- Math Article

## Graphical Representation

Graphical Representation is a way of analysing numerical data. It exhibits the relation between data, ideas, information and concepts in a diagram. It is easy to understand and it is one of the most important learning strategies. It always depends on the type of information in a particular domain. There are different types of graphical representation. Some of them are as follows:

- Line Graphs – Line graph or the linear graph is used to display the continuous data and it is useful for predicting future events over time.
- Bar Graphs – Bar Graph is used to display the category of data and it compares the data using solid bars to represent the quantities.
- Histograms – The graph that uses bars to represent the frequency of numerical data that are organised into intervals. Since all the intervals are equal and continuous, all the bars have the same width.
- Line Plot – It shows the frequency of data on a given number line. ‘ x ‘ is placed above a number line each time when that data occurs again.
- Frequency Table – The table shows the number of pieces of data that falls within the given interval.
- Circle Graph – Also known as the pie chart that shows the relationships of the parts of the whole. The circle is considered with 100% and the categories occupied is represented with that specific percentage like 15%, 56%, etc.
- Stem and Leaf Plot – In the stem and leaf plot, the data are organised from least value to the greatest value. The digits of the least place values from the leaves and the next place value digit forms the stems.
- Box and Whisker Plot – The plot diagram summarises the data by dividing into four parts. Box and whisker show the range (spread) and the middle ( median) of the data.

## General Rules for Graphical Representation of Data

There are certain rules to effectively present the information in the graphical representation. They are:

- Suitable Title: Make sure that the appropriate title is given to the graph which indicates the subject of the presentation.
- Measurement Unit: Mention the measurement unit in the graph.
- Proper Scale: To represent the data in an accurate manner, choose a proper scale.
- Index: Index the appropriate colours, shades, lines, design in the graphs for better understanding.
- Data Sources: Include the source of information wherever it is necessary at the bottom of the graph.
- Keep it Simple: Construct a graph in an easy way that everyone can understand.
- Neat: Choose the correct size, fonts, colours etc in such a way that the graph should be a visual aid for the presentation of information.

## Graphical Representation in Maths

In Mathematics, a graph is defined as a chart with statistical data, which are represented in the form of curves or lines drawn across the coordinate point plotted on its surface. It helps to study the relationship between two variables where it helps to measure the change in the variable amount with respect to another variable within a given interval of time. It helps to study the series distribution and frequency distribution for a given problem. There are two types of graphs to visually depict the information. They are:

- Time Series Graphs – Example: Line Graph
- Frequency Distribution Graphs – Example: Frequency Polygon Graph

## Principles of Graphical Representation

Algebraic principles are applied to all types of graphical representation of data. In graphs, it is represented using two lines called coordinate axes. The horizontal axis is denoted as the x-axis and the vertical axis is denoted as the y-axis. The point at which two lines intersect is called an origin ‘O’. Consider x-axis, the distance from the origin to the right side will take a positive value and the distance from the origin to the left side will take a negative value. Similarly, for the y-axis, the points above the origin will take a positive value, and the points below the origin will a negative value.

Generally, the frequency distribution is represented in four methods, namely

- Smoothed frequency graph
- Pie diagram
- Cumulative or ogive frequency graph
- Frequency Polygon

## Merits of Using Graphs

Some of the merits of using graphs are as follows:

- The graph is easily understood by everyone without any prior knowledge.
- It saves time
- It allows us to relate and compare the data for different time periods
- It is used in statistics to determine the mean, median and mode for different data, as well as in the interpolation and the extrapolation of data.

## Example for Frequency polygonGraph

Here are the steps to follow to find the frequency distribution of a frequency polygon and it is represented in a graphical way.

- Obtain the frequency distribution and find the midpoints of each class interval.
- Represent the midpoints along x-axis and frequencies along the y-axis.
- Plot the points corresponding to the frequency at each midpoint.
- Join these points, using lines in order.
- To complete the polygon, join the point at each end immediately to the lower or higher class marks on the x-axis.

Draw the frequency polygon for the following data

Mark the class interval along x-axis and frequencies along the y-axis.

Let assume that class interval 0-10 with frequency zero and 90-100 with frequency zero.

Now calculate the midpoint of the class interval.

Using the midpoint and the frequency value from the above table, plot the points A (5, 0), B (15, 4), C (25, 6), D (35, 8), E (45, 10), F (55, 12), G (65, 14), H (75, 7), I (85, 5) and J (95, 0).

To obtain the frequency polygon ABCDEFGHIJ, draw the line segments AB, BC, CD, DE, EF, FG, GH, HI, IJ, and connect all the points.

## Frequently Asked Questions

What are the different types of graphical representation.

Some of the various types of graphical representation include:

- Line Graphs
- Frequency Table
- Circle Graph, etc.

Read More: Types of Graphs

## What are the Advantages of Graphical Method?

Some of the advantages of graphical representation are:

- It makes data more easily understandable.
- It saves time.
- It makes the comparison of data more efficient.

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## Graphical Representation

Graphical representation definition.

Graphical representation refers to the use of charts and graphs to visually display, analyze, clarify, and interpret numerical data, functions, and other qualitative structures.

## What is Graphical Representation?

Graphical representation refers to the use of intuitive charts to clearly visualize and simplify data sets. Data is ingested into graphical representation of data software and then represented by a variety of symbols, such as lines on a line chart, bars on a bar chart, or slices on a pie chart, from which users can gain greater insight than by numerical analysis alone.

Representational graphics can quickly illustrate general behavior and highlight phenomenons, anomalies, and relationships between data points that may otherwise be overlooked, and may contribute to predictions and better, data-driven decisions. The types of representational graphics used will depend on the type of data being explored.

## Types of Graphical Representation

Data charts are available in a wide variety of maps, diagrams, and graphs that typically include textual titles and legends to denote the purpose, measurement units, and variables of the chart. Choosing the most appropriate chart depends on a variety of different factors -- the nature of the data, the purpose of the chart, and whether a graphical representation of qualitative data or a graphical representation of quantitative data is being depicted. There are dozens of different formats for graphical representation of data. Some of the most popular charts include:

- Bar Graph -- contains a vertical axis and horizontal axis and displays data as rectangular bars with lengths proportional to the values that they represent; a useful visual aid for marketing purposes
- Choropleth -- thematic map in which an aggregate summary of a geographic characteristic within an area is represented by patterns of shading proportionate to a statistical variable
- Flow Chart -- diagram that depicts a workflow graphical representation with the use of arrows and geometric shapes; a useful visual aid for business and finance purposes
- Heatmap -- a colored, two-dimensional matrix of cells in which each cell represents a grouping of data and each cell’s color indicates its relative value
- Histogram – frequency distribution and graphical representation uses adjacent vertical bars erected over discrete intervals to represent the data frequency within a given interval; a useful visual aid for meteorology and environment purposes
- Line Graph – displays continuous data; ideal for predicting future events over time; a useful visual aid for marketing purposes
- Pie Chart -- shows percentage values as a slice of pie; a useful visual aid for marketing purposes
- Pointmap -- CAD & GIS contract mapping and drafting solution that visualizes the location of data on a map by plotting geographic latitude and longitude data
- Scatter plot -- a diagram that shows the relationship between two sets of data, where each dot represents individual pieces of data and each axis represents a quantitative measure
- Stacked Bar Graph -- a graph in which each bar is segmented into parts, with the entire bar representing the whole, and each segment representing different categories of that whole; a useful visual aid for political science and sociology purposes
- Timeline Chart -- a long bar labelled with dates paralleling it that display a list of events in chronological order, a useful visual aid for history charting purposes
- Tree Diagram -- a hierarchical genealogical tree that illustrates a family structure; a useful visual aid for history charting purposes
- Venn Diagram -- consists of multiple overlapping usually circles, each representing a set; the default inner join graphical representation

Proprietary and open source software for graphical representation of data is available in a wide variety of programming languages. Software packages often provide spreadsheets equipped with built-in charting functions.

## Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphical Representation of Data

Tabular and graphical representation of data are a vital component in analyzing and understanding large quantities of numerical data and the relationship between data points. Data visualization is one of the most fundamental approaches to data analysis, providing an intuitive and universal means to visualize, abstract, and share complex data patterns. The primary advantages of graphical representation of data are:

- Facilitates and improves learning: graphics make data easy to understand and eliminate language and literacy barriers
- Understanding content: visuals are more effective than text in human understanding
- Flexibility of use: graphical representation can be leveraged in nearly every field involving data
- Increases structured thinking: users can make quick, data-driven decisions at a glance with visual aids
- Supports creative, personalized reports for more engaging and stimulating visual presentations
- Improves communication: analyzing graphs that highlight relevant themes is significantly faster than reading through a descriptive report line by line
- Shows the whole picture: an instantaneous, full view of all variables, time frames, data behavior and relationships

Disadvantages of graphical representation of data typically concern the cost of human effort and resources, the process of selecting the most appropriate graphical and tabular representation of data, greater design complexity of visualizing data, and the potential for human bias.

## Why Graphical Representation of Data is Important

Graphic visual representation of information is a crucial component in understanding and identifying patterns and trends in the ever increasing flow of data. Graphical representation enables the quick analysis of large amounts of data at one time and can aid in making predictions and informed decisions. Data visualizations also make collaboration significantly more efficient by using familiar visual metaphors to illustrate relationships and highlight meaning, eliminating complex, long-winded explanations of an otherwise chaotic-looking array of figures.

Data only has value once its significance has been revealed and consumed, and its consumption is best facilitated with graphical representation tools that are designed with human cognition and perception in mind. Human visual processing is very efficient at detecting relationships and changes between sizes, shapes, colors, and quantities. Attempting to gain insight from numerical data alone, especially in big data instances in which there may be billions of rows of data, is exceedingly cumbersome and inefficient.

## Does HEAVY.AI Offer a Graphical Representation Solution?

HEAVY.AI's visual analytics platform is an interactive data visualization client that works seamlessly with server-side technologies HEAVY.AIDB and Render to enable data science analysts to easily visualize and instantly interact with massive datasets. Analysts can interact with conventional charts and data tables, as well as big data graphical representations such as massive-scale scatterplots and geo charts. Data visualization contributes to a broad range of use cases, including performance analysis in business and guiding research in academia.

## Introduction to Graphs

Table of Contents

15 December 2020

Read time: 6 minutes

## Introduction

What are graphs?

What are the different types of data?

What are the different types of graphical representations?

The graph is nothing but an organized representation of data. It helps us to understand the data. Data are the numerical information collected through observation.

The word data came from the Latin word Datum which means “something given”

After a research question is developed, data is being collected continuously through observation. Then it is organized, summarized, classified, and then represented graphically.

Differences between Data and information: Data is the raw fact without any add on but the information is the meaning derived from data.

## Introduction to Graphs-PDF

The graph is nothing but an organized representation of data. It helps us to understand the data. Data are the numerical information collected through observation. Here is a downloadable PDF to explore more.

- Line and Bar Graphs Application
- Graphs in Mathematics & Statistics

## What are the different Types of Data?

There are two types of Data :

## Quantitative

The data which are statistical or numerical are known as Quantitive data. Quantitive data is generated through. Quantitative data is also known as Structured data. Experiments, Tests, Surveys, Market Report.

Quantitive data is again divided into Continuous data and Discrete data.

## Continuous Data

Continuous data is the data which can have any value. That means Continuous data can give infinite outcomes so it should be grouped before representing on a graph.

- The speed of a vehicle as it passes a checkpoint
- The mass of a cooking apple
- The time taken by a volunteer to perform a task

## Discrete Data

Discrete data can have certain values. That means only a finite number can be categorized as discrete data.

- Numbers of cars sold at a dealership during a given month
- Number of houses in certain block
- Number of fish caught on a fishing trip
- Number of complaints received at the office of airline on a given day
- Number of customers who visit at bank during any given hour
- Number of heads obtained in three tosses of a coin

## Differences between Discrete and Continuous data

- Numerical data could be either discrete or continuous
- Continuous data can take any numerical value (within a range); For example, weight, height, etc.
- There can be an infinite number of possible values in continuous data
- Discrete data can take only certain values by finite ‘jumps’, i.e., it ‘jumps’ from one value to another but does not take any intermediate value between them (For example, number of students in the class)

## Qualitative

Data that deals with description or quality instead of numbers are known as Quantitative data. Qualitative data is also known as unstructured data. Because this type of data is loosely compact and can’t be analyzed conventionally.

## Different Types of Graphical Representations

There are many types of graph we can use to represent data. They are as follows,

A bar graph or chart is a way to represent data by rectangular column or bar. The heights or length of the bar is proportional to the values.

A line graph is a type of graph where the information or data is plotted as some dots which are known as markers and then they are added to each other by a straight line.

The line graph is normally used to represent the data that changes over time.

A histogram graph is a graph where the information is represented along with the height of the rectangular bar. Though it does look like a bar graph, there is a fundamental difference between them. With the histogram, each column represents a range of quantitative data when a bar graph represents categorical variables.

The other name of the pie chart is a circle graph. It is a circular chart where numerical information represents as slices or in fractional form or percentage where the whole circle is 100%.

- Stem and leaf plot

The stem and leaf plot is a way to represents quantitative data according to frequency ranges or frequency distribution.

In the stem and leaf plot, each data is split into stem and leaf, which is 32 will be split into 3 stems and 2 leaves.

Frequency table: Frequency means the number of occurrences of an event. A frequency distribution table is a graph or chart which shows the frequency of events. It is denoted as ‘f’ .

Pictograph or Pictogram is the earliest way to represents data in a pictorial form or by using symbols or images. And each image represents a particular number of things.

According to the above-mentioned Pictograph, the number of Appels sold on Monday is 6x2=12.

- Scatter diagrams

Scatter diagram or scatter plot is a way of graphical representation by using cartesian coordinates of two variables. The plot shows the relationship between two variables. Below there is a data table as well as a Scattergram as per the given data.

## What is the meaning of Graphical representation?

Graphical representation is a way to represent and analyze quantitive data. A graph is a kind of a chart where data are plotted as variables across the coordinate. It became easy to analyze the extent of change of one variable based on the change of other variables.

## Principles of graphical representation

The principles of graphical representation are algebraic. In a graph, there are two lines known as Axis or Coordinate axis. These are the X-axis and Y-axis. The horizontal axis is the X-axis and the vertical axis is the Y-axis. They are perpendicular to each other and intersect at O or point of Origin.

On the right side of the Origin, the Xaxis has a positive value and on the left side, it has a negative value. In the same way, the upper side of the Origin Y-axis has a positive value where the down one is with a negative value.

When X-axis and y-axis intersected each other at the origin it divides the plane into four parts which are called Quadrant I, Quadrant II, Quadrant III, Quadrant IV.

The location on the coordinate plane is known as the ordered pair and it is written as (x,y). That means the first value will be on the x-axis and the second one is on the y-axis. When we will plot any coordinate, we always have to start counting from the origin and have to move along the x-axis, if it is positive then to the right side, and if it is negative then to the left side. Then from the x-axis, we have to plot the y’s value, which means we have to move up for positive value or down if the value is negative along with the y-axis.

In the following graph, 1st ordered pair (2,3) where both the values of x and y are positive and it is on quadrant I. 2nd ordered pair (-3,1), here the value of x is negative and value of y is positive and it is in quadrant II. 3rd ordered pair (-1.5, -2.5), here the value of x as well as y both are Negative and in quadrant III.

## Methods of representing a frequency distribution

There are four methods to represent a frequency distribution graphically. These are,

- Smoothed Frequency graph
- Cumulative frequency graph or Ogive.
- Pie diagram.

## Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphical representation of data

- It improves the way of analyzing and learning as the graphical representation makes the data easy to understand.
- It can be used in almost all fields from mathematics to physics to psychology and so on.
- It is easy to understand for its visual impacts.
- It shows the whole and huge data in an instance.

The main disadvantage of graphical representation of data is that it takes a lot of effort as well as resources to find the most appropriate data and then represents it graphically.

You may also like:

- Graphing a Quadratic Function
- Empirical Relationship Between Mean, Median, and Mode

Not only in mathematics but almost in every field the graph is a very important way to store, analyze, and represents information. After any research work or after any survey the next step is to organize the observation or information and plotting them on a graph paper or plane. The visual representation of information makes the understanding of crucial components or trends easier.

A huge amount of data can be store or analyze in a small space.

The graphical representation of data helps to decide by following the trend.

A complete Idea: Graphical representation constitutes a clear and comprehensive idea in the minds of the audience. Reading a large number (say hundreds) of pages may not help to make a decision. Anyone can get a clear idea just by looking into the graph or design.

Graphs are a very conceptual topic, so it is essential to get a complete understanding of the concept. Graphs are great visual aids and help explain numerous things better, they are important in everyday life. Get better at graphs with us, sign up for a free trial .

## About Cuemath

Cuemath, a student-friendly mathematics and coding platform, conducts regular Online Classes for academics and skill-development, and their Mental Math App, on both iOS and Android , is a one-stop solution for kids to develop multiple skills. Understand the Cuemath Fee structure and sign up for a free trial.

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is data.

Data are characteristics or information, usually numerical, that are collected through observation.

## How do you differentiate between data and information?

Data is the raw fact without any add on but the information is the meaning derived from data.

## What are the types of data?

There are two types of Data:

## What are the ways to represent data?

Tables, charts and graphs are all ways of representing data , and they can be used for two broad purposes. The first is to support the collection, organisation and analysis of data as part of the process of a scientific study.

- Tables, charts and graphs are all ways of representing data, and they can be used for two broad purposes. The first is to support the collection, organisation and analysis of data as part of the process of a scientific study.

## What are the different types of graphs?

Different types of graphs include:

## Guide On Graphical Representation of Data – Types, Importance, Rules, Principles And Advantages

## What are Graphs and Graphical Representation?

Graphs, in the context of data visualization, are visual representations of data using various graphical elements such as charts, graphs, and diagrams. Graphical representation of data , often referred to as graphical presentation or simply graphs which plays a crucial role in conveying information effectively.

## Principles of Graphical Representation

Effective graphical representation follows certain fundamental principles that ensure clarity, accuracy, and usability:Clarity : The primary goal of any graph is to convey information clearly and concisely. Graphs should be designed in a way that allows the audience to quickly grasp the key points without confusion.

- Simplicity: Simplicity is key to effective data visualization. Extraneous details and unnecessary complexity should be avoided to prevent confusion and distraction.
- Relevance: Include only relevant information that contributes to the understanding of the data. Irrelevant or redundant elements can clutter the graph.
- Visualization: Select a graph type that is appropriate for the supplied data. Different graph formats, like bar charts, line graphs, and scatter plots, are appropriate for various sorts of data and relationships.

## Rules for Graphical Representation of Data

Creating effective graphical representations of data requires adherence to certain rules:

- Select the Right Graph: Choosing the appropriate type of graph is essential. For example, bar charts are suitable for comparing categories, while line charts are better for showing trends over time.
- Label Axes Clearly: Axis labels should be descriptive and include units of measurement where applicable. Clear labeling ensures the audience understands the data’s context.
- Use Appropriate Colors: Colors can enhance understanding but should be used judiciously. Avoid overly complex color schemes and ensure that color choices are accessible to all viewers.
- Avoid Misleading Scaling: Scale axes appropriately to prevent exaggeration or distortion of data. Misleading scaling can lead to incorrect interpretations.
- Include Data Sources: Always provide the source of your data. This enhances transparency and credibility.

## Importance of Graphical Representation of Data

Graphical representation of data in statistics is of paramount importance for several reasons:

- Enhances Understanding: Graphs simplify complex data, making it more accessible and understandable to a broad audience, regardless of their statistical expertise.
- Helps Decision-Making: Visual representations of data enable informed decision-making. Decision-makers can easily grasp trends and insights, leading to better choices.
- Engages the Audience: Graphs capture the audience’s attention more effectively than raw data. This engagement is particularly valuable when presenting findings or reports.
- Universal Language: Graphs serve as a universal language that transcends linguistic barriers. They can convey information to a global audience without the need for translation.

## Advantages of Graphical Representation

The advantages of graphical representation of data extend to various aspects of communication and analysis:

- Clarity: Data is presented visually, improving clarity and reducing the likelihood of misinterpretation.
- Efficiency: Graphs enable the quick absorption of information. Key insights can be found in seconds, saving time and effort.
- Memorability: Visuals are more memorable than raw data. Audiences are more likely to retain information presented graphically.
- Problem-Solving: Graphs help in identifying and solving problems by revealing trends, correlations, and outliers that may require further investigation.

## Use of Graphical Representations

Graphical representations find applications in a multitude of fields:

- Business: In the business world, graphs are used to illustrate financial data, track performance metrics, and present market trends. They are invaluable tools for strategic decision-making.
- Science: Scientists employ graphs to visualize experimental results, depict scientific phenomena, and communicate research findings to both colleagues and the general public.
- Education: Educators utilize graphs to teach students about data analysis, statistics, and scientific concepts. Graphs make learning more engaging and memorable.
- Journalism: Journalists rely on graphs to support their stories with data-driven evidence. Graphs make news articles more informative and impactful.

## Types of Graphical Representation

There exists a diverse array of graphical representations, each suited to different data types and purposes. Common types include:

## 1.Bar Charts:

Used to compare categories or discrete data points, often side by side.

## 2. Line Charts:

Ideal for showing trends and changes over time, such as stock market performance or temperature fluctuations.

## 3. Pie Charts:

Display parts of a whole, useful for illustrating proportions or percentages.

## 4. Scatter Plots:

Reveal relationships between two variables and help identify correlations.

## 5. Histograms:

Depict the distribution of data, especially in the context of continuous variables.

In conclusion, the graphical representation of data is an indispensable tool for simplifying complex information, aiding in decision-making, and enhancing communication across diverse fields. By following the principles and rules of effective data visualization, individuals and organizations can harness the power of graphs to convey their messages, support their arguments, and drive informed actions.

## Download PPT of Graphical Representation

## Video On Graphical Representation

## FAQs on Graphical Representation of Data

What is the purpose of graphical representation.

Graphical representation serves the purpose of simplifying complex data, making it more accessible and understandable through visual means.

## Why are graphs and diagrams important?

Graphs and diagrams are crucial because they provide visual clarity, aiding in the comprehension and retention of information.

## How do graphs help learning?

Graphs engage learners by presenting information visually, which enhances understanding and retention, particularly in educational settings.

## Who uses graphs?

Professionals in various fields, including scientists, analysts, educators, and business leaders, use graphs to convey data effectively and support decision-making.

## Where are graphs used in real life?

Graphs are used in real-life scenarios such as business reports, scientific research, news articles, and educational materials to make data more accessible and meaningful.

## Why are graphs important in business?

In business, graphs are vital for analyzing financial data, tracking performance metrics, and making informed decisions, contributing to success.

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## Praxis Core Math

Course: praxis core math > unit 1, data representations | lesson.

- Data representations | Worked example
- Center and spread | Lesson
- Center and spread | Worked example
- Random sampling | Lesson
- Random sampling | Worked example
- Scatterplots | Lesson
- Scatterplots | Worked example
- Interpreting linear models | Lesson
- Interpreting linear models | Worked example
- Correlation and Causation | Lesson
- Correlation and causation | Worked example
- Probability | Lesson
- Probability | Worked example

## What are data representations?

- How much of the data falls within a specified category or range of values?
- What is a typical value of the data?
- How much spread is in the data?
- Is there a trend in the data over time?
- Is there a relationship between two variables?

## What skills are tested?

- Matching a data set to its graphical representation
- Matching a graphical representation to a description
- Using data representations to solve problems

## How are qualitative data displayed?

- A vertical bar chart lists the categories of the qualitative variable along a horizontal axis and uses the heights of the bars on the vertical axis to show the values of the quantitative variable. A horizontal bar chart lists the categories along the vertical axis and uses the lengths of the bars on the horizontal axis to show the values of the quantitative variable. This display draws attention to how the categories rank according to the amount of data within each. Example The heights of the bars show the number of students who want to study each language. Using the bar chart, we can conclude that the greatest number of students want to study Mandarin and the least number of students want to study Latin.
- A pictograph is like a horizontal bar chart but uses pictures instead of the lengths of bars to represent the values of the quantitative variable. Each picture represents a certain quantity, and each category can have multiple pictures. Pictographs are visually interesting, but require us to use the legend to convert the number of pictures to quantitative values. Example Each represents 40 students. The number of pictures shows the number of students who want to study each language. Using the pictograph, we can conclude that twice as many students want to study French as want to study Latin.
- A circle graph (or pie chart) is a circle that is divided into as many sections as there are categories of the qualitative variable. The area of each section represents, for each category, the value of the quantitative data as a fraction of the sum of values. The fractions sum to 1 . Sometimes the section labels include both the category and the associated value or percent value for that category. Example The area of each section represents the fraction of students who want to study that language. Using the circle graph, we can conclude that just under 1 2 the students want to study Mandarin and about 1 3 want to study Spanish.

## How are quantitative data displayed?

- Dotplots use one dot for each data point. The dots are plotted above their corresponding values on a number line. The number of dots above each specific value represents the count of that value. Dotplots show the value of each data point and are practical for small data sets. Example Each dot represents the typical travel time to school for one student. Using the dotplot, we can conclude that the most common travel time is 10 minutes. We can also see that the values for travel time range from 5 to 35 minutes.
- Histograms divide the horizontal axis into equal-sized intervals and use the heights of the bars to show the count or percent of data within each interval. By convention, each interval includes the lower boundary but not the upper one. Histograms show only totals for the intervals, not specific data points. Example The height of each bar represents the number of students having a typical travel time within the corresponding interval. Using the histogram, we can conclude that the most common travel time is between 10 and 15 minutes and that all typical travel times are between 5 and 40 minutes.

## How are trends over time displayed?

How are relationships between variables displayed.

- (Choice A) A
- (Choice B) B
- (Choice C) C
- (Choice D) D
- (Choice E) E
- Your answer should be
- an integer, like 6
- a simplified proper fraction, like 3 / 5
- a simplified improper fraction, like 7 / 4
- a mixed number, like 1 3 / 4
- an exact decimal, like 0.75
- a multiple of pi, like 12 pi or 2 / 3 pi
- a proper fraction, like 1 / 2 or 6 / 10
- an improper fraction, like 10 / 7 or 14 / 8

## Things to remember

- When matching data to a representation, check that the values are graphed accurately for all categories.
- When reporting data counts or fractions, be clear whether a question asks about data within a single category or a comparison between categories.
- When finding the number or fraction of the data meeting a criteria, watch for key words such as or , and , less than , and more than .

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## 2.1: Types of Data Representation

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Two common types of graphic displays are bar charts and histograms. Both bar charts and histograms use vertical or horizontal bars to represent the number of data points in each category or interval. The main difference graphically is that in a bar chart there are spaces between the bars and in a histogram there are not spaces between the bars. Why does this subtle difference exist and what does it imply about graphic displays in general?

## Displaying Data

It is often easier for people to interpret relative sizes of data when that data is displayed graphically. Note that a categorical variable is a variable that can take on one of a limited number of values and a quantitative variable is a variable that takes on numerical values that represent a measurable quantity. Examples of categorical variables are tv stations, the state someone lives in, and eye color while examples of quantitative variables are the height of students or the population of a city. There are a few common ways of displaying data graphically that you should be familiar with.

A pie chart shows the relative proportions of data in different categories. Pie charts are excellent ways of displaying categorical data with easily separable groups. The following pie chart shows six categories labeled A−F. The size of each pie slice is determined by the central angle. Since there are 360 o in a circle, the size of the central angle θ A of category A can be found by:

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A bar chart displays frequencies of categories of data. The bar chart below has 5 categories, and shows the TV channel preferences for 53 adults. The horizontal axis could have also been labeled News, Sports, Local News, Comedy, Action Movies. The reason why the bars are separated by spaces is to emphasize the fact that they are categories and not continuous numbers. For example, just because you split your time between channel 8 and channel 44 does not mean on average you watch channel 26. Categories can be numbers so you need to be very careful.

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A histogram displays frequencies of quantitative data that has been sorted into intervals. The following is a histogram that shows the heights of a class of 53 students. Notice the largest category is 56-60 inches with 18 people.

A boxplot (also known as a box and whiskers plot ) is another way to display quantitative data. It displays the five 5 number summary (minimum, Q1, median , Q3, maximum). The box can either be vertically or horizontally displayed depending on the labeling of the axis. The box does not need to be perfectly symmetrical because it represents data that might not be perfectly symmetrical.

Earlier, you were asked about the difference between histograms and bar charts. The reason for the space in bar charts but no space in histograms is bar charts graph categorical variables while histograms graph quantitative variables. It would be extremely improper to forget the space with bar charts because you would run the risk of implying a spectrum from one side of the chart to the other. Note that in the bar chart where TV stations where shown, the station numbers were not listed horizontally in order by size. This was to emphasize the fact that the stations were categories.

Create a boxplot of the following numbers in your calculator.

8.5, 10.9, 9.1, 7.5, 7.2, 6, 2.3, 5.5

Enter the data into L1 by going into the Stat menu.

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Then turn the statplot on and choose boxplot.

Use Zoomstat to automatically center the window on the boxplot.

Create a pie chart to represent the preferences of 43 hungry students.

- Other – 5
- Burritos – 7
- Burgers – 9
- Pizza – 22

Create a bar chart representing the preference for sports of a group of 23 people.

- Football – 12
- Baseball – 10
- Basketball – 8
- Hockey – 3

Create a histogram for the income distribution of 200 million people.

- Below $50,000 is 100 million people
- Between $50,000 and $100,000 is 50 million people
- Between $100,000 and $150,000 is 40 million people
- Above $150,000 is 10 million people

1. What types of graphs show categorical data?

2. What types of graphs show quantitative data?

A math class of 30 students had the following grades:

3. Create a bar chart for this data.

4. Create a pie chart for this data.

5. Which graph do you think makes a better visual representation of the data?

A set of 20 exam scores is 67, 94, 88, 76, 85, 93, 55, 87, 80, 81, 80, 61, 90, 84, 75, 93, 75, 68, 100, 98

6. Create a histogram for this data. Use your best judgment to decide what the intervals should be.

7. Find the five number summary for this data.

8. Use the five number summary to create a boxplot for this data.

9. Describe the data shown in the boxplot below.

10. Describe the data shown in the histogram below.

A math class of 30 students has the following eye colors:

11. Create a bar chart for this data.

12. Create a pie chart for this data.

13. Which graph do you think makes a better visual representation of the data?

14. Suppose you have data that shows the breakdown of registered republicans by state. What types of graphs could you use to display this data?

15. From which types of graphs could you obtain information about the spread of the data? Note that spread is a measure of how spread out all of the data is.

## Review (Answers)

To see the Review answers, open this PDF file and look for section 15.4.

## Additional Resources

PLIX: Play, Learn, Interact, eXplore - Baby Due Date Histogram

Practice: Types of Data Representation

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## Data Visualization: Definition, Benefits, and Examples

Data visualization helps data professionals tell a story with data. Here’s a definitive guide to data visualization.

Data visualization is a powerful way for people, especially data professionals, to display data so that it can be interpreted easily. It helps tell a story with data, by turning spreadsheets of numbers into stunning graphs and charts.

In this article, you’ll learn all about data visualization, including its definition, benefits, examples, types, and tools. If you decide you want to learn the skills to incorporate it into your job, we'll point you toward online courses you can do from anywhere.

## What is data visualization?

Data visualization is the representation of information and data using charts, graphs, maps, and other visual tools. These visualizations allow us to easily understand any patterns, trends, or outliers in a data set.

Data visualization also presents data to the general public or specific audiences without technical knowledge in an accessible manner. For example, the health agency in a government might provide a map of vaccinated regions.

The purpose of data visualization is to help drive informed decision-making and to add colorful meaning to an otherwise bland database.

## Benefits of data visualization

Data visualization can be used in many contexts in nearly every field, like public policy, finance, marketing, retail, education, sports, history, and more. Here are the benefits of data visualization:

Storytelling: People are drawn to colors and patterns in clothing, arts and culture, architecture, and more. Data is no different—colors and patterns allow us to visualize the story within the data.

Accessibility: Information is shared in an accessible, easy-to-understand manner for a variety of audiences.

Visualize relationships: It’s easier to spot the relationships and patterns within a data set when the information is presented in a graph or chart.

Exploration: More accessible data means more opportunities to explore, collaborate, and inform actionable decisions.

## Data visualization and big data

Companies collect “ big data ” and synthesize it into information. Data visualization helps portray significant insights—like a heat map to illustrate regions where individuals search for mental health assistance. To synthesize all that data, visualization software can be used in conjunction with data collecting software.

## Tools for visualizing data

There are plenty of data visualization tools out there to suit your needs. Before committing to one, consider researching whether you need an open-source site or could simply create a graph using Excel or Google Charts. The following are common data visualization tools that could suit your needs.

Google Charts

ChartBlocks

FusionCharts

## Get started with a free tool

No matter the field, using visual representations to illustrate data can be immensely powerful. Tableau has a free public tool that anyone can use to create stunning visualizations for a school project, non-profit, or small business.

## Types of data visualization

Visualizing data can be as simple as a bar graph or scatter plot but becomes powerful when analyzing, for example, the median age of the United States Congress vis-a-vis the median age of Americans . Here are some common types of data visualizations:

Table: A table is data displayed in rows and columns, which can be easily created in a Word document or Excel spreadsheet.

Chart or graph: Information is presented in tabular form with data displayed along an x and y axis, usually with bars, points, or lines, to represent data in comparison. An infographic is a special type of chart that combines visuals and words to illustrate the data.

Gantt chart: A Gantt chart is a bar chart that portrays a timeline and tasks specifically used in project management.

Pie chart: A pie chart divides data into percentages featured in “slices” of a pie, all adding up to 100%.

Geospatial visualization: Data is depicted in map form with shapes and colors that illustrate the relationship between specific locations, such as a choropleth or heat map.

Dashboard: Data and visualizations are displayed, usually for business purposes, to help analysts understand and present data.

## Data visualization examples

Using data visualization tools, different types of charts and graphs can be created to illustrate important data. These are a few examples of data visualization in the real world:

Data science: Data scientists and researchers have access to libraries using programming languages or tools such as Python or R, which they use to understand and identify patterns in data sets. Tools help these data professionals work more efficiently by coding research with colors, plots, lines, and shapes.

Marketing: Tracking data such as web traffic and social media analytics can help marketers analyze how customers find their products and whether they are early adopters or more of a laggard buyer. Charts and graphs can synthesize data for marketers and stakeholders to better understand these trends.

Finance: Investors and advisors focused on buying and selling stocks, bonds, dividends, and other commodities will analyze the movement of prices over time to determine which are worth purchasing for short- or long-term periods. Line graphs help financial analysts visualize this data, toggling between months, years, and even decades.

Health policy: Policymakers can use choropleth maps, which are divided by geographical area (nations, states, continents) by colors. They can, for example, use these maps to demonstrate the mortality rates of cancer or ebola in different parts of the world.

Tackle big business decisions by backing them up with data analytics. Google's Data Analytics Professional Certificate can boost your skills:

## Jobs that use data visualization

From marketing to data analytics, data visualization is a skill that can be beneficial to many industries. Building your skills in data visualization can help in the following jobs:

Data visualization analyst: As a data visualization analyst (or specialist), you’d be responsible for creating and editing visual content such as maps, charts, and infographics from large data sets.

Data visualization engineer: Data visualization engineers and developers are experts in both maneuvering data with SQL, as well as assisting product teams in creating user-friendly dashboards that enable storytelling.

Data analyst: A data analyst collects, cleans, and interprets data sets to answer questions or solve business problems.

Data is everywhere. In creative roles such as graphic designer , content strategist, or social media specialist, data visualization expertise can help you solve challenging problems. You could create dashboards to track analytics as an email marketer or make infographics as a communications designer.

On the flip side, data professionals can benefit from data visualization skills to tell more impactful stories through data.

Read more: 5 Data Visualization Jobs (+ Ways to Build Your Skills Now)

## Dive into data visualization

Learn the basics of data visualization with the University of California Davis’ Data Visualization with Tableau Specialization . You’ll leverage Tableau’s library of resources to learn best practices for data visualization and storytelling, learning from real-world and journalistic examples. Tableau is one of the most respected and accessible data visualization tools.

To learn more about data visualization using Excel and Cognos Analytics, take a look at IBM’s Data Analysis and Visualization Foundations Specialization .

## Keep reading

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This content has been made available for informational purposes only. Learners are advised to conduct additional research to ensure that courses and other credentials pursued meet their personal, professional, and financial goals.

- Diagrammatic Representation of Data

Suppose you are interested to compare the marks of your mates in a test. How can you make the comparison interesting? It can be done by the diagrammatic representations of data. You can use a bar diagram, histograms, pie-charts etc for this. You will be able to answer questions like –

How will you find out the number of students in the various categories of marks in a certain test? What can you say about the marks obtained by the maximum students? Also, how can you compare the marks of your classmates in five other tests? Is it possible for you to remember the marks of each and every student in all subjects? No! Also, you don’t have the time to compare the marks of every student. Merely noting down the marks and doing comparisons is not interesting at all. Let us study them in detail.

## Suggested Videos

Bar diagram.

This is one of the simplest techniques to do the comparison for a given set of data. A bar graph is a graphical representation of the data in the form of rectangular bars or columns of equal width. It is the simplest one and easily understandable among the graphs by a group of people.

## Browse more Topics under Statistical Description Of Data

- Introduction to Statistics
- Textual and Tabular Representation of Data
- Frequency Distribution
- Frequency Polygon
- Cumulative Frequency Graph or Ogive

## Construction of a Bar Diagram

- Draw two perpendicular lines intersecting each other at a point O. The vertical line is the y-axis and the horizontal is the x-axis.
- Choose a suitable scale to determine the height of each bar.
- On the horizontal line, draw the bars at equal distance with corresponding heights.
- The space between the bars should be equal.

## Properties of a Bar Diagram

- Each bar or column in a bar graph is of equal width.
- All bars have a common base.
- The height of the bar corresponds to the value of the data.
- The distance between each bar is the same.

## Types of Bar Diagram

A bar graph can be either vertical or horizontal depending upon the choice of the axis as the base. The horizontal bar diagram is used for qualitative data. The vertical bar diagram is used for the quantitative data or time series data. Let us take an example of a bar graph showing the comparison of marks of a student in all subjects out of 100 marks for two tests.

With the bar graph, we can also compare the marks of students in each subject other than the marks of one student in every subject. Also, we can draw the bar graph for every student in all subjects.

We can use another way of diagrammatical representation of data. If we are working with a continuous data set or grouped dataset, we can use a histogram for the representation of data.

- A histogram is similar to a bar graph except for the fact that there is no gap between the rectangular bars. The rectangular bars show the area proportional to the frequency of a variable and the width of the bars represents the class width or class interval.
- Frequency means the number of times a variable is occurring or is present. It is an area graph. The heights of the rectangles are proportional to the corresponding frequencies of similar classes.

## Construction of Histogram

- Choose a suitable scale for both the axes to determine the height and width of each bar
- On the horizontal line, draw the bars with corresponding heights
- There should be no gap between two consecutive bars showing the continuity of the data
- If the grouped frequencies are not continuous, the first thing to do is to make them continuous

It is done by adding the average of the difference between the lower limit of the class interval and the upper limit of the preceding class width to the upper limits of all the classes. The same quantity is subtracted from the lower limits of the classes.

## Properties of Histogram

- Each bar or column in a bar graph is of equal width and corresponds to the equal class interval
- If the classes are of unequal width then the height of the bars will be proportional to the ration of the frequencies to the width of the classes
- All bars have a common base
- The height of the bar corresponds to the frequency of the data

Suppose we have a data set showing the marks obtained out of 100 by a group of 35 students in statistics. We can find the number of students in the various marks category with the help of the histogram.

A line graph is a type of chart or graph which shows information when a series of data is joined by a line. It shows the changes in the data over a period of time. In a simple line graph, we plot each pair of values of (x, y). Here, the x-axis denotes the various time point (t), and the y-axis denotes the observation based on the time.

## Properties of a Line Graph

- It consists of Vertical and Horizontal scales. These scales may or may not be uniform.
- Data point corresponds to the change over a period of time.
- The line joining these data points shows the trend of change.

Below is the line graph showing the number of buses passing through a particular street over a period of time:

## Solved Examples for diagrammatic Representation of Data

Problem 1: Draw the histogram for the given data.

Solution: This grouped frequency distribution is not continuous. We need to convert it into a continuous distribution with exclusive type classes. This is done by averaging the difference of the lower limit of one class and the upper limit of the preceding class. Here, d = ½ (19 – 18) = ½ = 0.5. We add 0.5 to all the upper limits and we subtract 0.5 from all the lower limits.

The corresponding histogram is

Draw a line graph for the production of two types of crops for the given years.

Solution: The required graph is

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## 8.3.1: Use and Misuse of Graphical Representations

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## Learning Objectives

- Identify which type of graph best represents the data for a given situation.
- Explain how graphs can lead to misinterpretation of data.

## Introduction

In addition to bar graphs , histograms , and circle graphs (pie charts), there are other graphs that statisticians use to represent data and analyze what it shows. But you have to be careful when creating and reading graphs. If they are not carefully created, they can be misleading, and sometimes people purposefully make them misleading.

## Choosing a Graph

Choosing what type of graph to use to represent a specific data set takes some trial and error. And, sometimes, there is more than one appropriate type of graph you can use. What you choose depends on the way you want to present your data, as well as your own personal preferences. Modern spreadsheet programs like Excel are very flexible at creating different types of graphs; with only a couple clicks, you can view data represented as a bar graph, line graph, or circle graph. From there, you can choose which one best paints the picture you want to show.

Since there is often more than one way to graph a data set, let’s look at some examples and think about the different possibilities that are available to us.

A baseball writer wants to create a graph showing the total hits for the players with the greatest number of hits in the first half of the baseball season. These players have the following number of hits: 86, 88, 90, 90, 97, 99, 102, and 106. What type of graph should the writer use to represent the data?

A bar graph or pictograph would work best here. (A pictograph may be preferable for a small amount of data, and a bar graph may be preferable for a lot of data.)

The writer could use a stem-and-leaf plot to show the distribution of numerical data, but this kind of graph is not as effective at showing the relationship between each player and the number of hits that he has. A box-and-whisker plot, which shows the middle of a data set, is not useful here since the writer is interested in the hit totals, not the average number of hits or the spread of the data.

A statistician is collecting data on the frequency with which adults go to the dentist. She surveys 128 people and finds the following information.

- Less than 1 time per year: 28 respondents
- 1 time per year: 51 respondents
- 2 times per year: 42 respondents
- More than 2 times per year: 7 respondents

In a presentation to dentists, she especially wants to highlight the population that visits the dentist less than 1 time per year. What type of graph should she use to represent the data?

A circle graph is best, but a bar graph would also be acceptable.

As with the first example, stem-and-leaf plots and box-and-whisker plots are not useful here. The statistician is not interested in the average amount of times that a person goes to the dentist each year. A line graph would not be appropriate either, as the data is not continuous.

An amusement park planner wants to better understand the distribution of wait times that people experience while waiting for a popular ride. At the park one day, he asks 15 random people about the length of time they had to wait (in minutes).

12, 3, 2, 10, 12, 0, 2, 0, 8, 5, 4, 0, 7, 4, 6

What type of graph provides the best visual representation of this set of data: a circle graph, a box-and-whisker plot, or a bar graph?

An oceanographer wants to make a graph that shows the height (in centimeters) of a specific coral over the period of 2 years. Which type of graph is the most appropriate?

- Circle graph
- Box-and-whisker plot
- Stem-and-leaf plot

Incorrect. A circle graph is often used to show parts of a whole, not changes over time. The correct answer is a line graph.

Incorrect. A box-and-whisker plot is used to show the middle of a data set; it does not reveal much about growth over time. The correct answer is a line graph.

Correct. A line graph mapping height along the y-axis and time along the x-axis is the most appropriate type of graph for this situation.

Incorrect. A stem-and-leaf plot is used to show the spread of a data set; it does not reveal much about growth over time. The correct answer is a line graph.

## Misleading Graphs

As you have seen, graphs provide a visual way to represent data sets. Pictures can be misleading, though, so you also need to know how to identify graphs that seem to show something different than what the data says. This may be due to carelessness or it may be done on purpose. Below are some general questions to keep in mind as you read graphs.

## Questions to Consider when Reading Graphs

- Are the graphs labeled sufficiently?
- What is the scale?
- Does the graph show a full picture of the data, or only a select picture?

Look at the graph that follows. The title states “Average Salary for Adjunct Professors at Four Colleges,” and four bars appear on the graph. You can tell which colleges are being compared, but you are given no information about the scale that is being used. The graph makes it appear that the average salary for Adjunct Professors at Central College is much higher than that at Eastern College, but without a scale, you cannot know for certain. (You do know that the salary is higher; you just do not know how much higher.) To make this graph less misleading, a y-axis with salary information should be included.

Even when both axes are present and labeled correctly, graphical representations of data can be misleading. This is shown in the set of attendance graphs that follow.

In the graph on the left, the scale begins at 0 and goes to 20,000. The graph itself shows that attendance at Minneapolis Wildcats games has steadily increased each year since 2008, topping out in 2010 at just over 16,000.

Now look at the graph on the right. It appears to show that attendance at St. Paul Strikers’ games has increased even more dramatically: the bar for 2010 is more than twice as tall as that in 2008. From looking at these two graphs, you may conclude that the Strikers have been the more popular team recently, as the height of the bars seems to indicate that their attendance has grown faster than that of the Wildcats.

But notice something interesting: the scale of the Strikers graph is very different. It begins at 10,000! This paints a skewed picture of the data when compared with the Wildcats graph, which starts at 0. And by examining the actual data (the actual attendance, not just the height of the bars), you can tell that attendance is actually greater at the Wildcats games. In 2010, for instance, Wildcats attendance is a little over 16,000, while attendance at Strikers games is below 15,000.

This brings up an important point. When you are using graphs to compare data sets, the scales need to be consistent; otherwise, it is very difficult to compare the data itself. As you can tell from the two previous graphs, changing the scale of a graph can dramatically change the way it looks and the impression the graph makes.

A more honest representation of the attendance data can be found in a double-bar graph, where the attendance figures from both teams is mapped side-by-side using the same scale. Look at the results below. Now it is clear that the attendance for the Wildcats is greater than the attendance for the Strikers.

The circle graph here is another example of a misleading representation. The actual percentages of people who responded to each question are not available, and the viewer has to interpret the data based on the size of the sections. At first glance, this graph seems to be showing that a lot of voters seem to be favoring Candidate A, as the “Yes” section is very large.

Part of the reason why this section appears large is because the graph has been created so that it looks large. The circle graph is presented in three-dimensional form, and the data that is foremost in the graph (the “Yes” slice) appears the most prominent. The creator of this graph is hoping that this graph will make you think that Candidate A is very popular!

On closer inspection, though, the data does not seem to support this contention. Combining the “Yes” and “Probably Yes” sections is roughly equal to combining the “No” and “Probably No” sections, which means that the candidate is not as popular as this representation would suggest. In fact, someone who did not want this candidate to appear favorable could have represented the data using the next graph. Notice the different positions of the “No” and “Probably No” sections, as well as the consistent colors.

Notice how perspective and color make a difference in viewing and analyzing data!

Next is a more honest way of representing this data. In this graph, the circle graph is shown from above, and the actual percentages are included.

Results from a poll measuring a politician’s approval rating are shown in the table below.

Which of the following graphs is most misleading?

This line graph accurately displays the data; the axes are labeled appropriately, and the scale is from 0% to 100%. The graph shows that although there has been some up and down variation, the politician’s approval rating has stayed in the mid-50's. The correct answer is Graph B.

This graph uses a very small scale (10%, from 50% to 60%) and has eliminated the final two data points. This graph represents only a part of the data, and is designed to make the reader think that the politician is rated more favorably than he really is.

This bar graph accurately displays the data; the axes are labeled appropriately, and the scale is from 0% to 70%. The politician’s approval ratings look a bit higher in this graph than they do in Graph D, but there is nothing dishonest about this graph. The graph shows that although there has been some up and down variation, the politician’s approval rating has stayed in the mid-50's. The correct answer is Graph B.

This bar graph accurately displays the data; the axes are labeled appropriately, and the scale is from 0% to 100%, with 25% increments. It looks different than Graph C, but the data itself is not misleading: it is the scale of the data that is different. The correct answer is Graph B.

Graphs have a big impact on how you understand a set of data. Use an appropriate type of graph and you can communicate your data effectively; use the wrong type of graph, though, and your viewers may misunderstand the story you are trying to tell. When reading graphs in newspapers and online, be sure to look at the axes, the scale, and the presentation of the data itself. These can all help you identify if the graph is representing a data set fairly or unfairly.

## Types of Graphs and Charts And Their Uses

If you are wondering what are the different types of graphs and charts , their uses and names, this page summarizes them with examples and pictures.

Although it is hard to tell what are all the types of graphs, this page consists all of the common types of statistical graphs and charts (and their meanings) widely used in any science.

1. Line Graphs

A line chart graphically displays data that changes continuously over time. Each line graph consists of points that connect data to show a trend (continuous change). Line graphs have an x-axis and a y-axis. In the most cases, time is distributed on the horizontal axis.

Uses of line graphs:

- When you want to show trends . For example, how house prices have increased over time.
- When you want to make predictions based on a data history over time.
- When comparing two or more different variables, situations, and information over a given period of time.

The following line graph shows annual sales of a particular business company for the period of six consecutive years:

Note: the above example is with 1 line. However, one line chart can compare multiple trends by several distributing lines.

2. Bar Charts

Bar charts represent categorical data with rectangular bars (to understand what is categorical data see categorical data examples ). Bar graphs are among the most popular types of graphs and charts in economics, statistics, marketing, and visualization in digital customer experience . They are commonly used to compare several categories of data.

Each rectangular bar has length and height proportional to the values that they represent.

One axis of the bar chart presents the categories being compared. The other axis shows a measured value.

Bar Charts Uses:

- When you want to display data that are grouped into nominal or ordinal categories (see nominal vs ordinal data ).
- To compare data among different categories.
- Bar charts can also show large data changes over time.
- Bar charts are ideal for visualizing the distribution of data when we have more than three categories.

The bar chart below represents the total sum of sales for Product A and Product B over three years.

The bars are 2 types: vertical or horizontal. It doesn’t matter which kind you will use. The above one is a vertical type.

3. Pie Charts

When it comes to statistical types of graphs and charts, the pie chart (or the circle chart) has a crucial place and meaning. It displays data and statistics in an easy-to-understand ‘pie-slice’ format and illustrates numerical proportion.

Each pie slice is relative to the size of a particular category in a given group as a whole. To say it in another way, the pie chart brakes down a group into smaller pieces. It shows part-whole relationships.

To make a pie chart, you need a list of categorical variables and numerical variables.

Pie Chart Uses:

- When you want to create and represent the composition of something.
- It is very useful for displaying nominal or ordinal categories of data.
- To show percentage or proportional data.
- When comparing areas of growth within a business such as profit.
- Pie charts work best for displaying data for 3 to 7 categories.

The pie chart below represents the proportion of types of transportation used by 1000 students to go to their school.

Pie charts are widely used by data-driven marketers for displaying marketing data.

4. Histogram

A histogram shows continuous data in ordered rectangular columns (to understand what is continuous data see our post discrete vs continuous data ). Usually, there are no gaps between the columns.

The histogram displays a frequency distribution (shape) of a data set. At first glance, histograms look alike to bar graphs. However, there is a key difference between them. Bar Chart represents categorical data and histogram represent continuous data.

Histogram Uses:

- When the data is continuous .
- When you want to represent the shape of the data’s distribution .
- When you want to see whether the outputs of two or more processes are different.
- To summarize large data sets graphically.
- To communicate the data distribution quickly to others.

The histogram below represents per capita income for five age groups.

Histograms are very widely used in statistics, business, and economics.

5. Scatter plot

The scatter plot is an X-Y diagram that shows a relationship between two variables. It is used to plot data points on a vertical and a horizontal axis. The purpose is to show how much one variable affects another.

Usually, when there is a relationship between 2 variables, the first one is called independent. The second variable is called dependent because its values depend on the first variable.

Scatter plots also help you predict the behavior of one variable (dependent) based on the measure of the other variable (independent).

Scatter plot uses:

- When trying to find out whether there is a relationship between 2 variables .
- To predict the behavior of dependent variable based on the measure of the independent variable.
- When having paired numerical data.
- When working with root cause analysis tools to identify the potential for problems.
- When you just want to visualize the correlation between 2 large datasets without regard to time .

The below Scatter plot presents data for 7 online stores, their monthly e-commerce sales, and online advertising costs for the last year.

The orange line you see in the plot is called “line of best fit” or a “trend line”. This line is used to help us make predictions that are based on past data.

The Scatter plots are used widely in data science and statistics. They are a great tool for visualizing linear regression models .

More examples and explanation for scatter plots you can see in our post what does a scatter plot show and simple linear regression examples .

6. Venn Chart

Venn Diagram (also called primary diagram, set diagram or logic diagrams) uses overlapping circles to visualize the logical relationships between two or more group of items.

Venn Diagram is one of the types of graphs and charts used in scientific and engineering presentations, in computer applications, in maths, and in statistics.

The basic structure of the Venn diagram is usually overlapping circles. The items in the overlapping section have specific common characteristics. Items in the outer portions of the circles do not have common traits.

Venn Chart Uses:

- When you want to compare and contrast groups of things.
- To categorize or group items.
- To illustrate logical relationships from various datasets.
- To identify all the possible relationships between collections of datasets.

The following science example of Venn diagram compares the features of birds and bats.

7. Area Charts

Area Chart Uses:

- When you want to show trends , rather than express specific values.
- To show a simple comparison of the trend of data sets over the period of time.
- To display the magnitude of a change.
- To compare a small number of categories.

The area chart has 2 variants: a variant with data plots overlapping each other and a variant with data plots stacked on top of each other (known as stacked area chart – as the shown in the following example).

The area chart below shows quarterly sales for product categories A and B for the last year.

This area chart shows you a quick comparison of the trend in the quarterly sales of Product A and Product B over the period of the last year.

8. Spline Chart

The Spline Chart is one of the most widespread types of graphs and charts used in statistics. It is a form of the line chart that represent smooth curves through the different data points.

Spline charts possess all the characteristics of a line chart except that spline charts have a fitted curved line to join the data points. In comparison, line charts connect data points with straight lines.

Spline Chart Uses:

- When you want to plot data that requires the usage of curve-fitting such as a product lifecycle chart or an impulse-response chart.
- Spline charts are often used in designing Pareto charts .
- Spline chart also is often used for data modeling by when you have limited number of data points and estimating the intervening values.

The following spline chart example shows sales of a company through several months of a year:

9. Box and Whisker Chart

A box and whisker chart is a statistical graph for displaying sets of numerical data through their quartiles. It displays a frequency distribution of the data.

The box and whisker chart helps you to display the spread and skewness for a given set of data using the five number summary principle: minimum, maximum, median, lower and upper quartiles. The ‘five-number summary’ principle allows providing a statistical summary for a particular set of numbers. It shows you the range (minimum and maximum numbers), the spread (upper and lower quartiles), and the center (median) for the set of data numbers.

A very simple figure of a box and whisker plot you can see below:

Box and Whisker Chart Uses:

- When you want to observe the upper, lower quartiles, mean, median, deviations, etc. for a large set of data.
- When you want to see a quick view of the dataset distribution .
- When you have multiple data sets that come from independent sources and relate to each other in some way.
- When you need to compare data from different categories.

The table and box-and-whisker plots below shows test scores for Maths and Literature for the same class.

Box and Whisker charts have applications in many scientific areas and types of analysis such as statistical analysis, test results analysis, marketing analysis, data analysis, and etc.

10. Bubble Chart

Bubble charts are super useful types of graphs for making a comparison of the relationships between data in 3 numeric-data dimensions: the Y-axis data, the X-axis data, and data depicting the bubble size.

Bubble charts are very similar to XY Scatter plots but the bubble chart adds more functionality – a third dimension of data that can be extremely valuable.

Both axes (X and Y) of a bubble chart are numeric.

Bubble Chart Uses:

- When you have to display three or four dimensions of data.
- When you want to compare and display the relationships between categorized circles, by the use of proportions.

The bubble chart below shows the relationship between Cost (X-Axis), Profit (Y-Axis), and Probability of Success (%) (Bubble Size).

11. Pictographs

The pictograph or a pictogram is one of the more visually appealing types of graphs and charts that display numerical information with the use of icons or picture symbols to represent data sets.

They are very easy to read statistical way of data visualization. A pictogram shows the frequency of data as images or symbols. Each image/symbol may represent one or more units of a given dataset.

Pictograph Uses:

- When your audience prefers and understands better displays that include icons and illustrations. Fun can promote learning.
- It’s habitual for infographics to use of a pictogram.
- When you want to compare two points in an emotionally powerful way.

The following pictographic represents the number of computers sold by a business company for the period from January to March.

The pictographic example above shows that in January are sold 20 computers (4×5 = 20), in February are sold 30 computers (6×5 = 30) and in March are sold 15 computers.

12. Dot Plot

Dot plot or dot graph is just one of the many types of graphs and charts to organize statistical data. It uses dots to represent data. A Dot Plot is used for relatively small sets of data and the values fall into a number of discrete categories.

If a value appears more than one time, the dots are ordered one above the other. That way the column height of dots shows the frequency for that value.

Dot Plot Uses:

- To plot frequency counts when you have a small number of categories .
- Dot plots are very useful when the variable is quantitative or categorical .
- Dot graphs are also used for univariate data (data with only one variable that you can measure).

Suppose you have a class of 26 students. They are asked to tell their favorite color. The dot plot below represents their choices:

It is obvious that blue is the most preferred color by the students in this class.

13. Radar Chart

A radar chart is one of the most modern types of graphs and charts – ideal for multiple comparisons. Radar charts use a circular display with several different quantitative axes looking like spokes on a wheel. Each axis shows a quantity for a different categorical value.

Radar charts are also known as spider charts, web charts, star plots, irregular polygons, polar charts, cobweb charts or Kiviat diagram.

Radar Chart has many applications nowadays in statistics, maths, business, sports analysis, data intelligence, and etc.

Radar Chart Uses:

- When you want to observe which variables have similar values or whether there are any outliers amongst each variable.
- To represent multiple comparisons .
- When you want to see which variables are scoring low or high within a dataset. This makes radar chart ideal for displaying performance .

For example, we can compare employee’s performance with the scale of 1-8 on subjects such as Punctuality, Problem-solving, Meeting Deadlines, Marketing Knowledge, Communications. A point that is closer to the center on an axis shows a lower value and a worse performance.

It is obvious that Jane has a better performance than Samanta.

14. Pyramid Graph

When it comes to easy to understand and good looking types of graphs and charts, pyramid graph has a top place.

A pyramid graph is a chart in a pyramid shape or triangle shape. These types of charts are best for data that is organized in some kind of hierarchy. The levels show a progressive order.

Pyramid Graph Uses:

- When you want to indicate a hierarchy level among the topics or other types of data.
- Pyramid graph is often used to represent progressive orders such as: “older to newer”, “more important to least important”, “specific to least specific”‘ and etc.
- When you have a proportional or interconnected relationship between data sets.

A classic pyramid graph example is the healthy food pyramid that shows fats, oils, and sugar (at the top) should be eaten less than many other foods such as vegetables and fruits (at the bottom of the pyramid).

Conclusion:

You might know that choosing the right type of chart is some kind of tricky business.

Anyway, you have a wide choice of types of graphs and charts. Used in the right way, they are a powerful weapon to help you make your reports and presentations both professional and clear.

What are your favorite types of graphs and charts? Share your thoughts on the field below.

## About The Author

## Silvia Valcheva

Silvia Valcheva is a digital marketer with over a decade of experience creating content for the tech industry. She has a strong passion for writing about emerging software and technologies such as big data, AI (Artificial Intelligence), IoT (Internet of Things), process automation, etc.

I have learned a lot from your presentation. Very informative

Nicely described different graphs, I learned a lot.

very useful. exiting

I love this. I learned a lot.

Very good representation of date. I would suggest an addition of “stem and leaf” diagrams.

I have only one thing to say and that is this is the best representation of every graphs and charts I have ever seen 😀

Very well described. Great learning article for beginners on Charts.

Really helpful thanks

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## 17 Data Visualization Techniques All Professionals Should Know

- 17 Sep 2019

There’s a growing demand for business analytics and data expertise in the workforce. But you don’t need to be a professional analyst to benefit from data-related skills.

Becoming skilled at common data visualization techniques can help you reap the rewards of data-driven decision-making , including increased confidence and potential cost savings. Learning how to effectively visualize data could be the first step toward using data analytics and data science to your advantage to add value to your organization.

Several data visualization techniques can help you become more effective in your role. Here are 17 essential data visualization techniques all professionals should know, as well as tips to help you effectively present your data.

Access your free e-book today.

## What Is Data Visualization?

Data visualization is the process of creating graphical representations of information. This process helps the presenter communicate data in a way that’s easy for the viewer to interpret and draw conclusions.

There are many different techniques and tools you can leverage to visualize data, so you want to know which ones to use and when. Here are some of the most important data visualization techniques all professionals should know.

## Data Visualization Techniques

The type of data visualization technique you leverage will vary based on the type of data you’re working with, in addition to the story you’re telling with your data .

Here are some important data visualization techniques to know:

- Gantt Chart
- Box and Whisker Plot
- Waterfall Chart
- Scatter Plot
- Pictogram Chart
- Highlight Table
- Bullet Graph
- Choropleth Map
- Network Diagram
- Correlation Matrices

## 1. Pie Chart

Pie charts are one of the most common and basic data visualization techniques, used across a wide range of applications. Pie charts are ideal for illustrating proportions, or part-to-whole comparisons.

Because pie charts are relatively simple and easy to read, they’re best suited for audiences who might be unfamiliar with the information or are only interested in the key takeaways. For viewers who require a more thorough explanation of the data, pie charts fall short in their ability to display complex information.

## 2. Bar Chart

The classic bar chart , or bar graph, is another common and easy-to-use method of data visualization. In this type of visualization, one axis of the chart shows the categories being compared, and the other, a measured value. The length of the bar indicates how each group measures according to the value.

One drawback is that labeling and clarity can become problematic when there are too many categories included. Like pie charts, they can also be too simple for more complex data sets.

## 3. Histogram

Unlike bar charts, histograms illustrate the distribution of data over a continuous interval or defined period. These visualizations are helpful in identifying where values are concentrated, as well as where there are gaps or unusual values.

Histograms are especially useful for showing the frequency of a particular occurrence. For instance, if you’d like to show how many clicks your website received each day over the last week, you can use a histogram. From this visualization, you can quickly determine which days your website saw the greatest and fewest number of clicks.

## 4. Gantt Chart

Gantt charts are particularly common in project management, as they’re useful in illustrating a project timeline or progression of tasks. In this type of chart, tasks to be performed are listed on the vertical axis and time intervals on the horizontal axis. Horizontal bars in the body of the chart represent the duration of each activity.

Utilizing Gantt charts to display timelines can be incredibly helpful, and enable team members to keep track of every aspect of a project. Even if you’re not a project management professional, familiarizing yourself with Gantt charts can help you stay organized.

## 5. Heat Map

A heat map is a type of visualization used to show differences in data through variations in color. These charts use color to communicate values in a way that makes it easy for the viewer to quickly identify trends. Having a clear legend is necessary in order for a user to successfully read and interpret a heatmap.

There are many possible applications of heat maps. For example, if you want to analyze which time of day a retail store makes the most sales, you can use a heat map that shows the day of the week on the vertical axis and time of day on the horizontal axis. Then, by shading in the matrix with colors that correspond to the number of sales at each time of day, you can identify trends in the data that allow you to determine the exact times your store experiences the most sales.

## 6. A Box and Whisker Plot

A box and whisker plot , or box plot, provides a visual summary of data through its quartiles. First, a box is drawn from the first quartile to the third of the data set. A line within the box represents the median. “Whiskers,” or lines, are then drawn extending from the box to the minimum (lower extreme) and maximum (upper extreme). Outliers are represented by individual points that are in-line with the whiskers.

This type of chart is helpful in quickly identifying whether or not the data is symmetrical or skewed, as well as providing a visual summary of the data set that can be easily interpreted.

## 7. Waterfall Chart

A waterfall chart is a visual representation that illustrates how a value changes as it’s influenced by different factors, such as time. The main goal of this chart is to show the viewer how a value has grown or declined over a defined period. For example, waterfall charts are popular for showing spending or earnings over time.

## 8. Area Chart

An area chart , or area graph, is a variation on a basic line graph in which the area underneath the line is shaded to represent the total value of each data point. When several data series must be compared on the same graph, stacked area charts are used.

This method of data visualization is useful for showing changes in one or more quantities over time, as well as showing how each quantity combines to make up the whole. Stacked area charts are effective in showing part-to-whole comparisons.

## 9. Scatter Plot

Another technique commonly used to display data is a scatter plot . A scatter plot displays data for two variables as represented by points plotted against the horizontal and vertical axis. This type of data visualization is useful in illustrating the relationships that exist between variables and can be used to identify trends or correlations in data.

Scatter plots are most effective for fairly large data sets, since it’s often easier to identify trends when there are more data points present. Additionally, the closer the data points are grouped together, the stronger the correlation or trend tends to be.

## 10. Pictogram Chart

Pictogram charts , or pictograph charts, are particularly useful for presenting simple data in a more visual and engaging way. These charts use icons to visualize data, with each icon representing a different value or category. For example, data about time might be represented by icons of clocks or watches. Each icon can correspond to either a single unit or a set number of units (for example, each icon represents 100 units).

In addition to making the data more engaging, pictogram charts are helpful in situations where language or cultural differences might be a barrier to the audience’s understanding of the data.

## 11. Timeline

Timelines are the most effective way to visualize a sequence of events in chronological order. They’re typically linear, with key events outlined along the axis. Timelines are used to communicate time-related information and display historical data.

Timelines allow you to highlight the most important events that occurred, or need to occur in the future, and make it easy for the viewer to identify any patterns appearing within the selected time period. While timelines are often relatively simple linear visualizations, they can be made more visually appealing by adding images, colors, fonts, and decorative shapes.

## 12. Highlight Table

A highlight table is a more engaging alternative to traditional tables. By highlighting cells in the table with color, you can make it easier for viewers to quickly spot trends and patterns in the data. These visualizations are useful for comparing categorical data.

Depending on the data visualization tool you’re using, you may be able to add conditional formatting rules to the table that automatically color cells that meet specified conditions. For instance, when using a highlight table to visualize a company’s sales data, you may color cells red if the sales data is below the goal, or green if sales were above the goal. Unlike a heat map, the colors in a highlight table are discrete and represent a single meaning or value.

## 13. Bullet Graph

A bullet graph is a variation of a bar graph that can act as an alternative to dashboard gauges to represent performance data. The main use for a bullet graph is to inform the viewer of how a business is performing in comparison to benchmarks that are in place for key business metrics.

In a bullet graph, the darker horizontal bar in the middle of the chart represents the actual value, while the vertical line represents a comparative value, or target. If the horizontal bar passes the vertical line, the target for that metric has been surpassed. Additionally, the segmented colored sections behind the horizontal bar represent range scores, such as “poor,” “fair,” or “good.”

## 14. Choropleth Maps

A choropleth map uses color, shading, and other patterns to visualize numerical values across geographic regions. These visualizations use a progression of color (or shading) on a spectrum to distinguish high values from low.

Choropleth maps allow viewers to see how a variable changes from one region to the next. A potential downside to this type of visualization is that the exact numerical values aren’t easily accessible because the colors represent a range of values. Some data visualization tools, however, allow you to add interactivity to your map so the exact values are accessible.

## 15. Word Cloud

A word cloud , or tag cloud, is a visual representation of text data in which the size of the word is proportional to its frequency. The more often a specific word appears in a dataset, the larger it appears in the visualization. In addition to size, words often appear bolder or follow a specific color scheme depending on their frequency.

Word clouds are often used on websites and blogs to identify significant keywords and compare differences in textual data between two sources. They are also useful when analyzing qualitative datasets, such as the specific words consumers used to describe a product.

## 16. Network Diagram

Network diagrams are a type of data visualization that represent relationships between qualitative data points. These visualizations are composed of nodes and links, also called edges. Nodes are singular data points that are connected to other nodes through edges, which show the relationship between multiple nodes.

There are many use cases for network diagrams, including depicting social networks, highlighting the relationships between employees at an organization, or visualizing product sales across geographic regions.

## 17. Correlation Matrix

A correlation matrix is a table that shows correlation coefficients between variables. Each cell represents the relationship between two variables, and a color scale is used to communicate whether the variables are correlated and to what extent.

Correlation matrices are useful to summarize and find patterns in large data sets. In business, a correlation matrix might be used to analyze how different data points about a specific product might be related, such as price, advertising spend, launch date, etc.

## Other Data Visualization Options

While the examples listed above are some of the most commonly used techniques, there are many other ways you can visualize data to become a more effective communicator. Some other data visualization options include:

- Bubble clouds
- Circle views
- Dendrograms
- Dot distribution maps
- Open-high-low-close charts
- Polar areas
- Radial trees
- Ring Charts
- Sankey diagram
- Span charts
- Streamgraphs
- Wedge stack graphs
- Violin plots

## Tips For Creating Effective Visualizations

Creating effective data visualizations requires more than just knowing how to choose the best technique for your needs. There are several considerations you should take into account to maximize your effectiveness when it comes to presenting data.

Related : What to Keep in Mind When Creating Data Visualizations in Excel

One of the most important steps is to evaluate your audience. For example, if you’re presenting financial data to a team that works in an unrelated department, you’ll want to choose a fairly simple illustration. On the other hand, if you’re presenting financial data to a team of finance experts, it’s likely you can safely include more complex information.

Another helpful tip is to avoid unnecessary distractions. Although visual elements like animation can be a great way to add interest, they can also distract from the key points the illustration is trying to convey and hinder the viewer’s ability to quickly understand the information.

Finally, be mindful of the colors you utilize, as well as your overall design. While it’s important that your graphs or charts are visually appealing, there are more practical reasons you might choose one color palette over another. For instance, using low contrast colors can make it difficult for your audience to discern differences between data points. Using colors that are too bold, however, can make the illustration overwhelming or distracting for the viewer.

Related : Bad Data Visualization: 5 Examples of Misleading Data

## Visuals to Interpret and Share Information

No matter your role or title within an organization, data visualization is a skill that’s important for all professionals. Being able to effectively present complex data through easy-to-understand visual representations is invaluable when it comes to communicating information with members both inside and outside your business.

There’s no shortage in how data visualization can be applied in the real world. Data is playing an increasingly important role in the marketplace today, and data literacy is the first step in understanding how analytics can be used in business.

Are you interested in improving your analytical skills? Learn more about Business Analytics , our eight-week online course that can help you use data to generate insights and tackle business decisions.

This post was updated on January 20, 2022. It was originally published on September 17, 2019.

## About the Author

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## What are the different ways of Data Representation?

The process of collecting the data and analyzing that data in large quantity is known as statistics. It is a branch of mathematics trading with the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numeral facts and figures.

It is a numerical statement that helps us to collect and analyze the data in large quantity the statistics are based on two of its concepts:

- Statistical Data
- Statistical Science

Statistics must be expressed numerically and should be collected systematically.

## Data Representation

The word data refers to constituting people, things, events, ideas. It can be a title, an integer, or anycast. After collecting data the investigator has to condense them in tabular form to study their salient features. Such an arrangement is known as the presentation of data.

It refers to the process of condensing the collected data in a tabular form or graphically. This arrangement of data is known as Data Representation.

The row can be placed in different orders like it can be presented in ascending orders, descending order, or can be presented in alphabetical order.

Example: Let the marks obtained by 10 students of class V in a class test, out of 50 according to their roll numbers, be: 39, 44, 49, 40, 22, 10, 45, 38, 15, 50 The data in the given form is known as raw data. The above given data can be placed in the serial order as shown below: Roll No. Marks 1 39 2 44 3 49 4 40 5 22 6 10 7 45 8 38 9 14 10 50 Now, if you want to analyse the standard of achievement of the students. If you arrange them in ascending or descending order, it will give you a better picture. Ascending order: 10, 15, 22, 38, 39, 40, 44. 45, 49, 50 Descending order: 50, 49, 45, 44, 40, 39, 38, 22, 15, 10 When the row is placed in ascending or descending order is known as arrayed data.

## Types of Graphical Data Representation

Bar chart helps us to represent the collected data visually. The collected data can be visualized horizontally or vertically in a bar chart like amounts and frequency. It can be grouped or single. It helps us in comparing different items. By looking at all the bars, it is easy to say which types in a group of data influence the other.

Now let us understand bar chart by taking this example Let the marks obtained by 5 students of class V in a class test, out of 10 according to their names, be: 7,8,4,9,6 The data in the given form is known as raw data. The above given data can be placed in the bar chart as shown below: Name Marks Akshay 7 Maya 8 Dhanvi 4 Jaslen 9 Muskan 6

A histogram is the graphical representation of data. It is similar to the appearance of a bar graph but there is a lot of difference between histogram and bar graph because a bar graph helps to measure the frequency of categorical data. A categorical data means it is based on two or more categories like gender, months, etc. Whereas histogram is used for quantitative data.

For example:

The graph which uses lines and points to present the change in time is known as a line graph. Line graphs can be based on the number of animals left on earth, the increasing population of the world day by day, or the increasing or decreasing the number of bitcoins day by day, etc. The line graphs tell us about the changes occurring across the world over time. In a line graph, we can tell about two or more types of changes occurring around the world.

For Example:

Pie chart is a type of graph that involves a structural graphic representation of numerical proportion. It can be replaced in most cases by other plots like a bar chart, box plot, dot plot, etc. As per the research, it is shown that it is difficult to compare the different sections of a given pie chart, or if it is to compare data across different pie charts.

Frequency Distribution Table

A frequency distribution table is a chart that helps us to summarise the value and the frequency of the chart. This frequency distribution table has two columns, The first column consist of the list of the various outcome in the data, While the second column list the frequency of each outcome of the data. By putting this kind of data into a table it helps us to make it easier to understand and analyze the data.

For Example: To create a frequency distribution table, we would first need to list all the outcomes in the data. In this example, the results are 0 runs, 1 run, 2 runs, and 3 runs. We would list these numerals in numerical ranking in the foremost queue. Subsequently, we ought to calculate how many times per result happened. They scored 0 runs in the 1st, 4th, 7th, and 8th innings, 1 run in the 2nd, 5th, and the 9th innings, 2 runs in the 6th inning, and 3 runs in the 3rd inning. We set the frequency of each result in the double queue. You can notice that the table is a vastly more useful method to show this data. Baseball Team Runs Per Inning Number of Runs Frequency 0 4 1 3 2 1 3 1

## Sample Questions

Question 1: Considering the school fee submission of 10 students of class 10th is given below:

In order to draw the bar graph for the data above, we prepare the frequency table as given below. Fee submission No. of Students Paid 6 Not paid 4 Now we have to represent the data by using the bar graph. It can be drawn by following the steps given below: Step 1: firstly we have to draw the two axis of the graph X-axis and the Y-axis. The varieties of the data must be put on the X-axis (the horizontal line) and the frequencies of the data must be put on the Y-axis (the vertical line) of the graph. Step 2: After drawing both the axis now we have to give the numeric scale to the Y-axis (the vertical line) of the graph It should be started from zero and ends up with the highest value of the data. Step 3: After the decision of the range at the Y-axis now we have to give it a suitable difference of the numeric scale. Like it can be 0,1,2,3…….or 0,10,20,30 either we can give it a numeric scale like 0,20,40,60… Step 4: Now on the X-axis we have to label it appropriately. Step 5: Now we have to draw the bars according to the data but we have to keep in mind that all the bars should be of the same length and there should be the same distance between each graph

Question 2: Watch the subsequent pie chart that denotes the money spent by Megha at the funfair. The suggested colour indicates the quantity paid for each variety. The total value of the data is 15 and the amount paid on each variety is diagnosed as follows:

Chocolates – 3

Wafers – 3

Toys – 2

Rides – 7

To convert this into pie chart percentage, we apply the formula: (Frequency/Total Frequency) × 100 Let us convert the above data into a percentage: Amount paid on rides: (7/15) × 100 = 47% Amount paid on toys: (2/15) × 100 = 13% Amount paid on wafers: (3/15) × 100 = 20% Amount paid on chocolates: (3/15) × 100 = 20 %

Question 3: The line graph given below shows how Devdas’s height changes as he grows.

Given below is a line graph showing the height changes in Devdas’s as he grows. Observe the graph and answer the questions below.

(i) What was the height of Devdas’s at 8 years? Answer: 65 inches (ii) What was the height of Devdas’s at 6 years? Answer: 50 inches (iii) What was the height of Devdas’s at 2 years? Answer: 35 inches (iv) How much has Devdas’s grown from 2 to 8 years? Answer: 30 inches (v) When was Devdas’s 35 inches tall? Answer: 2 years.

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## 2.E: Graphical Representations of Data (Exercises)

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## 2.2: Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs

Student grades on a chemistry exam were: 77, 78, 76, 81, 86, 51, 79, 82, 84, 99

- Construct a stem-and-leaf plot of the data.
- Are there any potential outliers? If so, which scores are they? Why do you consider them outliers?

The table below contains the 2010 obesity rates in U.S. states and Washington, DC.

- Use a random number generator to randomly pick eight states. Construct a bar graph of the obesity rates of those eight states.
- Construct a bar graph for all the states beginning with the letter "A."
- Construct a bar graph for all the states beginning with the letter "M."
- Number the entries in the table 1–51 (Includes Washington, DC; Numbered vertically)
- Arrow over to PRB
- Press 5:randInt(
- Enter 51,1,8)

Eight numbers are generated (use the right arrow key to scroll through the numbers). The numbers correspond to the numbered states (for this example: {47 21 9 23 51 13 25 4}. If any numbers are repeated, generate a different number by using 5:randInt(51,1)). Here, the states (and Washington DC) are {Arkansas, Washington DC, Idaho, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Virginia, Wyoming}.

Corresponding percents are {30.1, 22.2, 26.5, 27.1, 30.9, 34.0, 26.0, 25.1}.

Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): (a)

Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): (b)

Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): (c)

For each of the following data sets, create a stem plot and identify any outliers.

Exercise 2.2.7

The miles per gallon rating for 30 cars are shown below (lowest to highest).

19, 19, 19, 20, 21, 21, 25, 25, 25, 26, 26, 28, 29, 31, 31, 32, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 37, 38, 38, 38, 38, 41, 43, 43

The height in feet of 25 trees is shown below (lowest to highest).

25, 27, 33, 34, 34, 34, 35, 37, 37, 38, 39, 39, 39, 40, 41, 45, 46, 47, 49, 50, 50, 53, 53, 54, 54

The data are the prices of different laptops at an electronics store. Round each value to the nearest ten.

249, 249, 260, 265, 265, 280, 299, 299, 309, 319, 325, 326, 350, 350, 350, 365, 369, 389, 409, 459, 489, 559, 569, 570, 610

The data are daily high temperatures in a town for one month.

61, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 67, 67, 68, 69, 70, 70, 70, 71, 71, 72, 74, 74, 74, 75, 75, 75, 76, 76, 77, 78, 78, 79, 79, 95

For the next three exercises, use the data to construct a line graph.

Exercise 2.2.8

In a survey, 40 people were asked how many times they visited a store before making a major purchase. The results are shown in the Table below.

Exercise 2.2.9

In a survey, several people were asked how many years it has been since they purchased a mattress. The results are shown in Table .

Exercise 2.2.10

Several children were asked how many TV shows they watch each day. The results of the survey are shown in the Table below.

Exercise 2.2.11

The students in Ms. Ramirez’s math class have birthdays in each of the four seasons. Table shows the four seasons, the number of students who have birthdays in each season, and the percentage (%) of students in each group. Construct a bar graph showing the number of students.

Using the data from Mrs. Ramirez’s math class supplied in the table above, construct a bar graph showing the percentages.

Exercise 2.2.12

David County has six high schools. Each school sent students to participate in a county-wide science competition. Table shows the percentage breakdown of competitors from each school, and the percentage of the entire student population of the county that goes to each school. Construct a bar graph that shows the population percentage of competitors from each school.

Use the data from the David County science competition supplied in Exercise . Construct a bar graph that shows the county-wide population percentage of students at each school.

## 2.3: Histograms, Frequency, Polygons, and Time Series Graphs

Suppose that three book publishers were interested in the number of fiction paperbacks adult consumers purchase per month. Each publisher conducted a survey. In the survey, adult consumers were asked the number of fiction paperbacks they had purchased the previous month. The results are as follows:

- Find the relative frequencies for each survey. Write them in the charts.
- Using either a graphing calculator, computer, or by hand, use the frequency column to construct a histogram for each publisher's survey. For Publishers A and B, make bar widths of one. For Publisher C, make bar widths of two.
- In complete sentences, give two reasons why the graphs for Publishers A and B are not identical.
- Would you have expected the graph for Publisher C to look like the other two graphs? Why or why not?
- Make new histograms for Publisher A and Publisher B. This time, make bar widths of two.
- Now, compare the graph for Publisher C to the new graphs for Publishers A and B. Are the graphs more similar or more different? Explain your answer.

Often, cruise ships conduct all on-board transactions, with the exception of gambling, on a cashless basis. At the end of the cruise, guests pay one bill that covers all onboard transactions. Suppose that 60 single travelers and 70 couples were surveyed as to their on-board bills for a seven-day cruise from Los Angeles to the Mexican Riviera. Following is a summary of the bills for each group.

- Fill in the relative frequency for each group.
- Construct a histogram for the singles group. Scale the x -axis by $50 widths. Use relative frequency on the y -axis.
- Construct a histogram for the couples group. Scale the x -axis by $50 widths. Use relative frequency on the y -axis.
- List two similarities between the graphs.
- List two differences between the graphs.
- Overall, are the graphs more similar or different?
- Construct a new graph for the couples by hand. Since each couple is paying for two individuals, instead of scaling the x -axis by $50, scale it by $100. Use relative frequency on the y -axis.
- How did scaling the couples graph differently change the way you compared it to the singles graph?
- Based on the graphs, do you think that individuals spend the same amount, more or less, as singles as they do person by person as a couple? Explain why in one or two complete sentences.
- See the tables above

- Both graphs have a single peak.
- Both graphs use class intervals with width equal to $50.
- The couples graph has a class interval with no values.
- It takes almost twice as many class intervals to display the data for couples.
- Answers may vary. Possible answers include: The graphs are more similar than different because the overall patterns for the graphs are the same.
- Check student's solution.
- Both graphs display 6 class intervals.
- Both graphs show the same general pattern.
- Answers may vary. Possible answers include: Although the width of the class intervals for couples is double that of the class intervals for singles, the graphs are more similar than they are different.
- Answers may vary. Possible answers include: You are able to compare the graphs interval by interval. It is easier to compare the overall patterns with the new scale on the Couples graph. Because a couple represents two individuals, the new scale leads to a more accurate comparison.
- Answers may vary. Possible answers include: Based on the histograms, it seems that spending does not vary much from singles to individuals who are part of a couple. The overall patterns are the same. The range of spending for couples is approximately double the range for individuals.

Twenty-five randomly selected students were asked the number of movies they watched the previous week. The results are as follows.

- Construct a histogram of the data.
- Complete the columns of the chart.

Use the following information to answer the next two exercises: Suppose one hundred eleven people who shopped in a special t-shirt store were asked the number of t-shirts they own costing more than $19 each.

The percentage of people who own at most three t-shirts costing more than $19 each is approximately:

- Cannot be determined

If the data were collected by asking the first 111 people who entered the store, then the type of sampling is:

- simple random
- convenience

Following are the 2010 obesity rates by U.S. states and Washington, DC.

Construct a bar graph of obesity rates of your state and the four states closest to your state. Hint: Label the \(x\)-axis with the states.

Answers will vary.

Exercise 2.3.6

Sixty-five randomly selected car salespersons were asked the number of cars they generally sell in one week. Fourteen people answered that they generally sell three cars; nineteen generally sell four cars; twelve generally sell five cars; nine generally sell six cars; eleven generally sell seven cars. Complete the table.

Exercise 2.3.7

What does the frequency column in the Table above sum to? Why?

Exercise 2.3.8

What does the relative frequency column in in the Table above sum to? Why?

Exercise 2.3.9

What is the difference between relative frequency and frequency for each data value in in the Table above ?

The relative frequency shows the proportion of data points that have each value. The frequency tells the number of data points that have each value.

Exercise 2.3.10

What is the difference between cumulative relative frequency and relative frequency for each data value?

Exercise 2.3.11

To construct the histogram for the data in in the Table above , determine appropriate minimum and maximum x and y values and the scaling. Sketch the histogram. Label the horizontal and vertical axes with words. Include numerical scaling.

Answers will vary. One possible histogram is shown:

Exercise 2.3.12

Construct a frequency polygon for the following:

Exercise 2.3.13

Construct a frequency polygon from the frequency distribution for the 50 highest ranked countries for depth of hunger.

Find the midpoint for each class. These will be graphed on the x -axis. The frequency values will be graphed on the y -axis values.

Exercise 2.3.14

Use the two frequency tables to compare the life expectancy of men and women from 20 randomly selected countries. Include an overlayed frequency polygon and discuss the shapes of the distributions, the center, the spread, and any outliers. What can we conclude about the life expectancy of women compared to men?

Exercise 2.3.15

Construct a times series graph for (a) the number of male births, (b) the number of female births, and (c) the total number of births.

Exercise 2.3.16

The following data sets list full time police per 100,000 citizens along with homicides per 100,000 citizens for the city of Detroit, Michigan during the period from 1961 to 1973.

- Construct a double time series graph using a common x -axis for both sets of data.
- Which variable increased the fastest? Explain.
- Did Detroit’s increase in police officers have an impact on the murder rate? Explain.

## 2.4: Measures of the Location of the Data

The median age for U.S. blacks currently is 30.9 years; for U.S. whites it is 42.3 years.

- Based upon this information, give two reasons why the black median age could be lower than the white median age.
- Does the lower median age for blacks necessarily mean that blacks die younger than whites? Why or why not?
- How might it be possible for blacks and whites to die at approximately the same age, but for the median age for whites to be higher?

Six hundred adult Americans were asked by telephone poll, "What do you think constitutes a middle-class income?" The results are in the Table below. Also, include left endpoint, but not the right endpoint.

- What percentage of the survey answered "not sure"?
- What percentage think that middle-class is from $25,000 to $50,000?
- Should all bars have the same width, based on the data? Why or why not?
- How should the <20,000 and the 100,000+ intervals be handled? Why?
- Find the 40 th and 80 th percentiles
- Construct a bar graph of the data
- \(1 - (0.02 + 0.09 + 0.19 + 0.26 + 0.18 + 0.17 + 0.02 + 0.01) = 0.06\)
- \(0.19 + 0.26 + 0.18 = 0.63\)
- Check student’s solution.

80 th percentile will fall between 50,000 and 75,000

Given the following box plot:

- which quarter has the smallest spread of data? What is that spread?
- which quarter has the largest spread of data? What is that spread?
- find the interquartile range ( IQR ).
- are there more data in the interval 5–10 or in the interval 10–13? How do you know this?
- 10–12
- 12–13
- need more information

The following box plot shows the U.S. population for 1990, the latest available year.

- Are there fewer or more children (age 17 and under) than senior citizens (age 65 and over)? How do you know?
- 12.6% are age 65 and over. Approximately what percentage of the population are working age adults (above age 17 to age 65)?
- more children; the left whisker shows that 25% of the population are children 17 and younger. The right whisker shows that 25% of the population are adults 50 and older, so adults 65 and over represent less than 25%.

## 2.5: Box Plots

In a survey of 20-year-olds in China, Germany, and the United States, people were asked the number of foreign countries they had visited in their lifetime. The following box plots display the results.

- In complete sentences, describe what the shape of each box plot implies about the distribution of the data collected.
- Have more Americans or more Germans surveyed been to over eight foreign countries?
- Compare the three box plots. What do they imply about the foreign travel of 20-year-old residents of the three countries when compared to each other?

Given the following box plot, answer the questions.

- Think of an example (in words) where the data might fit into the above box plot. In 2–5 sentences, write down the example.
- What does it mean to have the first and second quartiles so close together, while the second to third quartiles are far apart?
- Answers will vary. Possible answer: State University conducted a survey to see how involved its students are in community service. The box plot shows the number of community service hours logged by participants over the past year.
- Because the first and second quartiles are close, the data in this quarter is very similar. There is not much variation in the values. The data in the third quarter is much more variable, or spread out. This is clear because the second quartile is so far away from the third quartile.

Given the following box plots, answer the questions.

- Data 1 has more data values above two than Data 2 has above two.
- The data sets cannot have the same mode.
- For Data 1 , there are more data values below four than there are above four.
- For which group, Data 1 or Data 2, is the value of “7” more likely to be an outlier? Explain why in complete sentences.

A survey was conducted of 130 purchasers of new BMW 3 series cars, 130 purchasers of new BMW 5 series cars, and 130 purchasers of new BMW 7 series cars. In it, people were asked the age they were when they purchased their car. The following box plots display the results.

- In complete sentences, describe what the shape of each box plot implies about the distribution of the data collected for that car series.
- Which group is most likely to have an outlier? Explain how you determined that.
- Compare the three box plots. What do they imply about the age of purchasing a BMW from the series when compared to each other?
- Look at the BMW 5 series. Which quarter has the smallest spread of data? What is the spread?
- Look at the BMW 5 series. Which quarter has the largest spread of data? What is the spread?
- Look at the BMW 5 series. Estimate the interquartile range (IQR).
- Look at the BMW 5 series. Are there more data in the interval 31 to 38 or in the interval 45 to 55? How do you know this?
- 31–35
- 38–41
- 41–64
- Each box plot is spread out more in the greater values. Each plot is skewed to the right, so the ages of the top 50% of buyers are more variable than the ages of the lower 50%.
- The BMW 3 series is most likely to have an outlier. It has the longest whisker.
- Comparing the median ages, younger people tend to buy the BMW 3 series, while older people tend to buy the BMW 7 series. However, this is not a rule, because there is so much variability in each data set.
- The second quarter has the smallest spread. There seems to be only a three-year difference between the first quartile and the median.
- The third quarter has the largest spread. There seems to be approximately a 14-year difference between the median and the third quartile.
- IQR ~ 17 years
- There is not enough information to tell. Each interval lies within a quarter, so we cannot tell exactly where the data in that quarter is concentrated.
- The interval from 31 to 35 years has the fewest data values. Twenty-five percent of the values fall in the interval 38 to 41, and 25% fall between 41 and 64. Since 25% of values fall between 31 and 38, we know that fewer than 25% fall between 31 and 35.

Twenty-five randomly selected students were asked the number of movies they watched the previous week. The results are as follows:

Construct a box plot of the data.

## 2.6: Measures of the Center of the Data

The most obese countries in the world have obesity rates that range from 11.4% to 74.6%. This data is summarized in the following table.

- What is the best estimate of the average obesity percentage for these countries?
- The United States has an average obesity rate of 33.9%. Is this rate above average or below?
- How does the United States compare to other countries?

The table below gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight. What is the best estimate for the mean percentage of underweight children?

The mean percentage, \(\bar{x} = \frac{1328.65}{50} = 26.75\)

## 2.7: Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode

The median age of the U.S. population in 1980 was 30.0 years. In 1991, the median age was 33.1 years.

- What does it mean for the median age to rise?
- Give two reasons why the median age could rise.
- For the median age to rise, is the actual number of children less in 1991 than it was in 1980? Why or why not?

## 2.8: Measures of the Spread of the Data

Use the following information to answer the next nine exercises: The population parameters below describe the full-time equivalent number of students (FTES) each year at Lake Tahoe Community College from 1976–1977 through 2004–2005.

- \(\mu = 1000\) FTES
- median = 1,014 FTES
- \(\sigma = 474\) FTES
- first quartile = 528.5 FTES
- third quartile = 1,447.5 FTES
- \(n = 29\) years

A sample of 11 years is taken. About how many are expected to have a FTES of 1014 or above? Explain how you determined your answer.

The median value is the middle value in the ordered list of data values. The median value of a set of 11 will be the 6th number in order. Six years will have totals at or below the median.

75% of all years have an FTES:

- at or below: _____
- at or above: _____

The population standard deviation = _____

What percent of the FTES were from 528.5 to 1447.5? How do you know?

What is the IQR ? What does the IQR represent?

How many standard deviations away from the mean is the median?

Additional Information: The population FTES for 2005–2006 through 2010–2011 was given in an updated report. The data are reported here.

Calculate the mean, median, standard deviation, the first quartile, the third quartile and the IQR . Round to one decimal place.

- mean = 1,809.3
- median = 1,812.5
- standard deviation = 151.2
- first quartile = 1,690
- third quartile = 1,935

Construct a box plot for the FTES for 2005–2006 through 2010–2011 and a box plot for the FTES for 1976–1977 through 2004–2005.

Compare the IQR for the FTES for 1976–77 through 2004–2005 with the IQR for the FTES for 2005-2006 through 2010–2011. Why do you suppose the IQR s are so different?

Hint: Think about the number of years covered by each time period and what happened to higher education during those periods.

Three students were applying to the same graduate school. They came from schools with different grading systems. Which student had the best GPA when compared to other students at his school? Explain how you determined your answer.

A music school has budgeted to purchase three musical instruments. They plan to purchase a piano costing $3,000, a guitar costing $550, and a drum set costing $600. The mean cost for a piano is $4,000 with a standard deviation of $2,500. The mean cost for a guitar is $500 with a standard deviation of $200. The mean cost for drums is $700 with a standard deviation of $100. Which cost is the lowest, when compared to other instruments of the same type? Which cost is the highest when compared to other instruments of the same type. Justify your answer.

For pianos, the cost of the piano is 0.4 standard deviations BELOW the mean. For guitars, the cost of the guitar is 0.25 standard deviations ABOVE the mean. For drums, the cost of the drum set is 1.0 standard deviations BELOW the mean. Of the three, the drums cost the lowest in comparison to the cost of other instruments of the same type. The guitar costs the most in comparison to the cost of other instruments of the same type.

An elementary school class ran one mile with a mean of 11 minutes and a standard deviation of three minutes. Rachel, a student in the class, ran one mile in eight minutes. A junior high school class ran one mile with a mean of nine minutes and a standard deviation of two minutes. Kenji, a student in the class, ran 1 mile in 8.5 minutes. A high school class ran one mile with a mean of seven minutes and a standard deviation of four minutes. Nedda, a student in the class, ran one mile in eight minutes.

- Why is Kenji considered a better runner than Nedda, even though Nedda ran faster than he?
- Who is the fastest runner with respect to his or her class? Explain why.

The most obese countries in the world have obesity rates that range from 11.4% to 74.6%. This data is summarized in the table belo2

What is the best estimate of the average obesity percentage for these countries? What is the standard deviation for the listed obesity rates? The United States has an average obesity rate of 33.9%. Is this rate above average or below? How “unusual” is the United States’ obesity rate compared to the average rate? Explain.

- \(\bar{x} = 23.32\)
- Using the TI 83/84, we obtain a standard deviation of: \(s_{x} = 12.95\).
- The obesity rate of the United States is 10.58% higher than the average obesity rate.
- Since the standard deviation is 12.95, we see that \(23.32 + 12.95 = 36.27\) is the obesity percentage that is one standard deviation from the mean. The United States obesity rate is slightly less than one standard deviation from the mean. Therefore, we can assume that the United States, while 34% obese, does not have an unusually high percentage of obese people.

The Table below gives the percent of children under five considered to be underweight.

What is the best estimate for the mean percentage of underweight children? What is the standard deviation? Which interval(s) could be considered unusual? Explain.

## Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphical Representation of Data

The graphical view is vastly used in every type of data or report. It makes data easier to understand and also has a lot more advantages like this. But it also has some disadvantages so for that reason, we are giving here some advantages and disadvantages of graphical representation of data.

Everyone should know the advantages and disadvantages of the graphical representation of data because some people are not aware of the disadvantages of the graphical representation of data. This article will clear the concept of those people.

## Advantages of Graphical Representation of Data

Graphical representation of reports enjoys various advantages which are as follows:

1. Acceptability : Such a report is acceptable to busy persons because it easily highlights the theme of the report. This helps to avoid waste of time.

2. Comparative Analysis : Information can be compared in terms of graphical representation. Such comparative analysis helps for quick understanding and attention.

3. Less cost : Information if descriptive involves huge time to present properly. It involves more money to print the information but the graphical presentation can be made in a short but catchy view to make the report understandable. It obviously involves less cost.

4. Decision Making : Business executives can view the graphs at a glance and can make a decision very quickly which is hardly possible through descriptive reports.

5. Logical Ideas : If tables, designs, and graphs are used to represent information then a logical sequence is created to clear the idea of the audience.

6. Helpful for less literate Audience : Less literate or illiterate people can understand graphical representation easily because it does not involve going through line-by-line and descriptive reports.

7. Less Effort and Time : To present any table, design, image, or graph require less effort and time. Furthermore, such a presentation makes a quick understanding of the information.

8. Less Error and Mistakes : Qualitative or informative or descriptive reports involve errors or mistakes. As graphical representations are exhibited through numerical figures, tables, or graphs, it usually involves fewer errors and mistakes.

9. A complete Idea : Such representation creates a clear and complete idea in the mind of the audience. Reading a hundred pages may not give any scope to make a decision. But an instant view or looking at a glance obviously makes an impression in the mind of the audience regarding the topic or subject.

10. Use in the Notice Board : Such representation can be hung on the notice board to quickly raise the attention of employees in any organization.

## Disadvantages of Graphical Representation of Data

The graphical representation of reports is not free from limitations. The following are the problems with a graphical representation of data or reports:

1. Costly : Graphical representation of reports is costly because it involves images, colors, and paints. A combination of material with human efforts makes the graphical presentation expensive.

2. More time : Normal report involves less time to represent but graphical representation involves more time as it requires graphs and figures which are dependent on more time.

3. Errors and Mistakes : Since graphical representations are complex, there is- each and every chance of errors and mistakes. This causes problems for a better understanding of general people.

4. Lack of Secrecy : Graphical representation makes the full presentation of information that may hamper the objective to keep something secret.

5. Problems to select a suitable method : Information can be presented through various graphical methods and ways. Which should be the suitable method is very hard to select.

6. The problem of Understanding : All may not be able to get the meaning of graphical representation because it involves various technical matters which are complex to general people.

Last, of all, it can be said that graphical representation does not provide proper information to general people.

Related Content of Report Writing:

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## 6 thoughts on “Advantages and Disadvantages of Graphical Representation of Data”

the answers are very good in maybe answering a question on the advantages and disadvantage of using graphical representation of reporting a research findings, as compared to using simple reporting numbers

The Content is nice but do something with the layout, remove that social network sight bar at the left. It blocks half of the content

Nice one, great presentation, it help me a lot

It helped me with my math project

Rare article on internet but you write it very well and this is very informative. Please keep it up.

Realy suitable answer as per to my concern…….hope ur site….always give preference to suitability…..ats, pam

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Examples on Graphical Representation of Data. Example 1: A pie chart is divided into 3 parts with the angles measuring as 2x, 8x, and 10x respectively. Find the value of x in degrees. Solution: We know, the sum of all angles in a pie chart would give 360º as result. ⇒ 2x + 8x + 10x = 360º. ⇒ 20 x = 360º. ⇒ x = 360º/20.

Bar Graphs. A bar graph is a type of graphical representation of the data in which bars of uniform width are drawn with equal spacing between them on one axis (x-axis usually), depicting the variable. The values of the variables are represented by the height of the bars.

Algebraic principles are applied to all types of graphical representation of data. In graphs, it is represented using two lines called coordinate axes. The horizontal axis is denoted as the x-axis and the vertical axis is denoted as the y-axis. The point at which two lines intersect is called an origin 'O'. Consider x-axis, the distance ...

This page titled 2: Graphical Representations of Data is shared under a CC BY 4.0 license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by OpenStax via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request. In this chapter, you will study numerical and graphical ways ...

Graphical representation refers to the use of intuitive charts to clearly visualize and simplify data sets. Data is ingested into graphical representation of data software and then represented by a variety of symbols, such as lines on a line chart, bars on a bar chart, or slices on a pie chart, from which users can gain greater insight than by ...

Principles of graphical representation . The principles of graphical representation are algebraic. In a graph, there are two lines known as Axis or Coordinate axis. These are the X-axis and Y-axis. The horizontal axis is the X-axis and the vertical axis is the Y-axis. They are perpendicular to each other and intersect at O or point of Origin.

Graphical representation of data, often referred to as graphical presentation or simply graphs which plays a crucial role in conveying information effectively. Principles of Graphical Representation. Effective graphical representation follows certain fundamental principles that ensure clarity, accuracy, and usability:Clarity : The primary goal ...

2.1: Qualitative Data. Remember, qualitative data are words describing a characteristic of the individual. There are several different graphs that are used for qualitative data. These graphs include bar graphs, Pareto charts, and pie charts. 2.2: Quantitative Data. 2.3: Other Graphical Representations of Data.

A circle graph (or pie chart) is a circle that is divided into as many sections as there are categories of the qualitative variable. The area of each section represents, for each category, the value of the quantitative data as a fraction of the sum of values. The fractions sum to 1 . Sometimes the section labels include both the category ...

Data visualization is the graphical representation of information and data. By using v isual elements like charts, graphs, and maps, data visualization tools provide an accessible way to see and understand trends, outliers, and patterns in data. Additionally, it provides an excellent way for employees or business owners to present data to non ...

2.1: Types of Data Representation. Page ID. Two common types of graphic displays are bar charts and histograms. Both bar charts and histograms use vertical or horizontal bars to represent the number of data points in each category or interval. The main difference graphically is that in a bar chart there are spaces between the bars and in a ...

Data visualization is the representation of information and data using charts, graphs, maps, and other visual tools. These visualizations allow us to easily understand any patterns, trends, or outliers in a data set. Data visualization also presents data to the general public or specific audiences without technical knowledge in an accessible ...

A graphical representation is the geometrical image of a set of data that preserves its characteristics and displays them at a glance. It is a mathematical picture of data points. It enables us to think about a statistical problem in visual terms. It is an effective tool for the preparation, understanding and interpretation of the collected data.

A bar graph is a graphical representation of the data in the form of rectangular bars or columns of equal width. It is the simplest one and easily understandable among the graphs by a group of people. Browse more Topics under Statistical Description Of Data. Introduction to Statistics; Textual and Tabular Representation of Data; Frequency ...

To make this graph less misleading, a y-axis with salary information should be included. Even when both axes are present and labeled correctly, graphical representations of data can be misleading. This is shown in the set of attendance graphs that follow. In the graph on the left, the scale begins at 0 and goes to 20,000.

Graphical Representation of Data: Frequency Distribution Table. A frequency table or frequency distribution is a method to present raw data in which one can easily understand the information contained in the raw data. The frequency distribution table is constructed by using the tally marks. Tally marks are a form of a numerical system with the ...

As the different kinds of graphs aim to represent data, they are used in many areas such as: in statistics, in data science, in math, in economics, in business and etc. Every type of graph is a visual representation of data on diagram plots (ex. bar, pie, line chart) that show different types of graph trends and relationships between variables.

Bullet Graph. Choropleth Map. Word Cloud. Network Diagram. Correlation Matrices. 1. Pie Chart. Pie charts are one of the most common and basic data visualization techniques, used across a wide range of applications. Pie charts are ideal for illustrating proportions, or part-to-whole comparisons.

A histogram is the graphical representation of data. It is similar to the appearance of a bar graph but there is a lot of difference between histogram and bar graph because a bar graph helps to measure the frequency of categorical data. A categorical data means it is based on two or more categories like gender, months, etc. Whereas histogram is ...

2.1: Qualitative Data. Remember, qualitative data are words describing a characteristic of the individual. There are several different graphs that are used for qualitative data. These graphs include bar graphs, Pareto charts, and pie charts. 2.2: Quantitative Data. 2.3: Other Graphical Representations of Data.

Construct a histogram of the data. Complete the columns of the chart. Use the following information to answer the next two exercises: Suppose one hundred eleven people who shopped in a special t-shirt store were asked the number of t-shirts they own costing more than $19 each. Figure 2.E. 8 2.

1. Acceptability: Such a report is acceptable to busy persons because it easily highlights the theme of the report. This helps to avoid waste of time. 2. Comparative Analysis: Information can be compared in terms of graphical representation. Such comparative analysis helps for quick understanding and attention. 3.