking your own approach to mastery.

Privacy Overview

Cambridge University Faculty of Mathematics

Or search by topic

Number and algebra

  • The Number System and Place Value
  • Calculations and Numerical Methods
  • Fractions, Decimals, Percentages, Ratio and Proportion
  • Properties of Numbers
  • Patterns, Sequences and Structure
  • Algebraic expressions, equations and formulae
  • Coordinates, Functions and Graphs

Geometry and measure

  • Angles, Polygons, and Geometrical Proof
  • 3D Geometry, Shape and Space
  • Measuring and calculating with units
  • Transformations and constructions
  • Pythagoras and Trigonometry
  • Vectors and Matrices

Probability and statistics

  • Handling, Processing and Representing Data
  • Probability

Working mathematically

  • Thinking mathematically
  • Mathematical mindsets
  • Cross-curricular contexts
  • Physical and digital manipulatives

For younger learners

  • Early Years Foundation Stage

Advanced mathematics

  • Decision Mathematics and Combinatorics
  • Advanced Probability and Statistics

Published 2018

The Problem-solving Classroom

  • Visualising
  • Working backwards
  • Reasoning logically
  • Conjecturing
  • Working systematically
  • Looking for patterns
  • Trial and improvement.

problem solving skills ks2 maths

  • stage of the lesson 
  • level of thinking
  • mathematical skill.
  • The length of student response increases (300-700%)
  • More responses are supported by logical argument.
  • An increased number of speculative responses.
  • The number of questions asked by students increases.
  • Student - student exchanges increase (volleyball).
  • Failures to respond decrease.
  • 'Disciplinary moves' decrease.
  • The variety of students participating increases.  As does the number of unsolicited, but appropriate contributions.
  • Student confidence increases.
  • conceptual understanding
  • procedural fluency
  • strategic competence
  • adaptive reasoning
  • productive disposition

problem solving skills ks2 maths

Resources you can trust

  • Show all (57)
  • (-) Primary (52)

Subject categories

  • All subject categories (141)
  • (-) Problem solving (52)
  • All number resources (3)
  • Geometry (3)
  • 2-D shapes (2)
  • Calculation (2)
  • Fractions (2)
  • Measurement (2)
  • Algebra (1)
  • BIDMAS (Order of operations) (1)
  • Christmas (1)
  • Festivals and celebrations (1)
  • Fractions, decimals and percentages (1)
  • Multiplication and division (1)
  • Percentages (1)
  • Ratio and proportion (1)
  • Statistics (1)
  • Straight line graphs (1)
  • Topical and seasonal (1)
  • (-) All key stages (16)

Resource type

  • Worksheet (31)
  • Student activity (28)
  • Differentiated (7)
  • Starter/Plenary (6)
  • Game/quiz (4)
  • Homework (3)
  • Complete lesson (2)
  • Teaching pack (2)
  • Assessment (1)
  • Revision (1)
  • Self-assessment (1)
  • Teaching ideas (1)

Problem solving

Resources to teach problem solving skills

This collection of teaching resources aims to help children develop maths problem solving skills. It features word problems, maths challenges, problem-solving questions and a variety of worksheets and problem solving activities to help your primary school learners develop the problem solving strategies for real life contexts.

Why teach problem solving skills?

Problem solving is a skill that involves a variety of mathematical skills that will help children in real life. From addition and subtraction to fractions, decimals and percentages, we need problem-solving strategies to solve day-to-day problems involving time, money and measurement. Problem solving is an integral strand of the KS2 maths curriculum and children will be tested on their problem-solving skills in their SATs and onwards.

Have you seen our teaching packs for problem solving in maths?

If you’re teaching upper key stage 2, you may like our problem-solving teaching packs: Problem solving - number and Problem solving – measurement, geometry and statistics . Both packs comprise scaffolded word problems and differentiated activities based upon the relevant problem-solving objectives in the national curriculum. Or you may prefer Challenging maths , packed with maths mastery style questions, word problems and games to enrich your maths lessons and turn your year 5/6 class into true problem solvers!

Search results

Topmarks Logo

  • Topmarks Search
  • Whiteboard Resources
  • Learning Games
  • Topmarks Apps
  • Topmarks Blog

Share on Twitter

  • 11-14 Years

Play these fun Maths Games for 7-11 year olds

Choose a category:, problem solving games.

problem solving skills ks2 maths

Bead Numbers - Place Value

Bead Numbers is a place value investigation involving a tens and ones abacus. The game provides a good context for encouraging learners to think systematically.

problem solving skills ks2 maths

Thinking of a Number

Guess the number by revealing the clues on the clouds one by one. Children will need knowledge of rounding, odd and even and tens and ones.

problem solving skills ks2 maths

Tables Teaser

Can you work out which number goes in each row and column heading to make the interactive tables grid work? It is quite a challenge!

problem solving skills ks2 maths

Mystic Numbers

Solve the number puzzles and collect the treasures.


  1. Problem Solving Skills: Meaning, Steps, Techniques (2023)

    problem solving skills ks2 maths

  2. Problem Solving Skills: Meaning, Steps, Techniques (2023)

    problem solving skills ks2 maths

  3. How to Improve Problem-Solving Skills in Math

    problem solving skills ks2 maths

  4. Addition problem solving activities ks2

    problem solving skills ks2 maths

  5. problem solving test for employment

    problem solving skills ks2 maths

  6. Problem solving skills: the ultimate guide

    problem solving skills ks2 maths


  1. ncfe question 1c level 2 functional skills maths ks3 maths ks2 maths gcse foundation tier ocr aqa

  2. GCSE 9-1 Maths Higher and Foundation Tier Maths Solving Linear Equations involving Brackets!

  3. GCSE Math Network

  4. Solve in Seconds !!!

  5. Among Us Maths 4 Times Tables

  6. KS1 Maths


  1. Maths Problem Solving KS2: Strategies & Resources

    A complete guide to maths problem solving at KS2 & the techniques that work. Free download with word problems & problem solving questions to use in class.

  2. Problem Solving - NRICH

    Using NRICH Tasks to Develop Key Problem-solving Skills. Age 5 to 11. This article, written for primary teachers, discusses what we mean by 'problem-solving skills' and draws attention to NRICH tasks which can help develop specific skills.

  3. Problem solving - KS2 Maths - BBC Bitesize

    Problem solving. KS2 Maths videos, quizzes and activities that will help students practise their problem solving knowledge and skills. Part of Maths.

  4. Using NRICH Tasks to Develop Key Problem-solving Skills

    Stage 1: Getting started. Stage 2: Working on the problem. Stage 3: Digging deeper. Stage 4: Reflecting. By explicitly drawing children's attention to these four stages, and by spending time on them in turn, we can help children become more confident problem solvers.

  5. Problem solving - BBC Bitesize

    Find out different problem solving techniques to help you in maths and numeracy.

  6. Problem Solving Maths: Strengthening Mathematical Skills

    We teach thousands of pupils KS2 maths problem solving skills every week through our one to one online tutoring programme for maths. In our interventions, we encourage deep mathematical thinking by using a simplified version of George Polya’s four stages of problem solving.

  7. The Problem-solving Classroom - NRICH

    This article forms part of our Problem-solving Classroom Feature, exploring how to create a space in which mathematical problem solving can flourish. At NRICH, we believe that there are four main aspects to consider: • Highlighting key problem-solving skills • Examining the teacher's role • Encouraging a productive disposition

  8. Problem solving | KS1-2 maths | Teachit

    Maths resources to teach and improve problem solving skills at KS1-2. Downloadable worksheets and activities including word problems and maths challenges.

  9. KS2 Problem Solving in Maths - Maths Mastery Resources - Twinkl

    Problem-solving in KS2 is a key skill that will form the foundation of future learning. That's why we've designed some brilliant PowerPoints, worksheets, games, and lots of maths mastery resources to help you plan fun and engaging lessons, and teach problem-solving in school.

  10. Problem Solving Games for Key Stage 2 children - Topmarks

    Problem Solving Games. These resources provide fun, free problem solving teaching ideas and activities for primary aged children. They will help children to reason mathematically, a vital skill if they are to learn to solve problems.