Learn How To Write A Hypothesis For Your Next Research Project!

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Undoubtedly, research plays a crucial role in substantiating or refuting our assumptions. These assumptions act as potential answers to our questions. Such assumptions, also known as hypotheses, are considered key aspects of research. In this blog, we delve into the significance of hypotheses. And provide insights on how to write them effectively. So, let’s dive in and explore the art of writing hypotheses together.

Table of Contents

What is a Hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a crucial starting point in scientific research. It is an educated guess about the relationship between two or more variables. In other words, a hypothesis acts as a foundation for a researcher to build their study.

Here are some examples of well-crafted hypotheses:

  • Increased exposure to natural sunlight improves sleep quality in adults.

A positive relationship between natural sunlight exposure and sleep quality in adult individuals.

  • Playing puzzle games on a regular basis enhances problem-solving abilities in children.

Engaging in frequent puzzle gameplay leads to improved problem-solving skills in children.

  • Students and improved learning hecks.

S tudents using online  paper writing service  platforms (as a learning tool for receiving personalized feedback and guidance) will demonstrate improved writing skills. (compared to those who do not utilize such platforms).

  • The use of APA format in research papers. 

Using the  APA format  helps students stay organized when writing research papers. Organized students can focus better on their topics and, as a result, produce better quality work.

The Building Blocks of a Hypothesis

To better understand the concept of a hypothesis, let’s break it down into its basic components:

  • Variables . A hypothesis involves at least two variables. An independent variable and a dependent variable. The independent variable is the one being changed or manipulated, while the dependent variable is the one being measured or observed.
  • Relationship : A hypothesis proposes a relationship or connection between the variables. This could be a cause-and-effect relationship or a correlation between them.
  • Testability : A hypothesis should be testable and falsifiable, meaning it can be proven right or wrong through experimentation or observation.

Types of Hypotheses

When learning how to write a hypothesis, it’s essential to understand its main types. These include; alternative hypotheses and null hypotheses. In the following section, we explore both types of hypotheses with examples. 

Alternative Hypothesis (H1)

This kind of hypothesis suggests a relationship or effect between the variables. It is the main focus of the study. The researcher wants to either prove or disprove it. Many research divides this hypothesis into two subsections: 

  • Directional 

This type of H1 predicts a specific outcome. Many researchers use this hypothesis to explore the relationship between variables rather than the groups. 

  • Non-directional

You can take a guess from the name. This type of H1 does not provide a specific prediction for the research outcome. 

Here are some examples for your better understanding of how to write a hypothesis.

  • Consuming caffeine improves cognitive performance.  (This hypothesis predicts that there is a positive relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive performance.)
  • Aerobic exercise leads to reduced blood pressure.  (This hypothesis suggests that engaging in aerobic exercise results in lower blood pressure readings.)
  • Exposure to nature reduces stress levels among employees.  (Here, the hypothesis proposes that employees exposed to natural environments will experience decreased stress levels.)
  • Listening to classical music while studying increases memory retention.  (This hypothesis speculates that studying with classical music playing in the background boosts students’ ability to retain information.)
  • Early literacy intervention improves reading skills in children.  (This hypothesis claims that providing early literacy assistance to children results in enhanced reading abilities.)
  • Time management in nursing students. ( Students who use a  nursing research paper writing service  have more time to focus on their studies and can achieve better grades in other subjects. )

Null Hypothesis (H0)

A null hypothesis assumes no relationship or effect between the variables. If the alternative hypothesis is proven to be false, the null hypothesis is considered to be true. Usually a null hypothesis shows no direct correlation between the defined variables. 

Here are some of the examples

  • The consumption of herbal tea has no effect on sleep quality.  (This hypothesis assumes that herbal tea consumption does not impact the quality of sleep.)
  • The number of hours spent playing video games is unrelated to academic performance.  (Here, the null hypothesis suggests that no relationship exists between video gameplay duration and academic achievement.)
  • Implementing flexible work schedules has no influence on employee job satisfaction.  (This hypothesis contends that providing flexible schedules does not affect how satisfied employees are with their jobs.)
  • Writing ability of a 7th grader is not affected by reading editorial example. ( There is no relationship between reading an  editorial example  and improving a 7th grader’s writing abilities.) 
  • The type of lighting in a room does not affect people’s mood.  (In this null hypothesis, there is no connection between the kind of lighting in a room and the mood of those present.)
  • The use of social media during break time does not impact productivity at work.  (This hypothesis proposes that social media usage during breaks has no effect on work productivity.)

As you learn how to write a hypothesis, remember that aiming for clarity, testability, and relevance to your research question is vital. By mastering this skill, you’re well on your way to conducting impactful scientific research. Good luck!

Importance of a Hypothesis in Research

A well-structured hypothesis is a vital part of any research project for several reasons:

  • It provides clear direction for the study by setting its focus and purpose.
  • It outlines expectations of the research, making it easier to measure results.
  • It helps identify any potential limitations in the study, allowing researchers to refine their approach.

In conclusion, a hypothesis plays a fundamental role in the research process. By understanding its concept and constructing a well-thought-out hypothesis, researchers lay the groundwork for a successful, scientifically sound investigation.

How to Write a Hypothesis?

Here are five steps that you can follow to write an effective hypothesis. 

Step 1: Identify Your Research Question

The first step in learning how to compose a hypothesis is to clearly define your research question. This question is the central focus of your study and will help you determine the direction of your hypothesis.

Step 2: Determine the Variables

When exploring how to write a hypothesis, it’s crucial to identify the variables involved in your study. You’ll need at least two variables:

  • Independent variable : The factor you manipulate or change in your experiment.
  • Dependent variable : The outcome or result you observe or measure, which is influenced by the independent variable.

Step 3: Build the Hypothetical Relationship

In understanding how to compose a hypothesis, constructing the relationship between the variables is key. Based on your research question and variables, predict the expected outcome or connection. This prediction should be specific, testable, and, if possible, expressed in the “If…then” format.

Step 4: Write the Null Hypothesis

When mastering how to write a hypothesis, it’s important to create a null hypothesis as well. The null hypothesis assumes no relationship or effect between the variables, acting as a counterpoint to your primary hypothesis.

Step 5: Review Your Hypothesis

Finally, when learning how to compose a hypothesis, it’s essential to review your hypothesis for clarity, testability, and relevance to your research question. Make any necessary adjustments to ensure it provides a solid basis for your study.

In conclusion, understanding how to write a hypothesis is crucial for conducting successful scientific research. By focusing on your research question and carefully building relationships between variables, you will lay a strong foundation for advancing research and knowledge in your field.

Hypothesis vs. Prediction: What’s the Difference?

Understanding the differences between a hypothesis and a prediction is crucial in scientific research. Often, these terms are used interchangeably, but they have distinct meanings and functions. This segment aims to clarify these differences and explain how to compose a hypothesis correctly, helping you improve the quality of your research projects.

Hypothesis: The Foundation of Your Research

A hypothesis is an educated guess about the relationship between two or more variables. It provides the basis for your research question and is a starting point for an experiment or observational study.

The critical elements for a hypothesis include:

  • Specificity: A clear and concise statement that describes the relationship between variables.
  • Testability: The ability to test the hypothesis through experimentation or observation.

To learn how to write a hypothesis, it’s essential to identify your research question first and then predict the relationship between the variables.

Prediction: The Expected Outcome

A prediction is a statement about a specific outcome you expect to see in your experiment or observational study. It’s derived from the hypothesis and provides a measurable way to test the relationship between variables.

Here’s an example of how to write a hypothesis and a related prediction:

  • Hypothesis: Consuming a high-sugar diet leads to weight gain.
  • Prediction: People who consume a high-sugar diet for six weeks will gain more weight than those who maintain a low-sugar diet during the same period.

Key Differences Between a Hypothesis and a Prediction

While a hypothesis and prediction are both essential components of scientific research, there are some key differences to keep in mind:

  • A hypothesis is an educated guess that suggests a relationship between variables, while a prediction is a specific and measurable outcome based on that hypothesis.
  • A hypothesis can give rise to multiple experiment or observational study predictions.

To conclude, understanding the differences between a hypothesis and a prediction, and learning how to write a hypothesis, are essential steps to form a robust foundation for your research. By creating clear, testable hypotheses along with specific, measurable predictions, you lay the groundwork for scientifically sound investigations.

Here’s a wrap-up for this guide on how to write a hypothesis. We’re confident this article was helpful for many of you. We understand that many students struggle with writing their school research . However, we hope to continue assisting you through our blog tutorial on writing different aspects of academic assignments.

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How to Write a Hypothesis? Types and Examples 

how to write a hypothesis for research

All research studies involve the use of the scientific method, which is a mathematical and experimental technique used to conduct experiments by developing and testing a hypothesis or a prediction about an outcome. Simply put, a hypothesis is a suggested solution to a problem. It includes elements that are expressed in terms of relationships with each other to explain a condition or an assumption that hasn’t been verified using facts. 1 The typical steps in a scientific method include developing such a hypothesis, testing it through various methods, and then modifying it based on the outcomes of the experiments.  

A research hypothesis can be defined as a specific, testable prediction about the anticipated results of a study. 2 Hypotheses help guide the research process and supplement the aim of the study. After several rounds of testing, hypotheses can help develop scientific theories. 3 Hypotheses are often written as if-then statements. 

Here are two hypothesis examples: 

Dandelions growing in nitrogen-rich soils for two weeks develop larger leaves than those in nitrogen-poor soils because nitrogen stimulates vegetative growth. 4  

If a company offers flexible work hours, then their employees will be happier at work. 5  

Table of Contents

  • What is a hypothesis? 
  • Types of hypotheses 
  • Characteristics of a hypothesis 
  • Functions of a hypothesis 
  • How to write a hypothesis 
  • Hypothesis examples 
  • Frequently asked questions 

What is a hypothesis?

Figure 1. Steps in research design

A hypothesis expresses an expected relationship between variables in a study and is developed before conducting any research. Hypotheses are not opinions but rather are expected relationships based on facts and observations. They help support scientific research and expand existing knowledge. An incorrectly formulated hypothesis can affect the entire experiment leading to errors in the results so it’s important to know how to formulate a hypothesis and develop it carefully.

A few sources of a hypothesis include observations from prior studies, current research and experiences, competitors, scientific theories, and general conditions that can influence people. Figure 1 depicts the different steps in a research design and shows where exactly in the process a hypothesis is developed. 4  

There are seven different types of hypotheses—simple, complex, directional, nondirectional, associative and causal, null, and alternative. 

Types of hypotheses

The seven types of hypotheses are listed below: 5 , 6,7  

  • Simple : Predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable. 

Example: Exercising in the morning every day will increase your productivity.  

  • Complex : Predicts the relationship between two or more variables. 

Example: Spending three hours or more on social media daily will negatively affect children’s mental health and productivity, more than that of adults.  

  • Directional : Specifies the expected direction to be followed and uses terms like increase, decrease, positive, negative, more, or less. 

Example: The inclusion of intervention X decreases infant mortality compared to the original treatment.  

  • Non-directional : Does not predict the exact direction, nature, or magnitude of the relationship between two variables but rather states the existence of a relationship. This hypothesis may be used when there is no underlying theory or if findings contradict prior research. 

Example: Cats and dogs differ in the amount of affection they express.  

  • Associative and causal : An associative hypothesis suggests an interdependency between variables, that is, how a change in one variable changes the other.  

Example: There is a positive association between physical activity levels and overall health.  

A causal hypothesis, on the other hand, expresses a cause-and-effect association between variables. 

Example: Long-term alcohol use causes liver damage.  

  • Null : Claims that the original hypothesis is false by showing that there is no relationship between the variables. 

Example: Sleep duration does not have any effect on productivity.  

  • Alternative : States the opposite of the null hypothesis, that is, a relationship exists between two variables. 

Example: Sleep duration affects productivity.  

how to write an hypothesis in project

Characteristics of a hypothesis

So, what makes a good hypothesis? Here are some important characteristics of a hypothesis. 8,9  

  • Testable : You must be able to test the hypothesis using scientific methods to either accept or reject the prediction. 
  • Falsifiable : It should be possible to collect data that reject rather than support the hypothesis. 
  • Logical : Hypotheses shouldn’t be a random guess but rather should be based on previous theories, observations, prior research, and logical reasoning. 
  • Positive : The hypothesis statement about the existence of an association should be positive, that is, it should not suggest that an association does not exist. Therefore, the language used and knowing how to phrase a hypothesis is very important. 
  • Clear and accurate : The language used should be easily comprehensible and use correct terminology. 
  • Relevant : The hypothesis should be relevant and specific to the research question. 
  • Structure : Should include all the elements that make a good hypothesis: variables, relationship, and outcome. 

Functions of a hypothesis

The following list mentions some important functions of a hypothesis: 1  

  • Maintains the direction and progress of the research. 
  • Expresses the important assumptions underlying the proposition in a single statement. 
  • Establishes a suitable context for researchers to begin their investigation and for readers who are referring to the final report. 
  • Provides an explanation for the occurrence of a specific phenomenon. 
  • Ensures selection of appropriate and accurate facts necessary and relevant to the research subject. 

To summarize, a hypothesis provides the conceptual elements that complete the known data, conceptual relationships that systematize unordered elements, and conceptual meanings and interpretations that explain the unknown phenomena. 1  

how to write an hypothesis in project

How to write a hypothesis

Listed below are the main steps explaining how to write a hypothesis. 2,4,5  

  • Make an observation and identify variables : Observe the subject in question and try to recognize a pattern or a relationship between the variables involved. This step provides essential background information to begin your research.  

For example, if you notice that an office’s vending machine frequently runs out of a specific snack, you may predict that more people in the office choose that snack over another. 

  • Identify the main research question : After identifying a subject and recognizing a pattern, the next step is to ask a question that your hypothesis will answer.  

For example, after observing employees’ break times at work, you could ask “why do more employees take breaks in the morning rather than in the afternoon?” 

  • Conduct some preliminary research to ensure originality and novelty : Your initial answer, which is your hypothesis, to the question is based on some pre-existing information about the subject. However, to ensure that your hypothesis has not been asked before or that it has been asked but rejected by other researchers you would need to gather additional information.  

For example, based on your observations you might state a hypothesis that employees work more efficiently when the air conditioning in the office is set at a lower temperature. However, during your preliminary research you find that this hypothesis was proven incorrect by a prior study. 

  • Develop a general statement : After your preliminary research has confirmed the originality of your proposed answer, draft a general statement that includes all variables, subjects, and predicted outcome. The statement could be if/then or declarative.  
  • Finalize the hypothesis statement : Use the PICOT model, which clarifies how to word a hypothesis effectively, when finalizing the statement. This model lists the important components required to write a hypothesis. 

P opulation: The specific group or individual who is the main subject of the research 

I nterest: The main concern of the study/research question 

C omparison: The main alternative group 

O utcome: The expected results  

T ime: Duration of the experiment 

Once you’ve finalized your hypothesis statement you would need to conduct experiments to test whether the hypothesis is true or false. 

Hypothesis examples

The following table provides examples of different types of hypotheses. 10 ,11  

how to write an hypothesis in project

Key takeaways  

Here’s a summary of all the key points discussed in this article about how to write a hypothesis. 

  • A hypothesis is an assumption about an association between variables made based on limited evidence, which should be tested. 
  • A hypothesis has four parts—the research question, independent variable, dependent variable, and the proposed relationship between the variables.   
  • The statement should be clear, concise, testable, logical, and falsifiable. 
  • There are seven types of hypotheses—simple, complex, directional, non-directional, associative and causal, null, and alternative. 
  • A hypothesis provides a focus and direction for the research to progress. 
  • A hypothesis plays an important role in the scientific method by helping to create an appropriate experimental design. 

Frequently asked questions

Hypotheses and research questions have different objectives and structure. The following table lists some major differences between the two. 9  

Here are a few examples to differentiate between a research question and hypothesis. 

Yes, here’s a simple checklist to help you gauge the effectiveness of your hypothesis. 9   1. When writing a hypothesis statement, check if it:  2. Predicts the relationship between the stated variables and the expected outcome.  3. Uses simple and concise language and is not wordy.  4. Does not assume readers’ knowledge about the subject.  5. Has observable, falsifiable, and testable results. 

As mentioned earlier in this article, a hypothesis is an assumption or prediction about an association between variables based on observations and simple evidence. These statements are usually generic. Research objectives, on the other hand, are more specific and dictated by hypotheses. The same hypothesis can be tested using different methods and the research objectives could be different in each case.     For example, Louis Pasteur observed that food lasts longer at higher altitudes, reasoned that it could be because the air at higher altitudes is cleaner (with fewer or no germs), and tested the hypothesis by exposing food to air cleaned in the laboratory. 12 Thus, a hypothesis is predictive—if the reasoning is correct, X will lead to Y—and research objectives are developed to test these predictions. 

Null hypothesis testing is a method to decide between two assumptions or predictions between variables (null and alternative hypotheses) in a statistical relationship in a sample. The null hypothesis, denoted as H 0 , claims that no relationship exists between variables in a population and any relationship in the sample reflects a sampling error or occurrence by chance. The alternative hypothesis, denoted as H 1 , claims that there is a relationship in the population. In every study, researchers need to decide whether the relationship in a sample occurred by chance or reflects a relationship in the population. This is done by hypothesis testing using the following steps: 13   1. Assume that the null hypothesis is true.  2. Determine how likely the sample relationship would be if the null hypothesis were true. This probability is called the p value.  3. If the sample relationship would be extremely unlikely, reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis. If the relationship would not be unlikely, accept the null hypothesis. 

how to write an hypothesis in project

To summarize, researchers should know how to write a good hypothesis to ensure that their research progresses in the required direction. A hypothesis is a testable prediction about any behavior or relationship between variables, usually based on facts and observation, and states an expected outcome.  

We hope this article has provided you with essential insight into the different types of hypotheses and their functions so that you can use them appropriately in your next research project. 


  • Dalen, DVV. The function of hypotheses in research. Proquest website. Accessed April 8, 2024. https://www.proquest.com/docview/1437933010?pq-origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true&sourcetype=Scholarly%20Journals&imgSeq=1  
  • McLeod S. Research hypothesis in psychology: Types & examples. SimplyPsychology website. Updated December 13, 2023. Accessed April 9, 2024. https://www.simplypsychology.org/what-is-a-hypotheses.html  
  • Scientific method. Britannica website. Updated March 14, 2024. Accessed April 9, 2024. https://www.britannica.com/science/scientific-method  
  • The hypothesis in science writing. Accessed April 10, 2024. https://berks.psu.edu/sites/berks/files/campus/HypothesisHandout_Final.pdf  
  • How to develop a hypothesis (with elements, types, and examples). Indeed.com website. Updated February 3, 2023. Accessed April 10, 2024. https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-development/how-to-write-a-hypothesis  
  • Types of research hypotheses. Excelsior online writing lab. Accessed April 11, 2024. https://owl.excelsior.edu/research/research-hypotheses/types-of-research-hypotheses/  
  • What is a research hypothesis: how to write it, types, and examples. Researcher.life website. Published February 8, 2023. Accessed April 11, 2024. https://researcher.life/blog/article/how-to-write-a-research-hypothesis-definition-types-examples/  
  • Developing a hypothesis. Pressbooks website. Accessed April 12, 2024. https://opentext.wsu.edu/carriecuttler/chapter/developing-a-hypothesis/  
  • What is and how to write a good hypothesis in research. Elsevier author services website. Accessed April 12, 2024. https://scientific-publishing.webshop.elsevier.com/manuscript-preparation/what-how-write-good-hypothesis-research/  
  • How to write a great hypothesis. Verywellmind website. Updated March 12, 2023. Accessed April 13, 2024. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-hypothesis-2795239  
  • 15 Hypothesis examples. Helpfulprofessor.com Published September 8, 2023. Accessed March 14, 2024. https://helpfulprofessor.com/hypothesis-examples/ 
  • Editage insights. What is the interconnectivity between research objectives and hypothesis? Published February 24, 2021. Accessed April 13, 2024. https://www.editage.com/insights/what-is-the-interconnectivity-between-research-objectives-and-hypothesis  
  • Understanding null hypothesis testing. BCCampus open publishing. Accessed April 16, 2024. https://opentextbc.ca/researchmethods/chapter/understanding-null-hypothesis-testing/#:~:text=In%20null%20hypothesis%20testing%2C%20this,said%20to%20be%20statistically%20significant  

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  • How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Guide & Examples

Published on 6 May 2022 by Shona McCombes .

A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested by scientific research. If you want to test a relationship between two or more variables, you need to write hypotheses before you start your experiment or data collection.

Table of contents

What is a hypothesis, developing a hypothesis (with example), hypothesis examples, frequently asked questions about writing hypotheses.

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess – it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables . An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

In this example, the independent variable is exposure to the sun – the assumed cause . The dependent variable is the level of happiness – the assumed effect .

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Step 1: ask a question.

Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project.

Step 2: Do some preliminary research

Your initial answer to the question should be based on what is already known about the topic. Look for theories and previous studies to help you form educated assumptions about what your research will find.

At this stage, you might construct a conceptual framework to identify which variables you will study and what you think the relationships are between them. Sometimes, you’ll have to operationalise more complex constructs.

Step 3: Formulate your hypothesis

Now you should have some idea of what you expect to find. Write your initial answer to the question in a clear, concise sentence.

Step 4: Refine your hypothesis

You need to make sure your hypothesis is specific and testable. There are various ways of phrasing a hypothesis, but all the terms you use should have clear definitions, and the hypothesis should contain:

  • The relevant variables
  • The specific group being studied
  • The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable.

In academic research, hypotheses are more commonly phrased in terms of correlations or effects, where you directly state the predicted relationship between variables.

If you are comparing two groups, the hypothesis can state what difference you expect to find between them.

Step 6. Write a null hypothesis

If your research involves statistical hypothesis testing , you will also have to write a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the default position that there is no association between the variables. The null hypothesis is written as H 0 , while the alternative hypothesis is H 1 or H a .

Hypothesis testing is a formal procedure for investigating our ideas about the world using statistics. It is used by scientists to test specific predictions, called hypotheses , by calculating how likely it is that a pattern or relationship between variables could have arisen by chance.

A hypothesis is not just a guess. It should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations, and statistical analysis of data).

A research hypothesis is your proposed answer to your research question. The research hypothesis usually includes an explanation (‘ x affects y because …’).

A statistical hypothesis, on the other hand, is a mathematical statement about a population parameter. Statistical hypotheses always come in pairs: the null and alternative hypotheses. In a well-designed study , the statistical hypotheses correspond logically to the research hypothesis.

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How to Write a Hypothesis: A Step-by-Step Guide

how to write an hypothesis in project


An overview of the research hypothesis, different types of hypotheses, variables in a hypothesis, how to formulate an effective research hypothesis, designing a study around your hypothesis.

The scientific method can derive and test predictions as hypotheses. Empirical research can then provide support (or lack thereof) for the hypotheses. Even failure to find support for a hypothesis still represents a valuable contribution to scientific knowledge. Let's look more closely at the idea of the hypothesis and the role it plays in research.

how to write an hypothesis in project

As much as the term exists in everyday language, there is a detailed development that informs the word "hypothesis" when applied to research. A good research hypothesis is informed by prior research and guides research design and data analysis , so it is important to understand how a hypothesis is defined and understood by researchers.

What is the simple definition of a hypothesis?

A hypothesis is a testable prediction about an outcome between two or more variables . It functions as a navigational tool in the research process, directing what you aim to predict and how.

What is the hypothesis for in research?

In research, a hypothesis serves as the cornerstone for your empirical study. It not only lays out what you aim to investigate but also provides a structured approach for your data collection and analysis.

Essentially, it bridges the gap between the theoretical and the empirical, guiding your investigation throughout its course.

how to write an hypothesis in project

What is an example of a hypothesis?

If you are studying the relationship between physical exercise and mental health, a suitable hypothesis could be: "Regular physical exercise leads to improved mental well-being among adults."

This statement constitutes a specific and testable hypothesis that directly relates to the variables you are investigating.

What makes a good hypothesis?

A good hypothesis possesses several key characteristics. Firstly, it must be testable, allowing you to analyze data through empirical means, such as observation or experimentation, to assess if there is significant support for the hypothesis. Secondly, a hypothesis should be specific and unambiguous, giving a clear understanding of the expected relationship between variables. Lastly, it should be grounded in existing research or theoretical frameworks , ensuring its relevance and applicability.

Understanding the types of hypotheses can greatly enhance how you construct and work with hypotheses. While all hypotheses serve the essential function of guiding your study, there are varying purposes among the types of hypotheses. In addition, all hypotheses stand in contrast to the null hypothesis, or the assumption that there is no significant relationship between the variables .

Here, we explore various kinds of hypotheses to provide you with the tools needed to craft effective hypotheses for your specific research needs. Bear in mind that many of these hypothesis types may overlap with one another, and the specific type that is typically used will likely depend on the area of research and methodology you are following.

Null hypothesis

The null hypothesis is a statement that there is no effect or relationship between the variables being studied. In statistical terms, it serves as the default assumption that any observed differences are due to random chance.

For example, if you're studying the effect of a drug on blood pressure, the null hypothesis might state that the drug has no effect.

Alternative hypothesis

Contrary to the null hypothesis, the alternative hypothesis suggests that there is a significant relationship or effect between variables.

Using the drug example, the alternative hypothesis would posit that the drug does indeed affect blood pressure. This is what researchers aim to prove.

how to write an hypothesis in project

Simple hypothesis

A simple hypothesis makes a prediction about the relationship between two variables, and only two variables.

For example, "Increased study time results in better exam scores." Here, "study time" and "exam scores" are the only variables involved.

Complex hypothesis

A complex hypothesis, as the name suggests, involves more than two variables. For instance, "Increased study time and access to resources result in better exam scores." Here, "study time," "access to resources," and "exam scores" are all variables.

This hypothesis refers to multiple potential mediating variables. Other hypotheses could also include predictions about variables that moderate the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable .

Directional hypothesis

A directional hypothesis specifies the direction of the expected relationship between variables. For example, "Eating more fruits and vegetables leads to a decrease in heart disease."

Here, the direction of heart disease is explicitly predicted to decrease, due to effects from eating more fruits and vegetables. All hypotheses typically specify the expected direction of the relationship between the independent and dependent variable, such that researchers can test if this prediction holds in their data analysis .

how to write an hypothesis in project

Statistical hypothesis

A statistical hypothesis is one that is testable through statistical methods, providing a numerical value that can be analyzed. This is commonly seen in quantitative research .

For example, "There is a statistically significant difference in test scores between students who study for one hour and those who study for two."

Empirical hypothesis

An empirical hypothesis is derived from observations and is tested through empirical methods, often through experimentation or survey data . Empirical hypotheses may also be assessed with statistical analyses.

For example, "Regular exercise is correlated with a lower incidence of depression," could be tested through surveys that measure exercise frequency and depression levels.

Causal hypothesis

A causal hypothesis proposes that one variable causes a change in another. This type of hypothesis is often tested through controlled experiments.

For example, "Smoking causes lung cancer," assumes a direct causal relationship.

Associative hypothesis

Unlike causal hypotheses, associative hypotheses suggest a relationship between variables but do not imply causation.

For instance, "People who smoke are more likely to get lung cancer," notes an association but doesn't claim that smoking causes lung cancer directly.

Relational hypothesis

A relational hypothesis explores the relationship between two or more variables but doesn't specify the nature of the relationship.

For example, "There is a relationship between diet and heart health," leaves the nature of the relationship (causal, associative, etc.) open to interpretation.

Logical hypothesis

A logical hypothesis is based on sound reasoning and logical principles. It's often used in theoretical research to explore abstract concepts, rather than being based on empirical data.

For example, "If all men are mortal and Socrates is a man, then Socrates is mortal," employs logical reasoning to make its point.

how to write an hypothesis in project

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In any research hypothesis, variables play a critical role. These are the elements or factors that the researcher manipulates, controls, or measures. Understanding variables is essential for crafting a clear, testable hypothesis and for the stages of research that follow, such as data collection and analysis.

In the realm of hypotheses, there are generally two types of variables to consider: independent and dependent. Independent variables are what you, as the researcher, manipulate or change in your study. It's considered the cause in the relationship you're investigating. For instance, in a study examining the impact of sleep duration on academic performance, the independent variable would be the amount of sleep participants get.

Conversely, the dependent variable is the outcome you measure to gauge the effect of your manipulation. It's the effect in the cause-and-effect relationship. The dependent variable thus refers to the main outcome of interest in your study. In the same sleep study example, the academic performance, perhaps measured by exam scores or GPA, would be the dependent variable.

Beyond these two primary types, you might also encounter control variables. These are variables that could potentially influence the outcome and are therefore kept constant to isolate the relationship between the independent and dependent variables . For example, in the sleep and academic performance study, control variables could include age, diet, or even the subject of study.

By clearly identifying and understanding the roles of these variables in your hypothesis, you set the stage for a methodologically sound research project. It helps you develop focused research questions, design appropriate experiments or observations, and carry out meaningful data analysis . It's a step that lays the groundwork for the success of your entire study.

how to write an hypothesis in project

Crafting a strong, testable hypothesis is crucial for the success of any research project. It sets the stage for everything from your study design to data collection and analysis . Below are some key considerations to keep in mind when formulating your hypothesis:

  • Be specific : A vague hypothesis can lead to ambiguous results and interpretations . Clearly define your variables and the expected relationship between them.
  • Ensure testability : A good hypothesis should be testable through empirical means, whether by observation , experimentation, or other forms of data analysis.
  • Ground in literature : Before creating your hypothesis, consult existing research and theories. This not only helps you identify gaps in current knowledge but also gives you valuable context and credibility for crafting your hypothesis.
  • Use simple language : While your hypothesis should be conceptually sound, it doesn't have to be complicated. Aim for clarity and simplicity in your wording.
  • State direction, if applicable : If your hypothesis involves a directional outcome (e.g., "increase" or "decrease"), make sure to specify this. You also need to think about how you will measure whether or not the outcome moved in the direction you predicted.
  • Keep it focused : One of the common pitfalls in hypothesis formulation is trying to answer too many questions at once. Keep your hypothesis focused on a specific issue or relationship.
  • Account for control variables : Identify any variables that could potentially impact the outcome and consider how you will control for them in your study.
  • Be ethical : Make sure your hypothesis and the methods for testing it comply with ethical standards , particularly if your research involves human or animal subjects.

how to write an hypothesis in project

Designing your study involves multiple key phases that help ensure the rigor and validity of your research. Here we discuss these crucial components in more detail.

Literature review

Starting with a comprehensive literature review is essential. This step allows you to understand the existing body of knowledge related to your hypothesis and helps you identify gaps that your research could fill. Your research should aim to contribute some novel understanding to existing literature, and your hypotheses can reflect this. A literature review also provides valuable insights into how similar research projects were executed, thereby helping you fine-tune your own approach.

how to write an hypothesis in project

Research methods

Choosing the right research methods is critical. Whether it's a survey, an experiment, or observational study, the methodology should be the most appropriate for testing your hypothesis. Your choice of methods will also depend on whether your research is quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods. Make sure the chosen methods align well with the variables you are studying and the type of data you need.

Preliminary research

Before diving into a full-scale study, it’s often beneficial to conduct preliminary research or a pilot study . This allows you to test your research methods on a smaller scale, refine your tools, and identify any potential issues. For instance, a pilot survey can help you determine if your questions are clear and if the survey effectively captures the data you need. This step can save you both time and resources in the long run.

Data analysis

Finally, planning your data analysis in advance is crucial for a successful study. Decide which statistical or analytical tools are most suited for your data type and research questions . For quantitative research, you might opt for t-tests, ANOVA, or regression analyses. For qualitative research , thematic analysis or grounded theory may be more appropriate. This phase is integral for interpreting your results and drawing meaningful conclusions in relation to your research question.

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How to Write a Hypothesis – Steps & Tips

Published by Alaxendra Bets at August 14th, 2021 , Revised On October 26, 2023

What is a Research Hypothesis?

You can test a research statement with the help of experimental or theoretical research, known as a hypothesis.

If you want to find out the similarities, differences, and relationships between variables, you must write a testable hypothesis before compiling the data, performing analysis, and generating results to complete.

The data analysis and findings will help you test the hypothesis and see whether it is true or false. Here is all you need to know about how to write a hypothesis for a  dissertation .

Research Hypothesis Definition

Not sure what the meaning of the research hypothesis is?

A research hypothesis predicts an answer to the research question  based on existing theoretical knowledge or experimental data.

Some studies may have multiple hypothesis statements depending on the research question(s).  A research hypothesis must be based on formulas, facts, and theories. It should be testable by data analysis, observations, experiments, or other scientific methodologies that can refute or support the statement.

Variables in Hypothesis

Developing a hypothesis is easy. Most research studies have two or more variables in the hypothesis, particularly studies involving correlational and experimental research. The researcher can control or change the independent variable(s) while measuring and observing the independent variable(s).

“How long a student sleeps affects test scores.”

In the above statement, the dependent variable is the test score, while the independent variable is the length of time spent in sleep. Developing a hypothesis will be easy if you know your research’s dependent and independent variables.

Once you have developed a thesis statement, questions such as how to write a hypothesis for the dissertation and how to test a research hypothesis become pretty straightforward.

Looking for dissertation help?

Researchprospect to the rescue then.

We have expert writers on our team who are skilled at helping students with quantitative dissertations across a variety of STEM disciplines. Guaranteeing 100% satisfaction!

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Step-by-Step Guide on How to Write a Hypothesis

Here are the steps involved in how to write a hypothesis for a dissertation.

Step 1: Start with a Research Question

  • Begin by asking a specific question about a topic of interest.
  • This question should be clear, concise, and researchable.

Example: Does exposure to sunlight affect plant growth?

Step 2: Do Preliminary Research

  • Before formulating a hypothesis, conduct background research to understand existing knowledge on the topic.
  • Familiarise yourself with prior studies, theories, or observations related to the research question.

Step 3: Define Variables

  • Independent Variable (IV): The factor that you change or manipulate in an experiment.
  • Dependent Variable (DV): The factor that you measure.

Example: IV: Amount of sunlight exposure (e.g., 2 hours/day, 4 hours/day, 8 hours/day) DV: Plant growth (e.g., height in centimetres)

Step 4: Formulate the Hypothesis

  • A hypothesis is a statement that predicts the relationship between variables.
  • It is often written as an “if-then” statement.

Example: If plants receive more sunlight, then they will grow taller.

Step 5: Ensure it is Testable

A good hypothesis is empirically testable. This means you should be able to design an experiment or observation to test its validity.

Example: You can set up an experiment where plants are exposed to varying amounts of sunlight and then measure their growth over a period of time.

Step 6: Consider Potential Confounding Variables

  • Confounding variables are factors other than the independent variable that might affect the outcome.
  • It is important to identify these to ensure that they do not skew your results.

Example: Soil quality, water frequency, or type of plant can all affect growth. Consider keeping these constant in your experiment.

Step 7: Write the Null Hypothesis

  • The null hypothesis is a statement that there is no effect or no relationship between the variables.
  • It is what you aim to disprove or reject through your research.

Example: There is no difference in plant growth regardless of the amount of sunlight exposure.

Step 8: Test your Hypothesis

Design an experiment or conduct observations to test your hypothesis.

Example: Grow three sets of plants: one set exposed to 2 hours of sunlight daily, another exposed to 4 hours, and a third exposed to 8 hours. Measure and compare their growth after a set period.

Step 9: Analyse the Results

After testing, review your data to determine if it supports your hypothesis.

Step 10: Draw Conclusions

  • Based on your findings, determine whether you can accept or reject the hypothesis.
  • Remember, even if you reject your hypothesis, it’s a valuable result. It can guide future research and refine questions.

Three Ways to Phrase a Hypothesis

Try to use “if”… and “then”… to identify the variables. The independent variable should be present in the first part of the hypothesis, while the dependent variable will form the second part of the statement. Consider understanding the below research hypothesis example to create a specific, clear, and concise research hypothesis;

If an obese lady starts attending Zomba fitness classes, her health will improve.

In academic research, you can write the predicted variable relationship directly because most research studies correlate terms.

The number of Zomba fitness classes attended by the obese lady has a positive effect on health.

If your research compares two groups, then you can develop a hypothesis statement on their differences.

An obese lady who attended most Zumba fitness classes will have better health than those who attended a few.

How to Write a Null Hypothesis

If a statistical analysis is involved in your research, then you must create a null hypothesis. If you find any relationship between the variables, then the null hypothesis will be the default position that there is no relationship between them. H0 is the symbol for the null hypothesis, while the hypothesis is represented as H1. The null hypothesis will also answer your question, “How to test the research hypothesis in the dissertation.”

H0: The number of Zumba fitness classes attended by the obese lady does not affect her health.

H1: The number of Zumba fitness classes attended by obese lady positively affects health.

Also see:  Your Dissertation in Education

Hypothesis Examples

Research Question: Does the amount of sunlight a plant receives affect its growth? Hypothesis: Plants that receive more sunlight will grow taller than plants that receive less sunlight.

Research Question: Do students who eat breakfast perform better in school exams than those who don’t? Hypothesis: Students who eat a morning breakfast will score higher on school exams compared to students who skip breakfast.

Research Question: Does listening to music while studying impact a student’s ability to retain information? Hypothesis 1 (Directional): Students who listen to music while studying will retain less information than those who study in silence. Hypothesis 2 (Non-directional): There will be a difference in information retention between students who listen to music while studying and those who study in silence.

How can ResearchProspect Help?

If you are unsure about how to rest a research hypothesis in a dissertation or simply unsure about how to develop a hypothesis for your research, then you can take advantage of our dissertation services which cover every tiny aspect of a dissertation project you might need help with including but not limited to setting up a hypothesis and research questions,  help with individual chapters ,  full dissertation writing ,  statistical analysis , and much more.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the 5 rules for writing a good hypothesis.

  • Clear Statement: State a clear relationship between variables.
  • Testable: Ensure it can be investigated and measured.
  • Specific: Avoid vague terms, be precise in predictions.
  • Falsifiable: Design to allow potential disproof.
  • Relevant: Address research question and align with existing knowledge.

What is a hypothesis in simple words?

A hypothesis is an educated guess or prediction about something that can be tested. It is a statement that suggests a possible explanation for an event or phenomenon based on prior knowledge or observation. Scientists use hypotheses as a starting point for experiments to discover if they are true or false.

What is the hypothesis and examples?

A hypothesis is a testable prediction or explanation for an observation or phenomenon. For example, if plants are given sunlight, then they will grow. In this case, the hypothesis suggests that sunlight has a positive effect on plant growth. It can be tested by experimenting with plants in varying light conditions.

What is the hypothesis in research definition?

A hypothesis in research is a clear, testable statement predicting the possible outcome of a study based on prior knowledge and observation. It serves as the foundation for conducting experiments or investigations. Researchers test the validity of the hypothesis to draw conclusions and advance knowledge in a particular field.

Why is it called a hypothesis?

The term “hypothesis” originates from the Greek word “hypothesis,” which means “base” or “foundation.” It’s used to describe a foundational statement or proposition that can be tested. In scientific contexts, it denotes a tentative explanation for a phenomenon, serving as a starting point for investigation or experimentation.

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How to Develop a Good Research Hypothesis

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The story of a research study begins by asking a question. Researchers all around the globe are asking curious questions and formulating research hypothesis. However, whether the research study provides an effective conclusion depends on how well one develops a good research hypothesis. Research hypothesis examples could help researchers get an idea as to how to write a good research hypothesis.

This blog will help you understand what is a research hypothesis, its characteristics and, how to formulate a research hypothesis

Table of Contents

What is Hypothesis?

Hypothesis is an assumption or an idea proposed for the sake of argument so that it can be tested. It is a precise, testable statement of what the researchers predict will be outcome of the study.  Hypothesis usually involves proposing a relationship between two variables: the independent variable (what the researchers change) and the dependent variable (what the research measures).

What is a Research Hypothesis?

Research hypothesis is a statement that introduces a research question and proposes an expected result. It is an integral part of the scientific method that forms the basis of scientific experiments. Therefore, you need to be careful and thorough when building your research hypothesis. A minor flaw in the construction of your hypothesis could have an adverse effect on your experiment. In research, there is a convention that the hypothesis is written in two forms, the null hypothesis, and the alternative hypothesis (called the experimental hypothesis when the method of investigation is an experiment).

Characteristics of a Good Research Hypothesis

As the hypothesis is specific, there is a testable prediction about what you expect to happen in a study. You may consider drawing hypothesis from previously published research based on the theory.

A good research hypothesis involves more effort than just a guess. In particular, your hypothesis may begin with a question that could be further explored through background research.

To help you formulate a promising research hypothesis, you should ask yourself the following questions:

  • Is the language clear and focused?
  • What is the relationship between your hypothesis and your research topic?
  • Is your hypothesis testable? If yes, then how?
  • What are the possible explanations that you might want to explore?
  • Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
  • Can you manipulate your variables without hampering the ethical standards?
  • Does your research predict the relationship and outcome?
  • Is your research simple and concise (avoids wordiness)?
  • Is it clear with no ambiguity or assumptions about the readers’ knowledge
  • Is your research observable and testable results?
  • Is it relevant and specific to the research question or problem?

research hypothesis example

The questions listed above can be used as a checklist to make sure your hypothesis is based on a solid foundation. Furthermore, it can help you identify weaknesses in your hypothesis and revise it if necessary.

Source: Educational Hub

How to formulate a research hypothesis.

A testable hypothesis is not a simple statement. It is rather an intricate statement that needs to offer a clear introduction to a scientific experiment, its intentions, and the possible outcomes. However, there are some important things to consider when building a compelling hypothesis.

1. State the problem that you are trying to solve.

Make sure that the hypothesis clearly defines the topic and the focus of the experiment.

2. Try to write the hypothesis as an if-then statement.

Follow this template: If a specific action is taken, then a certain outcome is expected.

3. Define the variables

Independent variables are the ones that are manipulated, controlled, or changed. Independent variables are isolated from other factors of the study.

Dependent variables , as the name suggests are dependent on other factors of the study. They are influenced by the change in independent variable.

4. Scrutinize the hypothesis

Evaluate assumptions, predictions, and evidence rigorously to refine your understanding.

Types of Research Hypothesis

The types of research hypothesis are stated below:

1. Simple Hypothesis

It predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable.

2. Complex Hypothesis

It predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables.

3. Directional Hypothesis

It specifies the expected direction to be followed to determine the relationship between variables and is derived from theory. Furthermore, it implies the researcher’s intellectual commitment to a particular outcome.

4. Non-directional Hypothesis

It does not predict the exact direction or nature of the relationship between the two variables. The non-directional hypothesis is used when there is no theory involved or when findings contradict previous research.

5. Associative and Causal Hypothesis

The associative hypothesis defines interdependency between variables. A change in one variable results in the change of the other variable. On the other hand, the causal hypothesis proposes an effect on the dependent due to manipulation of the independent variable.

6. Null Hypothesis

Null hypothesis states a negative statement to support the researcher’s findings that there is no relationship between two variables. There will be no changes in the dependent variable due the manipulation of the independent variable. Furthermore, it states results are due to chance and are not significant in terms of supporting the idea being investigated.

7. Alternative Hypothesis

It states that there is a relationship between the two variables of the study and that the results are significant to the research topic. An experimental hypothesis predicts what changes will take place in the dependent variable when the independent variable is manipulated. Also, it states that the results are not due to chance and that they are significant in terms of supporting the theory being investigated.

Research Hypothesis Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables

Research Hypothesis Example 1 The greater number of coal plants in a region (independent variable) increases water pollution (dependent variable). If you change the independent variable (building more coal factories), it will change the dependent variable (amount of water pollution).
Research Hypothesis Example 2 What is the effect of diet or regular soda (independent variable) on blood sugar levels (dependent variable)? If you change the independent variable (the type of soda you consume), it will change the dependent variable (blood sugar levels)

You should not ignore the importance of the above steps. The validity of your experiment and its results rely on a robust testable hypothesis. Developing a strong testable hypothesis has few advantages, it compels us to think intensely and specifically about the outcomes of a study. Consequently, it enables us to understand the implication of the question and the different variables involved in the study. Furthermore, it helps us to make precise predictions based on prior research. Hence, forming a hypothesis would be of great value to the research. Here are some good examples of testable hypotheses.

More importantly, you need to build a robust testable research hypothesis for your scientific experiments. A testable hypothesis is a hypothesis that can be proved or disproved as a result of experimentation.

Importance of a Testable Hypothesis

To devise and perform an experiment using scientific method, you need to make sure that your hypothesis is testable. To be considered testable, some essential criteria must be met:

  • There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is true.
  • There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is false.
  • The results of the hypothesis must be reproducible.

Without these criteria, the hypothesis and the results will be vague. As a result, the experiment will not prove or disprove anything significant.

What are your experiences with building hypotheses for scientific experiments? What challenges did you face? How did you overcome these challenges? Please share your thoughts with us in the comments section.

Frequently Asked Questions

The steps to write a research hypothesis are: 1. Stating the problem: Ensure that the hypothesis defines the research problem 2. Writing a hypothesis as an 'if-then' statement: Include the action and the expected outcome of your study by following a ‘if-then’ structure. 3. Defining the variables: Define the variables as Dependent or Independent based on their dependency to other factors. 4. Scrutinizing the hypothesis: Identify the type of your hypothesis

Hypothesis testing is a statistical tool which is used to make inferences about a population data to draw conclusions for a particular hypothesis.

Hypothesis in statistics is a formal statement about the nature of a population within a structured framework of a statistical model. It is used to test an existing hypothesis by studying a population.

Research hypothesis is a statement that introduces a research question and proposes an expected result. It forms the basis of scientific experiments.

The different types of hypothesis in research are: • Null hypothesis: Null hypothesis is a negative statement to support the researcher’s findings that there is no relationship between two variables. • Alternate hypothesis: Alternate hypothesis predicts the relationship between the two variables of the study. • Directional hypothesis: Directional hypothesis specifies the expected direction to be followed to determine the relationship between variables. • Non-directional hypothesis: Non-directional hypothesis does not predict the exact direction or nature of the relationship between the two variables. • Simple hypothesis: Simple hypothesis predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable. • Complex hypothesis: Complex hypothesis predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables. • Associative and casual hypothesis: Associative and casual hypothesis predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables. • Empirical hypothesis: Empirical hypothesis can be tested via experiments and observation. • Statistical hypothesis: A statistical hypothesis utilizes statistical models to draw conclusions about broader populations.

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Wow! You really simplified your explanation that even dummies would find it easy to comprehend. Thank you so much.

Thanks a lot for your valuable guidance.

I enjoy reading the post. Hypotheses are actually an intrinsic part in a study. It bridges the research question and the methodology of the study.

Useful piece!

This is awesome.Wow.

It very interesting to read the topic, can you guide me any specific example of hypothesis process establish throw the Demand and supply of the specific product in market

Nicely explained

It is really a useful for me Kindly give some examples of hypothesis

It was a well explained content ,can you please give me an example with the null and alternative hypothesis illustrated

clear and concise. thanks.

So Good so Amazing

Good to learn

Thanks a lot for explaining to my level of understanding

Explained well and in simple terms. Quick read! Thank you

It awesome. It has really positioned me in my research project

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How To Write a Strong Research Hypothesis


Are you looking to take your research project to the next level? Have you heard of the power of a hypothesis but need to figure out how to formulate one that will unlock potential discoveries? We can help!

So get ready; it's time to dive into unlocking the power of research! This blog post will explore what makes a well-crafted and powerful hypothesis - from identifying a research question to developing supporting evidence.

By learning how to craft a compelling hypothesis, you'll have more tremendous success in every step of your research project.

What are hypotheses, and why are they important?

A hypothesis is an educated guess or a proposition based on limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. It provides a framework for research and allows researchers to refine their ideas, collect data, and draw conclusions. Hypotheses are essential to the process because they will enable us to organize our thoughts and test theories properly.

Hypotheses are used in many fields , from medicine to psychology to economics. In each area, developing hypotheses based on observations enable researchers to make predictions about their data and guide them toward finding meaningful results.

For example, in medicine, hypotheses can be used to predict which treatments will be most effective for particular conditions or which drugs may have adverse effects when taken together. This allows doctors to make better decisions when caring for patients.

In psychology, hypotheses are often used in experiments to determine whether certain variables influence behavior or mental processes. By testing different combinations of variables, psychologists can identify patterns and understand why people behave the way they do.

In economics, hypotheses provide economists with a framework for analyzing the relationship between economic variables such as wages and consumer spending habits. By understanding these relationships, economists can better understand how economic forces affect the economy.

Overall, hypotheses play an essential role in helping scientists develop new ideas and draw meaningful conclusions from the collected data. Without taking the step to create hypotheses, it would be difficult for researchers to make sense of the vast amounts of information available today and use it effectively in their investigations.

How to determine an effective research question to form your hypothesis

When conducting research, having a compelling research question is critical . Properly formulating this question will allow the researcher to develop their hypothesis. A research question provides a clear and focused goal for your research study and also gives direction on how to get there. A compelling research question should be specific, answerable in the context of your field of study, significant, novel (not already answered by previous studies), and timely – that is, relevant to current events or trends.

Before determining the best research question, you must first understand your topic. Think about the area of knowledge that interests you most and narrow it down to a single theme or concept within this topic. Focus on what interests you most within this theme, and make sure there is room for further exploration and analysis. Once you have chosen a specific topic and narrowed down your focus, you can begin formulating questions related to your project.

To ensure relevance and impact to your field of study, choose questions that address essential issues in the literature or suggest solutions to existing problems. Avoid overly broad topics with unclear objectives; instead, opt for focused questions to enable targeted data collection and analysis with concrete results.

Additionally, consider time frames when formulating questions. If the issue has been discussed extensively in the past but has not been revisited recently, then it's likely not worthy of a new investigation.

Once you have developed some potential questions related to your topic, review them carefully and decide which question best captures the essence of what you want to learn through researching this topic.

Ask yourself:

  • Is this question answerable?
  • Does it fit within my field of study?
  • Is it significant enough?
  • Would its findings be novel?

If so, then congratulations! You have identified a compelling research question.

Tips for crafting a well-crafted hypothesis

Once you have formulated the official research question, you may develop the formal hypothesis. When composing a hypothesis, it's essential to think carefully about the question you are trying to answer.

A solid hypothesis should be testable, meaning that it can be verified or disproved through research. It should also be specific and focused on one issue at a time. Here are some tips for crafting a well-crafted hypothesis:

  • Consider the goal of your research: Think about what it is that you want to learn or determine from your experiment and make sure that your hypothesis reflects this goal.
  • Create an educated guess as to why something is happening: Your hypothesis should explain why something is occurring based on what evidence you already have and direct further investigation into the matter. For example, if you hypothesize that increased carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere will lead to global warming, your research should focus on examining this relationship further.
  • Define any variables or parameters involved in the experiment: This includes things like temperature or chemical composition that could potentially affect the outcome of any experiments done in pursuit of testing your hypothesis.
  • Use clear and precise language: Make sure your hypothesis is written with clear and precise language so that anyone reading it can understand exactly what you are attempting to investigate or explain. Avoid complex words and keep sentences short whenever possible.

Following these simple tips will help ensure that your hypothesis is well-crafted and ready for testing!

Examples of evidence that can support your hypothesis

When it comes to developing a hypothesis, supporting evidence is essential for making sure it holds up. This evidence helps strengthen the argument that is being driven by providing facts and logical reasoning that support the hypothesis.

Examples of evidence that can be used to back up a hypothesis include using data from experiments, case studies, and other research projects. Data from experiments can provide insight into how certain variables interact to form a particular outcome.

Case studies may offer greater depth in understanding a specific phenomenon's cause and effect; research projects may yield results that confirm or refute existing theories on a subject.

In addition to these traditional forms of evidence, personal experiences or observations can also help to support a hypothesis. For example, if someone's daily commute has been consistently faster since they changed routes, they could use their personal experience to argue that making this change resulted in shorter commutes.

Similarly, suppose someone has witnessed how two variables consistently coincide (i.e., when one goes up, another goes down). In that case, this could be used to support the notion that there is some correlation between these two aspects.

Overall, evidence to support your hypothesis is crucial for ensuring its validity and credibility. While conducting experiments or researching may seem like time-consuming processes, having solid supporting evidence will make it much easier to defend your ideas convincingly when challenged.

Therefore, it is crucial to take the time necessary to gather credible sources of information to provide the most substantial possible backing for your hypotheses.

Understanding the potential of hypotheses and how they can help your research project progress

The power of research lies in the ability to develop and test hypotheses. A hypothesis is a statement or an idea that can be tested to determine its validity.

Essentially, it is a form of educated guesswork that helps researchers form conclusions about their data. By developing a hypothesis for a research project, you are effectively setting up the framework for further exploration.

When developing a hypothesis, you must consider both the expected outcomes and possible alternative explanations. This will help you focus on testing the possible results without getting sidetracked by irrelevant information. Once you have established a concrete hypothesis, it can then be used as a basis for further research and experimentation.

The process of testing hypotheses is an integral part of the scientific method and can help researchers build confidence in their findings and conclusions. Through careful observation and experimentation, researchers can compare their results against what they initially hypothesized, allowing them to draw more accurate conclusions about their data. As such, hypotheses play an essential role in helping researchers connect the dots between different pieces of evidence and form meaningful conclusions.

Overall, understanding how hypotheses can be used in research projects can be immensely beneficial in helping progress towards reaching meaningful insights from their data. By setting up expectations ahead of time and then testing them against real-world conditions, researchers can gain valuable insights that could potentially change the way we understand our world – now that's something worth exploring!

Final thoughts

A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for an observable phenomenon. It's important to note that hypotheses are not the same thing as theories–a theory is a much broader and well-established frame of reference that explains multiple phenomena.

Generally, scientists form a research question and then narrow it down to a testable hypothesis. After making observations and conducting experiments to gather data, researchers can use evidence to support or reject the hypothesis.

By following these steps to formulate a solid hypothesis, you will be on your way to developing a successful research project. Happy researching!

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How to Write a Research Hypothesis

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Since grade school, we've all been familiar with hypotheses. The hypothesis is an essential step of the scientific method. But what makes an effective research hypothesis, how do you create one, and what types of hypotheses are there? We answer these questions and more.

Updated on April 27, 2022

the word hypothesis being typed on white paper

What is a research hypothesis?

General hypothesis.

Since grade school, we've all been familiar with the term “hypothesis.” A hypothesis is a fact-based guess or prediction that has not been proven. It is an essential step of the scientific method. The hypothesis of a study is a drive for experimentation to either prove the hypothesis or dispute it.

Research Hypothesis

A research hypothesis is more specific than a general hypothesis. It is an educated, expected prediction of the outcome of a study that is testable.

What makes an effective research hypothesis?

A good research hypothesis is a clear statement of the relationship between a dependent variable(s) and independent variable(s) relevant to the study that can be disproven.

Research hypothesis checklist

Once you've written a possible hypothesis, make sure it checks the following boxes:

  • It must be testable: You need a means to prove your hypothesis. If you can't test it, it's not a hypothesis.
  • It must include a dependent and independent variable: At least one independent variable ( cause ) and one dependent variable ( effect ) must be included.
  • The language must be easy to understand: Be as clear and concise as possible. Nothing should be left to interpretation.
  • It must be relevant to your research topic: You probably shouldn't be talking about cats and dogs if your research topic is outer space. Stay relevant to your topic.

How to create an effective research hypothesis

Pose it as a question first.

Start your research hypothesis from a journalistic approach. Ask one of the five W's: Who, what, when, where, or why.

A possible initial question could be: Why is the sky blue?

Do the preliminary research

Once you have a question in mind, read research around your topic. Collect research from academic journals.

If you're looking for information about the sky and why it is blue, research information about the atmosphere, weather, space, the sun, etc.

Write a draft hypothesis

Once you're comfortable with your subject and have preliminary knowledge, create a working hypothesis. Don't stress much over this. Your first hypothesis is not permanent. Look at it as a draft.

Your first draft of a hypothesis could be: Certain molecules in the Earth's atmosphere are responsive to the sky being the color blue.

Make your working draft perfect

Take your working hypothesis and make it perfect. Narrow it down to include only the information listed in the “Research hypothesis checklist” above.

Now that you've written your working hypothesis, narrow it down. Your new hypothesis could be: Light from the sun hitting oxygen molecules in the sky makes the color of the sky appear blue.

Write a null hypothesis

Your null hypothesis should be the opposite of your research hypothesis. It should be able to be disproven by your research.

In this example, your null hypothesis would be: Light from the sun hitting oxygen molecules in the sky does not make the color of the sky appear blue.

Why is it important to have a clear, testable hypothesis?

One of the main reasons a manuscript can be rejected from a journal is because of a weak hypothesis. “Poor hypothesis, study design, methodology, and improper use of statistics are other reasons for rejection of a manuscript,” says Dr. Ish Kumar Dhammi and Dr. Rehan-Ul-Haq in Indian Journal of Orthopaedics.

According to Dr. James M. Provenzale in American Journal of Roentgenology , “The clear declaration of a research question (or hypothesis) in the Introduction is critical for reviewers to understand the intent of the research study. It is best to clearly state the study goal in plain language (for example, “We set out to determine whether condition x produces condition y.”) An insufficient problem statement is one of the more common reasons for manuscript rejection.”

Characteristics that make a hypothesis weak include:

  • Unclear variables
  • Unoriginality
  • Too general
  • Too specific

A weak hypothesis leads to weak research and methods . The goal of a paper is to prove or disprove a hypothesis - or to prove or disprove a null hypothesis. If the hypothesis is not a dependent variable of what is being studied, the paper's methods should come into question.

A strong hypothesis is essential to the scientific method. A hypothesis states an assumed relationship between at least two variables and the experiment then proves or disproves that relationship with statistical significance. Without a proven and reproducible relationship, the paper feeds into the reproducibility crisis. Learn more about writing for reproducibility .

In a study published in The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India by Dr. Suvarna Satish Khadilkar, she reviewed 400 rejected manuscripts to see why they were rejected. Her studies revealed that poor methodology was a top reason for the submission having a final disposition of rejection.

Aside from publication chances, Dr. Gareth Dyke believes a clear hypothesis helps efficiency.

“Developing a clear and testable hypothesis for your research project means that you will not waste time, energy, and money with your work,” said Dyke. “Refining a hypothesis that is both meaningful, interesting, attainable, and testable is the goal of all effective research.”

Types of research hypotheses

There can be overlap in these types of hypotheses.

Simple hypothesis

A simple hypothesis is a hypothesis at its most basic form. It shows the relationship of one independent and one independent variable.

Example: Drinking soda (independent variable) every day leads to obesity (dependent variable).

Complex hypothesis

A complex hypothesis shows the relationship of two or more independent and dependent variables.

Example: Drinking soda (independent variable) every day leads to obesity (dependent variable) and heart disease (dependent variable).

Directional hypothesis

A directional hypothesis guesses which way the results of an experiment will go. It uses words like increase, decrease, higher, lower, positive, negative, more, or less. It is also frequently used in statistics.

Example: Humans exposed to radiation have a higher risk of cancer than humans not exposed to radiation.

Non-directional hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis says there will be an effect on the dependent variable, but it does not say which direction.

Associative hypothesis

An associative hypothesis says that when one variable changes, so does the other variable.

Alternative hypothesis

An alternative hypothesis states that the variables have a relationship.

  • The opposite of a null hypothesis

Example: An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

Null hypothesis

A null hypothesis states that there is no relationship between the two variables. It is posed as the opposite of what the alternative hypothesis states.

Researchers use a null hypothesis to work to be able to reject it. A null hypothesis:

  • Can never be proven
  • Can only be rejected
  • Is the opposite of an alternative hypothesis

Example: An apple a day does not keep the doctor away.

Logical hypothesis

A logical hypothesis is a suggested explanation while using limited evidence.

Example: Bats can navigate in the dark better than tigers.

In this hypothesis, the researcher knows that tigers cannot see in the dark, and bats mostly live in darkness.

Empirical hypothesis

An empirical hypothesis is also called a “working hypothesis.” It uses the trial and error method and changes around the independent variables.

  • An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
  • Two apples a day keep the doctor away.
  • Three apples a day keep the doctor away.

In this case, the research changes the hypothesis as the researcher learns more about his/her research.

Statistical hypothesis

A statistical hypothesis is a look of a part of a population or statistical model. This type of hypothesis is especially useful if you are making a statement about a large population. Instead of having to test the entire population of Illinois, you could just use a smaller sample of people who live there.

Example: 70% of people who live in Illinois are iron deficient.

Causal hypothesis

A causal hypothesis states that the independent variable will have an effect on the dependent variable.

Example: Using tobacco products causes cancer.

Final thoughts

Make sure your research is error-free before you send it to your preferred journal . Check our our English Editing services to avoid your chances of desk rejection.

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How to write an effective hypothesis

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Hypothesis validation is the bread and butter of product discovery. Understanding what should be prioritized and why is the most important task of a product manager. It doesn’t matter how well you validate your findings if you’re trying to answer the wrong question.

How To Write An Effective Hypothesis

A question is as good as the answer it can provide. If your hypothesis is well written, but you can’t read its conclusion, it’s a bad hypothesis. Alternatively, if your hypothesis has embedded bias and answers itself, it’s also not going to help you.

There are several different tools available to build hypotheses, and it would be exhaustive to list them all. Apart from being superficial, focusing on the frameworks alone shifts the attention away from the hypothesis itself.

In this article, you will learn what a hypothesis is, the fundamental aspects of a good hypothesis, and what you should expect to get out of one.

The 4 product risks

Mitigating the four product risks is the reason why product managers exist in the first place and it’s where good hypothesis crafting starts.

The four product risks are assessments of everything that could go wrong with your delivery. Our natural thought process is to focus on the happy path at the expense of unknown traps. The risks are a constant reminder that knowing why something won’t work is probably more important than knowing why something might work.

These are the fundamental questions that should fuel your hypothesis creation:

Is it viable for the business?

Is it relevant for the user, can we build it, is it ethical to deliver.

Is this hypothesis the best one to validate now? Is this the most cost-effective initiative we can take? Will this answer help us achieve our goals? How much money can we make from it?

Has the user manifested interest in this solution? Will they be able to use it? Does it solve our users’ challenges? Is it aesthetically pleasing? Is it vital for the user, or just a luxury?

Do we have the resources and know-how to deliver it? Can we scale this solution? How much will it cost? Will it depreciate fast? Is it the best cost-effective solution? Will it deliver on what the user needs?

Is this solution safe both for the user and for the business? Is it inclusive enough? Is there a risk of public opinion whiplash? Is our solution enabling wrongdoers? Are we jeopardizing some to privilege others?

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There is an infinite amount of questions that can surface from these risks, and most of those will be context dependent. Your industry, company, marketplace, team composition, and even the type of product you handle will impose different questions, but the risks remain the same.

How to decide whether your hypothesis is worthy of validation

Assuming you came up with a hefty batch of risks to validate, you must now address them. To address a risk, you could do one of three things: collect concrete evidence that you can mitigate that risk, infer possible ways you can mitigate a risk and, finally, deep dive into that risk because you’re not sure about its repercussions.

This three way road can be illustrated by a CSD matrix :



Everything you’re sure can help you to mitigate whatever risk. An example would be, on the risk “how to build it,” assessing if your engineering team is capable of integrating with a certain API. If your team has made it a thousand times in the past, it’s not something worth validating. You can assume it is true and mark this particular risk as solved.

To put it simply, a supposition is something that you think you know, but you’re not sure. This is the most fertile ground to explore hypotheses, since this is the precise type of answer that needs validation. The most common usage of supposition is addressing the “is it relevant for the user” risk. You presume that clients will enjoy a new feature, but before you talk to them, you can’t say you are sure.

Doubts are different from suppositions because they have no answer whatsoever. A doubt is an open question about a risk which you have no clue on how to solve. A product manager that tries to mitigate the “is it ethical to deliver” risk from an industry that they have absolute no familiarity with is poised to generate a lot of doubts, but no suppositions or certainties. Doubts are not good hypothesis sources, since you have no idea on how to validate it.

A hypothesis worth validating comes from a place of uncertainty, not confidence or doubt. If you are sure about a risk mitigation, coming up with a hypothesis to validate it is just a waste of time and resources. Alternatively, trying to come up with a risk assessment for a problem you are clueless about will probably generate hypotheses disconnected with the problem itself.

That said, it’s important to make it clear that suppositions are different from hypotheses. A supposition is merely a mental exercise, creativity executed. A hypothesis is a measurable, cartesian instrument to transform suppositions into certainties, therefore making sure you can mitigate a risk.

How to craft a hypothesis

A good hypothesis comes from a supposed solution to a specific product risk. That alone is good enough to build half of a good hypothesis, but you also need to have measurable confidence.

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You’ll rarely transform a supposition into a certainty without an objective. Returning to the API example we gave when talking about certainties, you know the “can we build it” risk doesn’t need validation because your team has made tens of API integrations before. The “tens” is the quantifiable, measurable indication that gives you the confidence to be sure about mitigating a risk.

What you need from your hypothesis is exactly this quantifiable evidence, the number or hard fact able to give you enough confidence to treat your supposition as a certainty. To achieve that goal, you must come up with a target when creating the hypothesis. A hypothesis without a target can’t be validated, and therefore it’s useless.

Imagine you’re the product manager for an ecommerce app. Your users are predominantly mobile users, and your objective is to increase sales conversions. After some research, you came across the one click check-out experience, made famous by Amazon, but broadly used by ecommerces everywhere.

You know you can build it, but it’s a huge endeavor for your team. You best make sure your bet on one click check-out will work out, otherwise you’ll waste a lot of time and resources on something that won’t be able to influence the sales conversion KPI.

You identify your first risk then: is it valuable to the business?

Literature is abundant on the topic, so you are almost sure that it will bear results, but you’re not sure enough. You only can suppose that implementing the one click functionality will increase sales conversion.

During case study and data exploration, you have reasons to believe that a 30 percent increase of sales conversion is a reasonable target to be achieved. To make sure one click check-out is valuable to the business then, you would have a hypothesis such as this:

We believe that if we implement a one-click checkout on our ecommerce, we can grow our sales conversion by 30 percent

This hypothesis can be played with in all sorts of ways. If you’re trying to improve user-experience, for example, you could make it look something like this:

We believe that if we implement a one-click checkout on our ecommerce, we can reduce the time to conversion by 10 percent

You can also validate different solutions having the same criteria, building an opportunity tree to explore a multitude of hypothesis to find the better one:

We believe that if we implement a user review section on the listing page, we can grow our sales conversion by 30 percent

Sometimes you’re clueless about impact, or maybe any win is a good enough win. In that case, your criteria of validation can be a fact rather than a metric:

We believe that if we implement a one-click checkout on our ecommerce, we can reduce the time to conversion

As long as you are sure of the risk you’re mitigating, the supposition you want to transform into a certainty, and the criteria you’ll use to make that decision, you don’t need to worry so much about “right” or “wrong” when it comes to hypothesis formatting.

That’s why I avoided following up frameworks on this article. You can apply a neat hypothesis design to your product thinking, but if you’re not sure why you’re doing it, you’ll extract nothing out of it.

What comes after a good hypothesis?

The final piece of this puzzle comes after the hypothesis crafting. A hypothesis is only as good as the validation it provides, and that means you have to test it.

If we were to test the first hypothesis we crafted, “we believe that if we implement a one-click checkout on our ecommerce, we can grow our sales conversion by 30 percent,” you could come up with a testing roadmap to build up evidence that would eventually confirm or deny your hypothesis. Some examples of tests are:

A/B testing — Launch a quick and dirty one-click checkout MVP for a controlled group of users and compare their sales conversion rates against a control group. This will provide direct evidence on the effect of the feature on sales conversions

Customer support feedback — Track any inquiries or complaints related to the checkout process. You can use organic user complaints as an indirect measure of latent demand for one-click checkout feature

User survey — Ask why carts were abandoned for a cohort of shoppers that left the checkout step close to completion. Their reasons might indicate the possible success of your hypothesis

Effective hypothesis crafting is at the center of product management. It’s the link between dealing with risks and coming up with solutions that are both viable and valuable. However, it’s important to recognize that the formulation of a hypothesis is just the first step.

The real value of a hypothesis is made possible by rigorous testing. It’s through systematic validation that product managers can transform suppositions into certainties, ensuring the right product decisions are made. Without validation, even the most well-thought-out hypothesis remains unverified.

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How to Write a Hypothesis: Definition, Types, Steps and Ideas

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by  Antony W

September 4, 2021

how to write a hypothesis

This is the most comprehensive guide on how to write a hypothesis. In this lesson, we will tell you everything you everything you need to know to develop a good research hypothesis for your project.

In particular, you will learn what a hypothesis is, what makes a good hypothesis, types of hypothesis, and the steps you can take to come up with a solid hypothesis for your research project.

What is a Hypothesis?

what is a hypothesis

A hypothesis is a scientific method that introduces a specific research question in a scientific experiment and then proposes a testable prediction about the expected results in a study.

What Makes a Good Hypothesis?  

Since a small error in your scientific method can undermine your experiment, it’s important to be very careful when developing your research hypothesis.

A reasonable first approach is to understand what makes a good hypothesis before you start developing one.

what makes a good hypothesis

In particular, you want to make sure your hypothesis meets the following conditions, with an exception of none.

  • Your research hypothesis should be in a clear and focused language
  • It must be testable, with a clear description of the testing methods
  • The hypothesis must have a possible explanation, which allows for further exploration
  • It should have a reasonable relationship with your research topic
  • This scientific method should include dependent as well as independent variables
  • It should allow for alterations without going against the ethical standards of the development of research methods

The reason why your hypothesis must meet the above conditions is that it helps to build your research method on a solid foundation.

Moreover, these characteristics even make it easier for you to identify gaps and weaknesses in your hypothesis, so that you can make changes and end up with a more promising and testable hypothesis.

Types of Hypothesis

types of hypothesis

There are seven types of hypothesis that you can develop for your research project. We discuss all of them below to give you more insight so you can understand them.

Simple Hypothesis

Sometimes referred to as a basic hypothesis, a simple hypothesis gives a prediction between an independent and a dependent variable. In this case, the independent variable is a cause and the dependent is the effect.

For example, when a researcher states that “Global warming causes iceberg to melt”, global warming is the cause and melting iceberg is the effect.

Complex Hypothesis

A complex hypothesis is different from a simple hypothesis in that it gives a prediction between two or more independent and dependent variables.

Directional Hypothesis

A directional hypothesis gives a researcher the direction they should follow to determine the relationship between independent and dependent variables.

Often derived from a theory, this hypothesis shows the intellectual commitment of a researcher to a given possible outcome. Moreover, the relationship between the variables can also predict the nature of the hypothesis.

Non-directional Hypothesis

A non-directional hypothesis doesn’t show the exact nature of the relationship between independent and dependent variables.

It’s useful in cases where there are no theories involved, or when evaluating previous researches that were contradictory in form.

Associative and Causal Hypothesis

An associative hypothesis defines the interdependency between variables. Usually, a change in on variable will lead to a change in another.

A causal hypothesis, on the other hand, suggests an effect on the dependent variable arising from the manipulation of the independent variables.

Null Hypothesis

A null hypothesis gives a negative statement that supports a researcher’s finding. Usually, there’s no relationship between an independent and a dependent variable.

  Alternative Hypothesis

This hypothesis shows an existing relationship between two variables and indicates that the results are necessary to the research topic in question.

How to Write a Hypothesis for Your Research

can you prove hypothesis

Credit: CrazyEgg

Below is a step-by-step guide to help you write a good hypothesis for your upcoming research project:

Step 1: Ask the Right Question

The first step to developing a hypothesis is to come up with a research question that you would like to answer. Your research question is the problem you’re trying to solve. So it should be specific and easy to research within the constraints of the project.

Step 2: Research

Spend some time researching your topic to discover what researchers already know about the topic.

Examine previous studies and theories and use your findings to develop reasonable assumptions. Also identify both dependent and independent variables that you will study.

Independent variables are the ones that you can change, control, or manipulate. They’re often in isolation from other factors of the study.

Dependent variables are not in isolation from other factors of the study. Also, a change in the independent variables can easily influence them.

Step 3: Develop Your Hypothesis

Your preliminary research should give you some ideas that you can use to develop your hypothesis. Use these ideas to write a clear answer to the research question that you came up with in step one.

Step 4: Refining Your Hypothesis

It’s important to make sure that your hypothesis meets the criteria we discussed. So examine it to determine if it’s specific and testable. Check whether the independent and dependent variables are relevant. Identify the study group. Then, determine the right prediction of the analysis or experiment.

Identifying your variables shouldn’t be difficult. As you saw in our “Global warming causes iceberg to melt” example of hypothesis , the first part of the sentence is the independent variable and the second is the independent.

You can also phrase your hypothesis in the form of correlation. In this case, you have to predict the relationship between one or more variables.

In the case where you’ve decided to compare two groups of independent variables, you should give clear differences in the results that you expect to find.

Step 5: Formulate a Null Hypothesis

Instructors expect you to come up with a null hypothesis in the case where your research involves statistical testing. A null hypothesis will be your default position where you show that there isn’t an existing relationship between independent and dependent variables.

About the author 

Antony W is a professional writer and coach at Help for Assessment. He spends countless hours every day researching and writing great content filled with expert advice on how to write engaging essays, research papers, and assignments.

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Crafting Your Research: How to Write a Hypothesis

how to write a hypothesis

At the outset of conducting any study, one of the initial steps must be formulating a hypothesis. A hypothesis serves as an educated guess or prediction regarding what may happen during research. Hypotheses are essential in any research project as they serve as the cornerstone for meaningful insights and reveal relationships among variables. A well-crafted hypothesis will set direction and help define your study’s objectives, providing direction that guides its goals and helps direct its approach. In this article, we’ll go into depth on what a hypothesis is and its purpose. From students to seasoned researchers alike, this guide can assist them with creating impactful research results with powerful hypotheses that set off successful projects.

A hypothesis is at the core of every scientific investigation or research paper – they form its base and serve to direct its focus. Crafting an eye-catching hypothesis that stands up under scrutiny is integral to successful scientific exploration; without one, research projects would fail utterly! But creating one requires crafting clear, testable hypotheses with effective conclusions. With this guide as your companion, however, writing such hypotheses is easier than ever! This comprehensive guide offers step-by-step assistance so that your hypothesis aims are met for any given research project.

Table of Contents

Definition of Hypothesis

Before delving into how-to aspects of hypothesis formulation, it’s crucial that one has an understanding of its definition. A hypothesis can be defined as any statement suggesting an expected relationship among variables or expected outcome from a research study, an experimental prediction that can be empirically tested or disproven through experimentation, observation, or analysis.

how to write an hypothesis in project

Hypothesis Is an Essential Component in Academic Work

An influential hypothesis helps significantly:.

  • Establish clear directions and objectives for your research
  • Define the scope and depth of your investigation
  • Determine an objective standard against which to measure conclusions
  • Stimulate scientific curiosity and promote discussion
  • Foster logical thinking and critical evaluation.

Step-By-Step Guide on How to Write a Hypothesis

Now that we understand what a hypothesis is and its importance let’s dive deeper into its creation for your research project. Here are the steps involved with devising your hypothesis.

Step One Identify the Problem or Research Question (Research Question)

The first step to creating a hypothesis is identifying the issue or research question you want to tackle in your study. Begin by conducting an in-depth literature review, knowledge gaps analysis, and areas of potential interest within your field of study; ask yourself which questions need answering, which problems need to be solved, and connections made – then develop your hypothesis from there!

Step Two: Conduct an In-Depth Literature Review

Understanding existing knowledge and research on any topic is paramount for creating valid hypotheses that don’t contradict existing findings and research. Conduct a comprehensive literature review focused on relevant studies, theories, and findings relevant to your research question; this will not only give an in-depth knowledge of the issue at hand but will help uncover any unexplored variables or relationships which haven’t yet been investigated.

Step Three: Tentative Hypothesis

Utilizing your literature review and understanding of the topic, you can now develop a tentative hypothesis. Keep in mind that an effective hypothesis must be testable, specific, and concise – clearly outlining expected relationships among variables or outcomes from research studies or any potential impacts or challenges to this study. Also, keep in mind that its purpose should be falsifiability, so there should be plausible circumstances under which your hypothesis could be disproven or disproven by reality testing or data-gathering methods.

Step Four: Improve Your Hypothesis

As your research unfolds, new evidence may come to light that can help refine your hypothesis. Be sure that it remains specific, testable, and falsifiable while being open to revision to reflect new knowledge or address specific nuances within your research question.

Step Five : Testing Hypothesis

After creating and validating a hypothesis, the next step should be designing experiments, surveys, or other forms of research methodologies to put your hypothesis through its paces. Make sure your design fits with its nature and carefully consider any ethical implications related to conducting such an endeavor. Formulating an original, testable hypothesis is of critical importance in any research project. By following the steps outlined herein, not only can you lay a strong foundation for your investigation, but you will also effectively define its focus, scope, and purpose. A well-crafted hypothesis stimulates scientific curiosity while stimulating critical thought – ultimately opening doors to groundbreaking discoveries within your field of study!

Frequently Asked Questions About Writing a Hypothesis

Q: What is a hypothesis? A: A hypothesis is an assertion or assumption which provides potential solutions or predictions to address an observed phenomenon or scientific inquiry. Q: Why Is Writing Hypotheses Necessary? A: Formulating a hypothesis is crucial as it provides a testable statement that guides scientific investigations and helps assess whether proposed explanations or predictions hold up under scrutiny. Q: What are the characteristics of an effective hypothesis? A: A successful hypothesis should be specific, testable, and falsifiable, as well as founded in prior knowledge or observations. How Can One Formulate a Hypothesis (Kyle S. and Paul N.) In order to formulate a hypothesis, begin by identifying your research question, reviewing existing literature, making observations, and proposing an explanation or prediction that can be tested. Q: Can a hypothesis be proved true with absolute certainty? A: No. However, evidence obtained through experimentation or further research can support or refute its validity. Q: What are the differences between a null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis? A: A null hypothesis (H0) states that there is no meaningful relationship or effect among variables, while an alternative hypothesis (H1 or Ha) asserts the presence of such relationships or effects. Q: How long should a hypothesis be? A: Hypotheses should be brief and direct. Usually composed of one or two sentences that clearly enumerate their explanation or prediction, they should make for easy reading and are best presented without unnecessary words and lengthy paragraphs. Q: Should a hypothesis include personal opinions? A: No. A hypothesis should be developed using objective observations, existing knowledge, or theoretical frameworks rather than personal bias or opinions. Q: Should my hypothesis be founded solely on one observation? A: For best results, your hypothesis should not rely solely on one single observation – rather, it should be supported by existing literature, research findings, and multiple observations. Q: Can my hypothesis change during the research process? A: Absolutely; revising or changing a hypothesis during research can often occur as new evidence comes to light or the initial theory proves inadequate or unsupportable. Q: Are There Different Kinds of Hypotheses? A: Yes, there are numerous kinds of hypotheses which include directional (predicting a specific relationship), non-directional ( predicting an association without specifying its nature), and null hypotheses ( predicting no relationships). Q: Should Hypotheses Be Formulated Before or After Research? A: Hypotheses should generally be written prior to conducting research as they serve as an important guiding statement that helps focus the investigation and form the basis for designing experiments or collecting data. Q: Can Hypotheses Be Tested Through Qualitative Research Methods? A: Absolutely, hypotheses can be tested through qualitative research methods. Although quantitative methods tend to be associated with this task, qualitative methods can also help explore, support, or refine hypotheses. Question: If I reject a hypothesis, what will happen? A: Rejecting a hypothesis signifies that evidence collected during research does not support its proposed explanation or prediction, prompting revision or formulation of new hypotheses for further exploration. Q: Can Hypotheses Be Proved False? A: Yes, hypotheses can be proved false through rigorous experimentation or research which provides evidence contrary to proposed explanations or predictions.

In short, having an effective hypothesis is integral to any research project. It provides direction and focuses for their investigation while giving researchers an opportunity to test out ideas against evidence and determine whether their theories hold up against reality or not. Before writing a hypothesis, it is crucial that researchers carefully consider their research question, the prevailing literature and theories, the variables involved, and possible solutions. A good hypothesis should be testable with both independent and dependent variables present – be sure to note this distinction! As part of formulating a hypothesis, researchers should carefully consider potential limitations and alternative explanations when developing their hypothesis. By following these guidelines, scientists can create hypotheses more likely to produce accurate and meaningful results, leading to deeper insight and advancement within their field of research.

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CJ grew up admiring books. His family owned a small bookstore throughout his early childhood, and he would spend weekends flipping through book after book, always sure to read the ones that looked the most interesting. Not much has changed since then, except now some of those interesting books he picks off the shelf were designed by his company!

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How to Write a Hypothesis

Last Updated: May 2, 2023 Fact Checked

This article was co-authored by Bess Ruff, MA . Bess Ruff is a Geography PhD student at Florida State University. She received her MA in Environmental Science and Management from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 2016. She has conducted survey work for marine spatial planning projects in the Caribbean and provided research support as a graduate fellow for the Sustainable Fisheries Group. There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 1,032,772 times.

A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observation and experimentation. The most common way a hypothesis is used in scientific research is as a tentative, testable, and falsifiable statement that explains some observed phenomenon in nature. [1] X Research source Many academic fields, from the physical sciences to the life sciences to the social sciences, use hypothesis testing as a means of testing ideas to learn about the world and advance scientific knowledge. Whether you are a beginning scholar or a beginning student taking a class in a science subject, understanding what hypotheses are and being able to generate hypotheses and predictions yourself is very important. These instructions will help get you started.

Preparing to Write a Hypothesis

Step 1 Select a topic.

  • If you are writing a hypothesis for a school assignment, this step may be taken care of for you.

Step 2 Read existing research.

  • Focus on academic and scholarly writing. You need to be certain that your information is unbiased, accurate, and comprehensive. Scholarly search databases such as Google Scholar and Web of Science can help you find relevant articles from reputable sources.
  • You can find information in textbooks, at a library, and online. If you are in school, you can also ask for help from teachers, librarians, and your peers.

Step 3 Analyze the literature.

  • For example, if you are interested in the effects of caffeine on the human body, but notice that nobody seems to have explored whether caffeine affects males differently than it does females, this could be something to formulate a hypothesis about. Or, if you are interested in organic farming, you might notice that no one has tested whether organic fertilizer results in different growth rates for plants than non-organic fertilizer.
  • You can sometimes find holes in the existing literature by looking for statements like “it is unknown” in scientific papers or places where information is clearly missing. You might also find a claim in the literature that seems far-fetched, unlikely, or too good to be true, like that caffeine improves math skills. If the claim is testable, you could provide a great service to scientific knowledge by doing your own investigation. If you confirm the claim, the claim becomes even more credible. If you do not find support for the claim, you are helping with the necessary self-correcting aspect of science.
  • Examining these types of questions provides an excellent way for you to set yourself apart by filling in important gaps in a field of study.

Step 4 Generate questions.

  • Following the examples above, you might ask: "How does caffeine affect females as compared to males?" or "How does organic fertilizer affect plant growth compared to non-organic fertilizer?" The rest of your research will be aimed at answering these questions.

Step 5 Look for clues as to what the answer might be.

  • Following the examples above, if you discover in the literature that there is a pattern that some other types of stimulants seem to affect females more than males, this could be a clue that the same pattern might be true for caffeine. Similarly, if you observe the pattern that organic fertilizer seems to be associated with smaller plants overall, you might explain this pattern with the hypothesis that plants exposed to organic fertilizer grow more slowly than plants exposed to non-organic fertilizer.

Formulating Your Hypothesis

Step 1 Determine your variables.

  • You can think of the independent variable as the one that is causing some kind of difference or effect to occur. In the examples, the independent variable would be biological sex, i.e. whether a person is male or female, and fertilizer type, i.e. whether the fertilizer is organic or non-organically-based.
  • The dependent variable is what is affected by (i.e. "depends" on) the independent variable. In the examples above, the dependent variable would be the measured impact of caffeine or fertilizer.
  • Your hypothesis should only suggest one relationship. Most importantly, it should only have one independent variable. If you have more than one, you won't be able to determine which one is actually the source of any effects you might observe.

Step 2 Generate a simple hypothesis.

  • Don't worry too much at this point about being precise or detailed.
  • In the examples above, one hypothesis would make a statement about whether a person's biological sex might impact the way the person is affected by caffeine; for example, at this point, your hypothesis might simply be: "a person's biological sex is related to how caffeine affects his or her heart rate." The other hypothesis would make a general statement about plant growth and fertilizer; for example your simple explanatory hypothesis might be "plants given different types of fertilizer are different sizes because they grow at different rates."

Step 3 Decide on direction.

  • Using our example, our non-directional hypotheses would be "there is a relationship between a person's biological sex and how much caffeine increases the person's heart rate," and "there is a relationship between fertilizer type and the speed at which plants grow."
  • Directional predictions using the same example hypotheses above would be : "Females will experience a greater increase in heart rate after consuming caffeine than will males," and "plants fertilized with non-organic fertilizer will grow faster than those fertilized with organic fertilizer." Indeed, these predictions and the hypotheses that allow for them are very different kinds of statements. More on this distinction below.
  • If the literature provides any basis for making a directional prediction, it is better to do so, because it provides more information. Especially in the physical sciences, non-directional predictions are often seen as inadequate.

Step 4 Get specific.

  • Where necessary, specify the population (i.e. the people or things) about which you hope to uncover new knowledge. For example, if you were only interested the effects of caffeine on elderly people, your prediction might read: "Females over the age of 65 will experience a greater increase in heart rate than will males of the same age." If you were interested only in how fertilizer affects tomato plants, your prediction might read: "Tomato plants treated with non-organic fertilizer will grow faster in the first three months than will tomato plants treated with organic fertilizer."

Step 5 Make sure it is testable.

  • For example, you would not want to make the hypothesis: "red is the prettiest color." This statement is an opinion and it cannot be tested with an experiment. However, proposing the generalizing hypothesis that red is the most popular color is testable with a simple random survey. If you do indeed confirm that red is the most popular color, your next step may be to ask: Why is red the most popular color? The answer you propose is your explanatory hypothesis .

Step 6 Write a research hypothesis.

  • An easy way to get to the hypothesis for this method and prediction is to ask yourself why you think heart rates will increase if children are given caffeine. Your explanatory hypothesis in this case may be that caffeine is a stimulant. At this point, some scientists write a research hypothesis , a statement that includes the hypothesis, the experiment, and the prediction all in one statement.
  • For example, If caffeine is a stimulant, and some children are given a drink with caffeine while others are given a drink without caffeine, then the heart rates of those children given a caffeinated drink will increase more than the heart rate of children given a non-caffeinated drink.

Step 7 Contextualize your hypothesis.

  • Using the above example, if you were to test the effects of caffeine on the heart rates of children, evidence that your hypothesis is not true, sometimes called the null hypothesis , could occur if the heart rates of both the children given the caffeinated drink and the children given the non-caffeinated drink (called the placebo control) did not change, or lowered or raised with the same magnitude, if there was no difference between the two groups of children.
  • It is important to note here that the null hypothesis actually becomes much more useful when researchers test the significance of their results with statistics. When statistics are used on the results of an experiment, a researcher is testing the idea of the null statistical hypothesis. For example, that there is no relationship between two variables or that there is no difference between two groups. [8] X Research source

Step 8 Test your hypothesis.

Hypothesis Examples

how to write an hypothesis in project

Community Q&A

Community Answer

  • Remember that science is not necessarily a linear process and can be approached in various ways. [10] X Research source Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • When examining the literature, look for research that is similar to what you want to do, and try to build on the findings of other researchers. But also look for claims that you think are suspicious, and test them yourself. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
  • Be specific in your hypotheses, but not so specific that your hypothesis can't be applied to anything outside your specific experiment. You definitely want to be clear about the population about which you are interested in drawing conclusions, but nobody (except your roommates) will be interested in reading a paper with the prediction: "my three roommates will each be able to do a different amount of pushups." Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0

how to write an hypothesis in project

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  • ↑ https://undsci.berkeley.edu/for-educators/prepare-and-plan/correcting-misconceptions/#a4
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/general_writing/common_writing_assignments/research_papers/choosing_a_topic.html
  • ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/writing_in_the_social_sciences/writing_in_psychology_experimental_report_writing/experimental_reports_1.html
  • ↑ https://www.grammarly.com/blog/how-to-write-a-hypothesis/
  • ↑ https://grammar.yourdictionary.com/for-students-and-parents/how-create-hypothesis.html
  • ↑ https://flexbooks.ck12.org/cbook/ck-12-middle-school-physical-science-flexbook-2.0/section/1.19/primary/lesson/hypothesis-ms-ps/
  • ↑ https://iastate.pressbooks.pub/preparingtopublish/chapter/goal-1-contextualize-the-studys-methods/
  • ↑ http://mathworld.wolfram.com/NullHypothesis.html
  • ↑ http://undsci.berkeley.edu/article/scienceflowchart

About This Article

Bess Ruff, MA

Before writing a hypothesis, think of what questions are still unanswered about a specific subject and make an educated guess about what the answer could be. Then, determine the variables in your question and write a simple statement about how they might be related. Try to focus on specific predictions and variables, such as age or segment of the population, to make your hypothesis easier to test. For tips on how to test your hypothesis, read on! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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NEW YORK, NEW YORK - JANUARY 31: U.S. President Joe Biden arrives to give a speech on the Hudson ... [+] River tunnel project at the West Side Yard on January 31, 2023 in New York City. President Biden traveled to New York to speak about how the passage of the bipartisan infrastructure law will help fund the Hudson River tunnel project and improve reliability for the 200,000 passenger trips per weekday on Amtrak and NJ Transit. (Photo by Michael M. Santiago/Getty Images)

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Emerging tech dissected by technologists

Grafana: Shining a light into Kubernetes clusters

Grafana creator torkel ödegaard traces the open-source project’s journey to help developers visualize what’s going on inside distributed cloud-native infrastructure..

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Back in 2014, when the wave of containers, Kubernetes, and distributed computing was breaking over the technology industry, Torkel Ödegaard was working as a platform engineer at eBay Sweden. Like other devops pioneers, Ödegaard was grappling with the new form factor of microservices and containers and struggling to climb the steep Kubernetes operations and troubleshooting learning curve. 

As an engineer striving to make continuous delivery both safe and easy for developers, Ödegaard needed a way to visualize the production state of the Kubernetes system and the behavior of users. Unfortunately, there was no specific playbook for how to extract, aggregate, and visualize the telemetry data from these systems. Ödegaard’s search eventually led him to a nascent monitoring tool called Graphite, and to another tool called Kibana that simplified the experience of creating visualizations.

“With Graphite you could with very little effort send metrics from your application detailing its internal behaviors, and for me, that was so empowering as a developer to actually see real-time insight into what the applications and services were doing and behaving, and what the impact of a code change or new deployment was,” Ödegaard told InfoWorld. “That was so visually exciting and rewarding and made us feel so much more confident about how things were behaving.”

What prompted Ödegaard to start his own side project was that, despite the power of Graphite, it was very difficult to use. It required learning a complicated query language, and clunky processes for building out frameworks. But Ödegaard realized that, if you could combine the monitoring power of Graphite with the ease of Kibana, you could make visualizations for distributed systems much more accessible and useful for developers.

And that’s how the vision for Grafana was born. Today Grafana and other observability tools fill not a niche in the monitoring landscape but a gaping chasm that traditional network and systems monitoring tools never anticipated.

A cloud operating system

Recent decades have seen two major jumps in infrastructure evolution. First, we went from beefy “scale-up” servers to “scale-out” fleets of commodity Linux servers running in data centers. Then we made another leap to even higher levels of abstraction, approaching our infrastructure as an aggregation of cloud resources that are accessed through APIs .

Throughout this distributed systems evolution driven by aggregations, abstractions, and automation, the “operating system” analogy has been repeatedly invoked. Sun Microsystems had the slogan, “ The network is the computer .” UC Berkeley AMPLab’s Matei Zaharia, creator of Apache Spark , co-creator of Apache Mesos, and now CTO and co-founder at Databricks, said “ the data center needs an operating system .” And today, Kubernetes is increasingly referred to as a “ cloud operating system .” 

Calling Kubernetes an operating system draws quibbles from some, who are quick to point out the differences between Kubernetes and  actual  operating systems.

But the analogy is reasonable. You do not need to tell your laptop which core to fire up when you launch an application. You do not need to tell your server which resources to use every time an API request is made. Those processes are automated through operating system primitives. Similarly, Kubernetes (and the ecosystem of cloud-native infrastructure software in its orbit) provides OS-like abstractions that make distributed systems possible by masking low-level operations from the user.

The flip side to all this wonderful abstraction and automation is that understanding what’s going on under the hood of Kubernetes and distributed systems requires a ton of coordination that falls back to the user. Kubernetes never shipped with a pretty GUI that automagically rolls up system performance metrics, and traditional monitoring tools were never designed to aggregate all of the telemetry data being emitted by these vastly complicated systems. 

From zero to 20 million users in 10 years

Dashboard creation and visualization are the common associations that developers draw when they think of Grafana. Its power as a visualization tool and its ability to work with just about any type of data made it a hugely popular open-source project , well beyond distributed computing and cloud-native use cases. 

Hobbyists use Grafana visualization for everything from visualizing bee colony activities inside the hive, to tracking carbon footprints in scientific research. Grafana was used in the SpaceX control center for the Falcon 9 launch in 2015, then again by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in its own lunar landing. This is a technology that is literally everywhere you find visualization use cases.

But the real story is Grafana’s impact on an observability domain that prior to its arrival was defined by proprietary back-end databases and query languages that locked users into specific vendor offerings, major switching costs for vendors to migrate to other users, and walled gardens of supported data sources.

Ödegaard attributes much of the early success of Grafana to the plugin system that he created in its early days. After he personally wrote the InfluxDB and Elasticsearch data sources for Grafana, community members contributed integrations with Prometheus and OpenTSDB , setting off a wave of community plugins to Grafana. Today the project supports more than 160 external data sources—what it calls a “big tent” approach to observability.

The Grafana project continues to work with other open-source projects like OpenTelemetry to provide simple standard semantic models to all telemetry data types and to unify the “pillars” of observability telemetry data (logs, metrics, traces, profiling). The Grafana community is connected by an “own your own data” philosophy that continues to attract connectors and integrations with every possible database and telemetry data type.

Grafana futures: New visualizations and telemetry sources

Ödegaard says that Grafana’s visualization capabilities have been a big personal focus for the evolution of the project. “There’s been a long journey of creating a new React application architecture where third-party developers can build dashboard-like applications in Grafana,” Ödegaard said. 

But beyond enriching the ways that third parties can create visualizations on top of this application architecture, the dashboards themselves are getting a big boost in intelligence. 

“One big trend is that dashboard  creation  should eventually be made obsolete,” said Ödegaard. “Developers shouldn’t have to build them manually, they should be intelligent enough to generate automatically based on data types, team relationships, and other criteria. By knowing the query language, libraries detected, the programming languages you are writing with, and more. We are working to make the experience much more dynamic, reusable and composable.”

Ödegaard also sees Grafana visualization capabilities evolving towards new de-aggregation methods—being able to go backward from charts to how graphs are composed and break down the data into component dimensions and root causes.

The cloud infrastructure observability journey will continue to see new layers of abstraction and telemetry data. Kernel-level abstraction eBPF is rewriting the rules for how kernel primitives become programmable to platform engineers. Cilium, a project that recently graduated from Cloud Native Computing Foundation incubation, has created a network abstraction layer that allows for even more aggregations and abstractions across multi-cloud environments.

This is only the beginning. Artificial intelligence is introducing new considerations every day for the intersection of programming language primitives, specialized hardware, and the need for humans to understand what’s happening inside the highly dynamic AI workloads that are so computationally expensive to run.

You write it, you monitor it

As Kubernetes and related projects continue to stabilize the cloud operating model, Ödegaard believes that the health monitoring and observability considerations will continue to fall to human operators to instrument, and that observability will be one of the superpowers that distinguish the most sought-after talent.

“If you write it, you run it, and you  should  be on call for the software you write—that’s a very important philosophy,” Ödegaard said. “And in that vein, when you write software you should be thinking about how to monitor it, how to measure its behavior, not only from a performance and stability perspective but from a business impact perspective.”

For a cloud operating system that’s evolving at breakneck speed, who better than Ödegaard to champion humans’ need to reason with underlying systems? Besides loving to program, he has a passion for natural history and evolution, and reads every book he can get his hands on about natural history and evolutionary psychology.

“If you don’t think evolution is amazing, something’s wrong with you. It’s the way nature  programs . How much more awesome can it get?”

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Travis Van has been following open source and distributed computing for more than 20 years, with a particular focus on cloud and network infrastructure, programming languages, developer frameworks, and platform engineering trends. He is the founder of information technology news aggregation service TechNews.io. As an InfoWorld contributor, he tells the stories of open source creators and maintainers who are tackling the hardest problems of distributed computing and laying the foundations for the next wave of enterprise computing.

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Acknowledgement for Project

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how to write an hypothesis in project

What is Acknowledgment for Project?

Acknowledgment in a project is a section where the writer expresses gratitude to individuals, groups, or institutions that contributed to the completion of the project. It typically includes thanks to advisors, faculty, peers, and family who provided support, guidance, or resources.

How to Write an Acknowledgment for Project?

Writing an acknowledgment for a project involves expressing gratitude in a structured and respectful manner. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to craft an effective acknowledgment section for your project:

1. Start with the Most Significant Contributions

Begin by thanking those who have made the most significant impact on your project. This often includes project advisors, supervisors, or professors. Acknowledging their guidance and support first sets the right tone.

2. Thank Supporting Staff and Colleagues

Include a thank-you to colleagues, laboratory assistants, librarians, or anyone else who provided technical support or assistance. These individuals often contribute immensely behind the scenes.

3. Acknowledge Financial Support

If your project received funding or scholarships, mention these sources and express your gratitude for the financial support. This could include grants, fellowships, or corporate sponsors.

4. Include Your Peers and Friends

Friends and peers often provide moral support, feedback, or informal advice that is crucial during challenging phases of a project. A thank you to these individuals shows your appreciation for their personal support.

5. Mention Family Members

It’s common to acknowledge family members who have provided emotional or financial support throughout your project. Personalizing this section adds a heartfelt touch to your acknowledgment.

6. Keep It Professional and Concise

While it’s important to be heartfelt, keeping your acknowledgments professional and to the point is crucial. The language should be formal yet warm and should directly state the nature of the help or support received.

7. Review and Revise

Review your acknowledgment to ensure you haven’t missed anyone significant. It’s also a good practice to have someone else read it to catch any overlooked errors or omissions.

8. Final Placement

Typically, the acknowledgment is placed after the abstract and before the table of contents in your project report . Ensure it is visible and formatted according to the rest of your document .

Acknowledgement for Project Do’s and Don’ts

Crafting an acknowledgment for a project requires a balance of professionalism and gratitude. Below are key do’s and don’ts to consider when writing this important section of your project documentation.

  • Express genuine gratitude and specify how each person or entity contributed to your project. General statements can seem insincere.
  • Keep the language formal yet warm. This section, while personal, is still part of an academic or professional document.
  • Prioritize those who had the most impact on your project, typically starting with academic advisors or supervisors and ending with personal acknowledgments.
  • While it’s important to be thorough, avoid overly lengthy descriptions. Keep your acknowledgments concise and to the point.
  • Like any part of your project, the acknowledgment should be free from grammatical and spelling errors. A well-edited acknowledgment reflects your attention to detail.


  • Even if you are close to those you are thanking, avoid colloquialisms and slang. Maintain a professional level of decorum.
  • Failing to acknowledge key supporters can be seen as a slight. Make sure you thoroughly review who has supported your project and ensure they are recognized.
  • While you should be appreciative, excessive praise can come off as insincere or unprofessional.
  • Humor can be misinterpreted in professional documents. Keep the tone respectful and straightforward.
  • The acknowledgment section is not the place for personal stories or confessions about your struggles during the project. Keep the focus on gratitude towards contributors.

Samples of Acknowledgement for Project

Creating an effective acknowledgment section in your project documentation can set a professional and appreciative tone. Here are sample acknowledgments that you can adapt based on your specific needs:

Sample 1: Academic Thesis

“I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my supervisor, Professor Jane Smith, for her unwavering support and guidance throughout the duration of this thesis . Her expertise and insights were invaluable to the completion of this research. I also wish to thank the members of the Biology Department for their helpful comments and suggestions. A special thanks goes to my peers and family for their encouragement and understanding.”

Sample 2: School Project

“I am grateful to Mr. John Doe, my science teacher, for his assistance and the knowledge he shared that greatly aided the completion of this project. I also appreciate my classmates for their collaboration and my family for their encouragement and support throughout this process.”

Sample 3: Engineering Project

“This project could not have been accomplished without the support of our project mentor, Dr. Emily Taylor, whose guidance from the initial to the final level enabled me to develop an understanding of the subject. My sincere thanks also go to the technical staff of the Engineering Workshop for their help and insights in keeping my project on schedule.”

Sample 4: Community Service Project

“I would like to thank the Community Service Office, particularly Mrs. Laura Green, for the opportunity to work on this meaningful project. Her guidance was crucial to our success. I am also thankful for the enthusiastic participation of my teammates and the support from the local community, which was vital for our project’s impact.”

Sample 5: Business Research Project

“My profound gratitude goes to my advisor, Mr. Robert Miles, for his expert advice and continuous engagement with the project. Thanks are also due to my colleagues at ABC Corporation for their assistance in gathering essential data and to my family for their patience and unwavering support throughout the duration of this project.”

Acknowledgement Sample for University Project

“I would like to extend my deepest gratitude to my project supervisor, Dr. Helen Foster, for her invaluable guidance and persistent encouragement throughout the course of this project. Her expertise and thoughtful advice have been crucial in shaping both the direction and the execution of this research. I am also thankful to the faculty of the Economics Department for their insightful feedback and supportive environment. Special appreciation goes to my peers in the research group, especially Mark Thompson and Sarah Lee, whose collaborative spirit and rigorous debate added greatly to my own understanding and refinement of the project. I also wish to acknowledge the financial support received from the University’s Research Grant Program, which was instrumental in facilitating my work. Lastly, my heartfelt thanks to my family for their understanding and support amidst the many hours dedicated to this project. Their encouragement has been a constant source of strength and motivation. This project would not have been possible without the contributions of each of these individuals and groups, and I am immensely grateful for their support.”

Acknowledgement for School project

“I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my project advisor, Mrs. Lisa Carter, for her continuous support and invaluable guidance throughout this project. Her expertise and patience have greatly contributed to my understanding of the subject matter. Special thanks also go to my classmates, especially John Smith and Emily White, for their insights and assistance in gathering necessary data and materials. Their collaboration was essential to the success of this project. Additionally, I am thankful to the staff at our school library for their assistance in providing the resources needed to complete my research. I also appreciate the support and encouragement from my family, who motivated me throughout the project process. This project would not have been possible without the contributions and support of everyone mentioned, and I am deeply grateful for their help.”

Acknowledgement For College Project

“I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to Professor Jane Anderson for her expert guidance and invaluable advice throughout the duration of this project. Her patience and knowledge were crucial in helping navigate the complexities of our research topic. I am also grateful to my project teammates, Alex Martinez, Riya Singh, and Jordan Lee, for their hard work, commitment, and cooperation. Our regular discussions and mutual support were essential for the successful completion of our project. Special thanks go to the technical support team at the college lab, whose assistance with the software and hardware made our data analysis possible. I would also like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the College of Business and Economics, which enabled us to access essential resources and materials. Lastly, my appreciation extends to my family and friends for their understanding and encouragement throughout this challenging but rewarding endeavor. This project has not only been a significant academic undertaking but also a deeply enriching experience, thanks to the support of everyone involved.”

Acknowledgement for Business Studies project

“I am immensely grateful to my business studies teacher, Mr. Robert Harris, for his guidance and support throughout the development of this project. His insights into business strategy and management were invaluable and greatly enhanced the quality of my work. I would also like to thank my project group members, Anna Lee, Michael Johnson, and Sarah Ford, for their collaboration and dedication. Their perspectives and contributions were crucial in achieving a comprehensive analysis and understanding of our case study. A special acknowledgment goes to the guest lecturers from the local business community who provided us with real-world examples and enriched our discussions with their practical knowledge. Additionally, my gratitude extends to my parents and family for their patience and encouragement, which were a great source of motivation during challenging phases of the project. Lastly, thanks to the school administration for providing the facilities and resources that helped us conduct our research effectively. This project has been a significant part of my learning journey, and I appreciate everyone who played a part in it.”

Acknowledgement for Group Project

“I extend my deepest gratitude to our project advisor, Dr. Emily Thompson, for her invaluable guidance and support throughout this group project. Her expertise and feedback were crucial in directing our research and refining our final outputs. Special thanks are due to each of my team members: Michael Green, Sara Kim, and Joshua Lee. Their dedication, insight, and hard work were integral to the success of our project. Collaborating with them was not only educational but also immensely enjoyable. I would also like to acknowledge our department’s administrative staff, who facilitated our project logistics and provided essential support with scheduling and resources. Our appreciation also goes to the peers who participated in our surveys and interviews, providing the critical data needed for our analysis. Lastly, I am grateful for the constant encouragement and support from our families and friends, who helped us stay motivated and focused throughout the duration of the project. This project was a collective effort, and its success is a reflection of the hard work and commitment of everyone involved.”

What is Acknowledgement in an Assignment?

Acknowledgment in an assignment is a section where the writer expresses gratitude towards those who contributed to the completion of the work. This includes thanking mentors, peers, and family for their support, advice, or resources, highlighting their role in facilitating the project’s success.

What is the Basic Acknowledgement Statement?

A basic acknowledgment statement typically reads: “I would like to express my sincere gratitude to [Name] for their invaluable support and guidance throughout the completion of this project, without which this would not have been possible.”

How to write an Acknowledgement in a Law Project?

To write an acknowledgment in a law project, start by thanking your supervisor or professor for their guidance. Acknowledge any legal professionals or mentors who provided insights, and mention peers or legal aides who assisted in research. Finally, express gratitude to family or friends for their support. Keep it formal, concise, and focused on professional contributions.


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TRANSCRIPT: NPR's interview with the Heritage Foundation's Oversight Project

This interview was part of NPR's reporting for this story .

Credit: NPR

Read the transcript

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I'm gonna also start recording on my end.

ELLEN WITTMAN (HERITAGE FOUNDATION): And then we have like this free floating mic, Jude, so you want to just, does Mike just need to talk directly into the mic for best audio quality or what?

A flyer in her name told migrants to vote for Biden. But she says she didn't write it

Untangling Disinformation

A flyer in her name told migrants to vote for biden. but she says she didn't write it.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Sure. Yeah. We can, Mike do you want to just do a little soundcheck? Give us your name and title.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): Yeah. 1-2-3-4-5. I'm Mike Howell, executive director of the Oversight Project.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I think that's sounding pretty good. What do you think, Audrey?

AUDREY NGUYEN (NPR): Sounds good.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Okay, great.

AUDREY NGUYEN (NPR): Anthony, could we get a couple? Could you just tell us your name and title as well, so we can make sure that you're sounding good?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Sure. My name is Anthony Rubin, and I'm the founder of Muckraker.com.

AUDREY NGUYEN (NPR): You both sound great. Thank you so much.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Great. Thank you again for for joining. So I wanted to start by asking you guys about, um, well, about the relationship between Oversight Project and Muckraker. And so you guys have been working together on this thread and, and other projects. Can you tell me a little bit more about that?

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): Yeah, absolutely. I'd just like to start by saying thanks for taking the time to sit down with us. This is the first time I've ever paid with my taxpayer funds for a hit piece on us. But, uh, the relationship between Muckraker and Heritage is a very, very powerful one. It's not one we go into great detail because, as you well know, we're going up against some very powerful and dangerous people to include the cartels, weaponized Biden administration, etc. and we're not interested in giving an org chart out. Uh, the proof is in the pudding with the bombshell reporting we've, we've put out, and we're glad to work with the great patriots at Muckraker, and for that matter, anybody across any ideological spectrum who's willing to to fight the invasion of the United States.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Okay. And. When, when it comes to this flyer, can you walk me through, what was your process to verify the flyer that appears in that thread?

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): Right. So it's, we have a copy of it, it's real. I have it. It's on camera there. We have an affidavit about how it was, you know, come about. Uh, Gaby did not respond to comment from the Daily Signal. That's our process. The flyer is very real. It's telling illegal aliens to vote for Joe Biden at an invasion staging camp south of the border.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Yeah. Um, I mean, but if, oh so, so you, reached out to to Gaby before you published?

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): No, no, we published it. It was in the immediate public interest to know about the invasion in the United States. We had very little confidence that somebody who says their goal is to fight U.S. policy and is running an invasion camp would be willing to play ball. And so we we wanted the public to know about, you know, the political elements of this invasion as soon as possible. And, you know, as expected, she declined comment. She really has only been talking to, you know, regime media throughout.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): So you mentioned there, you, and you are alluding to running, a camp. And so our reporting has shown that there is a a camp in Matamoros that has had many different iterations with different waves of immigration, and it's gone through different cycles and looked different ways. There was a time when RCM did have a leadership role, it was staffing that camp from my understanding. But that, that is not the case right now. That it, it is kind of no one organization is in charge of it and that the local government is emptying it out and moving migrants to a different place and that there's very few people there right now. And so one of the things I'm trying to understand is, is if, if they if this organization does not have a direct connection to that camp, how does that how does that square with with what you're alleging about the flyer and its dissemination?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Well, let me say this, okay. I was down there. I'm sure if you saw the New York Times hit piece, uh, they, you know, so graciously included a video of my brother and I when we were in front of the Matamoros Resource Center. And while we were there, we met a man by the name of Hugo Abraham. Whether or not that's his real name, I'm not sure, but that's what he went by. And, um, he is apparently allegedly, the, uh, director of the Matamoros Resource Center, right there in Matamoros, so he's running that compound. And he gave me a firsthand tour of the camp. Right? And he actually walked us through. He knew everybody in the camp, and he was showing, hey, that, these people live over there. The Russians live back in back here in the back of the camp. And he was so familiar with it that he was, you know, letting himself into these different tents. And he was poking around and seeing if the Russians were there because he wanted to introduce us. So this idea that they don't have, um, any tie ins with that camp is, is total nonsense.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): My understanding is that some of the individuals who have been there have been there for quite a long time. Um, and so and they are just right across the street. So we did also talk to to Hugo as well. And he said that he was showing you around because at that point you had said that you were wanting to volunteer, that you had said that you had previously worked with migrants, that you had previously worked or currently worked with HIAS, and he was under the understanding that you were looking to volunteer. Is that accurate?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): That he was under the impression. Well, absolutely. Absolutely. You know, we were we were down there and we were inquiring whether or not it would be possible to volunteer. I'm not sure if you've done your background, any background research on myself. I'm sure you have. I mean, I'm well acquainted with the situation. I've followed the whole trail from Quito, Ecuador to the United States, crossed the Darien Gap. You know, I rode the train of death, been smuggled into Mexico by the Sinaloa cartel. I got kidnaped by the Gulf Cartel. The point is, I know the ins and outs of this thing. I've studied these NGOs that hand out all the maps. So, yeah, of course, we were inquiring whether or not it would be possible to, uh, volunteer. But the point is, the reason why I brought up Hugo or Hugo as you, as you call him, is because you had mentioned that Matamoros Resource Center is not affiliated with the camp. What I'm saying is, if the director of Matamoros Resource Center is giving me a firsthand tour, and knows these people by name and knows exactly where the Russians are, and is so comfortable in that camp that he's letting himself into their tents without knocking. I mean, to me, that shows that there's, uh, some sort of connection going on there.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Um, the. When, when one of the conversations you had with Hugo is that you asked, he said that you asked about if he knew of any organizations in the U.S. that were helping migrants to vote. Is that is that something you were asking about?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Excuse me, there's somebody, I have, I have room service knocking on my door. I'm on the road right now. Um. Hey, I'm okay. Thank you very much. Can you repeat the question?

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Yeah. I was just wondering if, if it's accurate that among the questions you asked Hugo was whether he knew of organizations in the U.S. that help migrants vote?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): I don't know if I asked that exact question. I'm sure you do. I'm sure that you have some audio recording of the entire conversation, though.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Um, no, I was not there for for that conversation. But I -

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): I don't recall exactly what I said, so I'm not going to go on record and say exactly what I may or may not have said. I do not recall exactly the words that came out of my mouth.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): Hey Jude, I know some organizations in the US who are trying to help illegal aliens vote, they would include the Biden administration. We just put out some shocking evidence on that today about their plans for it. The D.C. state government, we put out evidence yesterday about their plans to get illegals to vote, uh the Democrat National Committee and their associated lawyers, who are keeping all the vulnerabilities wide open for them to vote. Secretary Alejandro Mayorkas, a former board member of HIAS, who is as you know, the architect of this invasion, to uh, change the country to more preferential voting terms for them. So if you want to talk about organizations that are trying to get illegal aliens to vote, I got, I can go all day about that.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Well, you know, I, I am really curious about that, and I would like to learn more. I think the scope of this story, um, I have, like, a, a pretty long draft right now, so I can't add, sort of stuff outside of the flyer and Matamoros to this particular piece. But I'll be looking at what you posted for sure.


JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Okay. And, um. When we had some folks we work with as stringers go down to Matamoros um, to to try to report out this story, um, we've had, we have struck out finding anyone who has seen this flyer. Um and I just wonder if, I mean, we've talked to NGOs that are not RCM. We have talked to migrants who have no affiliation with RCM, and we have talked to migrants who have spent time inside RCM's office. We have tried to really cover our bases, talking with people who would be the most likely to have seen this document. But we have come up empty handed, and I wonder if you have an explanation of something we might be missing here about why why this flyer wouldn't, wouldn't be visible.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Well, I, I can't comment on that because I have no idea, uh, what your means and methods are for uh, questioning these people. I mean, I'm not sure you might be, you might be spooking them. I can tell you firsthand, having been on the ground talking to these illegal aliens for years now, in you know, many different countries throughout the entire trail, you know, if you know, if you approach these people a certain way, uh you will not get information out of them. So I can't comment on that. But what I will say is that the reason that we were tipped off to this story to begin with, it wasn't just, ah, mere coincidence that we just happened to be down there, "Wow, we found these flyers." No, we were tipped off to this by a worker in New York who's working at one of these illegal alien compounds. Um, and this guy called us up, and he said, listen, you know, I saw a flyer that this illegal alien who was living in this compound that I'm working at obtained, and, uh, he said, it says on the flyer to vote for Biden. He says, here's where you need to go. It's it's right there in Matamoros. And so we went and it checked out. So that's how we got this lead to begin with. Just so you are aware.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Yeah. And I'm glad you mentioned that because I was wondering how it all fits, how, how it all fits together. So you got the lead and that brought you to Matamoros. And then it was it in Matamoros that you found the individual who is, who authored the affidavit?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Was it in Matamoros that we found the individual. The individual who authored the affidavit um is somebody that that we have a close connection with. This isn't some random individual.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Okay and so then.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): And obviously we're protecting our sources and methods on this. They're up against some very dangerous, dangerous people.


JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): And so this, are there dates that you allege, that because the, the uh, the affidavit is dated, after the thread came out. And so I'm wondering if there are dates that pertain to when this individual, ah, alleges that they saw these flyers inside the office and when they recorded the video.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): So I'll answer that one. Yeah, of course, we have more information in the affidavit that we're keeping closely held until it's absolutely necessary. But the reason why the affidavit stated after the fact is because there is a uh pretty coordinated misinformation campaign after we posted the international breaking news story that we did. Uh there's individuals associated with Gaby who claimed that two poseurs placed the flyers and that unfortunately, you know how disinformation spreads on the internet, gained a little bit of a viralness to it. And then later, Gaby came out of hiding and changed her story to the Associated Press and said she had no idea how the flyers got there. And then some Soros activist lawyers, uh, were out there basically alleging that they think they could have been planted. And so we wanted to end with, you know, out of shadow of a doubt with a sworn affidavit under the penalty of perjury, that that was not the case. And so that's why we released it. Obviously, this is an ongoing investigation, and we're not, uh, releasing all of our things to the opposition right now, the opposition being those who were staging the invasion into the United States via these camps and running cover for them in the media and elsewhere.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Are we meant to understand that the video that appeared on, on, um, on X was recorded by the same person who authored the affidavit, or was the video that we saw on the X thread recorded by, by Muckraker or by Anthony or um somebody else on the team?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Well, there were multiple videos in the thread.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Sorry. Oh, I'm sorry, I'm talking specifically about the one of the flyers in the porta-potties.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Was that filmed by the, that was filmed by the individual who, uh, who was, you know, who gave the affidavit. Yes.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Okay. So the individual who gave the affidavit. Okay, so did you when you were in Matamoros, did you see this flyer in the wild, like, besides the besides the the way that you have disclosed seeing it, is there anything more we should understand about how, how you are have encountered this flyer?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): No, I think that the Twitter thread speaks for itself. All the information that you need is right there.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Okay, um. One of the things that has come up with this is that Gaby has denied authoring the flyer. There are signs that she did not. I mean, the-

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Signs that she did not? What are the signs that she did not? Other than her denying it, which I don't think that she would ever do anything other than deny it. So what are the signs that she did not? Other than her denial, which we could expect?

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Well, I mean, if you if your interest was to promote, uh, an idea and your organization, it seemed unusual to, with a flyer to a specific audience in Spanish, it seems unusual that you would use a phone number that you know is, is disconnected and not, no longer working or copy and paste from a website that you haven't updated in that communication. Um, and so-

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): That doesn't seem unusual to me, by the way. If she's the author of the website, that makes perfect sense as to why it's on the flyer. And I think there's a degree, if you were going to do something so outrageous, plausible deniability built in. And also, she's, you know, not a native Spanish speaker as we understand. So all these reasons have been proffered, but none of them go one direction or or the other. You have somebody who says it's their goal to, oppose U.S. policy, openly subverting the United States or staging invasion camps into the U.S. with something that meets up with the political activity history of that camp. We posted numerous pictures of that area with "Bye Trump" balloon signs. Can you believe that? It's like they went to Party City and got balloon signs. They have other photos of Kamala and Joe. These are these are very, very radical people. And I think, you know, the fact that the mainstream media and legacy media are taking this person who's subverting the U.S. at their word, is the most laughable part of this whole thing. And that's why we put out so much evidence. And the counterattack has provided absolutely zero evidence. Our international bombshell reporting has stood the the test of all scrutiny and will withstand some more.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Yeah. And I am just very curious. I mean, have you guys encountered any definitive evidence that refutes what we've put out, other than hearsay, other than her claim that she didn't do it, which again, it is expected, of course.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Well, I think what, I think the issue here is that if the allegation is that these flyers were distributed for the purpose of convincing people to see them, like with the purpose of having them be seen, and having, um, migrants see them and act on them, it would, one would expect there to be some evidence of of them being around, of, of other people having seen them, of people hearing of the organization promoting voting in other contexts. And we haven't been able to find that.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): Yeah. That's where I think you take a jump and a skip there. There's no allegation of that. What we provided is evidence that the flyer was at the camp. But go ahead, Anthony.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Well, you know, let me just say this with without divulging too much, because this is ongoing. But I think that I could safely say this without jeopardizing any sources right now. You know, I had an individual reach out to me. Okay, who's. Here's what you need to understand, okay? And um, maybe you already know this. I'm not sure how much investigation you've already done into this matter and affiliated organizations, uh, you know, in Matamoros and then there in Brownsville, in the Rio Grande Valley at large. But there's a whole ecosystem there in the Rio Grande Valley, and right across the border, of these different NGOs. Okay. I had an insider, who I'm not gonna, I'm not going to name names. We're still working with this person. But I had an insider reach out to me. Um, who told me flat out, he says, "Hey, listen, uh, they are passing photos around of you, and of myself and my brother, in these, in these, groups, in these group chats that have the heads of all these Rio Grande Valley migrant, illegal alien NGOs. Okay, but that's not the point. My point in saying this, so I continue to talk to this guy, and then he tells me more about some of these NGOs down there, and then he says, yeah, just so you are aware, like, um, these organizations down there, I'm not going to name names right now. We will report on this in the future. But he says these organizations openly tell these illegals to uh go to blue states to avoid red states because they are not as friendly and your, your asylum case may not go the way you want it to go, um and to support the Democratic Party. This is told to me by an individual who has direct tie ins with some of the giant, some of the biggest illegal alien NGOs there in South Texas. So just so you're aware. So when you're telling me that there is no, uh, evidence of these people, you know, trying to get these illegal aliens to vote, I mean, that that's just simply not true. They certainly do encourage them. You know, but the flyer was a bit damning, and that was actually in writing.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I'm sorry I missed. Can you repeat, what, wait, what so I...I was following with the, these organizations are in the chat thread. But what was the part about promoting voting?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): So what I'm telling you is that this individual who reached out to us, who told me that, who told me that we were essentially being doxxed, doxxed, myself and my brother, in a group chat that contains the heads of these various South Texas illegal alien NGOs. Um, then goes on to tell me that these same NGOs, the names I will not mention, uh, openly tell these illegals to vote a certain — not not to vote a certain way — but to support a certain side of the political spectrum. To support a certain party, the Democratic Party, for various reasons that he listed. So just so you're aware, I mean, it's not as if these people are not being told this information.


MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): And Jill Biden went down to this camp. I mean, I don't know what else people need to understand about this being a partisan, uh, you know, center for activity. "Bye Trump" balloon signs, Jill Biden going down there. All of this connected together I think leaves most people, and this is why the story, you know, went so viral is because they understand this is what the invasion is for.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Not only that, let me, let me just add this. You know, I have interviewed these people, again, for years. And I could send you, you know, I'm actually, you know, maybe I'm, maybe I'm actually going to do this. Um, I've been putting it off for way too long. I probably have like an hour in total of the footage just interviewing these people. "Hey, who do you support, Biden or Trump?" And they all say Biden, every. I've never found one that says they support Trump. And they know why, because he supports the migrantes, right? I have videos down in, uh, Southern Mexico, um, of a giant caravan as they they've been stopped by the police and they're all very angry and agitated, and they all start chanting for Biden. Okay, that's on my Twitter page. You guys go find it. So this idea that you know, that this is not for political purposes and that this would not be then weaponized once they cross the border, is pretty ridiculous.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I think I'm still failing to find the leap between what you're saying and somebody casting a ballot and committing a crime.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): You're, you're, you don't see the connect. Well, that's. I , I, I don't know what to say. I mean, maybe.


ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): I mean, maybe if I had a whiteboard we could, like, actually draw it out. I don't really know what to say. I mean, there have been, it it's on record that illegal aliens have fraudulently voted in our election. Now, to what degree? I suppose you could debate that, but it's not up for debate that that's happened. Unless you, unless you disagree with that.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): No. I've seen studies that show that it is incredibly rare.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Whoa who whoa. Incredibly rare or not. I mean, that's a serious crime.



JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Oh, yeah. No, no, no, but I mean, I'm just saying that if if, a migrant who says that they, when you say, "Do you like Biden or Trump?" And if they answer, "Biden," to me, I'm not going to assume that that person is going to attempt to vote in the next election.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): You know, I would encourage you to look at all the lawfare efforts designed to make sure the elections can be voted in by by illegal aliens, you know, the resistance to the basic citizenship question, the bombshell report we just released about a White House meeting saying that we should trust illegals to act within the bounds of the law. All these things in concert, I mean, it's pretty obvious to the everyday American, maybe not in the newsrooms at NPR, but that this invasion is political in name.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): To be honest with you, Jude, I, I don't believe, if that is who I am talking to I can't see your face, but I'm assuming that's who I'm talking to here.


ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Okay. I, I truly don't believe that that you don't see the danger here. But I think that you may be toeing a certain line. I mean do you truly, based off everything we've told you here, and I'm sure that you you're a smart person. I mean, you got a job at NPR. I don't think that they hire morons. Um, do you, do you really not see the danger with what we're talking about here?

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Well, I think that you guys have hit on an incredibly hot button issue. Um, I think there are a lot of people who are concerned about election integrity. There's a lot of people who are concerned about immigration. And your, um, the thread that you've worked on has gotten a lot of attention. Um, and that is why we are trying to report out the facts to make sure that we understand what is going on here. I mean, that, I mean, that is. There, the stakes are incredibly high for the themes that you guys are, are touching on.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): They are. We could have a president elected by illegal aliens in this country after we just had a very, uh questionable election last go around. I don't think the public can withstand uh more trust uh being broken down in their election system. And that's why this invasion and the loosening of voting restrictions and the protection, I will say, of the illegal aliens' ability to vote is, is so paramount.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I'm wondering if you can explain, um, I, I appreciate that you, um have, um, decided to not disclose everything about um, all of the partnerships and arrangements. But I mean, is it fair to say that that Muckraker was paid for this investigation?

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): No, it's not fair to say that all because we haven't said that. We don't go into our sources and methods. We're the most prestigious international investigative body. Along with Muckraker, we have plenty of relationships, worldwide. And I'm not going to put out an org chart for the cartels or NPR.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Okay? No, I and I said that just because I saw the Oversight Project stamp on the video. And so normally there would be a financial transaction to obtain video, but we can leave it at that.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): We'd be happy to partner with NPR on one of these as well. I'll throw that out there. We will work across the ideological spectrum. Anyone who's willing to fight the invasion.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I'm wondering if...

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): We won't charge you for the stamp either.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Okay. Um, I'm wondering about. I mean, so this issue that we've talked a little bit about, but I mean, this issue about whether or not Gaby Zavala authored this flyer, she says she did not. Your position is that there's no evidence that she did not do it, and that your investigation still stands, because the point is that this flyer exists and was seen in a place where migrants could see it. Is that is that accurate?

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): That's a lot of words to say there is a flyer in a porta potty in an invasion camp encouraging illegals to vote for Biden. But.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): But I'm trying to understand if like...

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): But nobody, nobody ever alleged that she was the author. Nobody ever alleged that. I have not seen that alleged by Muckraker or by, uh, Heritage.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Right. But I think by circulating a document that has somebody's name on it, then by extension, it's it's promoting, it's circulating, that piece of information. And so she's been, this is somebody who says she has not authored a document who is now in the public sphere associated with the document. And so I just wonder, like, in a situation like that with if, you know, if Oversight Project's name was on a document and other people promoted it and, uh, insisted there was a link, like, would you have an expectation of some kind of verification process?

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): Well, I have zero expectations that the media is going to be, uh, anything other than that already have been in this country and that's, you know, very partisan and slanted. And I'm sure the hit pieces have already come in on, on us, just like I'm sure this one will end up. So no, I have zero expectations of that. I know that a lot of people will treat us very, very unfairly. We just ask that you treat everyone else nicely. We've got to be people of character.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I mean, because, Anthony, you were at the you were at the RCM facility. Did did it occur to you to ask for their perspective on the flyer, if they knew where it came from or had any relationship to it?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Did it occur? It it certainly occurred to me. Yeah. It's not as if that thought did not pass through my head. Ah, but you know what also passed through my head is the uh, thought of me getting kidnaped not very far from there before. I mean, I was literally kidnaped with my brother by the Gulf Cartel that operates right there. After they kidnaped us, they dropped us off at the port of entry, that's right by that Matamoros Resource Center. Okay. They operate right there. So if you think that thought didn't pass through my head, you'd be incorrect. Of course it did. But, you know, the other thought is, well, I need to maintain a low profile here because I am in enemy territory. The cartel literally told me, never come back here again. And there I am, standing there. So, you know, I kind of have to, you know, pick and choose what I'm going to say and try to maintain a low profile. And I would think that saying, showing up there and saying, "Hey, check out this flyer." You know was, I mean, that might, you know, uh, bring unnecessary attention, shall we say, upon myself and my brother, in enemy territory.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): Yeah. I'll add this is an invasion into the United States. Would the United States reach out to the CCP to verify intelligence about them flooding fentanyl into this country? Of course not. This is an invasion into the US. We aren't going to get into, uh, running things up through, you know, connective tissues to cartel chains and org charts. We put the flyer out. The flyer was accurate. It remains accurate.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Okay. Well, I'm. I'm really grateful to you guys for, um, for your time. I, you know, always want to hear, uh, the perspectives of everybody that we're reporting on whenever they touch a story. And it's so important to be able to to talk and get to listen. Do you have, um, anything else that you would like to add?

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Well, I would like to add a question, perhaps. Um, did you happen to read the New York Times article, the hit piece?

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Um , yes, I did.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): I'm just curious if you guys are considering just, you know, not that you have any obligation to, but I'm curious if you guys are considering taking a different approach to this article or if it's going to be the same sort of line of, ah, you know, writing. It's going to be just another similar hit piece. Like, do you guys have a different angle here or or how are you guys approaching this? I'm just very curious.

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Well, I'm grateful to you guys for giving us the time. I wanted to find out if there was more evidence that we were not aware of, so that we could frame our story. And we'll go back over this interview and evaluate what you've said and take it from there.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): I do have one more question.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): I have a final question. Are you familiar with the organization ACORN?


MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION): Do you have any previous association with them?

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I mean. I am not here to discuss, um.

MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): Is that a yes or a no? I'm struggling to understand. You work for us at NPR. Did you previously have an association with the far-left group ACORN?

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I did voter registration the summer that I graduated from college, and I, but this is not going to be a conversation about, um, about me. I, I'm going to end the interview there. Thank you.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): You are going to end the interview. Hold on a second. I got one more question. Unrelated to ACORN.


JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Of course not.


ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): Last question, you know, it would be, it would be great if you could answer this. Are you concerned at all with illegal aliens possibly voting in our upcoming election?

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): I am not answering any more questions.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): You can't? That should be a simple answer, should it not? You're not concerned about that?

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): We're going to end the interview there. Thank you.

ANTHONY RUBIN (MUCKRAKER): We're going to end the interview?

JUDE JOFFE-BLOCK (NPR): Yeah. Thank you.




  1. Best Example of How to Write a Hypothesis 2024

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  2. How to write a hypothesis

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  3. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis in 6 Simple Steps

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  4. How To Write A Hypothesis For A Research Proposal: Ultimate Guide

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  6. Research Hypothesis: Definition, Types, Examples and Quick Tips

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  1. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Developing a hypothesis (with example) Step 1. Ask a question. Writing a hypothesis begins with a research question that you want to answer. The question should be focused, specific, and researchable within the constraints of your project. Example: Research question.

  2. How to Write a Hypothesis 101: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Step 3: Build the Hypothetical Relationship. In understanding how to compose a hypothesis, constructing the relationship between the variables is key. Based on your research question and variables, predict the expected outcome or connection.

  3. How to Write a Hypothesis? Types and Examples

    Here are two hypothesis examples: Dandelions growing in nitrogen-rich soils for two weeks develop larger leaves than those in nitrogen-poor soils because nitrogen stimulates vegetative growth.4. If a company offers flexible work hours, then their employees will be happier at work.5.

  4. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis

    Step 5: Phrase your hypothesis in three ways. To identify the variables, you can write a simple prediction in if … then form. The first part of the sentence states the independent variable and the second part states the dependent variable. If a first-year student starts attending more lectures, then their exam scores will improve.

  5. What is a Research Hypothesis: How to Write it, Types, and Examples

    It seeks to explore and understand a particular aspect of the research subject. In contrast, a research hypothesis is a specific statement or prediction that suggests an expected relationship between variables. It is formulated based on existing knowledge or theories and guides the research design and data analysis. 7.

  6. How To Write An A-Grade Research Hypothesis (+ Examples ...

    Learn what exactly a research (or scientific) hypothesis is and how to write high-quality hypothesis statements for any dissertation, thesis, or research pro...

  7. How to Write a Hypothesis

    Use simple language: While your hypothesis should be conceptually sound, it doesn't have to be complicated. Aim for clarity and simplicity in your wording. State direction, if applicable: If your hypothesis involves a directional outcome (e.g., "increase" or "decrease"), make sure to specify this.

  8. How to Write a Hypothesis w/ Strong Examples

    Simple Hypothesis Examples. Increasing the amount of natural light in a classroom will improve students' test scores. Drinking at least eight glasses of water a day reduces the frequency of headaches in adults. Plant growth is faster when the plant is exposed to music for at least one hour per day.

  9. The Craft of Writing a Strong Hypothesis

    Simple hypothesis. A simple hypothesis is a statement made to reflect the relation between exactly two variables. One independent and one dependent. Consider the example, "Smoking is a prominent cause of lung cancer." The dependent variable, lung cancer, is dependent on the independent variable, smoking. 4.

  10. Writing a Hypothesis for Your Science Fair Project

    A hypothesis is a tentative, testable answer to a scientific question. Once a scientist has a scientific question she is interested in, the scientist reads up to find out what is already known on the topic. Then she uses that information to form a tentative answer to her scientific question. Sometimes people refer to the tentative answer as "an ...

  11. How to Write a Hypothesis

    Step 8: Test your Hypothesis. Design an experiment or conduct observations to test your hypothesis. Example: Grow three sets of plants: one set exposed to 2 hours of sunlight daily, another exposed to 4 hours, and a third exposed to 8 hours. Measure and compare their growth after a set period.

  12. What is a Research Hypothesis and How to Write a Hypothesis

    The steps to write a research hypothesis are: 1. Stating the problem: Ensure that the hypothesis defines the research problem. 2. Writing a hypothesis as an 'if-then' statement: Include the action and the expected outcome of your study by following a 'if-then' structure. 3.

  13. How to Write a Strong Hypothesis in 6 Simple Steps

    Learning how to write a hypothesis comes down to knowledge and strategy. So where do you start? Learn how to make your hypothesis strong step-by-step here.

  14. How To Write a Strong Research Hypothesis

    Here are some tips for crafting a well-crafted hypothesis: Consider the goal of your research: Think about what it is that you want to learn or determine from your experiment and make sure that your hypothesis reflects this goal. Create an educated guess as to why something is happening: Your hypothesis should explain why something is occurring ...

  15. How to Write a Research Hypothesis

    Research hypothesis checklist. Once you've written a possible hypothesis, make sure it checks the following boxes: It must be testable: You need a means to prove your hypothesis. If you can't test it, it's not a hypothesis. It must include a dependent and independent variable: At least one independent variable ( cause) and one dependent ...

  16. How to write an effective hypothesis

    Effective hypothesis crafting is at the center of product management. It's the link between dealing with risks and coming up with solutions that are both viable and valuable. However, it's important to recognize that the formulation of a hypothesis is just the first step. The real value of a hypothesis is made possible by rigorous testing.

  17. Writing a Hypothesis for Your Science Fair Project

    A hypothesis is the best answer to a question based on what is known. Scientists take that best answer and do experiments to see if it still makes sense or if a better answer can be made. When a scientist has a question they want to answer, they research what is already known about the topic. Then, they come up with their best answer to the ...

  18. What is a Hypothesis

    A hypothesis should be a clear and concise statement that predicts the relationship between the variables. It should be testable through empirical research and based on existing theory or evidence. Write the Null Hypothesis. The null hypothesis is the opposite of the alternative hypothesis, which is the hypothesis that you are testing.

  19. How to Write a Hypothesis: Definition, Types, Steps and Ideas

    Step 1: Ask the Right Question. The first step to developing a hypothesis is to come up with a research question that you would like to answer. Your research question is the problem you're trying to solve. So it should be specific and easy to research within the constraints of the project.

  20. Crafting Your Research: How to Write a Hypothesis

    Step One Identify the Problem or Research Question (Research Question) The first step to creating a hypothesis is identifying the issue or research question you want to tackle in your study. Begin by conducting an in-depth literature review, knowledge gaps analysis, and areas of potential interest within your field of study; ask yourself which ...

  21. How to Write a Hypothesis: 13 Steps (with Pictures)

    1. Select a topic. Pick a topic that interests you, and that you think it would be good to know more about. [2] If you are writing a hypothesis for a school assignment, this step may be taken care of for you. 2. Read existing research. Gather all the information you can about the topic you've selected.

  22. Hypothesis Testing Explained (How I Wish It Was Explained to Me)

    The curse of hypothesis testing is that we will never know if we are dealing with a True or a False Positive (Negative). All we can do is fill the confusion matrix with probabilities that are acceptable given our application. To be able to do that, we must start from a hypothesis. Step 1. Defining the hypothesis

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  28. TRANSCRIPT: NPR's interview with the Heritage Foundation's Oversight

    MIKE HOWELL (HERITAGE FOUNDATION OVERSIGHT PROJECT): Yeah, absolutely.I'd just like to start by saying thanks for taking the time to sit down with us. This is the first time I've ever paid with my ...