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Writing dissertation chapter 5: the biggest mistake students make, published by steve tippins on june 4, 2020 june 4, 2020.

Last Updated on: 2nd February 2024, 04:50 am

Chapter 5 of your dissertation is different from all of the previous four chapters.

If you’re beginning to write Chapter 5 of your dissertation, you know that most of the writing you’ve done up until now was fairly formulaic. You’ve probably been following templates with strict requirements about what needs to be included in each section and subsection. Even in Chapter 5, many schools will give you a template. But don’t let that fool you.

Regardless of whether you receive a rubric for it, Chapter 5 of your dissertation is unique. 

Your dissertation’s Chapter 5 is where you get to be more individualistic than in any other chapter and really “sing your song.” Why? It’s where you tell the reader what your results mean. Not just what they are, but what they mean. You tell them what they should take away from your study. You describe how your results can help others in the world or in the field. 

The Most Common Mistake Students Make When Writing Chapter 5 of Their Dissertation

close-up shot of a woman writing notes with a cup of cofee

The biggest mistake students make when writing their dissertation’s Chapter 5 is not writing enough. In fact, students often submit an “implications” section that’s only a few paragraphs.

As a committee member , it’s hard to see someone who has spent a year on a research topic and written 100+ pages about it and then get to the implications in Chapter 5 and see two paragraphs. This begs the question, “You mean this is all you have to say?”

Don’t cheat yourself in Chapter 5. Really explain and tell the story of what your results mean.

This is where you get to bring out your intellectual curiosity and help others really understand what you did and why you did it, what it means, and why it’s important. Of course, you’ll need to do this all within the guidelines of what your university will allow you to do. 

Normally Chapter 5 of a dissertation is about 15-20 pages. If it’s under ten pages, you’re really underselling your research. When you get to around 30-40 pages, your committee is going to wonder, “did all this come from your study?” or “couldn’t this have been said more succinctly?” 

Tips for Writing Dissertation Chapter 5

woman with orange sunglasses typing on her laptop next to a big window

Reference the Literature. If you’re stumped for things to write, look at what you said in Chapter 2 and tell the reader what your results mean in relation to what the researchers you quoted in Chapter 2 were talking about.l How you have added knowledge to the field?

sample chapter 5 thesis

Consider Your Defense. When you do the defense of your final document, Chapter 5 is where you end up at the end of your presentation. This is the last thing you talk about before you get to questions, and it’s where you may be able to answer questions before they come up. 

Address Your Problem and Purpose. Don’t forget to remind the reader what your problem statement and research questions were at the beginning of Chapter 5. Explain how your results apply to the problem and purpose.

Back Everything Up. Also remember that even though it’s your chance to interpret and even express yourself, you still have to back everything up. Use quotes or data points from your results section and relate it to other research.

Use a Bird’s Eye View. This is where you can use graphics, charts, graphs, or other data that are much broader in scope than you might use elsewhere. In Chapter 4, for example, you’re going to use a graph that specifically relates to a statistical test you did. In Chapter 5, you might use one that’s broader in scope if it fits the flow of what you’re writing.

Tell a story. While other chapters might have been written in more of a compartmentalized style because of their formulaic nature, in Chapter 5 you’re really telling the story of your research. In line with that, the writing will need more of a flow. 

Dissertation Chapter 5 Sample Template With Explanations

woman in all black clothes typing on her laptop

Introduction 

In the introduction, tell the reader what they’re going to learn in Chapter 5. Reiterate the problem and purpose statements and your research questions and, if appropriate, reference the results from Chapter 4.

Implications

This is where you tell people here’s what the results of your study mean and why they are important. It also acts as a summary or “summing up” of the data. “These people said this,” or “this statistic was significant.” Make sure to support what you say with the research findings and avoid drawing conclusions that are beyond the scope of the study results.

Then discuss the real-world application of your findings. For example, “This is an approach that could be used by schools to help autistic children have better learning outcomes,” or “this is a technique that investors can use to predict valuable stock market returns.” Again, make sure to stay within the scope of your study.

Place your study in context. Describe how the results respond to the study problem, align with the purpose, demonstrate significance, and contribute to the existing literature described in Chapter 2. 

Recommendations

The recommendations section is where you get to say, “and if you want to take this further, here are some suggestions for ways that this could be broadened or enhanced.” Here are some examples of what these suggestions could look like:

  • Different samples and populations
  • Ways to get at any limitations you reported in your study
  • Different approaches: qualitative if your study was quantitative, or quantitative if yours was qualitative, for example. Describe approaches that would be complementary to your study.
  • Related research that you’re already working on. Sometimes researchers work on multiple complementary projects simultaneously. Occasionally, they’ll include another related study that they’re working on in their recommendations section. This establishes a clear path of knowledge.
  • Practical, real-world suggestions. “Here are some recommendations for how this research could be used in the real world.”

The conclusion of Chapter 5 is where you get to wrap up your story. “And so, boys and girls, this is what all this came down to.” Okay, you might not want to phrase it like that. But that’s essentially what you’re doing.

sample chapter 5 thesis

Don’t try to add new information in the conclusion. Remember, it’s like a speech: tell them what you’re going to tell them, tell them, then tell them what you told them. 

Finishing Your Dissertation

Writing Chapter 5 and defending your dissertation is a big step towards getting your degree. Many students benefit from the support of a coach who is an experienced Dissertation Committee Chair at this point. A coach can conduct a mock defense with you in order to prepare you for the types of questions your committee will ask. Having answers to these questions can determine whether or not you pass your defense.

Check out my dissertation coaching services or contact me to book a free 30-minute consultation.

Steve Tippins

Steve Tippins, PhD, has thrived in academia for over thirty years. He continues to love teaching in addition to coaching recent PhD graduates as well as students writing their dissertations. Learn more about his dissertation coaching and career coaching services. Book a Free Consultation with Steve Tippins

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Thesis Writing: What to Write in Chapter 5

Table of contents, introduction.

This article tells what a budding researcher must include in Chapter 5-the Summary. It also includes the tense of the verb and the semantic markers, which are predominantly used in writing the summary, conclusions, and recommendations.

For others, writing Chapter 5 is the easiest part of thesis writing, but there are groups of students who would like to know more about it. If you are one of them, this article on how to write chapter 5 of your thesis is purposely written for you.

What to Write in Chapter 5

1. write the summary.

Your summary in Chapter 5 may include:

  • objectives of the study.
  • statement of the problem.
  • respondents.
  • sampling procedures.
  • method/s of research employed.
  • statistical treatment/s applied, or hypotheses tested, if there is any; and

If you notice, all the parts mentioned above are already included in your Chapters 1- 4. So, the challenge is on how you are going to write and present it in Chapter 5 briefly.

First, you must go directly to the point of highlighting the main points. There is no need to explain the details thoroughly. You must avoid copying and pasting what you have written in the previous chapters. Just KISS (keep it short and simple)!

Then, write sentences in  simple past  and always use  passive voice  construction rather than the active voice. You must also be familiar with the different semantic markers.

When I was enrolled in Academic Writing in my master’s degree, I learned that there are semantic markers which can be used in order not to repeat the same words or phrases such as  additionally, also, further, in addition to, moreover, contrary to, with regard to, as regards, however, finally, during the past ___ years, from 1996 to 2006, after 10 years, as shown in, as presented in, consequently, nevertheless, in fact, on the other hand, subsequently and nonetheless.

Next, you may use the following guide questions to check that you have not missed anything in writing the summary:

  • What is the objective of the study?;
  • Who/what is the focus of the study?;
  • Where and when was the investigation conducted?;
  • What method of research was used?;
  • How were the research data gathered?;
  • How were the respondents chosen?;
  • What were the statistical tools applied to treat the collected data?; and
  • Based on the data presented and analyzed, what findings can you summarize?

Finally, organize the summary of the results of your study according to the way the questions are sequenced in the statement of the problem.

2. Write the Conclusion or Conclusions

whattowriteinchapter5

Once you have written the summary in Chapter 5, draw out a conclusion from each finding or result. It can be done per question, or you may arrange the questions per topic or sub-topic if there is any. But if your research is quantitative, answer the research question directly and tell if the hypothesis is rejected or accepted based on the findings.

As to grammar, make sure that you use the  present tense of the verb  because it comprises a general statement of the theory or the principle newly derived from the present study. So, don’t be confused because, in your summary, you use past tense, while in conclusion; you use the present tense.

3. Write the Recommendations

The recommendations must contain practical suggestions that will improve the situation or solve the problem investigated in the study.

First, it must be logical, specific, attainable, and relevant. Second, it should be addressed to persons, organizations, or agencies directly concerned with the issues or to those who can immediately implement the recommended solutions. Third, present another topic which is very relevant to the present study that can be further investigated by future researchers.

But never recommend anything that is not part of your study or not being mentioned in your findings.

First, it must be logical, specific, attainable, and relevant. Second, it should be addressed to persons, organizations, or agencies directly concerned with the issues or to those who can immediately implement the recommended solutions. Third, present another topic that is very relevant to the present study that can be further investigated by future researchers.

Recommend nothing that is not part of your research or not being mentioned in your findings.

However, there are universities, especially in the Philippines, that require a specific thesis format to be followed by students. Thus, as a student, you must conform to the prescribed form of your college or university.

Nordquist, R. n.d. Imperative Mood. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from https://www.thoughtco.com/imperative-mood-grammar-1691151

© 2014 July 29 M. G. Alvior | Updated 2024 January 10

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About the author, mary g. alvior, phd.

Dr. Mary Gillesania Alvior has PhD in Curriculum Development from West Visayas State University. She earned her Master of Arts in Teaching English from De La Salle University, Manila as Commission on Higher Education (CHED) scholar. As academic advisor, she helps learners succeed in their academic careers by providing them the necessary skills and tips in order to survive in this wobbling financial environment. In 2014, she got involved in the establishment of a language institute in the Middle East, particularly in the use of Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). Then she went to Thailand and became a lecturer in the international college and handled English and Graduate Education courses. From 2017 to 2021, she became the Focal Person for the Establishment of a Medical School, Director of Curriculum and Instructional Materials Development Office (CIMDO), Head of BAC Secretariat, Quality Management System (QMS) Leader, and TWG member of the Procurement for Medical Equipment. Currently, she is the coordinator of the Project Management Committee for the Establishment of the Medical School. In spite of numerous tasks, she is into data privacy, quality management system, and space industry.

100 Comments

can you please make a summary about “Centella Asiatica with virgin Coconut Oil as Ointment”?

I am still having problem in organizing my summary and conclusion (my topic is dress code in public schools. to be more specific, at the Voinjama Public School. Can you help me with a sample?

This is very helpful especially the grammar part. It really jumped start my writing effort… really want to finish my study with style.

I just pray you are okay. Thanks for responding to the questions, I have also learnt a lot.

Hello, Daryl. Thank you so much. About your request, I will find time to write about it. I got so busy the past months.

Precise and direct to the point ,, Thanks maam Mary.

Thanks very much for this all importing information on how to write chapter five in thesis writing. It gives me more insight as to how to develop the chapter five perfectly.

Hello maam my PhD research purely a qualitative study on community based organization of slum ..i used 3 tool case study , participant observation and FGDs to analyse role, impact, challenge and aspiration of CBOs . i used tabular form (matrix to analyse ) did not use any software..

PLEASE HELP/GUIDE ME WHAT SHOULD I WRITE in my Chapter 5 .. your help is very much crucial as i have to submit thesis this weekend KULDEEP

I’m so sorry, Kuldeep. I wish you are done with your doctorate research. It is been a year then. I got sick and had a lot of work to do. God bless!

Hello ma’am, can I ask about in what part the recommendation in chapter 1 reflect the recommendation in chapter5? Thanks.

Sorry, Aly. This is very late. Take your statement of the problem. the results for the statement of the problem will be the basis for your recommendation.

You are welcome, Prince. God bless to your research endeavor.

Thank you very much very insightful.

Eric, you are welcome. I wish you are able to finish your work.

how to write a recommendation, my title is common causes of financial problem. Hope you can help me…

Hello, Jolven. Your recommendation must be based on your findings. So, if that is your title, and you found that the common causes are the ——-, then write a recommendation based on the causes.

Thanks a lot, Mimimi.

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Chapter 5: Conclusion, Interpretation and Discussion

Introduction.

The following chapter concludes this report. A summary of the research is presented, and findings of the study are discussed and interpreted. The significance of this research in the immediate context of El Gallo and in the field of low-income housing is examined. Recommendations for further research end the chapter.

The scope of the following conclusions is limited to the context and historical characteristics of El Gallo. Thus, applied to other situations, these conclusions may yield incorrect assumptions. Still, these conclusions are relevant to the process of dwelling evolution in progressive development projects.

5.1 Summary of Research

This study observed the process of dwelling evolution in progressive development projects. The literature review was concentrated on the process of progressive development occurring in planned sponsored projects. It was found that, based on observations of the informal settlement process, progressive development under different contextual conditions was not questioned, and its benefits were taken for granted. Studies in the area were reduced to the period of improvement up to the time when the dwelling was physically consolidated. Longer term evaluation of progressive development projects were not found.

Research was undertaken on a 27-year-old progressive development project in Venezuela. The intention was to observe the process of dwelling evolution and the kind of housing that was being produced under progressive urban development projects on a long-term basis. The case study showed dwellings built with different initial levels of user-participation. Dwelling evolution was observed in a survey sample using parameters relevant to the case study (i.e., area increase, dwelling spatial growth and plot occupation, and changes in the functional structure).

Survey dwellings followed identifiable patterns of evolution in size, spatial structure and use-layout. Patterns were affected by aspects of the surrounding context and by aspects inherent to characteristics of the initial dwelling. Consequently, different dwelling groups showed different processes of progressive development.

5.2 Discussion and Interpretation of Findings.

As progressive developments, dwellings at El Gallo were able to adopt new and diverse roles along their whole process of evolution. In this section, relevant issues of the process of dwelling evolution observed at El Gallo are discussed. The first concerns the role of the non-permanent structure in the context of El Gallo as a sponsored progressive development project. The second comments on the process of dwelling evolution that followed the construction of the permanent structure.

In principle, non-permanent structures at El Gallo were similar to ranchos built in informal settlements. Ranchos at El Gallo served as primary shelters while more basic household priorities were met (i.e., services and infrastructure were provided, sources of income were found and generated, and even a favourable social environment was developed among neighbours). However, the majority of tin shacks were neither considerably increased nor upgraded with better materials even when they were used for long periods of time. This fact, together with the sudden change in the pace of development caused by the construction of a very complete permanent dwelling and subsequent removal of the rancho, had no connection with the gradual process of shack replacement observed in invasion settlements of Ciudad Guayana during this study (Portela, M. 1992). Neither did this process have a relationship with the system of "piecemeal construction" described by several housing researchers as characteristic of low-income dwellers.

The shanties were... housing in process of improvement. In particular the piecemeal system of building afforded great advantages to those who, like most of the poor in developing societies, have great variations in income from month to month (Peattie L. 1982:132).

Under El Gallo conditions of land security, ranchos did not show consolidation, and revealed their transient character because they were eventually substituted by permanent structures. The non-permanent structure revealed the primary household's aspiration for a minimum satisfactory habitable area. However, besides basic shelter during the initial stage, ranchos served to the purposes of capital accumulation that eventually allowed households to buy a basic unit according to official standards, or building a bigger, more complete first permanent structure. The size of ranchos reflected households' aspirations for the permanent dwelling, that is,smaller ranchos were substituted by basic units of the housing programs. Instead larger ranchos were substituted by large self-produced dwellings.

It is difficult to ascertain why ranchos were removed when they could have been kept as part of the dwelling, as in fact did a minority of households (2 cases). Is a fact that the temporary materials of ranchos contributed to their deterioration that ended with the total removal of the rancho. However, an idea that may have contributed to the demolition of the rancho was the household's adoption of the planner's belief that ranchos were a bad but necessary step on the way to obtaining permanent housing. Thus, once the permanent dwelling was built, the price households paid to gain credibility (i.e., that this stage was reached) was the demolition of the rancho itself. This interpretation can be specially true for Ciudad Guayana, where dwellings of certain quality such as those of El Gallo were seen as "casas" or houses. Instead, structures of similar quality in the hills of cities such as Caracas were still considered ranchos. In the long run, informal settlements obtained the largest benefits from this process because they gained far more official tolerance and social credibility (i.e., that shacks were actually temporary means of residence towards good-quality housing).

Those who lived in smaller ranchos improved their spatial conditions by moving to the small basic dwellings. Those who occupied bigger ranchos built bigger dwellings by themselves. Still, some households built their dwellings without going through the rancho stage. Self-produced dwellings followed the formal models either to gain the government's credibility of user commitment to build "good" government-like housing, or because households believed so. Imitation of the formal models, however, varied according to the builder's interpretation. For instance, the pattern of the detached dwelling was adopted, but often one of the side yards was reduced to a physical separation between the dwelling and the plot separation wall. More effective interpretations involved enlarging the front porch or using the central circulation axis to allow easy extension in the future.

The building approach of the permanent structure influenced the process of evolution that followed. Basic units built by the housing agencies had a compact, complete layout with higher standards of construction; however, aspects of the design, such as internal dimensions, were inadequate for household criteria, and the layout was not well adapted. Dwellings built according to provided plans and specificationshad similar problems, but households enlarged spaces and modified layouts when they were building the units. The level of construction standards was also reduced since the lateral façades of some dwellings were unfinished. Dwellings built totally by self-help means were the largest permanent structures. Aspects of the design of the first permanent structure allowed easy extension of the dwelling towards open areas of the plot. More user participation was reflected in straight-forward processes of evolution without internal modifications, and fewer stages to reach the current houseform.

5.3 Significance of the Study

While this study acknowledges again the effectiveness of progressive development in the housing system, it shows how dwelling evolution in progressive development projects can have different characteristics produced by internal and external interventions. Usually, projects are designed and launched to reproduce certain desirable outcomes and meet specific expectations. However, conditions prevailing in these projects and sometimes strategies that are introduced to "improve," "speed up" or make more "efficient" the process of evolution can affect the outcome in many different ways. This study showed how contextual characteristics of El Gallo, as well as the design and level of user participation in the initial permanent dwelling, affected successive stages of progressive development. However, it is important to recognize that are other issues beyond the spatial aspects that are intrinsically related with the evolution of the dwellings and that were not included within the scope of these particular research (i.e., household's changes in income, size, and age or gender structure).

The findings at El Gallo add modestly to the body of knowledge of literature on progressive development. Progressive Urban Development Units, UMUPs , have been the main housing strategy in Ciudad Guayana these last years, and they are likely to keep being used. Simple facts such as knowing the characteristics of the additions and modifications that households make to their dwellings over time can be the basis for more assertive actions supporting or enforcing progressive development activities. Understanding the process of dwelling evolution in low-income developments would be an effective way to help the process that, in the case of Ciudad Guayana, zonings and bylaws have been unable to regulate.

5.4 Recommendations for Further Research

Long term assessments are particularly constrained by the availability and reliability of recorded data. The frequency, and often the methodology, in which censuses and surveys are made do not always suit the purposes of this kind of research. Household interviews are very important, but they may become troubled by informant's limited memories and the continuity of the household in the dwelling. Aerial documentation, if available, represents one of the most reliable sources to observe physical change. Nevertheless, a careful and detailed process of observation of aerial data becomes very time consuming. For similar studies, a first phase in which the housing diversity is identified in the aerial data according to the selected criteria, would allow to reduce the number of detailed survey samples needed, thus considerably reducing the time of data collection.

In the context of Ciudad Guayana, further studies of the non-permanent dwelling in recent UMUPs would reveal new insights into the function of these structures in progressive development projects. This would be essential especially if any kind of initial aid is to be provided. On the other hand, following the growth of progressive developments is necessary if services and infrastructure are, as they are now, the responsibility of the local government. Identifying the producers of physical evolution -- i.e., the drivers and catalysts of change -- would be an important step for further research. An interesting step within this trend could be to ascertain the extent in which other household processes -- family growth, income increase and economic stability, household aging, changes in the household composition (single- to multi- family), etc., affect the process of dwelling evolution.

In the context of low-income housing, the process of progressive development needs further understanding. As in Ciudad Guayana, progressive development is likely to be the main housing strategy for other developing countries in the near future. Local authorities would do well to follow the evolution of settlements and to identify real household needs, and the consequences of public and/or private interventions in low-income settlements. Perhaps the most important learning of this study is that the experience of El Gallo acknowledges again the dynamic participation of the low-income households under different conditions, and still leaves wide room for a positive participation for the many other actors in the evolving urban entity.

. Notes for Chapter V

1 Dodge reports that some settlers of Ciudad Guayana kept the rancho and rented it to poorer families (Dodge,C. 1968:220). This attitude has been more common in other progressive development projects. The Dandora site and services also encouraged the construction of temporary shacks while the permanent dwelling was built. However, non-permanent structures remained to be rented or used as storage areas even after the permanent dwelling was built (McCarney, P.L. 1987:90).

Department and University Information

Minimum cost housing group.

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  • Introduction for Types of Dissertations
  • Overview of the Dissertation
  • Self-Assessment Exercise
  • What is a Dissertation Committee
  • Different Types of Dissertations
  • Introduction for Overview of the Dissertation Process
  • Responsibilities: the Chair, the Team and You
  • Sorting Exercise
  • Stages of a Dissertation
  • Managing Your Time
  • Create Your Own Timeline
  • Working with a Writing Partner
  • Key Deadlines
  • Self Assessment Exercise
  • Additional Resources
  • Purpose and Goals
  • Read and Evaluate Chapter 1 Exemplars
  • Draft an Introduction of the Study
  • Outline the Background of the Problem
  • Draft your Statement of the Problem
  • Draft your Purpose of the Study
  • Draft your Significance of the Study
  • List the Possible Limitations and Delimitations
  • Explicate the Definition of Terms
  • Outline the Organization of the Study
  • Recommended Resources and Readings
  • Purpose of the Literature Review
  • What is the Literature?
  • Article Summary Table
  • Writing a Short Literature Review
  • Outline for Literature Review
  • Synthesizing the Literature Review
  • Purpose of the Methodology Chapter
  • Topics to Include
  • Preparing to Write the Methodology Chapter
  • Confidentiality
  • Building the Components for Chapter Three
  • Preparing for Your Qualifying Exam (aka Proposal Defense)
  • What is Needed for Your Proposal Defense?
  • Submitting Your Best Draft
  • Preparing Your Abstract for IRB
  • Use of Self-Assessment
  • Preparing Your PowerPoint
  • During Your Proposal Defense
  • After Your Proposal Defense
  • Pre-observation – Issues to consider
  • During Observations
  • Wrapping Up
  • Recommended Resources and Readings (Qualitative)
  • Quantitative Data Collection
  • Recommended Resources and Readings (Quantitative)
  • Qualitative: Before you Start
  • Qualitative: During Analysis
  • Qualitative: After Analysis
  • Qualitative: Recommended Resources and Readings
  • Quantitative: Deciding on the Right Analysis
  • Quantitative: Data Management and Cleaning
  • Quantitative: Keep Track of your Analysis
  • The Purpose of Chapter 4
  • The Elements of Chapter 4
  • Presenting Results (Quantitative)
  • Presenting Findings (Qualitative)
  • Chapter 4 Considerations
  • The Purpose of Chapter 5
  • Preparing Your Abstract for the Graduate School
  • Draft the Introduction for Chapter 5
  • Draft the Summary of Findings
  • Draft Implications for Practice
  • Draft your Recommendations for Research
  • Draft your Conclusions
  • What is Needed
  • What Happens During the Final Defense?
  • What Happens After the Final Defense?

Draft the Introduction for Chapter 5 Topic 2:  Chapter 5

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Sample Chapter 5 Thesis

CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter summarizes the findings, generated conclusions and recommendations based on the analysis of the results of the study on Underscoring the Operations Management of MCX Motor (Phils) Inc to Uphold Filipino Standards in the Motor Industry done by the researchers. The respondents of the study were composed of thirty-two (32) management people of MCX Motor Inc. located in Bulacan. The study was conducted during the first semester of the school year 2011-2012. The descriptive method was applied by the researchers and designed questionnaires as their primary instrument in gathering data. Preliminary research and unstructured interviews were also conducted to further increase their …show more content…

The last share of 12.82% came from the Finance Department. All of the respondents had been with the company from one (1) up to (5) years. 2. Company Perspective Findings showed that MCX Motor Inc. was a manufacturing company and was already in operation for more than 1 year but not more than 5 years. All the respondents agreed that the most preferred product of the company were motorcycles and that their most common customers were motorcyclists and racers. The company’s most availed form of sale was Credit or Installment sales. 3. Operations Management With an average mean of 4.57 on Inventory and Material Requirement Planning, 4.60 on Scheduling, and 4.55 on After Sales Services, these findings showed that the respondents strongly agreed with most of the Operations Management that MCX Motor (Phils.) Inc. applies. However, the respondents agreed on two more variables for operations management, Product Research and Development and Quality Management, with an average mean of 4.39 each. 4. Financial Perspectives With an average mean of 4.54 on Book of Accounts/documents, 4.52 on Accounting System, and 4.55 on Financial Statements and Reporting, these findings showed that the respondents strongly agreed with the financial perspectives of MCX Motor Inc. However, they only agreed with the company’s financial policies and procedures and tax implications, having an average mean of 4.44 and 4.49

Oceanography also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean. It covers a wide range of topics, including marine organisms and ecosystem dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geophysical fluid dynamics; plate tectonics and the geology of the sea floor; and fluxes of various chemical substances and physical properties within the ocean and across its boundaries. These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within it: biology, chemistry, geology, meteorology, and physics as well as geography.

Academic Honesty Statement: The Cheesecake Factory

In order to succeed in any business we have to be aware of operations management. It is considered as the most important part of the company; it is the part which is responsible for producing goods and providing services. After all, operating

Chapter 4-6 Paper

3–9. Recording General Fund Operating Budget and Operating Transactions. The Town of Bedford Falls approved a General Fund operating budget for the fiscal year ending June 30, 2011. The budget provides for estimated revenues of $2,700,000 as follows: property taxes, $1,900,000; licenses and permits, $350,000; fines and forfeits, $250,000; and intergovernmental (state grants), $200,000. The budget approved appropriations of $2,650,000 as follows: General Government, $500,000; Public Safety, $1,600,000; Public Works, $350,000; Parks and Recreation, $150,000; and Miscellaneous, $50,000.

Strategic Audit of a Corporation Essay

How did the corporation perform the past year overall in terms of return on investment, market share, and profitability?

Thesis For Check Your Thesis

Are there two large statements connected loosely by a coordinating conjunction (i.e. "and," "but," "or," "for," "nor," "so," "yet")?

A Case Study Based On Lean Thinking Principles And Techniques

This case study is talking about a small city has one company named Staircase Production Company (SPC). The company focuses on quality and responses customer demand, nevertheless their problem in operations as a result, high costs and late deliveries. Until, Dean Hammond became to a new general manager that wanted to improve the operation in the correct way. Dean pointed out the

Honors Thesis

As part of the Honors Program students are required to do an Honors thesis. This thesis requires you to complete a significant piece of original research or creative work in your undergraduate career. Whiles there’s no doubt that this might be challenging and time consuming, it is a great experience overall. This project encourages you to try something new, to expand your knowledge academically, or to creatively do something that you’re interested in.

Chapter 5 Overview

Mining has long been recognized to be one of the most dangerous industries in the world, and this was not the first indication of serious problems at the Massey mine. According to the federal agency responsible for the industry, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), there was a significant spike in safety violations at the UBB mine in 2009. Some 515 citations and orders were issued, along with 48 withdrawal orders for repeated significant and substantial violations of rules regarding ventilation, roof supports, and coal dust. Another 124 citations were issued in 2010, with proposed penalties totaling more than one million dollars. Massey contested most of them.

My Working Thesis

It is invaluable to be able to capture the emotion and experiences of adventures and expeditions throughout the world.

Analyzing Financial Statements Of Mandrake Motorcycle

When companies have an interest in partnering, it is prudent for each to conduct a financial analysis–ensuring that both parties are making a sound investment. The purpose of the financial analysis is to scrutinize the profitability and financial stability of a company, while addressing any concerns (Jiambalvo, 2014, p. 535). In the case study, Bob Sherman founder of Mandrake Motorcycle manufacturing made a proposal to Marty “Monk” Fisher, a motorcycle dealer. Fisher proposed that Monk be the sole dealer for his motorcycles in the state of Ohio. Before investing, Mr. Sherman must do a financial analysis on Mandrake Motorcycle to insure that there are no financial concerns. This paper will analyze Mandrakes Motorcycle 's balance sheet, and income statement–calculating the ratios for 2015 and 2014. The calculated ratios will include, return on assets, gross margin percentage, receivables turnover, days’ sales in receivables, inventory turnover, days’ sales in inventory, debt to equity, and times interest earned. In addition, the paper will highlight areas of concern, and discuss what is the best decision for Monk based on the analysis. Finally, the paper will ascertain whether the financial analysis was indicative of future financial issues for Mandrake Motorcycles.

Using Perceptual Maps in Marketing Simulation Summary

A better quality engine, more finance programs and favorable service options are all on the list of what means more to the potential consumers. Once the organization can include customers’ needs into the market plan, the next step would be to maximize any and all promotion opportunities that can be found. How will this new motorcycle be different from the products in the same industry and how should the company position it?

Mco/561 Operations Management

Operations Management focuses on the design and management of products, processes, services and supply chains (Diemond, 2014). It considers the acquisition, development, and utilization of resources that firms need to deliver the goods and services their clients want (Diemond 2014). Operations Management consists of many topics which are applied on a daily basis at the company I work for. Some of the topics include process control, lean manufacturing, six sigma, and supply chain management. It is the process that controls how inputs (raw materials, labor, and energy) get converted into outputs (finished goods or services).

In this essay, which is included in his book Potentialities, Giorgio Agamben scrutinizes the Eighth Thesis in Walter Benjamin's 'Theses on the Philosophy of History' with regard to the general Judaist messianic tradition. He is particularly interested in the relationship between the concept of messianic time and Carl Schmitt's notion of the state of emergence, which Benjamin invokes in the Eighth Thesis. In this thesis, Benjamin, while asserting that we currently live in the state of exception, urges to bring about a 'real' state of exception.

Is The Motorcycle Industry Attractive? If So Why? Essay

According to me, the motorcycle industry is very attractive. The main reason to back my claim is the level of competition in the industry. There is a very high level of completion between all the companies present in this particular segment. The main factors that drive this rivalry are different positions of different players within the industry, differences in technical know-how, different marketing campaigns, differences in core nature of the products and differences in strategies. The players in this particular industry don’t fight over price of their products, they rather compete with each other in terms quality of their products and the nature of their services to different segments of customers. Each player had its own unique strategy and nature of the product for a particular segment of customers, this tends to intensify the competition amongst companies in the industry.

Harley Davidson: Preparing for the Next Century

Historically Harley-Davidson to be a Niche Marketer, which is they had focused in on one particular aspect of the market. Kotler and Keller identified the following characteristics of niche marketing; customers have a distinct set of needs, they are willing to pay more to the firm that best suits their needs, it is not likely to attract competitors, gains economies through specialized products and it has a size, profit and to grow. Almost all of these hold true for the “heavyweight” segment of motor cycles that Harley-Davidson produced.

Related Topics

  • Material requirements planning
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Thesis Chapter 1 to 5

This document discusses factors that influence the career choices of Bachelor of Business Teacher Education (BBTE) students at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines. It provides background on the BBTE program and discusses the study's theoretical framework, which is based on concepts of career education, readiness, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs. The study aims to identify determinants of career path choices between teaching and office work. These determinants are categorized as familial, individual, societal, psychosocial-emotional, and competencies-related factors. The study uses a descriptive research design involving a survey questionnaire. Results could help students, educators, and administrators better understand career choice influences and guide students' professional development. Read less

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  • 1. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 1 Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction One of the most crucial and important decisions a person has to make is in choosing the perfect career. This can be one of the measures whether an individual will be successful in the future or not. The tentative steps during this stage include self-realization, role try-outs, occupational explorations in school, and finding the first job are. During this stage, teenagers need guidance in the proper selection of their desired career. Educational privilege and other resources that society makes available allow students to be efficient and effective, thereby letting them to make right decisions considering their innate capacities (Pablo et al., 2011). The teaching profession requires prolonged preparation for navigating future students, because individuals who have undergone preparation to teach can grow in various ways. Future teachers can be specialists in a particular field such as dean of the students, guidance counselor, school psychologist, and curriculum specialist (Linden, 1990). The students must be ready to enter the professional world. Thus, they should have career plans and strategies to meet the demands of the real corporate
  • 2. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 2 world. Essentially, making such career plan would help them to be ready in this reality either in teaching or in performing office works (Bautista, 2003). Background of the Study The College of Education (COEd) is the oldest college of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines (PUP), a state university. COEd offers Bachelor’s degrees in Secondary Education (BSE), elementary education (BEEd), Business Teacher Education (BBTE), and post-baccalaureate in Teacher Education (PBTE). BBTE is a four-year degree program which prepares students in two career tracts: Business Technology and Livelihood Education (BTLE), and Information Technology Education (ITE); both of which prepare students to teach specific courses effectively across the learning areas in elementary, secondary, college, and vocational-technical schools. This program is designed to equip students with office skills, basic of personal finance, decision-making techniques needed to be wise consumers, application of economic principles to an increasingly international marketplace, and the skills in establishing a business. Students master the applications of knowledge and acquire workplace skills particularly in the teaching of technology and livelihood education, information technology, research and service. Upon completion of the BBTE program, graduates may join the teaching profession as teachers or as non-teaching office staff, either in private or
  • 3. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 3 government entities. As a teacher, one needs to have the right attitude, the proper disposition and teaching skills. This study has been conducted to determine the career path of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education students in teaching or non-teaching office work. Participants BBTE students were asked to identify the factors or determinants for them to know their preferred work or job after graduating from the programs. Further, this study would aim to serve as guide in achieving the participants’ career choice as educators or as office professionals. Theoretical Framework A theory is a well-founded statement or set of ideas that explains observed facts or phenomena. Some theories helped the researchers in conducting this study in a way that they explain essential ideas relating to the research. This study was anchored on the concepts in career education, law of readiness, and Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Based on the concepts in career education, the students should develop understanding of their decision–making process and be equipped with strategies to implement the decision relative to their personal and professional development. Herr (1972) as cited by Magisos (1973) identified the variety of inputs to such an approach as the following concepts: that choice occurs under conditions of uncertainty or risk; that a choice between various possible courses of action can be
  • 4. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 4 conceptualized as motivated by two interrelated set of factors – the individual’s valuation of different alternatives, and his appraisal of his chances of being able to realize each of the alternatives; that the process of making a decision between uncertain outcomes requires reconciliation of several general factors; that the decision-making includes identifying and defining one’s values; and what they are and what they are not, where they appear and where they do not. Thorndike’s laws of learning (1932) include: law of effect, law of exercise, and law of readiness. Applied in choosing a career, the law of readiness states that individuals learn best when they are physically, mentally, and emotionally ready to learn, and they do not learn well if they see no reason for learning. Essentially, an individual seeks ways to fulfill his needs. Individual or human motivation is guided by a hierarchy of or ladder of needs (Wayne, 2000). Maslow’s theory of hierarchy of needs proposes that motivation is the result of a person’s attempt at fulfilling five basic needs – physiological, safety, social, esteem and self- actualization – which needs create internal pressures that can influence a person’s behavior (Jamali, 2015). Physiological needs are those needs required for human survival such as air, food, water, shelter, clothing and sleep; safety needs include those needs that provide a person with a sense of security and well-being. Social needs are important to humans so that they do not feel alone, isolated and depressed; on the other hand, esteem needs refer to the need for self-esteem and respect, with self-respect being slightly more important than gaining respect and admiration from others. Self-
  • 5. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 5 actualization needs describe a person’s need to reach his or her full potential. Maslow believed that we naturally strive to climb this hierarchy (Jamali, 2015). There is too much individual variation for the hierarchy of motives to apply to everyone as the critics of Maslow’s theory argue (Rathus, 2012). However, each person pictures the world in a very unique way. These perceptions make a person to phenomenal field. Individuals react to the environment depending on how they perceive it or how they perceive the world (Elliot et al., 2000).
  • 6. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 6 Conceptual Framework This framework shows the overall outline of the study. It can be expressed by using the input-process-output framework (IPO). FEEDBACK Figure 1 Conceptual Framework OUTPUTPROCESSINPUT 1. Student Profile a. Section b. Gender c. BTE Specialization 2. Chosen Career 2.1 Teaching Profession 2.2 Office Profession 3. Determinant Factors in Career Choice Between Teaching or Office Works in Terms of: 3.1 Familial-related factors 3.2 Individual-related factors 3.3 Societal-related factors 3.4 Psychosocial- emotional factors 3.5 Competencies- related factors • Descriptive Research • Survey Questionnaire • Statistical Treatment • Analysis of Data • Career Orientation • Seminar • Job Fair
  • 7. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 7 Input (I) comprises of the students’ profile such as section, gender, age, and course specialization; the career the students wanted to pursue whether teaching or office work; the determinant factors for choosing teaching career such as the type of school they prefer to teach, place of work, licensure examination for teachers, Master’s degree, plan opportunities abroad, level of education, and subject matter; determinant factors for choosing office work such as the type of office environment they prefer to work, place of work, plan opportunities abroad, and Master’s degree; the determinant factors in career choice between teaching and office profession including familial-related factors, individual-related factors, societal-related factors, Psychosocial-emotional factors, and competencies-related factors. Process (P) indicates the methodology used to meet the objectives of the descriptive study through survey questionnaire, analysis of data, and statistical treatment. Output (O) pertains to factors that would help participants become successful professionals including career orientation, seminar and job fair. Statement of the Problem The main purpose of this study was to identify the determinants of career path between teaching and office works of fourth year students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education at Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila.
  • 8. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 8 Specifically, this study sought answers to the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Section; b. Gender; c. BTE specialization? 2. What is the career the students would like to pursue in terms of: 2.1 Teaching Profession 2.1.1 Type of school they prefer to teach 2.1.2 Place of work 2.1.3 Licensure Examination for Teachers 2.1.4 Master’s degree 2.1.5 Plan Opportunities abroad 2.1.6 Level of education 2.1.7 Subject matter 2.2 Office Profession 2.2.1 Type of office environment they prefer to work 2.2.2 Place of work 2.2.3 Civil Service Examination 2.2.4 Master’s degree 2.2.5 Plan Opportunities abroad 3. What are the determinants of career path of BTE students in choosing a career between teaching or office works in terms of;
  • 9. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 9 3.1 Familial- related factors; 3.2 Individual-related factors; 3.3 Societal-related factors; 3.4 Psychosocial-emotional factors; 3.5 Competencies-related factors 4. Is there a significance relationship between factors; 4.1 Teaching 4.2 Office works Hypothesis There is no significant relationship between the determinants of teaching and office work. Scope and Limitations of the Study This study was mainly focused on the determinants of the career path of all graduating fourth year students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education of the College of Education of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Mabini Campus, Sta. Mesa, Manila, during the second semester of the S.Y 2016-2017.
  • 10. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 10 Significance of the Study The researchers would intend to provide useful insights regarding the factors that influence the preference of BBTE fourth year students whether in teaching or in office work. The useful and relevant information acquired from the study would benefit the following sectors: Administrators. This could motivate and challenge school authorities to device guidelines to aid students in identifying better career choices. Parents. This study would inform parents concerning the career choices of their college-students’ children. Teachers. The findings of this study would brief teachers of the effective strategies and pedagogies to mold their students into skilled and competent teaching and non-teaching professionals. Students. The results of this study would provide students with useful and reflective insights on the different factors that could influence them in pursuing a career path. Researchers. This study would help future researchers consider tackling other factors that might affect graduating students’ preferences for certain careers.
  • 11. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 11 Definition of Terms For better understanding and interpretation of this study, the following terms are operationally defined. Bachelor of Business Teacher Education (BBTE) pertains to a four-year degree course offered by the Polytechnic University of the Philippines that focuses on preparing and training students as skilled and competent teaching and non- teaching office professionals. Career refers to a swift course or a progress extending through the life or a portion of it. Career choice means the preferred type of occupation or profession by college students according to familial-related, individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional, and competencies-related factors. Career path pertains to both teaching and office professions that a student ought to pursue. Competencies-related factors means skills acquired or mastered. Determinants refer to the effects that change the individual student’s choices. Familial-related factors are direct bearing of parental role in education and career aspirations.
  • 12. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 12 Individual-related factors pertain to personalities of persons that make impact on the career choices. Office skills refer to the skills in accounting, computer software skills, keyboarding, filing, business communications, and other clerical functions that a non-teaching office personnel must possess. Office work refers to the general clerical functions that a non-teaching personnel performs in an office. Psychosocial-emotional factors pertain to emotional, personal and social barriers that prevent an individual from making adequate career choice. Societal-related factors include values, attitudes, and practices of a society that relate to appropriate career choice. Teaching refers to the noble profession that facilitates learning and knowledge processing of students in schools.
  • 13. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 13 Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents and discusses foreign and local literature and studies that are closely related to the present research. The information in this chapter was sought to support this study and lead the researchers in determining the factors that influence the pursuit of teaching or office work of fourth year Bachelor in Business Teacher Education students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila. Foreign Literature Students are influenced by different academic portions of the class such as the value of the content, the structure, and the workload. Students also looked upon their interest, academic goals, and schedules. Students do not decide alone; and students erratically ask for their family, friends, and or faculties’ advice. Not all courses are as prominent as others, but it is important to know what students want from their classes, and their expectations of themselves (Waugh, 2006).
  • 14. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 14 Holland as cited by Zunker (1998) states that individuals are attracted to a given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute their backgrounds. First of all, career choice is an expression of, or an extension of personality into the world of work followed by the subsequent identification with specific occupational stereotypes. Accordingly, one chooses a career to satisfy preferred modal personal orientation, which is a developmental process established through heredity and the individual’s life history of reacting to environmental demands. If the individual has developed a strong dominant orientation, satisfaction is probable in a corresponding occupational environment; if the orientation is one of indecision, however, the livelihood of satisfaction diminishes. Career is viewed as a sequence of work history and reflects a chosen work- related life theme. It demands individual choices in reference to a cognitive map, about the dynamic interaction among work, self, family, and external social forces. This is so even if the person decides to do nothing (Derr, 1982). Education Life states that career planning is an ongoing career development process through which learners attempt to understand their personal, family, school, work, and community experiences and the importance they may have in making career and lifestyle choices. Knowing the right path, making the wise decision and having a good attitude to career planning are keys to success. The choice in their career lies in the steps one takes; for this reason, planning ahead is important.
  • 15. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 15 Keasley in the article A career planning course for parents reports that the senior year is the time for organizing and conducting a job search or graduate school search, when students are heavily involved in more advanced courses in their majors and often have more responsible roles in campus and/or volunteer activities. Balancing these important pursuits and setting priorities is a constant challenge for seniors insofar as they are given chances to show what they learned from school by performing in the job training. Such program prepares the students on for the real job; the training and seminars give senior students clear views on setting their priorities. Tahan (2001) states that one of the biggest key benefits that senior students can obtain from accounting is the experience one can gain from working in the accounting field. This is an important experience that one can gain. It will not only help in the field of accounting, but also help organizing and running a business. Nead in the article A capstone seminar course for Community College pointed out that seminars offer opportunities to help students develop skills and understanding that will prepare them for successful careers. Moreover, not only those paper qualifications such as degree are important in applying for a job. For certain positions, either in teaching profession or in office and other fields, work experience is essential to boost the applicant’s confidence and meet the prospective employers’ expectations. For the teaching profession, practice teaching and related seminars are important factors that employers look into.
  • 16. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 16 Calhoun & Robinson (1995) in Encyclopedia of Education illumined that business education is designed to provide general education and career technical education needs, specifically specialized instruction to prepare students for careers in business, fundamental instruction to help students to assume their economic roles as consumers, workers and citizens, and background instruction to assist students in preparing for professional careers requiring advanced study. Great teachers make a difference. Chamberlain (2002) cites that teachers have a passion that seeps through the skin - a love of learning – and that great progress, she calls a revolution is made but a working hum and engagement is now not enough; what are now needed are quality learning conversations between teachers and learners, extending rather than supervising, linking to the child’s world, creating lines of desires, not seeing the curriculum as straightjacket. Anyone with an office job knows there are so much to deal with, some of which can hinder a career, that making the wrong move or speech can lead him/her to fall off the corporate ladder he/she had only just begun climbing (Singletary, 2014). Choosing a job, which is in line with one’s interests, values, goals, and abilities, helps to make work and life more satisfying, thus transform a job into a career. It will help in meeting self-actualization needs - in becoming the best one can become (Mc Ginley, 1980).
  • 17. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 17 Venable (2011) as cited by Polestar Consulting (2016) underscores the importance of understanding that career choice entails several influencing factors: individual, cultural, social, environmental, and gender. The combination and interaction of various influences on decision-making are unique to individuals and the situation. There may be multiple options, several good-fits, instead of a single, right choice, but as an individual changes, learns and experiences new things, and as external factors change, such as the economy, he or she will continue to revise and fine-tune his/her career choices. Local Literature The Bachelor in Business Teacher Education (BBTE) program envisions itself as a high-quality curriculum that aims to produce secondary, vocational, and college teachers in business and office technology that are capable of adopting to change, staying focused and productive in an increasingly global and digital educational workplace. Most BBTE graduates who were supposed to join the teaching profession eventually become employed as office workers. Although the field of office work is allied to teaching as job target of the BBTE program, the career shift might blur the career prospects of undergraduates.
  • 18. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 18 Meily (2005) stresses the paradoxical point that parents, teachers, politicians, and adults are teachers in the communities insofar as the youth observe, emulate, and imitate the adults; hence, everyone is responsible for the kind of future the youth shall have. Meily punctuates the role education plays in making life less difficult for each other in the community and in creating a better future for those who will be left behind. Teaching is considered a complex and many-faceted task. To prepare for this job, the teacher should go through a pre-service education. Knowledge of ethical standards for teachers is likewise important for them to do a good job of teaching. Relativo (2005) avers that teachers do not perform teaching only; they also perform the roles of a community leader, confidante, friend, parent, counselor, and obedient and respectable citizen of the Republic. On the down side, the teaching is not financially rewarding profession. Given the rising standards of living of the modern society, the average salary of a school teacher would not suffice to provide for the comfort of a family. Thus, more and more teachers have left teaching to find better opportunities in another job locally or abroad even as domestic helpers. Acero, Javier & Castro (2007) point out that the concept of teaching as an ideal profession has remained strong through the years despite several constraints and challenges such as raising salaries, enjoying health benefits, upgrading school facilities, and meeting the demands of professional development. Notwithstanding
  • 19. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 19 these challenges, teaching still offers the best personally rewarding opportunity of affecting the lives of individuals and the society in general. Raquedar (2003) underscores the importance given by employers for training as integral part of an organization, which involves proper instruction for the jobs at hand, development of good human relations, and enhancement of desirable personality and character. Similarly, Tabunan (2003) states the importance of on-the-job training (OJT) in the students’ learning process and development. OJTs allow students to experience the realities of business routines, thus prompting them to improve their skills and other qualifications for better employability. In choosing a career path, a student must have a clear set of goals. Having goals in life serves as a guide to what one hopes to achieve. And whether one is a student or an educator, a successful career requires putting one’s heart into everything one aspires to be. Most individuals tend to pursue careers where they can find real enjoyment, job security, and professional growth. Foreign Studies Several studies have been conducted to investigate the possible factors that influence a student’s pursuance of teaching or office work.
  • 20. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 20 Fizer (2013) identifies factors that can influence a college student’s choice for a career: (1) the quality of life that they ought to have when they become old; (2) academic factors where the students choose their major based on their academic performance; (3) personality where the students who believe in themselves have more confidence and are more likely to go far; (4) parental and peer factors; and (5) gender, insofar as men have a more liberal and progressive style of thinking and women prefer hierarchical style of thinking. McDaniels & Gysber (2002) expound that the family income, occupation of the parents, wish and peers influences moderately affect the decision of the students in choosing their career. Further, mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television program, and social work literature also affect the students’ career choices. Career selection is one of many important choices students make in determining future plans (Burnchett, 2002). Thompson (2005) affirms that the employability of a person sometimes depends on the training and seminars which he or she has attended; hence, employees should have sufficient education and training to enable them to undertake the technical phases of the job and to possess the required manual effectively. However, the needs of society changes due to the growth of science and technology. Thus, the knowledge, skills, and trainings may not meet the needs of the present society.
  • 21. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 21 The article The learning infrastructure discusses the necessity to meet the needs of the business industry as a must for all colleges, pointing out that the trainings to be offered should be constant so as not to become obsolete due to changing technologies. Moreover, pre-service trainings are necessary for a student’s orientation on career and employment. Thomas (2003) as cited by Buton (2010) reports that nearly all the problems associated with job training are very simple to overcome, that most trainees usually take pride in learning new skill, that new skills gained for mutual benefits are good for the trainee to improve his future employment value, and that the supervisors are frequently the only persons in the organization that teach the basic knowledge and the many key skills that group needs to learn. Hence, on-the-job training should never stop. Chukwurah (2006) concludes that teacher education concerns the production of teachers at all levels, and has been recognized as major concern for the nation since no school, whatever level can be run without the teacher. Hence, teacher education plays prominent roles in preparing students to become more responsible citizens, capable of making economic decisions that would benefit their personal and professional lives. In this study, this may determine the interest of the students – whether they are interested in teaching the next generations, more interested in doing office tasks, or even more interested in doing other jobs beyond the promise of the course they had taken.
  • 22. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 22 Local Studies Personal interest, abilities, skills, and value are the most influential factors in choosing a career. Thus, students should be given all the chances to learn and develop the skills and attitudes required for various occupations. Conversely, career counselors could give more emphasis on this environmental factor during individual and small group career counseling sessions (Pabiton, 2007). The major influences on people’s career choices most often cited in the literature are the interest, self-efficacy, expectations, and personality traits. Parents also exert the strongest influence on adolescents’ aspiration followed by the teacher, friends and relatives. It would be unreasonable to extend some of these influential factors, not just adolescent aspirations but also in career decision making. Self- efficacy and parental support predicted youth expectations to attend college. Parental environments influence career decisions both directly and indirectly with its relationship to outcome expectations. The people, places and things surrounding students as they grow up do not affect their own outlook about careers (Mattison, 2002). Kwak (n.d.) as cited by Caraede (n.d.) reveals that both father and mother’s educational backgrounds greatly influence the decision-making of the child. In that manner, the parents being good role models would be satisfactorily succeeded by their children.
  • 23. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 23 Students learn about the changing nature of the work place, the value of work to the society, and the connection of work to the achievement of personal goals. Learning Standards for Career Development and Occupational Studies at Three Levels reports that students must possess certain traits for them to be knowledgeable about the world of work, explore career options, and relate personal skills, aptitudes, and abilities for future career decisions: (1) continue development of a career plan that would assist in the transition from school to eventual entry into a career option; (2) demonstrate an understanding of the relationship among personal interest, skills and abilities, career research; (3) demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the changing future of work and educational requirements; and (4) understand the relationship of personal choices to future career decisions. Francisco (n.d.) emphasizes that a pre-service teacher is like a pencil who from time to time should experience painful sharpening insofar as this painful sharpening enables him or her to develop teaching competencies and character. Bautista in her study The Employability of PUP Bachelor in Office Administration Graduates: An Evaluation suggests that necessary steps should be undertaken to arouse the interests of the students particularly in pursuing the type of job that is in line with the course they have taken up. Graduate education among educators becomes a necessity due to the increasing competition in our society, as well as rapid educational changes and technological advancement since there are more jobs that enter the country which require skills that would not only be at par with the others but outdo them. A
  • 24. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 24 graduating student should be fully aware that he must continually grow and learn, advance his educational qualification, and be updated with the latest innovations (Pegarido 1998). Synthesis and Relevance of the Reviewed Literature and Studies The related literature and studies discussed above prove helpful to the researchers in determining and analyzing the career path of fourth year Bachelor in Teacher Education students. Waugh (2006), Holland (2006) and Derr (1982) agree that a career is basically based on individual choices. Keasly & Nead (n. d.) stress that since senior year is the time when students start to organize and search for jobs and graduate from school, training and seminars give clear views on setting priorities and opportunities to help students develop skills and understanding that would prepare them for successful. Mc Ginley (1980) and Venable (2011) agree that career choice is based on many factors that may influence the success level in the job, the dominant factors being that the choice must be parallel with the student’s interest, level of satisfaction, learning, and experience. Meily (2005) underscores the importance of responsibility for teachers insofar as they impact on the society in general. Relativo (2005) puts premium on pre- service education as a requisite for every budding teacher. Thompson (2005) agrees
  • 25. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 25 but puts more value to sufficient education and training because employability sometimes depends on it. Fizer (2013) enumerates factors that play in making career choices such as interest in field, and academic factors where the students choose their major based on their academic performance. Basow (2012) reports that students’ career choices are moderately affected by mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television program, and social work literature but least affected by the university recruitment program and college catalogue. Burnchett (2002) and Thompson (2005) agree that employees should have sufficient and constant education and training so as not to become obsolete due to changing technology. Similarly, Buton (2010) and Chukwurah (2006) reach an agreement that supervisors play prominent roles in preparing students to become more responsible citizens, capable of making economic decisions that would benefit their personal and professional lives. Pabiton (n.d.) credits personal interest, abilities, skills, and value as big factors that determine the career choice of students. Mattison (2002) adds that major influential factors include self-efficacy, expectations, and family, teacher, friends and relatives. Further, Kwak recognizes educational background of parents as a factor that affects the career choice of children. Indeed, these foreign and local literature and studies bolster the conduct of the current study, as these provide the proper framework and concepts hereto.
  • 26. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 26 Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter deals with the methodology of the study. It covers the research method and instrument used, research design, population and sampling, respondents, data gathering procedures, and statistical treatment of data. Method of Research This study used the descriptive survey method to determine the factors that influence the pursuance to teaching or office work of the graduating fourth year students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education at Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila. Descriptive research obtains facts about existing conditions in a phenomenon, and describes and interprets revealing conditions or relationships that exist or do not exist, practices that prevail or do not, beliefs or points of view or attitudes that are held or not, processing that are going on or otherwise effects that are being felt, or trends that are developing (Calderon, 2012).
  • 27. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 27 Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique The respondents for this study composed of 182 graduating students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education (BBTE) of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Mabini Campus, during the second semester of academic year 2016- 2017. Specifically, responses of respondents were taken within the period of November 2016 to March 2017 using modified questionnaires as instruments in gathering information about the factors that influence the respondents’ career choices. There were two categories of specialization of the respondents: (1) those majoring in Business in Technology and Livelihood Education; and (2) those majoring in Information Technology Education. The researchers used the convenience sampling technique to generate 171 out of 182 students based on the availability of the respondents. Table 1 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Section and Specialization Section and Specialization Frequency Percentage (%) BBTE-TLE 4-1D 29 16.96 BBTE-TLE 4-2D 23 13.45 BBTE-TLE 4-3D 30 17.54 BBTE-TLE 4-4D 27 15.79 BBTE-ITE 4-1N 24 14.04 BBTE-ITE 4-2N 38 22.22 Total 171 100.00
  • 28. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 28 Table 1 demonstrates the number of respondents per section. The researchers covered all the sections of fourth year BBTE students. Most of the respondents came from BBTE-ITE 4-2N with a total number of thirty-eight (38) at 22.22%, followed by BBTE-TLE 4-3D with the sum of thirty (30) at 17.54%, BBTE- TLE 4-1D with a total number of twenty-nine (29) at 16.96%, BBTE-TLE 4-4D with the sum of twenty-seven (27) at 15.79%, BBTE-ITE 4-1N with a total number of twenty-four (24) at 14.04%, and BBTE-TLE 4-2D with twenty-three (23) at 13.45%, all comprising 171 respondents (100%). Description of Respondents The respondents for the research were the graduating fourth year BBTE students of S.Y. 2016-2017 of both majors, Information Technology Education (ITE) and Business Technology and Livelihood (BTL) at the Polytechnic University of the Philippines Sta. Mesa, Manila. They are both male and female. Research Instrument In order to obtain the desired data from the fourth year BBTE students, the researchers of this study used survey questionnaires as the major instrument, composed of three parts – profiles of the respondents, checklist, and a ranking scale of the different factors that influence the pursuance of teaching and office works of the students.
  • 29. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 29 The first part of questionnaire was about the student’s profile (name, gender, section and specialization). The second part of the questionnaire was a checklist composed of seven items. Respondents were asked to answer each question by checking the corresponding box in the columns. The third part of the questionnaire was about the different factors that influence the pursuance to teaching or office works composed of 25 items. The rating scale or Likert four-point scale used in the questionnaire composed of 4 – strongly agree; 3 – agree; 2 – disagree; 1 – strongly disagree). Likert Scale Degree of the Agreement of Respondents Scale Range Verbal Interpretation 1 1.00-1.50 Strongly Disagree 2 1.51-2.50 Disagree 3 2.51-3.50 Agree 4 3.51-4.00 Strongly Agree Data-Gathering Procedure The researchers used the questionnaire for the gathering of the desired data. The researchers asked the permission of the Dean, Dr. Junithesmer D. Rosales of College of Education, to conduct the survey about the determinants of career path of BBTE students. After the researchers obtained the approval of Dr.
  • 30. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 30 Rosales, the researchers administered the survey to the fourth year BBTE students during their vacant periods. The questionnaires that had been validated by research experts and panelists had been distributed to the respondents, who answered the respective questions based on their knowledge, the researchers assuring the respondents that the data gathered would be treated with utmost confidentiality. The results were tallied and tabulated according to the frequency of the items checked by the respondents. After the tabulation, results were interpreted using various statistical tools. Statistical Treatment of Data For the purpose of analysis and interpretation, the data gathered were coded, tallied and tabulated subjected to the following statistical treatment: 1. Frequency and Percentage The frequency and distributions were used to categorize the respondents according to their personal background variables such as sex, section and specialization in the first part of the questionnaire. The researchers used the formula below to determine the proportion of students who answered in certain way in the second part of the questionnaire: 𝐏 = 𝐅 𝐍 ×𝟏𝟎𝟎
  • 31. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 31 Where: P = Percentage F = Frequency N = No. of Respondents 2. Ranking The researchers used the ranking technique in the study to compare the importance of the items analyzed. Ranking as a descriptive measure ought to describe numerical data in addition to percentage. This was used in the second part of the questionnaire. 3. Weighted Mean Another technique used by the researchers in the study was the weighted mean. This was used in order to determine the average responses of the different options in the third part of the questionnaire to analyze the data to the respondents’ degree of agreement. Formula: 𝐖𝐌 = ∑ 𝐟𝐱 𝐧 Where: WM = Weighted Mean ∑ fx = the sum of all products of f and x, f being frequency of each weight and x as the weight of each operation.
  • 32. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 32 n = total number of respondents 4. Pearson r Correlation Pearson r Correlation was used to determine the significant relationship between the determinants of teaching and office works. Pearson r Correlation has been widely used in statistics to measure the relationship between the linear related variables. For the Pearson r correlation, both variables should be normally distributed to the following formula variables are used to calculate the Pearson r correlation. r = ∑ (Xi − X̅)(Yi − Y̅)n i=1 √∑ (Xi − X̅)2n i=1 √∑ (Yi − Y̅)2n i=1 Where: r = Pearson r correlation coefficient n = number of value in each data ∑ xy = sum of the products of paired scores ∑ y = sum of y scores ∑ x2 = sum of squared x scores Interpretation for Pearson r If the p-value is <0.05, reject hypothesis, otherwise accept the hypothesis, there being no significant relationship.
  • 33. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 33 Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the data gathered together with the statistical analysis and its interpretation. Table 2 Profile of Respondents in Terms of Sex. Sex Frequency Percentage (%) Female 103 60.23 Male 68 39.77 Total 171 100.00 Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the respondents in terms of sex. Majority of the respondents were female with a frequency of one hundred three (103) and percentage of 60.23%, while male respondents were sixty- eight (68) or the percentage of 39.77%. Table 3 below presents the type of school where the respondents prefer to teach. Majority or one hundred thirteen (113) of the respondents (66.08%) prefer to teach in public schools, forty-eight (48) with a percentage of 28.07% prefer either public or private schools, and ten (10) or 5.85% prefer the private schools.
  • 34. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 34 Table 3 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of School They Prefer to Teach Prefer Frequency Percentage (%) PUBLIC 113 66.08 PRIVATE 10 5.85 EITHER 48 28.07 Total 171 100.00 Table 4 below illustrates the place of work the respondents prefer. Majority of the respondents with a total number of one hundred twenty-nine (129) having a percentage of 75.44% prefer to teach in urban areas, while forty-two (42) or 24.56% prefer the rural areas. Table 4 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Place of Work Place Frequency Percentage (%) URBAN 129 75.44 RURAL 42 24.56 Total 171 100.00 Table 5 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Option to take LET Like Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 160 93.57 No 7 4.09 Undecided 4 2.34 Total 171 100.00 Table 5 presents the decision of the respondents in taking licensure examination for teachers. Majority with a total number of one hundred sixty (160) or
  • 35. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 35 93.57% of the respondents opted to take the licensure examination, seven (7) or 4.09% opted not to, and four (4) or 2.34% were undecided whether to take the licensure examination or not. Table 6 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Pursuing Master’s Degree Master’s degree Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 132 77.19 No 12 7.02 Undecided 27 15.79 Total 171 100.00 Table 6 presents the decision of the respondents in pursuing Master’s degree. Majority of the respondents with the total of one hundred thirty-two (132) or 77.19% opted to pursue Master’s degree, twenty-seven (27) or 15.79% were undecided whether to pursue Master’s degree or not, and twelve (12) or 7.02% decided not to pursue Master’s degree. Table 7 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Planning to Teach Plan Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 64 37.43 No 77 45.03 Undecided 30 17.54 Total 171 100.00 Table 7 above presents the decision of the respondents in terms of planning to teach abroad. Majority of the respondents answered no with a total number of
  • 36. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 36 seventy-seven (77) or 45.03% do not opt to teach abroad, sixty-four (64) or 37.43% would opt to teach abroad, and thirty (30) or 17.54% were undecided whether to teach abroad or not. Table 8 below reveals the level of education the respondents prefer to teach. Majority of the respondents or ninety-seven (97) with a percentage of 56.73% prefer high school, fifty-nine (59) or 34.50% prefer college, and fifteen (15) or 8.77% prefer the elementary level. Table 8 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Preferred Level Students to Teach Level Frequency Percentage (%) Elementary 15 8.77 High School 97 56.73 College 59 34.50 Total 171 100.00 Table 9 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Preferred Subject Matter to Teach Subject Matter Frequency Rank Computer (ICT) 90 1 Marketing related 21 8 Management 26 5.5 T.L.E 84 2 Business Technology 37 3 Office Procedure 25 7 Stenography 27 4 Entrepreneurship 26 5.5
  • 37. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 37 Table 9 above presents the list of subject matters the respondents prefer to teach. Majority or ninety (90) of the respondents chose to teach computer (ICT), eighty-four (84) preferred TLE, thirty-seven (37) preferred Business Technology, twenty-seven (27) preferred stenography, twenty-six (26) preferred Management, another twenty-six (26) Entrepreneurship, twenty-five preferred Office Procedure, and twenty-one preferred Marketing. Table 10 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms Preferred Office in which to Work Nature of Office Frequency Percentage (%) Public 80 46.78 Private 28 16.37 Either 63 36.84 Total 171 100.00 Table 10 shows the type of office in which the respondents preferred to work. Majority or eighty (80) or 46.78% of the respondents preferred to work in public schools, sixty-three (63) or 36.84% opted for either public or private schools, and twenty-eight (28) or 16.37% opted to work in private schools.
  • 38. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 38 Table 11 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Place of Work Place Frequency Percentage (%) Urban 148 86.55 Rural 23 13.45 Total 171 100.00 Table 11 presents the place of work the respondents preferred. Majority or one hundred forty-eight (148) or 86.55% of the respondents preferred to work in urban areas, and twenty-three (23) or 13.45% preferred the rural areas. Table 12 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Taking CSC Examination Like Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 153 89.47 No 11 6.43 Undecided 7 4.09 Total 171 100.00 Table 12 presents the decision of the respondents in taking the civil service examination. Fifty-three (153) respondents or 89.47% answered yes, they would take the civil service examination, eleven (11) or 6.43% said no, while seven (7) or of 4.09% were undecided.
  • 39. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 39 Table 13 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Pursuing Master’s Degree Master’s degree Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 122 71.35 No 12 7.02 Undecided 37 21.64 Total 171 100.00 Table 13 presents the decision of the respondents in pursuing Master’s degree. Majority of the respondents answered yes with the total of one hundred twenty-two (122) having a percentage of 71.35%, meaning they want to pursue Master’s degree, followed by undecided with a count of thirty-seven (37) having a percentage of 21.64%, in which the respondents didn’t know whether to pursue Master’s degree or not, and last, is no with the lowest total number of twelve (12) having a percentage of 7.02%. Table 14 Distribution of the Respondents in Terms of Planning to Work Abroad Plan Frequency Percentage (%) Yes 81 47.37 No 58 33.92 Undecided 30 17.54 No Response 2 1.17 Total 171 100.00 Table 14 presents the decision of the respondents in working abroad. Majority of the respondents answered yes with a total number of eighty-one (81) having a
  • 40. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 40 percentage of 47.37%, meaning they want to work abroad, followed by no with a count of fifty-eight (58) and a percentage of 33.92% in which they don’t want to work abroad, next is undecided with a total number of thirty (30) having a percentage of 17.54%. and last is no response with the lowest total number of two (2) and a percentage of 1.17%. Table 15 Familial-Related Factors for Pursuing Teaching Familial-Related Factors SA A D SD Weighte d Mean Verbal Interpretatio n 4 3 2 1 Frequency Childhood experience - I pretended to be a teacher when I was a child. 54 81 21 15 3.02 Agree Mother as a role model - My mother is a teacher. 40 55 34 42 2.54 Agree Father as a role model - My father is a teacher. 35 37 46 53 2.32 Disagree Parents/Guardians decisions -My parents wanted me to be a teacher. 42 58 42 29 2.66 Agree Parents educational attainment -My parents did not graduate from college so they liked me to finish my degree to be a teacher. 80 60 14 17 3.19 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 2.75 Agree Table 15 describes the family-related factors for the respondents’ choice to pursue teaching. These factors – Parents’ educational attainment (My parents did not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be a teacher),
  • 41. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 41 Childhood experience (I pretend to be a teacher when I was a child), Parents/Guardians decisions (My parents want me to be a teacher), and Mother as a role model (My mother is a teacher) – generated Agree responses with weighted means of (3.19), (3.02), (2.66), and (2.54), respectively. On the other hand, Father as the role model (My father is a teacher) received Disagree responses at a weighted mean of (2.32). As a whole, familial-related factors generated an overall weighted mean of (2.75). These results are comparable to the study of Peled (2004) which found that fathers were less involved in parenting their adolescents than mothers did, insofar as adolescents were more securely attached to their mothers than to their fathers. In his previous study, the father had a low influence to their children’s decisions.
  • 42. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 42 Table 16 Individual-Related Factors in Pursuing Teaching Individual-related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Abilities - I have the ability to face crowd such as students. 68 95 5 3 3.33 Agree Interests - I am interested in teaching. 65 92 12 2 3.29 Agree Behavior/Personality - I have the patience to teach children. 64 91 15 1 3.27 Agree Self-expectancy - I expect myself to be a teacher in the future. 65 86 18 2 3.25 Agree Achievement needs - I want to improve my career development in teaching. 82 74 10 5 3.36 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.30 Agree Under Table 16, the following factors generated Agree responses from respondents at the weighted mean of (3.36), (3.33), (3.29), (3.27), and (3.25), respectively: Achievement needs (I want to improve my career development in teaching), Abilities (I have the ability to face crowd such as students), Interests (I am interested in teaching), Behavior/Personality (I have the patience to teach children) and Self-expectancy (I expect myself to be a teacher in the future). As a whole, individual-related factors in choosing a career generated an overall weighted mean of (3.30).
  • 43. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 43 Table 17 Societal-Related Factors in Pursuing Teaching Career Societal- related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Educational experiences - Due to my experiences I learned to love teaching. 62 101 8 0 3.32 Agree Peer Influences – People around me want to be teachers and already are teachers. 42 90 35 4 2.99 Agree Mass media - The teaching profession is in demand work according to media. 51 96 17 7 3.12 Agree Profession reputation - Being a teacher is a respectable profession. 91 75 4 1 3.50 Agree Figure model - I am inspired by my teacher to be a teacher. 67 90 13 1 3.30 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.25 Agree Table 17 shows the following societal-related factors generating Agree responses with weighted mean of (3.50), (3.32), (3.30), (3.12), and (2.99), respectively: Profession reputation (Being a teacher is a respectable profession), educational experiences (Due to my experiences I learned to love teaching), model figure (I am inspired by my teacher to be a teacher), mass media (The teaching profession are in demand work according to media) and peer influences (People around me wants to be a teacher and already a teacher).
  • 44. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 44 As a whole, societal-related factors in choosing a career generated an overall weighted mean of (3.25). Relativo (2005) earlier pointed out that a school teacher is not just a teacher but also a community leader, a confidante, a friend, a parent, a counselor, and a very respectable citizen. Waugh (2006) states that students do not decide alone but ask their family, friends, or relatives for advice. Table 18 Psychosocial-emotional Factors in Teaching Psychosocial- emotional Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Decision-making - I think critically before I decide whether I’ll be a teacher. 67 92 11 1 3.32 Agree Willingness to learn - To adapt changing skills and techniques in teaching. 84 76 11 0 3.43 Agree Confidence level - I am confident that I will be a good teacher. 57 95 19 0 3.22 Agree Own happiness – Teaching is my passion. 72 78 19 2 3.29 Agree Presence of assertiveness - I give my statement confidently on teaching. 55 102 11 3 3.22 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.29 Agree Table 18 illustrates that following psychological-emotional factors generated Agree responses from the respondents with weighted mean of (3.43), (3.32), (3.29), (3.22), and (3.22), respectively: Willingness to learn (To adapt changing skills and
  • 45. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 45 techniques in teaching), own happiness (Teaching is my passion), decision-making (I think critically before I decide whether I’ll be a teacher), confidence level (I am confident that I will be a good teacher), and presence of assertiveness (I give my statement confidently on teaching). As a whole, psychosocial-emotional-related factors in choosing a career generated an overall weighted mean of (3.29). Fizer (2013) stated that personality plays a role in choosing a career where the students who believe in themselves have more confidence and are more likely to go for what they want instead of settling for something that is comfortable.
  • 46. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 46 Table 19 Competencies-related Factors in Pursuing Teaching Competencies- related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Stenography skills - I could leach stenography subjects. 40 98 29 3 3.03 Agree Keyboarding skills - I could teach keyboarding subjects. 85 76 9 1 3.43 Agree Bookkeeping skills - I could teach accounting subjects. 48 81 36 6 3.00 Agree Clerical skills (e.g. sorting tiles) I could teach business subject. 74 82 14 1 3.34 Agree Communication skills - I could communicate to students effectively. 70 90 10 1 3.34 Agree Computer literacy - I could teach computer subjects. 85 81 5 0 3.47 Agree Writing skills - I could express my thoughts through writing that I can share to my students. 67 92 10 2 3.31 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.27 Agree Table 19 shows that the factors on computer literacy (I could teach computer subjects), keyboarding skills (I could teach keyboarding subjects), communication skills (I could communicate to students effectively), clerical skills (I could teach business subject), writing skills (I could express my thoughts through writing that I can share to my students), stenography skills - I could leach stenography subjects), and bookkeeping skills (I could teach accounting subjects) generated Agree
  • 47. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 47 responses from respondents with weighted means of (3.47), (3.43), (3.34), (3.34), (3.31), (3.03), and (3.00), respectively. As a whole, competencies-related factors in choosing a career generated an overall weighted mean of (3.27). Pabiton (2007) noted that the students must be given all the chances to learn and develop the skills and attitudes required for various occupations insofar as the necessity to meet the needs of the business industry is a must for all colleges and that the trainings should be constant and in sync with the latest technology.
  • 48. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 48 Table 20 Familial-related Factors in Office Work Familial- related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Childhood experience - I pretend to be an office worker when I was a child. 41 91 23 16 2.92 Agree Mother as a role model - My mother is an office worker. 41 51 46 33 2.58 Agree Father as a role model - My father is an office worker. 31 61 44 35 2.51 Agree Parents/Guardians decisions -My parents want me to be an office worker. 42 78 29 22 2.82 Agree Parents educational attainment -My parents did not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be an office worker. 73 70 17 11 3.20 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 2.81 Agree Table 20 reveals the following familial-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents with weighted mean of (3.20), (2.92), (2.82), (2.58), and (2.51), respectively: parent’s educational attainment (My parents did not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be an office worker), childhood experience (I pretended as an office worker when I was a child), parent’s/guardian’s decisions (My parents want me to be an office worker), mother
  • 49. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 49 as a role model (My mother is an office worker), and father as a role model (My father is an office worker). As a whole, familial-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses with an overall weighted mean of (2.81). Table 21 Individual-related Factors in Pursuing Office Work Individual-related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Abilities - I can work independently as an office professional. 76 87 7 1 3.39 Agree Interests - I am interested in office works. 74 86 11 0 3.37 Agree Behavior/Personality - I am impatience so I prefer office works. 51 87 27 6 3.07 Agree Self-expectancy - I expect myself to be an office professional in the future. 67 89 15 0 3.30 Agree Achievement needs - I want to improve my career development in office works. 83 81 5 2 3.43 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.31 Agree Table 21 reveals that individual-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents, with weighted mean of (3.43), (3.39), (3.37), (3.30), and (3.07), respectively: achievement needs (I want to improve my career development in office works), abilities (I can work independently as an office professional), interests (I am interested in office works), self-expectancy (I expect
  • 50. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 50 myself to be an office professional in the future), and behavior/personality (I am impatience so I prefer office works). As a whole individual-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents with overall weighted mean of (3.31). Raquedar (2003) reported that most of the companies and offices considered training as an integral part of an organization, insofar as training involves job instruction regarding the particular work, human relation, personality development and psycho-emotional stability. Zunker (1998) states that individuals are attracted to a given career by their particular personalities and numerous variables that constitute their backgrounds.
  • 51. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 51 Table 22 Societal-related Factors in Office Work Societal- related Factors SA A D SD Weigh ted Mean Verbal Interpreta tion 4 3 2 1 Frequency Educational experiences - Due to my experiences I learned to love office works. 52 105 12 2 3.21 Agree Peer Influences - People around me want to works in the office and already an office worker. 46 89 31 4 3.04 Agree Mass media - The office works are in demand work according to media. 43 99 21 8 3.04 Agree Profession reputation - office professional is a respectable profession. 72 90 6 3 3.35 Agree Figure model - Someone I idolized is an office professional. 55 98 16 2 3.20 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.17 Agree Table 22 reveals that the following societal-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents with weighted means of (3.35), (3.21), (3.20), (3.04), and (3.04), respectively: profession reputation (Office professional is a respectable profession), educational experiences (Due to my experiences I learned to love office work), model figure (Someone I idolized is an office professional), mass media (The office works are in demand work according to media), and peer influences (People around me want to works in the office and already an office worker.
  • 52. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 52 Generally, societal-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from respondents with overall weighted mean of (3.17). McDaniels & Gysber (2002) expounded that students are moderately affected by mass media such as newspapers, magazines, television program, and social work literature. Table 23 Psychosocial-emotional Factors in Office Work Psychosocial- emotional Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Decision-making - I think critically before I decide whether I’ll be an office professional. 64 93 12 2 3.28 Agree Willingness to learn - To adapt changing skills and techniques in office works. 76 80 14 1 3.35 Agree Confidence level - I am confident that I will be a good office professional. 58 94 14 5 3.20 Agree Own happiness - Office work is my passion. 59 87 22 3 3.18 Agree Presence of assertiveness - I give my statement confidently on office works. 59 94 13 5 3.21 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.24 Agree Table 23 reveals that the following psychosocial-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses from responses with weighted mean of (3.35), (3.28), (3.21), (3.20), and (3.18), respectively: willingness to learn (To adapt changing skills and techniques in office works), decision-making (I think critically before I decide whether I’ll be an office professional), presence of assertiveness (I
  • 53. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 53 give my statement confidently on office works), confidence level (I am confident that I will be a good office professional), and own happiness (Office work is my passion). Generally, these psychosocial-emotional factors generated Agree responses with an overall weighted mean of (3.24). Mc Ginley (1980) stated that students choose careers that are in line with their interests, values, goals, and abilities. Table 24 Competencies-related Factors in Pursuing Office Work Competencies- related Factors SA A D SD Weighted Mean Verbal Interpretation 4 3 2 1 Frequency Stenography skills - I could be efficient in jotting down notes as an office professional. 43 100 25 3 3.07 Agree Keyboarding skills - I have a fast typing skills as an office professional. 76 84 10 0 3.39 Agree Bookkeeping skills - I could do basic accounting works as an office worker. 46 89 33 3 3.04 Agree Clerical skills (e.g. sorting tiles) - I could be a productive office worker. 75 83 12 1 3.36 Agree Communication skills - I have good oral skills as an office professional. 66 91 12 2 3.29 Agree Computer literacy - I could be efficient in computer works as an office worker 80 87 3 1 3.44 Agree Writing skills – As an office worker I could write business memo/letters. 70 87 9 5 3.30 Agree Overall Weighted Mean 3.27 Agree
  • 54. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 54 Table 24 reveals that the following competency-related factors in pursuing office work generated Agree responses with weighted mean of (3.44), (3.39), (3.36), (3.30), (3.29), (3.07), and (3.04), respectively: computer literacy (I could be efficient in computer work as an office worker), keyboarding skills (I have a fast typing skills as an office professional), clerical skills (I could be a productive office worker), writing skills (As an office worker I could write business memo/letters), communication skills (I have good oral skills as an office professional), stenography skills (I could be efficient in jotting down notes as an office professional), and bookkeeping skills (I could do basic accounting works as an office worker). Generally, these competency-related factors generated Agree responses with an overall weighted mean of (3.27).
  • 55. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 55 Table 25 Correlation between Office Works and Teaching According to Familial-related Factors Office Works Familial Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.676 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Individual-related Factors 0.093 0.228 Accept Ho Not Significant Societal- related Factors 0.255 0.001 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors -0.017 0.827 Accept Ho Not Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.153 0.045 Reject Ho Significant NOTE: if p-value is less than the level of significance which is 0.05 reject the null hypothesis otherwise accepts. Pearson coefficient values: ±0.76 - ±0.99 Very Strong; ±0.51 - ±0.75 Strong; ±0.26 - ±0.50 Moderate; ±0.11 - ±0.25 Weak; ±0.01 - ±0.10 Very Weak Table 25 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching according to familial-related factors by using Pearson r correlation shows that the familial-related, societal-related, and competencies-related factors got p-value of (0.001) and (0.045) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that the relationship between familial-related factors of the office work and teaching is strong with Pearson coefficient value of (0.676). Mattison (2002) stated that the major influences on people’s career choices are interest, self-efficacy, expectations, and personality traits. Parents also exert the
  • 56. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 56 strongest influence on adolescent aspiration, followed by the teacher, friends and relatives. Table 26 Correlation between Office Work and Teaching based on Individual-related Factors Office Works Individual Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.178 0.020 Reject Ho Significant Individual-related Factors 0.552 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Societal- related Factors 0.314 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors 0.245 0.001 Reject Ho Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.332 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Table 26 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching through individual-related factors using Pearson r correlation shows that familial- related, individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional and competencies-related factors got p-values of (0.020) and (0.001) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that individual-related factors of the office work relates strongly with teaching with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.552).
  • 57. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 57 Table 27 Correlation between Office Works and Teaching based on Societal-related Factors Office Works Societal Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.251 0.001 Reject Ho Significant Individual-related Factors 0.310 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Societal- related Factors 0.615 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors 0.389 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.366 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Table 27 which displays the relationship between the office work and teaching based on societal-related factors using Pearson r correlation shows that familial- related, individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional and competencies-related factors got a p-value of (0.001) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that individual-related factors of the office work relates strongly with teaching with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.615).
  • 58. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 58 Table 28 Correlation between Office Works and Teaching based on Psychosocial-emotional Factors Office Works Psychosocial - Emotional Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.068 0.380 Accept Ho Not Significant Individual-related Factors 0.266 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Societal- related Factors 0.357 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors 0.621 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.331 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Table 28 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching based on psychosocial-emotional factors using Pearson r correlation shows that individual-related, societal-related, psychosocial-emotional and competencies- related factors got a p-value of (0.000) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that psychosocial- emotional factors of the office work and teaching are strongly related with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.621).
  • 59. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 59 Table 29 Correlation between Office Works and Teaching through Competencies-related Factors Office Works Competencies Factors (Teaching) Pearson Coefficient p- value Decision Remarks Familial- related Factors 0.214 0.005 Reject Ho Significant Individual-related Factors 0.383 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Societal- related Factors 0.405 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Psychosocial- emotional Factors 0.365 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Competencies- related Factors 0.867 0.000 Reject Ho Significant Table 29 which displays the relationship between office work and teaching based on competencies-related factors using Pearson r correlation shows that familial-related, individual-related, societal-related, psycho-social-emotional-related and competencies-related factors got a p-value of (0.005) which is less than the level of significance (0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected. This means that competencies-related factors of office work and teaching are very strongly related with Pearson coefficient value of (0.867). These results are related to the study of Pegarido (1988) which stated that a graduating student should be fully aware that he must continuously grow and learn, advance his educational qualification, and be updated with the latest innovations. It
  • 60. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 60 emphasized that, to become fully effective, students should pursue another course, take Masters and Doctorate degrees.
  • 61. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 61 Chapter 5 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions and recommendations of the study. Summary The main purpose of this study was to identify the determinant factors of career path between teaching and office work among fourth year Bachelor in Business Teacher Education students of the Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila. The researchers hypothesized that there is no significant relationship between the determinants of teaching and office work using descriptive survey method to determine the factors that influence the pursuance to teaching or office work of the graduating fourth year BBTE students. The major instrument used in this study was survey questionnaire in which frequencies and percentage, ranking, weighted mean and Pearson r correlation were determined using statistical treatment.
  • 62. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 62 Findings Based on the results gathered, the following findings are hereby presented: 1. Majority of the respondents are females with a frequency of one hundred three (103) and percentage of 60.23%. On the other hand, males comprised of sixty-eight (68) respondents with a percentage of 39.77%. 2. In teaching profession in terms of type of school, 113 or 66.08% of the respondents preferred to teach in public schools, while ten (10) or 5.85% preferred the privates schools. The preferred place of teaching was the urban areas among 129 or 75.44% of the respondents, while 42 or 24.56% preferred the rural areas. The respondents would opt take the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) with a frequency of 160 or 93.57% while 4 respondents with a percentage of 2.34% were undecided whether to take the exam or not. In terms of pursuing Master’s Degree, majority or 132 (77.19%) of the respondents answered yes, while 12 or 7.02% of the respondents answered no. In terms of teaching abroad, seventy-seven (77) or 45.03% of respondents answered no, while 30 or 17.54% were undecided whether to teach abroad or not. As to the level of education, 97 or 56,73% of the respondents preferred to teach high school students, 15 or 8.77% preferred the elementary school students. As regard list of subjects, ninety (90) at rank 1 preferred to teach ICT, while twenty-one (21) at rank 8 preferred to teach Marketing-related subjects.
  • 63. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 63 In office profession in terms of type of office they preferred to work, public or government office work generated the highest response with 80 or 46.78%, while private companies received the lowest with 28 or 16.37%. One-hundred forty-eight (148) or 86.55% of the respondents preferred to work in urban areas, while 23 or 13.45% preferred the rural areas. In terms of taking up the civil service examination, 153 or 89.47% of the respondents answered yes, while seven (7) or 4.09% were undecided. As regard pursuing master’s degree, 122 or 71.35% answered yes, while 12 or 7.02% answered no. As to working abroad, majority or 81 (47.37%) answered positively, 30 (17.54%) were undecided, and two (2) or 1.17% gave no response. 3. As regard familial-related factors in pursuing teaching, parent’s educational attainment (My parents did not graduate to college so they like me to finished my degree to be a teacher) garnered the highest weighted mean of 3.19 with a verbal interpretation of Agree, while the father as the role model (My father is a teacher) had the lowest weighted mean of 2.32 with a verbal interpretation of Disagree. As regard individual-related factors, achievement needs (I want to improve my career development in teaching) were agreed to by respondents with the highest weighted mean of 3.36, while self- expectancy (I expect myself to be a teacher in the future) was agreed to the least with weighted mean of 3.25. In the aspect of societal-related factors, profession reputation (Being a teacher is a respectable profession) was agreed to by respondents with the highest weighted mean of 3.50, while peer
  • 64. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 64 influences (People around me wants to be a teacher and already a teacher) was agreed to the least with weighted mean of 2.99. On the part of psychosocial-emotional factors, respondents agreed to willingness to learn (To adapt changing skills and techniques in teaching) with the highest weighted mean of 3.43, as well as to presence of assertiveness (I give my statement confidently on teaching) with weighted mean of 3.22. In the aspect of competencies-related factors, respondents agreed with highest weighted mean of 3.47 to computer literacy (I could teach computer subjects) as well as to bookkeeping skills (I could teach accounting subjects) with the least weighted mean of 3.00. In terms of familial-related factors relating to office work, the respondents agreed with the weighted mean of 3.20 to parent’s educational attainment (My parents did not graduate from college so they like me to finished my degree to be an office worker), as well as to father as a role model (My father is an office worker) with the lowest weighted mean of 2.51. As to individual-related factors, the respondents agreed to achievement needs (I want to improve my career development in office work) with the highest weighted mean of 3.43, as well as to behavior/personality (I am impatient so I prefer office work) with the lowest weighted mean of 3.07. On the part of societal-related factors, respondents agreed to profession reputation (Office professional is a respectable profession) with the highest weighted mean of 3.35 as well as to peer influences (People around me want to works in the office and already an
  • 65. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 65 office worker) with the least weighted average mean of 3.04. On the aspect of psychosocial-emotional factors, the respondents agreed to willingness to learn (To adapt changing skills and techniques in office works) with highest weighted mean of 3.35, as well as to own happiness (Office work is my passion) with the least weighted mean of 3.18. In the aspect of competencies- related factors, respondents agreed to computer literacy (I could be efficient in computer works as an office worker) with the highest weighted mean of 3.44, as well as to bookkeeping skills (I could do basic accounting work as an office worker) with the lowest weighted mean of 3.04. 4. The relationship between office work and teaching according to familial- related factors has been found to be strong with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.676). On the other hand, the relationship between office work and teaching according to individual-related factors has been found to be strong with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.552). The relationships are both strong between the office work and the teaching according to societal-related factors has been found to be strong with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.615), as well as the relationship between the office work and the teaching through psychosocial-emotional factors with a Pearson coefficient value of (0.621). Lastly, the relationship between the office work and the teaching according to competencies-related factors has been found to be very strong with a Pearson Coefficient value of (0.867).
  • 66. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 66 Conclusions Based on the foregoing findings, the researcher drawn the following conclusions: 1. Most of the respondents were female, because teaching courses are mostly taken by female than male. 2. In teaching profession, the respondents preferred to teach in public schools than in private schools located in urban areas than in rural areas; majority of the respondents opted to take LET while the least were undecided. Moreover, majority of the respondents would pursue Master’s degrees while the least answered no. In addition, most of the respondents had no plan to teach abroad while the least were still undecided; majority of them liked to teach in high school while the least preferred the elementary school. Most of the respondents preferred to teach ICT, while the least preferred Marketing- related subjects. In office profession, majority preferred to work in a public or government offices than in private offices located in urban than in rural areas. Most of the respondents also opted to take the civil service examination and majority would pursue a Master’s degree. Additionally, most of the respondents considered working abroad. 3. Among the factors affecting the choices for teaching and office work, parents’ educational attainment, achievement needs, professional reputation,
  • 67. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 67 willingness to learn, and computer literacy were the highest determinants identified by the respondents. On the other hand, the factors father as the role model, self-expectancy and behavior/personality, peer influences, presence of assertiveness and personal happiness, and bookkeeping skills were the least determinants in choosing a career path for the respondents. 4. There is a significant relationship between the factors of teaching and office work. Recommendations Based on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the researchers would recommend the following: 1. Conduct studies covering other year levels of BBTE and other Education students of PUP or other universities and to enhance the questionnaire that would consider other probable factors. 2. The College of Education in collaboration with professors and staff should encourage the students to optimize career development in rural areas or in private institutions after graduating. With the help of the professors or advisers of each class, they should persuade their students to take a LET or civil service examination for better professional qualifications. Furthermore, they should motivate their students to pursue post-graduate and graduate degrees.
  • 68. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 68 3. Parents should encourage, guide, motivate and inspire their children in carefully choosing their career and profession. 4. The College of Education should constantly conduct comprehensive career development seminars and trainings to properly prepare and equip the students toward a carefully-chosen career and profession.
  • 69. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 69 References Acero, Victoria O., Javier, E.S, Castro, H.O. (2007) “Principle of Teaching”., Rex Bookstore, Inc. p.20 Acero V. D., et al. (2008). Child and Adolescent Development page 96 and 99 Bautista, G.N. (1999) “Standard I- Career Development”, Phoenix Publishing. Bautista, Casubuan, Raquedar, Tabunan. (2003) “On-the-Job Training: A Factor on the Personality Development as Perceived by the BBTE III-3 Students”. Bautista, Teresita M. (1996)"Employability of PUP Bachelor in Office Administration Graduates: An Evaluation". Unpublished Thesis. Buton, J. V., et. al. (2010) “Problems Encountered by Bachelor in Office Administration in their Office Training”. Calhoun, Robinson. (2002). “Policies for Business and Economics Education”. Caraede, Enrie A. (1995) "Some Factors Affecting the Choice of Students of the Diploma in Fisheries Program of the Zamboanga City Basis for a Proposed Program" Unpublished Thesis. Chukwurah C. (2006) “Strategies for Global Reforms in Business Teacher Education towards Self-reliance”. Derr, B.C. (1982) “Career Switching and Organizational Politics: The Case of Naval Officers”, Career Issues in Human Resource Management, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc. Elliot et al., (2000) Education Psychology 3rd Edition. Effective Teaching; Effective Learning. McGraw Hill Company., United States of America Felizardo Y. Francisco, (2009) “Pre-service Education”, Manila Bulletin, p. A-8
  • 70. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 70 Fizer, D. (2013). “Factors affecting career choices of college students enrolled in agriculture”. Retrieved from http://www.utm.edu/departments/msanr/pdfs/fizer_research_project_final.pdf (August 31, 2016) Holland, J. (2006). “Overview of career development theories”. Retrieved from http://career.iresearchnet.com/career-development/super-career-development -theory (August 31, 2016) http//:www.pup.edu.ph (August 31, 2016) Jefferson, Thomas (1814). Theory of Learning. Retrieved from http://www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/jefferson.html (August 01, 2016) Linden, D. (1990). Teaching. p. 46 Magisos, J. H. (1973). Career Education. American Vocational Association, Washington D.C. Maslow, A.H. (1970). Motivation and Personality (2nd Ed.). New York: Harper & Row. Mattison, H.C. (2002) “Sigurado ka na ba? Explaining Career Uncertainty”. Mcdaniels and Gysber. (2002) “Counselling for Career Development”. Mc Ginley, H. (1980) “People, Caring, Deciding, Growing”; Ginn and Co., Lexington, Masachusetts. p. 221 Meily, A. S. (2005). “And Life Goes On: Educating the youth”. Philippine Panorama. Moretti M. M., Peled M. (2004). Adolescent-Parent Attachment: Bond that Support Healthy Development: Retrieved fromhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pme/articles/PMC20724162/#!po=54.3750 (March 03,2017) Nead, James M. (1997) "A Capstone Seminar Course for Community Colleges, Business education forum. Vol.51, No.4 p.19 Office Works. Retrieved from http://boards.straightdope.com/sdmb/showthread.php?t=533235 (August 16,2016)
  • 71. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 71 Pabiton, C.P. (2007). “Factors influencing high school senior career choices: Implication to career counselling”. In Guidance Journal, pp. 1-17 Pablo, & Venable, M. et al, (2011). What influences your career choice? Retrieved from http://www.onlinecollege.org//2011/05/17/What-influences-your-career- choice/ (August 10, 2016) Pegarido, Helen M. (1998) "Motivators to Complete a Graduate Degree Among Faculty Members in Nothern Iloilo Polytechnic State College: An Analysis." Unpublished Thesis. Rathus, S.A (2012) Psychology, 2nd Edition. Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd. Relativo, F.M. (2005). “Ph.D. Educators Speak: Not Just A Teacher”. Manila Bulletin Singletary, M. (2014) “First years in career can be critical to your success”, Heraldnet, The Herald of Everett, Washington. Super, D. (n.d). Career Development Theory. Retrieved From http://career.iresearchnet.com/career-development/supers-career- development -theory/ (August 9, 2016) Tahan, John. (2001) “Why choose career in Accounting?”: Retrieved from http://EzineArticles.com (February 10,2017) The Learning Infrastructure Retrieved from http://www.mapping-your- future.org/planning (January 27,2017) Thorndike, E., (1932). The Fundamentals of Learning. New York: Teacher’s College Press. Thompson, S.R. (2005) “The Five Most Important Entry-Level Employability Skills Those Employers of the Chippewa Valley Seek in Entry-Level Job Applicant”. Venable, M. (2011). “What influences your career choice?” Retrieved from http://www.onlinecollege.org//2011/05/17/What-influences-your-career-choice/ (August 31, 2016) Waugh. (2006) “The Factors that Influence a Students Decision for Course Enrollment” Retrieved from www.contributirnetwork.com (August 31, 2016)
  • 72. COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 72 Weitien, W. (2000) Psychology. Applied to Modern Life: Adjustment at the turn of the century. Windfordner, D.W. (2001) Career Decision-Making Program, Mcknight Publishing Company Bloomington, Illinois

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  1. (PDF) CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND ...

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    Thesis Chapter 1 to 5 - Download as a PDF or view online for free. Thesis Chapter 1 to 5 - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... COLLEGE OF EDUCATION 27 Population, Sample Size, and Sampling Technique The respondents for this study composed of 182 graduating students of Bachelor in Business Teacher Education (BBTE) of Polytechnic ...