main features of a case study

The Ultimate Guide to Qualitative Research - Part 1: The Basics

main features of a case study

  • Introduction and overview
  • What is qualitative research?
  • What is qualitative data?
  • Examples of qualitative data
  • Qualitative vs. quantitative research
  • Mixed methods
  • Qualitative research preparation
  • Theoretical perspective
  • Theoretical framework
  • Literature reviews

Research question

  • Conceptual framework
  • Conceptual vs. theoretical framework

Data collection

  • Qualitative research methods
  • Focus groups
  • Observational research

What is a case study?

Applications for case study research, what is a good case study, process of case study design, benefits and limitations of case studies.

  • Ethnographical research
  • Ethical considerations
  • Confidentiality and privacy
  • Power dynamics
  • Reflexivity

Case studies

Case studies are essential to qualitative research , offering a lens through which researchers can investigate complex phenomena within their real-life contexts. This chapter explores the concept, purpose, applications, examples, and types of case studies and provides guidance on how to conduct case study research effectively.

main features of a case study

Whereas quantitative methods look at phenomena at scale, case study research looks at a concept or phenomenon in considerable detail. While analyzing a single case can help understand one perspective regarding the object of research inquiry, analyzing multiple cases can help obtain a more holistic sense of the topic or issue. Let's provide a basic definition of a case study, then explore its characteristics and role in the qualitative research process.

Definition of a case study

A case study in qualitative research is a strategy of inquiry that involves an in-depth investigation of a phenomenon within its real-world context. It provides researchers with the opportunity to acquire an in-depth understanding of intricate details that might not be as apparent or accessible through other methods of research. The specific case or cases being studied can be a single person, group, or organization – demarcating what constitutes a relevant case worth studying depends on the researcher and their research question .

Among qualitative research methods , a case study relies on multiple sources of evidence, such as documents, artifacts, interviews , or observations , to present a complete and nuanced understanding of the phenomenon under investigation. The objective is to illuminate the readers' understanding of the phenomenon beyond its abstract statistical or theoretical explanations.

Characteristics of case studies

Case studies typically possess a number of distinct characteristics that set them apart from other research methods. These characteristics include a focus on holistic description and explanation, flexibility in the design and data collection methods, reliance on multiple sources of evidence, and emphasis on the context in which the phenomenon occurs.

Furthermore, case studies can often involve a longitudinal examination of the case, meaning they study the case over a period of time. These characteristics allow case studies to yield comprehensive, in-depth, and richly contextualized insights about the phenomenon of interest.

The role of case studies in research

Case studies hold a unique position in the broader landscape of research methods aimed at theory development. They are instrumental when the primary research interest is to gain an intensive, detailed understanding of a phenomenon in its real-life context.

In addition, case studies can serve different purposes within research - they can be used for exploratory, descriptive, or explanatory purposes, depending on the research question and objectives. This flexibility and depth make case studies a valuable tool in the toolkit of qualitative researchers.

Remember, a well-conducted case study can offer a rich, insightful contribution to both academic and practical knowledge through theory development or theory verification, thus enhancing our understanding of complex phenomena in their real-world contexts.

What is the purpose of a case study?

Case study research aims for a more comprehensive understanding of phenomena, requiring various research methods to gather information for qualitative analysis . Ultimately, a case study can allow the researcher to gain insight into a particular object of inquiry and develop a theoretical framework relevant to the research inquiry.

Why use case studies in qualitative research?

Using case studies as a research strategy depends mainly on the nature of the research question and the researcher's access to the data.

Conducting case study research provides a level of detail and contextual richness that other research methods might not offer. They are beneficial when there's a need to understand complex social phenomena within their natural contexts.

The explanatory, exploratory, and descriptive roles of case studies

Case studies can take on various roles depending on the research objectives. They can be exploratory when the research aims to discover new phenomena or define new research questions; they are descriptive when the objective is to depict a phenomenon within its context in a detailed manner; and they can be explanatory if the goal is to understand specific relationships within the studied context. Thus, the versatility of case studies allows researchers to approach their topic from different angles, offering multiple ways to uncover and interpret the data .

The impact of case studies on knowledge development

Case studies play a significant role in knowledge development across various disciplines. Analysis of cases provides an avenue for researchers to explore phenomena within their context based on the collected data.

main features of a case study

This can result in the production of rich, practical insights that can be instrumental in both theory-building and practice. Case studies allow researchers to delve into the intricacies and complexities of real-life situations, uncovering insights that might otherwise remain hidden.

Types of case studies

In qualitative research , a case study is not a one-size-fits-all approach. Depending on the nature of the research question and the specific objectives of the study, researchers might choose to use different types of case studies. These types differ in their focus, methodology, and the level of detail they provide about the phenomenon under investigation.

Understanding these types is crucial for selecting the most appropriate approach for your research project and effectively achieving your research goals. Let's briefly look at the main types of case studies.

Exploratory case studies

Exploratory case studies are typically conducted to develop a theory or framework around an understudied phenomenon. They can also serve as a precursor to a larger-scale research project. Exploratory case studies are useful when a researcher wants to identify the key issues or questions which can spur more extensive study or be used to develop propositions for further research. These case studies are characterized by flexibility, allowing researchers to explore various aspects of a phenomenon as they emerge, which can also form the foundation for subsequent studies.

Descriptive case studies

Descriptive case studies aim to provide a complete and accurate representation of a phenomenon or event within its context. These case studies are often based on an established theoretical framework, which guides how data is collected and analyzed. The researcher is concerned with describing the phenomenon in detail, as it occurs naturally, without trying to influence or manipulate it.

Explanatory case studies

Explanatory case studies are focused on explanation - they seek to clarify how or why certain phenomena occur. Often used in complex, real-life situations, they can be particularly valuable in clarifying causal relationships among concepts and understanding the interplay between different factors within a specific context.

main features of a case study

Intrinsic, instrumental, and collective case studies

These three categories of case studies focus on the nature and purpose of the study. An intrinsic case study is conducted when a researcher has an inherent interest in the case itself. Instrumental case studies are employed when the case is used to provide insight into a particular issue or phenomenon. A collective case study, on the other hand, involves studying multiple cases simultaneously to investigate some general phenomena.

Each type of case study serves a different purpose and has its own strengths and challenges. The selection of the type should be guided by the research question and objectives, as well as the context and constraints of the research.

The flexibility, depth, and contextual richness offered by case studies make this approach an excellent research method for various fields of study. They enable researchers to investigate real-world phenomena within their specific contexts, capturing nuances that other research methods might miss. Across numerous fields, case studies provide valuable insights into complex issues.

Critical information systems research

Case studies provide a detailed understanding of the role and impact of information systems in different contexts. They offer a platform to explore how information systems are designed, implemented, and used and how they interact with various social, economic, and political factors. Case studies in this field often focus on examining the intricate relationship between technology, organizational processes, and user behavior, helping to uncover insights that can inform better system design and implementation.

Health research

Health research is another field where case studies are highly valuable. They offer a way to explore patient experiences, healthcare delivery processes, and the impact of various interventions in a real-world context.

main features of a case study

Case studies can provide a deep understanding of a patient's journey, giving insights into the intricacies of disease progression, treatment effects, and the psychosocial aspects of health and illness.

Asthma research studies

Specifically within medical research, studies on asthma often employ case studies to explore the individual and environmental factors that influence asthma development, management, and outcomes. A case study can provide rich, detailed data about individual patients' experiences, from the triggers and symptoms they experience to the effectiveness of various management strategies. This can be crucial for developing patient-centered asthma care approaches.

Other fields

Apart from the fields mentioned, case studies are also extensively used in business and management research, education research, and political sciences, among many others. They provide an opportunity to delve into the intricacies of real-world situations, allowing for a comprehensive understanding of various phenomena.

Case studies, with their depth and contextual focus, offer unique insights across these varied fields. They allow researchers to illuminate the complexities of real-life situations, contributing to both theory and practice.

main features of a case study

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Understanding the key elements of case study design is crucial for conducting rigorous and impactful case study research. A well-structured design guides the researcher through the process, ensuring that the study is methodologically sound and its findings are reliable and valid. The main elements of case study design include the research question , propositions, units of analysis, and the logic linking the data to the propositions.

The research question is the foundation of any research study. A good research question guides the direction of the study and informs the selection of the case, the methods of collecting data, and the analysis techniques. A well-formulated research question in case study research is typically clear, focused, and complex enough to merit further detailed examination of the relevant case(s).

Propositions

Propositions, though not necessary in every case study, provide a direction by stating what we might expect to find in the data collected. They guide how data is collected and analyzed by helping researchers focus on specific aspects of the case. They are particularly important in explanatory case studies, which seek to understand the relationships among concepts within the studied phenomenon.

Units of analysis

The unit of analysis refers to the case, or the main entity or entities that are being analyzed in the study. In case study research, the unit of analysis can be an individual, a group, an organization, a decision, an event, or even a time period. It's crucial to clearly define the unit of analysis, as it shapes the qualitative data analysis process by allowing the researcher to analyze a particular case and synthesize analysis across multiple case studies to draw conclusions.

Argumentation

This refers to the inferential model that allows researchers to draw conclusions from the data. The researcher needs to ensure that there is a clear link between the data, the propositions (if any), and the conclusions drawn. This argumentation is what enables the researcher to make valid and credible inferences about the phenomenon under study.

Understanding and carefully considering these elements in the design phase of a case study can significantly enhance the quality of the research. It can help ensure that the study is methodologically sound and its findings contribute meaningful insights about the case.

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Conducting a case study involves several steps, from defining the research question and selecting the case to collecting and analyzing data . This section outlines these key stages, providing a practical guide on how to conduct case study research.

Defining the research question

The first step in case study research is defining a clear, focused research question. This question should guide the entire research process, from case selection to analysis. It's crucial to ensure that the research question is suitable for a case study approach. Typically, such questions are exploratory or descriptive in nature and focus on understanding a phenomenon within its real-life context.

Selecting and defining the case

The selection of the case should be based on the research question and the objectives of the study. It involves choosing a unique example or a set of examples that provide rich, in-depth data about the phenomenon under investigation. After selecting the case, it's crucial to define it clearly, setting the boundaries of the case, including the time period and the specific context.

Previous research can help guide the case study design. When considering a case study, an example of a case could be taken from previous case study research and used to define cases in a new research inquiry. Considering recently published examples can help understand how to select and define cases effectively.

Developing a detailed case study protocol

A case study protocol outlines the procedures and general rules to be followed during the case study. This includes the data collection methods to be used, the sources of data, and the procedures for analysis. Having a detailed case study protocol ensures consistency and reliability in the study.

The protocol should also consider how to work with the people involved in the research context to grant the research team access to collecting data. As mentioned in previous sections of this guide, establishing rapport is an essential component of qualitative research as it shapes the overall potential for collecting and analyzing data.

Collecting data

Gathering data in case study research often involves multiple sources of evidence, including documents, archival records, interviews, observations, and physical artifacts. This allows for a comprehensive understanding of the case. The process for gathering data should be systematic and carefully documented to ensure the reliability and validity of the study.

Analyzing and interpreting data

The next step is analyzing the data. This involves organizing the data , categorizing it into themes or patterns , and interpreting these patterns to answer the research question. The analysis might also involve comparing the findings with prior research or theoretical propositions.

Writing the case study report

The final step is writing the case study report . This should provide a detailed description of the case, the data, the analysis process, and the findings. The report should be clear, organized, and carefully written to ensure that the reader can understand the case and the conclusions drawn from it.

Each of these steps is crucial in ensuring that the case study research is rigorous, reliable, and provides valuable insights about the case.

The type, depth, and quality of data in your study can significantly influence the validity and utility of the study. In case study research, data is usually collected from multiple sources to provide a comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the case. This section will outline the various methods of collecting data used in case study research and discuss considerations for ensuring the quality of the data.

Interviews are a common method of gathering data in case study research. They can provide rich, in-depth data about the perspectives, experiences, and interpretations of the individuals involved in the case. Interviews can be structured , semi-structured , or unstructured , depending on the research question and the degree of flexibility needed.

Observations

Observations involve the researcher observing the case in its natural setting, providing first-hand information about the case and its context. Observations can provide data that might not be revealed in interviews or documents, such as non-verbal cues or contextual information.

Documents and artifacts

Documents and archival records provide a valuable source of data in case study research. They can include reports, letters, memos, meeting minutes, email correspondence, and various public and private documents related to the case.

main features of a case study

These records can provide historical context, corroborate evidence from other sources, and offer insights into the case that might not be apparent from interviews or observations.

Physical artifacts refer to any physical evidence related to the case, such as tools, products, or physical environments. These artifacts can provide tangible insights into the case, complementing the data gathered from other sources.

Ensuring the quality of data collection

Determining the quality of data in case study research requires careful planning and execution. It's crucial to ensure that the data is reliable, accurate, and relevant to the research question. This involves selecting appropriate methods of collecting data, properly training interviewers or observers, and systematically recording and storing the data. It also includes considering ethical issues related to collecting and handling data, such as obtaining informed consent and ensuring the privacy and confidentiality of the participants.

Data analysis

Analyzing case study research involves making sense of the rich, detailed data to answer the research question. This process can be challenging due to the volume and complexity of case study data. However, a systematic and rigorous approach to analysis can ensure that the findings are credible and meaningful. This section outlines the main steps and considerations in analyzing data in case study research.

Organizing the data

The first step in the analysis is organizing the data. This involves sorting the data into manageable sections, often according to the data source or the theme. This step can also involve transcribing interviews, digitizing physical artifacts, or organizing observational data.

Categorizing and coding the data

Once the data is organized, the next step is to categorize or code the data. This involves identifying common themes, patterns, or concepts in the data and assigning codes to relevant data segments. Coding can be done manually or with the help of software tools, and in either case, qualitative analysis software can greatly facilitate the entire coding process. Coding helps to reduce the data to a set of themes or categories that can be more easily analyzed.

Identifying patterns and themes

After coding the data, the researcher looks for patterns or themes in the coded data. This involves comparing and contrasting the codes and looking for relationships or patterns among them. The identified patterns and themes should help answer the research question.

Interpreting the data

Once patterns and themes have been identified, the next step is to interpret these findings. This involves explaining what the patterns or themes mean in the context of the research question and the case. This interpretation should be grounded in the data, but it can also involve drawing on theoretical concepts or prior research.

Verification of the data

The last step in the analysis is verification. This involves checking the accuracy and consistency of the analysis process and confirming that the findings are supported by the data. This can involve re-checking the original data, checking the consistency of codes, or seeking feedback from research participants or peers.

Like any research method , case study research has its strengths and limitations. Researchers must be aware of these, as they can influence the design, conduct, and interpretation of the study.

Understanding the strengths and limitations of case study research can also guide researchers in deciding whether this approach is suitable for their research question . This section outlines some of the key strengths and limitations of case study research.

Benefits include the following:

  • Rich, detailed data: One of the main strengths of case study research is that it can generate rich, detailed data about the case. This can provide a deep understanding of the case and its context, which can be valuable in exploring complex phenomena.
  • Flexibility: Case study research is flexible in terms of design , data collection , and analysis . A sufficient degree of flexibility allows the researcher to adapt the study according to the case and the emerging findings.
  • Real-world context: Case study research involves studying the case in its real-world context, which can provide valuable insights into the interplay between the case and its context.
  • Multiple sources of evidence: Case study research often involves collecting data from multiple sources , which can enhance the robustness and validity of the findings.

On the other hand, researchers should consider the following limitations:

  • Generalizability: A common criticism of case study research is that its findings might not be generalizable to other cases due to the specificity and uniqueness of each case.
  • Time and resource intensive: Case study research can be time and resource intensive due to the depth of the investigation and the amount of collected data.
  • Complexity of analysis: The rich, detailed data generated in case study research can make analyzing the data challenging.
  • Subjectivity: Given the nature of case study research, there may be a higher degree of subjectivity in interpreting the data , so researchers need to reflect on this and transparently convey to audiences how the research was conducted.

Being aware of these strengths and limitations can help researchers design and conduct case study research effectively and interpret and report the findings appropriately.

main features of a case study

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  • Knowledge Base

Methodology

  • What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

What Is a Case Study? | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on May 8, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on November 20, 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyze the case, other interesting articles.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

Case study examples
Research question Case study
What are the ecological effects of wolf reintroduction? Case study of wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park
How do populist politicians use narratives about history to gain support? Case studies of Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán and US president Donald Trump
How can teachers implement active learning strategies in mixed-level classrooms? Case study of a local school that promotes active learning
What are the main advantages and disadvantages of wind farms for rural communities? Case studies of three rural wind farm development projects in different parts of the country
How are viral marketing strategies changing the relationship between companies and consumers? Case study of the iPhone X marketing campaign
How do experiences of work in the gig economy differ by gender, race and age? Case studies of Deliveroo and Uber drivers in London

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Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
  • Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for future research

TipIf your research is more practical in nature and aims to simultaneously investigate an issue as you solve it, consider conducting action research instead.

Unlike quantitative or experimental research , a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

Example of an outlying case studyIn the 1960s the town of Roseto, Pennsylvania was discovered to have extremely low rates of heart disease compared to the US average. It became an important case study for understanding previously neglected causes of heart disease.

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience or phenomenon.

Example of a representative case studyIn the 1920s, two sociologists used Muncie, Indiana as a case study of a typical American city that supposedly exemplified the changing culture of the US at the time.

While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews , observations , and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data.

Example of a mixed methods case studyFor a case study of a wind farm development in a rural area, you could collect quantitative data on employment rates and business revenue, collect qualitative data on local people’s perceptions and experiences, and analyze local and national media coverage of the development.

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

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main features of a case study

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis , with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyze its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

If you want to know more about statistics , methodology , or research bias , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.

  • Normal distribution
  • Degrees of freedom
  • Null hypothesis
  • Discourse analysis
  • Control groups
  • Mixed methods research
  • Non-probability sampling
  • Quantitative research
  • Ecological validity

Research bias

  • Rosenthal effect
  • Implicit bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Selection bias
  • Negativity bias
  • Status quo bias

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  • Knowledge Base
  • Methodology
  • Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods

Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods

Published on 5 May 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on 30 January 2023.

A case study is a detailed study of a specific subject, such as a person, group, place, event, organisation, or phenomenon. Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research.

A case study research design usually involves qualitative methods , but quantitative methods are sometimes also used. Case studies are good for describing , comparing, evaluating, and understanding different aspects of a research problem .

Table of contents

When to do a case study, step 1: select a case, step 2: build a theoretical framework, step 3: collect your data, step 4: describe and analyse the case.

A case study is an appropriate research design when you want to gain concrete, contextual, in-depth knowledge about a specific real-world subject. It allows you to explore the key characteristics, meanings, and implications of the case.

Case studies are often a good choice in a thesis or dissertation . They keep your project focused and manageable when you don’t have the time or resources to do large-scale research.

You might use just one complex case study where you explore a single subject in depth, or conduct multiple case studies to compare and illuminate different aspects of your research problem.

Case study examples
Research question Case study
What are the ecological effects of wolf reintroduction? Case study of wolf reintroduction in Yellowstone National Park in the US
How do populist politicians use narratives about history to gain support? Case studies of Hungarian prime minister Viktor Orbán and US president Donald Trump
How can teachers implement active learning strategies in mixed-level classrooms? Case study of a local school that promotes active learning
What are the main advantages and disadvantages of wind farms for rural communities? Case studies of three rural wind farm development projects in different parts of the country
How are viral marketing strategies changing the relationship between companies and consumers? Case study of the iPhone X marketing campaign
How do experiences of work in the gig economy differ by gender, race, and age? Case studies of Deliveroo and Uber drivers in London

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Once you have developed your problem statement and research questions , you should be ready to choose the specific case that you want to focus on. A good case study should have the potential to:

  • Provide new or unexpected insights into the subject
  • Challenge or complicate existing assumptions and theories
  • Propose practical courses of action to resolve a problem
  • Open up new directions for future research

Unlike quantitative or experimental research, a strong case study does not require a random or representative sample. In fact, case studies often deliberately focus on unusual, neglected, or outlying cases which may shed new light on the research problem.

If you find yourself aiming to simultaneously investigate and solve an issue, consider conducting action research . As its name suggests, action research conducts research and takes action at the same time, and is highly iterative and flexible. 

However, you can also choose a more common or representative case to exemplify a particular category, experience, or phenomenon.

While case studies focus more on concrete details than general theories, they should usually have some connection with theory in the field. This way the case study is not just an isolated description, but is integrated into existing knowledge about the topic. It might aim to:

  • Exemplify a theory by showing how it explains the case under investigation
  • Expand on a theory by uncovering new concepts and ideas that need to be incorporated
  • Challenge a theory by exploring an outlier case that doesn’t fit with established assumptions

To ensure that your analysis of the case has a solid academic grounding, you should conduct a literature review of sources related to the topic and develop a theoretical framework . This means identifying key concepts and theories to guide your analysis and interpretation.

There are many different research methods you can use to collect data on your subject. Case studies tend to focus on qualitative data using methods such as interviews, observations, and analysis of primary and secondary sources (e.g., newspaper articles, photographs, official records). Sometimes a case study will also collect quantitative data .

The aim is to gain as thorough an understanding as possible of the case and its context.

In writing up the case study, you need to bring together all the relevant aspects to give as complete a picture as possible of the subject.

How you report your findings depends on the type of research you are doing. Some case studies are structured like a standard scientific paper or thesis, with separate sections or chapters for the methods , results , and discussion .

Others are written in a more narrative style, aiming to explore the case from various angles and analyse its meanings and implications (for example, by using textual analysis or discourse analysis ).

In all cases, though, make sure to give contextual details about the case, connect it back to the literature and theory, and discuss how it fits into wider patterns or debates.

Cite this Scribbr article

If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

McCombes, S. (2023, January 30). Case Study | Definition, Examples & Methods. Scribbr. Retrieved 24 June 2024, from https://www.scribbr.co.uk/research-methods/case-studies/

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What Is a Case Study?

Weighing the pros and cons of this method of research

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

main features of a case study

Cara Lustik is a fact-checker and copywriter.

main features of a case study

Verywell / Colleen Tighe

  • Pros and Cons

What Types of Case Studies Are Out There?

Where do you find data for a case study, how do i write a psychology case study.

A case study is an in-depth study of one person, group, or event. In a case study, nearly every aspect of the subject's life and history is analyzed to seek patterns and causes of behavior. Case studies can be used in many different fields, including psychology, medicine, education, anthropology, political science, and social work.

The point of a case study is to learn as much as possible about an individual or group so that the information can be generalized to many others. Unfortunately, case studies tend to be highly subjective, and it is sometimes difficult to generalize results to a larger population.

While case studies focus on a single individual or group, they follow a format similar to other types of psychology writing. If you are writing a case study, we got you—here are some rules of APA format to reference.  

At a Glance

A case study, or an in-depth study of a person, group, or event, can be a useful research tool when used wisely. In many cases, case studies are best used in situations where it would be difficult or impossible for you to conduct an experiment. They are helpful for looking at unique situations and allow researchers to gather a lot of˜ information about a specific individual or group of people. However, it's important to be cautious of any bias we draw from them as they are highly subjective.

What Are the Benefits and Limitations of Case Studies?

A case study can have its strengths and weaknesses. Researchers must consider these pros and cons before deciding if this type of study is appropriate for their needs.

One of the greatest advantages of a case study is that it allows researchers to investigate things that are often difficult or impossible to replicate in a lab. Some other benefits of a case study:

  • Allows researchers to capture information on the 'how,' 'what,' and 'why,' of something that's implemented
  • Gives researchers the chance to collect information on why one strategy might be chosen over another
  • Permits researchers to develop hypotheses that can be explored in experimental research

On the other hand, a case study can have some drawbacks:

  • It cannot necessarily be generalized to the larger population
  • Cannot demonstrate cause and effect
  • It may not be scientifically rigorous
  • It can lead to bias

Researchers may choose to perform a case study if they want to explore a unique or recently discovered phenomenon. Through their insights, researchers develop additional ideas and study questions that might be explored in future studies.

It's important to remember that the insights from case studies cannot be used to determine cause-and-effect relationships between variables. However, case studies may be used to develop hypotheses that can then be addressed in experimental research.

Case Study Examples

There have been a number of notable case studies in the history of psychology. Much of  Freud's work and theories were developed through individual case studies. Some great examples of case studies in psychology include:

  • Anna O : Anna O. was a pseudonym of a woman named Bertha Pappenheim, a patient of a physician named Josef Breuer. While she was never a patient of Freud's, Freud and Breuer discussed her case extensively. The woman was experiencing symptoms of a condition that was then known as hysteria and found that talking about her problems helped relieve her symptoms. Her case played an important part in the development of talk therapy as an approach to mental health treatment.
  • Phineas Gage : Phineas Gage was a railroad employee who experienced a terrible accident in which an explosion sent a metal rod through his skull, damaging important portions of his brain. Gage recovered from his accident but was left with serious changes in both personality and behavior.
  • Genie : Genie was a young girl subjected to horrific abuse and isolation. The case study of Genie allowed researchers to study whether language learning was possible, even after missing critical periods for language development. Her case also served as an example of how scientific research may interfere with treatment and lead to further abuse of vulnerable individuals.

Such cases demonstrate how case research can be used to study things that researchers could not replicate in experimental settings. In Genie's case, her horrific abuse denied her the opportunity to learn a language at critical points in her development.

This is clearly not something researchers could ethically replicate, but conducting a case study on Genie allowed researchers to study phenomena that are otherwise impossible to reproduce.

There are a few different types of case studies that psychologists and other researchers might use:

  • Collective case studies : These involve studying a group of individuals. Researchers might study a group of people in a certain setting or look at an entire community. For example, psychologists might explore how access to resources in a community has affected the collective mental well-being of those who live there.
  • Descriptive case studies : These involve starting with a descriptive theory. The subjects are then observed, and the information gathered is compared to the pre-existing theory.
  • Explanatory case studies : These   are often used to do causal investigations. In other words, researchers are interested in looking at factors that may have caused certain things to occur.
  • Exploratory case studies : These are sometimes used as a prelude to further, more in-depth research. This allows researchers to gather more information before developing their research questions and hypotheses .
  • Instrumental case studies : These occur when the individual or group allows researchers to understand more than what is initially obvious to observers.
  • Intrinsic case studies : This type of case study is when the researcher has a personal interest in the case. Jean Piaget's observations of his own children are good examples of how an intrinsic case study can contribute to the development of a psychological theory.

The three main case study types often used are intrinsic, instrumental, and collective. Intrinsic case studies are useful for learning about unique cases. Instrumental case studies help look at an individual to learn more about a broader issue. A collective case study can be useful for looking at several cases simultaneously.

The type of case study that psychology researchers use depends on the unique characteristics of the situation and the case itself.

There are a number of different sources and methods that researchers can use to gather information about an individual or group. Six major sources that have been identified by researchers are:

  • Archival records : Census records, survey records, and name lists are examples of archival records.
  • Direct observation : This strategy involves observing the subject, often in a natural setting . While an individual observer is sometimes used, it is more common to utilize a group of observers.
  • Documents : Letters, newspaper articles, administrative records, etc., are the types of documents often used as sources.
  • Interviews : Interviews are one of the most important methods for gathering information in case studies. An interview can involve structured survey questions or more open-ended questions.
  • Participant observation : When the researcher serves as a participant in events and observes the actions and outcomes, it is called participant observation.
  • Physical artifacts : Tools, objects, instruments, and other artifacts are often observed during a direct observation of the subject.

If you have been directed to write a case study for a psychology course, be sure to check with your instructor for any specific guidelines you need to follow. If you are writing your case study for a professional publication, check with the publisher for their specific guidelines for submitting a case study.

Here is a general outline of what should be included in a case study.

Section 1: A Case History

This section will have the following structure and content:

Background information : The first section of your paper will present your client's background. Include factors such as age, gender, work, health status, family mental health history, family and social relationships, drug and alcohol history, life difficulties, goals, and coping skills and weaknesses.

Description of the presenting problem : In the next section of your case study, you will describe the problem or symptoms that the client presented with.

Describe any physical, emotional, or sensory symptoms reported by the client. Thoughts, feelings, and perceptions related to the symptoms should also be noted. Any screening or diagnostic assessments that are used should also be described in detail and all scores reported.

Your diagnosis : Provide your diagnosis and give the appropriate Diagnostic and Statistical Manual code. Explain how you reached your diagnosis, how the client's symptoms fit the diagnostic criteria for the disorder(s), or any possible difficulties in reaching a diagnosis.

Section 2: Treatment Plan

This portion of the paper will address the chosen treatment for the condition. This might also include the theoretical basis for the chosen treatment or any other evidence that might exist to support why this approach was chosen.

  • Cognitive behavioral approach : Explain how a cognitive behavioral therapist would approach treatment. Offer background information on cognitive behavioral therapy and describe the treatment sessions, client response, and outcome of this type of treatment. Make note of any difficulties or successes encountered by your client during treatment.
  • Humanistic approach : Describe a humanistic approach that could be used to treat your client, such as client-centered therapy . Provide information on the type of treatment you chose, the client's reaction to the treatment, and the end result of this approach. Explain why the treatment was successful or unsuccessful.
  • Psychoanalytic approach : Describe how a psychoanalytic therapist would view the client's problem. Provide some background on the psychoanalytic approach and cite relevant references. Explain how psychoanalytic therapy would be used to treat the client, how the client would respond to therapy, and the effectiveness of this treatment approach.
  • Pharmacological approach : If treatment primarily involves the use of medications, explain which medications were used and why. Provide background on the effectiveness of these medications and how monotherapy may compare with an approach that combines medications with therapy or other treatments.

This section of a case study should also include information about the treatment goals, process, and outcomes.

When you are writing a case study, you should also include a section where you discuss the case study itself, including the strengths and limitiations of the study. You should note how the findings of your case study might support previous research. 

In your discussion section, you should also describe some of the implications of your case study. What ideas or findings might require further exploration? How might researchers go about exploring some of these questions in additional studies?

Need More Tips?

Here are a few additional pointers to keep in mind when formatting your case study:

  • Never refer to the subject of your case study as "the client." Instead, use their name or a pseudonym.
  • Read examples of case studies to gain an idea about the style and format.
  • Remember to use APA format when citing references .

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach .  BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011;11:100.

Crowe S, Cresswell K, Robertson A, Huby G, Avery A, Sheikh A. The case study approach . BMC Med Res Methodol . 2011 Jun 27;11:100. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-11-100

Gagnon, Yves-Chantal.  The Case Study as Research Method: A Practical Handbook . Canada, Chicago Review Press Incorporated DBA Independent Pub Group, 2010.

Yin, Robert K. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods . United States, SAGE Publications, 2017.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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Blog Business How to Present a Case Study like a Pro (With Examples)

How to Present a Case Study like a Pro (With Examples)

Written by: Danesh Ramuthi Sep 07, 2023

How Present a Case Study like a Pro

Okay, let’s get real: case studies can be kinda snooze-worthy. But guess what? They don’t have to be!

In this article, I will cover every element that transforms a mere report into a compelling case study, from selecting the right metrics to using persuasive narrative techniques.

And if you’re feeling a little lost, don’t worry! There are cool tools like Venngage’s Case Study Creator to help you whip up something awesome, even if you’re short on time. Plus, the pre-designed case study templates are like instant polish because let’s be honest, everyone loves a shortcut.

Click to jump ahead: 

What is a case study presentation?

What is the purpose of presenting a case study, how to structure a case study presentation, how long should a case study presentation be, 5 case study presentation examples with templates, 6 tips for delivering an effective case study presentation, 5 common mistakes to avoid in a case study presentation, how to present a case study faqs.

A case study presentation involves a comprehensive examination of a specific subject, which could range from an individual, group, location, event, organization or phenomenon.

They’re like puzzles you get to solve with the audience, all while making you think outside the box.

Unlike a basic report or whitepaper, the purpose of a case study presentation is to stimulate critical thinking among the viewers. 

The primary objective of a case study is to provide an extensive and profound comprehension of the chosen topic. You don’t just throw numbers at your audience. You use examples and real-life cases to make you think and see things from different angles.

main features of a case study

The primary purpose of presenting a case study is to offer a comprehensive, evidence-based argument that informs, persuades and engages your audience.

Here’s the juicy part: presenting that case study can be your secret weapon. Whether you’re pitching a groundbreaking idea to a room full of suits or trying to impress your professor with your A-game, a well-crafted case study can be the magic dust that sprinkles brilliance over your words.

Think of it like digging into a puzzle you can’t quite crack . A case study lets you explore every piece, turn it over and see how it fits together. This close-up look helps you understand the whole picture, not just a blurry snapshot.

It’s also your chance to showcase how you analyze things, step by step, until you reach a conclusion. It’s all about being open and honest about how you got there.

Besides, presenting a case study gives you an opportunity to connect data and real-world scenarios in a compelling narrative. It helps to make your argument more relatable and accessible, increasing its impact on your audience.

One of the contexts where case studies can be very helpful is during the job interview. In some job interviews, you as candidates may be asked to present a case study as part of the selection process.

Having a case study presentation prepared allows the candidate to demonstrate their ability to understand complex issues, formulate strategies and communicate their ideas effectively.

Case Study Example Psychology

The way you present a case study can make all the difference in how it’s received. A well-structured presentation not only holds the attention of your audience but also ensures that your key points are communicated clearly and effectively.

In this section, let’s go through the key steps that’ll help you structure your case study presentation for maximum impact.

Let’s get into it. 

Open with an introductory overview 

Start by introducing the subject of your case study and its relevance. Explain why this case study is important and who would benefit from the insights gained. This is your opportunity to grab your audience’s attention.

main features of a case study

Explain the problem in question

Dive into the problem or challenge that the case study focuses on. Provide enough background information for the audience to understand the issue. If possible, quantify the problem using data or metrics to show the magnitude or severity.

main features of a case study

Detail the solutions to solve the problem

After outlining the problem, describe the steps taken to find a solution. This could include the methodology, any experiments or tests performed and the options that were considered. Make sure to elaborate on why the final solution was chosen over the others.

main features of a case study

Key stakeholders Involved

Talk about the individuals, groups or organizations that were directly impacted by or involved in the problem and its solution. 

Stakeholders may experience a range of outcomes—some may benefit, while others could face setbacks.

For example, in a business transformation case study, employees could face job relocations or changes in work culture, while shareholders might be looking at potential gains or losses.

Discuss the key results & outcomes

Discuss the results of implementing the solution. Use data and metrics to back up your statements. Did the solution meet its objectives? What impact did it have on the stakeholders? Be honest about any setbacks or areas for improvement as well.

main features of a case study

Include visuals to support your analysis

Visual aids can be incredibly effective in helping your audience grasp complex issues. Utilize charts, graphs, images or video clips to supplement your points. Make sure to explain each visual and how it contributes to your overall argument.

Pie charts illustrate the proportion of different components within a whole, useful for visualizing market share, budget allocation or user demographics.

This is particularly useful especially if you’re displaying survey results in your case study presentation.

main features of a case study

Stacked charts on the other hand are perfect for visualizing composition and trends. This is great for analyzing things like customer demographics, product breakdowns or budget allocation in your case study.

Consider this example of a stacked bar chart template. It provides a straightforward summary of the top-selling cake flavors across various locations, offering a quick and comprehensive view of the data.

main features of a case study

Not the chart you’re looking for? Browse Venngage’s gallery of chart templates to find the perfect one that’ll captivate your audience and level up your data storytelling.

Recommendations and next steps

Wrap up by providing recommendations based on the case study findings. Outline the next steps that stakeholders should take to either expand on the success of the project or address any remaining challenges.

Acknowledgments and references

Thank the people who contributed to the case study and helped in the problem-solving process. Cite any external resources, reports or data sets that contributed to your analysis.

Feedback & Q&A session

Open the floor for questions and feedback from your audience. This allows for further discussion and can provide additional insights that may not have been considered previously.

Closing remarks

Conclude the presentation by summarizing the key points and emphasizing the takeaways. Thank your audience for their time and participation and express your willingness to engage in further discussions or collaborations on the subject.

main features of a case study

Well, the length of a case study presentation can vary depending on the complexity of the topic and the needs of your audience. However, a typical business or academic presentation often lasts between 15 to 30 minutes. 

This time frame usually allows for a thorough explanation of the case while maintaining audience engagement. However, always consider leaving a few minutes at the end for a Q&A session to address any questions or clarify points made during the presentation.

When it comes to presenting a compelling case study, having a well-structured template can be a game-changer. 

It helps you organize your thoughts, data and findings in a coherent and visually pleasing manner. 

Not all case studies are created equal and different scenarios require distinct approaches for maximum impact. 

To save you time and effort, I have curated a list of 5 versatile case study presentation templates, each designed for specific needs and audiences. 

Here are some best case study presentation examples that showcase effective strategies for engaging your audience and conveying complex information clearly.

1 . Lab report case study template

Ever feel like your research gets lost in a world of endless numbers and jargon? Lab case studies are your way out!

Think of it as building a bridge between your cool experiment and everyone else. It’s more than just reporting results – it’s explaining the “why” and “how” in a way that grabs attention and makes sense.

This lap report template acts as a blueprint for your report, guiding you through each essential section (introduction, methods, results, etc.) in a logical order.

College Lab Report Template - Introduction

Want to present your research like a pro? Browse our research presentation template gallery for creative inspiration!

2. Product case study template

It’s time you ditch those boring slideshows and bullet points because I’ve got a better way to win over clients: product case study templates.

Instead of just listing features and benefits, you get to create a clear and concise story that shows potential clients exactly what your product can do for them. It’s like painting a picture they can easily visualize, helping them understand the value your product brings to the table.

Grab the template below, fill in the details, and watch as your product’s impact comes to life!

main features of a case study

3. Content marketing case study template

In digital marketing, showcasing your accomplishments is as vital as achieving them. 

A well-crafted case study not only acts as a testament to your successes but can also serve as an instructional tool for others. 

With this coral content marketing case study template—a perfect blend of vibrant design and structured documentation, you can narrate your marketing triumphs effectively.

main features of a case study

4. Case study psychology template

Understanding how people tick is one of psychology’s biggest quests and case studies are like magnifying glasses for the mind. They offer in-depth looks at real-life behaviors, emotions and thought processes, revealing fascinating insights into what makes us human.

Writing a top-notch case study, though, can be a challenge. It requires careful organization, clear presentation and meticulous attention to detail. That’s where a good case study psychology template comes in handy.

Think of it as a helpful guide, taking care of formatting and structure while you focus on the juicy content. No more wrestling with layouts or margins – just pour your research magic into crafting a compelling narrative.

main features of a case study

5. Lead generation case study template

Lead generation can be a real head-scratcher. But here’s a little help: a lead generation case study.

Think of it like a friendly handshake and a confident resume all rolled into one. It’s your chance to showcase your expertise, share real-world successes and offer valuable insights. Potential clients get to see your track record, understand your approach and decide if you’re the right fit.

No need to start from scratch, though. This lead generation case study template guides you step-by-step through crafting a clear, compelling narrative that highlights your wins and offers actionable tips for others. Fill in the gaps with your specific data and strategies, and voilà! You’ve got a powerful tool to attract new customers.

Modern Lead Generation Business Case Study Presentation Template

Related: 15+ Professional Case Study Examples [Design Tips + Templates]

So, you’ve spent hours crafting the perfect case study and are now tasked with presenting it. Crafting the case study is only half the battle; delivering it effectively is equally important. 

Whether you’re facing a room of executives, academics or potential clients, how you present your findings can make a significant difference in how your work is received. 

Forget boring reports and snooze-inducing presentations! Let’s make your case study sing. Here are some key pointers to turn information into an engaging and persuasive performance:

  • Know your audience : Tailor your presentation to the knowledge level and interests of your audience. Remember to use language and examples that resonate with them.
  • Rehearse : Rehearsing your case study presentation is the key to a smooth delivery and for ensuring that you stay within the allotted time. Practice helps you fine-tune your pacing, hone your speaking skills with good word pronunciations and become comfortable with the material, leading to a more confident, conversational and effective presentation.
  • Start strong : Open with a compelling introduction that grabs your audience’s attention. You might want to use an interesting statistic, a provocative question or a brief story that sets the stage for your case study.
  • Be clear and concise : Avoid jargon and overly complex sentences. Get to the point quickly and stay focused on your objectives.
  • Use visual aids : Incorporate slides with graphics, charts or videos to supplement your verbal presentation. Make sure they are easy to read and understand.
  • Tell a story : Use storytelling techniques to make the case study more engaging. A well-told narrative can help you make complex data more relatable and easier to digest.

main features of a case study

Ditching the dry reports and slide decks? Venngage’s case study templates let you wow customers with your solutions and gain insights to improve your business plan. Pre-built templates, visual magic and customer captivation – all just a click away. Go tell your story and watch them say “wow!”

Nailed your case study, but want to make your presentation even stronger? Avoid these common mistakes to ensure your audience gets the most out of it:

Overloading with information

A case study is not an encyclopedia. Overloading your presentation with excessive data, text or jargon can make it cumbersome and difficult for the audience to digest the key points. Stick to what’s essential and impactful. Need help making your data clear and impactful? Our data presentation templates can help! Find clear and engaging visuals to showcase your findings.

Lack of structure

Jumping haphazardly between points or topics can confuse your audience. A well-structured presentation, with a logical flow from introduction to conclusion, is crucial for effective communication.

Ignoring the audience

Different audiences have different needs and levels of understanding. Failing to adapt your presentation to your audience can result in a disconnect and a less impactful presentation.

Poor visual elements

While content is king, poor design or lack of visual elements can make your case study dull or hard to follow. Make sure you use high-quality images, graphs and other visual aids to support your narrative.

Not focusing on results

A case study aims to showcase a problem and its solution, but what most people care about are the results. Failing to highlight or adequately explain the outcomes can make your presentation fall flat.

How to start a case study presentation?

Starting a case study presentation effectively involves a few key steps:

  • Grab attention : Open with a hook—an intriguing statistic, a provocative question or a compelling visual—to engage your audience from the get-go.
  • Set the stage : Briefly introduce the subject, context and relevance of the case study to give your audience an idea of what to expect.
  • Outline objectives : Clearly state what the case study aims to achieve. Are you solving a problem, proving a point or showcasing a success?
  • Agenda : Give a quick outline of the key sections or topics you’ll cover to help the audience follow along.
  • Set expectations : Let your audience know what you want them to take away from the presentation, whether it’s knowledge, inspiration or a call to action.

How to present a case study on PowerPoint and on Google Slides?

Presenting a case study on PowerPoint and Google Slides involves a structured approach for clarity and impact using presentation slides :

  • Title slide : Start with a title slide that includes the name of the case study, your name and any relevant institutional affiliations.
  • Introduction : Follow with a slide that outlines the problem or situation your case study addresses. Include a hook to engage the audience.
  • Objectives : Clearly state the goals of the case study in a dedicated slide.
  • Findings : Use charts, graphs and bullet points to present your findings succinctly.
  • Analysis : Discuss what the findings mean, drawing on supporting data or secondary research as necessary.
  • Conclusion : Summarize key takeaways and results.
  • Q&A : End with a slide inviting questions from the audience.

What’s the role of analysis in a case study presentation?

The role of analysis in a case study presentation is to interpret the data and findings, providing context and meaning to them. 

It helps your audience understand the implications of the case study, connects the dots between the problem and the solution and may offer recommendations for future action.

Is it important to include real data and results in the presentation?

Yes, including real data and results in a case study presentation is crucial to show experience,  credibility and impact. Authentic data lends weight to your findings and conclusions, enabling the audience to trust your analysis and take your recommendations more seriously

How do I conclude a case study presentation effectively?

To conclude a case study presentation effectively, summarize the key findings, insights and recommendations in a clear and concise manner. 

End with a strong call-to-action or a thought-provoking question to leave a lasting impression on your audience.

What’s the best way to showcase data in a case study presentation ?

The best way to showcase data in a case study presentation is through visual aids like charts, graphs and infographics which make complex information easily digestible, engaging and creative. 

Don’t just report results, visualize them! This template for example lets you transform your social media case study into a captivating infographic that sparks conversation.

main features of a case study

Choose the type of visual that best represents the data you’re showing; for example, use bar charts for comparisons or pie charts for parts of a whole. 

Ensure that the visuals are high-quality and clearly labeled, so the audience can quickly grasp the key points. 

Keep the design consistent and simple, avoiding clutter or overly complex visuals that could distract from the message.

Choose a template that perfectly suits your case study where you can utilize different visual aids for maximum impact. 

Need more inspiration on how to turn numbers into impact with the help of infographics? Our ready-to-use infographic templates take the guesswork out of creating visual impact for your case studies with just a few clicks.

Related: 10+ Case Study Infographic Templates That Convert

Congrats on mastering the art of compelling case study presentations! This guide has equipped you with all the essentials, from structure and nuances to avoiding common pitfalls. You’re ready to impress any audience, whether in the boardroom, the classroom or beyond.

And remember, you’re not alone in this journey. Venngage’s Case Study Creator is your trusty companion, ready to elevate your presentations from ordinary to extraordinary. So, let your confidence shine, leverage your newly acquired skills and prepare to deliver presentations that truly resonate.

Go forth and make a lasting impact!

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The 7 Essential Elements of a Great Case Study

Template: 23 Case Study Questions Every Marketer Should Ask

March 24, 2023

By Mike Wolfe

Research shows that 93 percent of consumers say online reviews will affect shopping choices . Online reviews certainly help tell a part of your organization’s story, but when you want to offer a bigger picture and really show off what you can do, there’s nothing like a case study. 

A great case study can help assure your audience that you’re more than capable of helping them with their problems because you’ve been there and done that for similar organizations. Ever looked at an organization’s website and checked out their case studies or testimonials before filling out a form or giving them a call?

These are great pieces of collateral that can have an immediate impact on the audience you connect with and can be used in a number of ways throughout the course of your marketing and sales efforts.

When you are looking to put together your next case study (or revamp some of your older ones), take these essential elements into consideration.

1. Common Problem or Challenge

Start with clearly defined issues..

When your audience takes the time to read your case study, they likely do so because they want to see that you resolved a problem or challenge they’re facing. Before writing a case study, consider some common problems or challenges your personas are experiencing and start there. 

2. Explanation of Resolution

Describe the problems, but really showcase your solutions..

Your customer came to you with a problem or need for you to solve—and you knocked it out of the park! Don’t sell yourself short when it comes to describing how you resolved the customer’s problems. Highlight the ways your product or service was the perfect fit for your customer so potential customers can start connecting the dots on how you can help them too.

3. Compelling Story

Tell the story of your customers’ experience..

Problems and solutions are important to cover, but don’t forget to make your case study relatable to your audience. Telling the story from the perspective of the customer and describing how they felt and what they experienced throughout the process helps your audience put themselves in your customer’s shoes. 

Template: 23 Case Study Questions Every Marketer Should Ask

4. Customer Quotes

Give your customer a voice..

Take your storytelling to the next level by using real customer quotes that support your case study. The best quotes will draw a clear connection between the customer’s good experience and your product or service, offering an intimate look at how your business helped them succeed. Be sure to choose quotes that perfectly illustrate the results you achieved for your customer, and make sure they accurately reflect the customer’s opinion.

5. Successful Outcome

Let’s see some results.

You’ve got the beginning of the story (why you and the customer met) and the middle of the story (how you worked to help them). Now, in order for this to have a happy ending for both your customers and your audience, you need the results to bring it home.

The key here is to be as specific as possible with your outcomes. Let those results shine and give your audience a glimpse into what they can potentially see from partnering with your organization.

6. Visual Aids

Engage readers visually..

Visual aids help bring a tangible element to the case study, making it more memorable and engaging for readers. Case studies that include visual elements such as photos, diagrams, infographics, or videos can often be more persuasive and effective than those that don’t. Visual aids can also help make complex topics more easily understandable, and they often create a stronger emotional connection with potential customers.

7. Descriptive Name

Cap it off with a great title..

When writing a marketing case study, it is important to include an effective title that accurately describes the content. A catchy and well-crafted title can help draw readers in and entice them to learn more about the journey your customer went through. Good titles are concise yet descriptive, so readers can quickly understand what the case study is about and why it is important. 

Ready to Write Your Amazing New Case Study? 

Here are a few quick tips to get you started:

  • Interview your customer about their experience. Ask questions that will help you tell the full story from their point of view, such as:
  • What was the customer looking to solve when partnering with you?
  • What did the customer need that you were able to provide?
  • What has their experience been with your product or service?
  • Show their results and give a brief overview of how your tools, strategies, and/or recommendations were impactful.
  • Use bullet points to emphasize key findings within the story and grab some quotes from your conversation with the customer to highlight.
  • Create some calls to action for the sidebars or footers of your related blog content.

Once created, there are many great places to showcase your next case study. Link to it from your sales collateral or event materials (including your booths and product sheets). Have the resources to use video in your customer conversations? Send these videos out through your social channels to help your audience put a face and a voice to the results you can bring them.

One final piece of advice: Look at metrics about how your audience is primarily viewing content, and capitalize on those options for your next great case study. Best of luck!

This post was originally published in May 2016 and has been updated since.

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About the author

Mike Wolfe is an Inbound Marketing Strategist at SmartBug Media helping clients find success through inbound marketing. Read more articles by Mike Wolfe .

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15 Real-Life Case Study Examples & Best Practices

15 Real-Life Case Study Examples & Best Practices

Written by: Oghale Olori

Real-Life Case Study Examples

Case studies are more than just success stories.

They are powerful tools that demonstrate the practical value of your product or service. Case studies help attract attention to your products, build trust with potential customers and ultimately drive sales.

It’s no wonder that 73% of successful content marketers utilize case studies as part of their content strategy. Plus, buyers spend 54% of their time reviewing case studies before they make a buying decision.

To ensure you’re making the most of your case studies, we’ve put together 15 real-life case study examples to inspire you. These examples span a variety of industries and formats. We’ve also included best practices, design tips and templates to inspire you.

Let’s dive in!

Table of Contents

What is a case study, 15 real-life case study examples, sales case study examples, saas case study examples, product case study examples, marketing case study examples, business case study examples, case study faqs.

  • A case study is a compelling narrative that showcases how your product or service has positively impacted a real business or individual. 
  • Case studies delve into your customer's challenges, how your solution addressed them and the quantifiable results they achieved.
  • Your case study should have an attention-grabbing headline, great visuals and a relevant call to action. Other key elements include an introduction, problems and result section.
  • Visme provides easy-to-use tools, professionally designed templates and features for creating attractive and engaging case studies.

A case study is a real-life scenario where your company helped a person or business solve their unique challenges. It provides a detailed analysis of the positive outcomes achieved as a result of implementing your solution.

Case studies are an effective way to showcase the value of your product or service to potential customers without overt selling. By sharing how your company transformed a business, you can attract customers seeking similar solutions and results.

Case studies are not only about your company's capabilities; they are primarily about the benefits customers and clients have experienced from using your product.

Every great case study is made up of key elements. They are;

  • Attention-grabbing headline: Write a compelling headline that grabs attention and tells your reader what the case study is about. For example, "How a CRM System Helped a B2B Company Increase Revenue by 225%.
  • Introduction/Executive Summary: Include a brief overview of your case study, including your customer’s problem, the solution they implemented and the results they achieved.
  • Problem/Challenge: Case studies with solutions offer a powerful way to connect with potential customers. In this section, explain how your product or service specifically addressed your customer's challenges.
  • Solution: Explain how your product or service specifically addressed your customer's challenges.
  • Results/Achievements : Give a detailed account of the positive impact of your product. Quantify the benefits achieved using metrics such as increased sales, improved efficiency, reduced costs or enhanced customer satisfaction.
  • Graphics/Visuals: Include professional designs, high-quality photos and videos to make your case study more engaging and visually appealing.
  • Quotes/Testimonials: Incorporate written or video quotes from your clients to boost your credibility.
  • Relevant CTA: Insert a call to action (CTA) that encourages the reader to take action. For example, visiting your website or contacting you for more information. Your CTA can be a link to a landing page, a contact form or your social media handle and should be related to the product or service you highlighted in your case study.

Parts of a Case Study Infographic

Now that you understand what a case study is, let’s look at real-life case study examples. Among these, you'll find some simple case study examples that break down complex ideas into easily understandable solutions.

In this section, we’ll explore SaaS, marketing, sales, product and business case study examples with solutions. Take note of how these companies structured their case studies and included the key elements.

We’ve also included professionally designed case study templates to inspire you.

1. Georgia Tech Athletics Increase Season Ticket Sales by 80%

Case Study Examples

Georgia Tech Athletics, with its 8,000 football season ticket holders, sought for a way to increase efficiency and customer engagement.

Their initial sales process involved making multiple outbound phone calls per day with no real targeting or guidelines. Georgia Tech believed that targeting communications will enable them to reach more people in real time.

Salesloft improved Georgia Tech’s sales process with an inbound structure. This enabled sales reps to connect with their customers on a more targeted level. The use of dynamic fields and filters when importing lists ensured prospects received the right information, while communication with existing fans became faster with automation.

As a result, Georgia Tech Athletics recorded an 80% increase in season ticket sales as relationships with season ticket holders significantly improved. Employee engagement increased as employees became more energized to connect and communicate with fans.

Why Does This Case Study Work?

In this case study example , Salesloft utilized the key elements of a good case study. Their introduction gave an overview of their customers' challenges and the results they enjoyed after using them. After which they categorized the case study into three main sections: challenge, solution and result.

Salesloft utilized a case study video to increase engagement and invoke human connection.

Incorporating videos in your case study has a lot of benefits. Wyzol’s 2023 state of video marketing report showed a direct correlation between videos and an 87% increase in sales.

The beautiful thing is that creating videos for your case study doesn’t have to be daunting.

With an easy-to-use platform like Visme, you can create top-notch testimonial videos that will connect with your audience. Within the Visme editor, you can access over 1 million stock photos , video templates, animated graphics and more. These tools and resources will significantly improve the design and engagement of your case study.

Simplify content creation and brand management for your team

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  • Lock down your branding to maintain brand consistency throughout your designs
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main features of a case study

2. WeightWatchers Completely Revamped their Enterprise Sales Process with HubSpot

Case Study Examples

WeightWatchers, a 60-year-old wellness company, sought a CRM solution that increased the efficiency of their sales process. With their previous system, Weightwatchers had limited automation. They would copy-paste message templates from word documents or recreate one email for a batch of customers.

This required a huge effort from sales reps, account managers and leadership, as they were unable to track leads or pull customized reports for planning and growth.

WeightWatchers transformed their B2B sales strategy by leveraging HubSpot's robust marketing and sales workflows. They utilized HubSpot’s deal pipeline and automation features to streamline lead qualification. And the customized dashboard gave leadership valuable insights.

As a result, WeightWatchers generated seven figures in annual contract value and boosted recurring revenue. Hubspot’s impact resulted in 100% adoption across all sales, marketing, client success and operations teams.

Hubspot structured its case study into separate sections, demonstrating the specific benefits of their products to various aspects of the customer's business. Additionally, they integrated direct customer quotes in each section to boost credibility, resulting in a more compelling case study.

Getting insight from your customer about their challenges is one thing. But writing about their process and achievements in a concise and relatable way is another. If you find yourself constantly experiencing writer’s block, Visme’s AI writer is perfect for you.

Visme created this AI text generator tool to take your ideas and transform them into a great draft. So whether you need help writing your first draft or editing your final case study, Visme is ready for you.

3. Immi’s Ram Fam Helps to Drive Over $200k in Sales

Case Study Examples

Immi embarked on a mission to recreate healthier ramen recipes that were nutritious and delicious. After 2 years of tireless trials, Immi finally found the perfect ramen recipe. However, they envisioned a community of passionate ramen enthusiasts to fuel their business growth.

This vision propelled them to partner with Shopify Collabs. Shopify Collabs successfully cultivated and managed Immi’s Ramen community of ambassadors and creators.

As a result of their partnership, Immi’s community grew to more than 400 dedicated members, generating over $200,000 in total affiliate sales.

The power of data-driven headlines cannot be overemphasized. Chili Piper strategically incorporates quantifiable results in their headlines. This instantly sparks curiosity and interest in readers.

While not every customer success story may boast headline-grabbing figures, quantifying achievements in percentages is still effective. For example, you can highlight a 50% revenue increase with the implementation of your product.

Take a look at the beautiful case study template below. Just like in the example above, the figures in the headline instantly grab attention and entice your reader to click through.

Having a case study document is a key factor in boosting engagement. This makes it easy to promote your case study in multiple ways. With Visme, you can easily publish, download and share your case study with your customers in a variety of formats, including PDF, PPTX, JPG and more!

Financial Case Study

4. How WOW! is Saving Nearly 79% in Time and Cost With Visme

This case study discusses how Visme helped WOW! save time and money by providing user-friendly tools to create interactive and quality training materials for their employees. Find out what your team can do with Visme. Request a Demo

WOW!'s learning and development team creates high-quality training materials for new and existing employees. Previous tools and platforms they used had plain templates, little to no interactivity features, and limited flexibility—that is, until they discovered Visme.

Now, the learning and development team at WOW! use Visme to create engaging infographics, training videos, slide decks and other training materials.

This has directly reduced the company's turnover rate, saving them money spent on recruiting and training new employees. It has also saved them a significant amount of time, which they can now allocate to other important tasks.

Visme's customer testimonials spark an emotional connection with the reader, leaving a profound impact. Upon reading this case study, prospective customers will be blown away by the remarkable efficiency achieved by Visme's clients after switching from PowerPoint.

Visme’s interactivity feature was a game changer for WOW! and one of the primary reasons they chose Visme.

“Previously we were using PowerPoint, which is fine, but the interactivity you can get with Visme is so much more robust that we’ve all steered away from PowerPoint.” - Kendra, L&D team, Wow!

Visme’s interactive feature allowed them to animate their infographics, include clickable links on their PowerPoint designs and even embed polls and quizzes their employees could interact with.

By embedding the slide decks, infographics and other training materials WOW! created with Visme, potential customers get a taste of what they can create with the tool. This is much more effective than describing the features of Visme because it allows potential customers to see the tool in action.

To top it all off, this case study utilized relevant data and figures. For example, one part of the case study said, “In Visme, where Kendra’s team has access to hundreds of templates, a brand kit, and millions of design assets at their disposal, their team can create presentations in 80% less time.”

Who wouldn't want that?

Including relevant figures and graphics in your case study is a sure way to convince your potential customers why you’re a great fit for their brand. The case study template below is a great example of integrating relevant figures and data.

UX Case Study

This colorful template begins with a captivating headline. But that is not the best part; this template extensively showcases the results their customer had using relevant figures.

The arrangement of the results makes it fun and attractive. Instead of just putting figures in a plain table, you can find interesting shapes in your Visme editor to take your case study to the next level.

5. Lyte Reduces Customer Churn To Just 3% With Hubspot CRM

Case Study Examples

While Lyte was redefining the ticketing industry, it had no definite CRM system . Lyte utilized 12–15 different SaaS solutions across various departments, which led to a lack of alignment between teams, duplication of work and overlapping tasks.

Customer data was spread across these platforms, making it difficult to effectively track their customer journey. As a result, their churn rate increased along with customer dissatisfaction.

Through Fuelius , Lyte founded and implemented Hubspot CRM. Lyte's productivity skyrocketed after incorporating Hubspot's all-in-one CRM tool. With improved efficiency, better teamwork and stronger client relationships, sales figures soared.

The case study title page and executive summary act as compelling entry points for both existing and potential customers. This overview provides a clear understanding of the case study and also strategically incorporates key details like the client's industry, location and relevant background information.

Having a good summary of your case study can prompt your readers to engage further. You can achieve this with a simple but effective case study one-pager that highlights your customer’s problems, process and achievements, just like this case study did in the beginning.

Moreover, you can easily distribute your case study one-pager and use it as a lead magnet to draw prospective customers to your company.

Take a look at this case study one-pager template below.

Ecommerce One Pager Case Study

This template includes key aspects of your case study, such as the introduction, key findings, conclusion and more, without overcrowding the page. The use of multiple shades of blue gives it a clean and dynamic layout.

Our favorite part of this template is where the age group is visualized.

With Visme’s data visualization tool , you can present your data in tables, graphs, progress bars, maps and so much more. All you need to do is choose your preferred data visualization widget, input or import your data and click enter!

6. How Workato Converts 75% of Their Qualified Leads

Case Study Examples

Workato wanted to improve their inbound leads and increase their conversion rate, which ranged from 40-55%.

At first, Workato searched for a simple scheduling tool. They soon discovered that they needed a tool that provided advanced routing capabilities based on zip code and other criteria. Luckily, they found and implemented Chili Piper.

As a result of implementing Chili Piper, Workato achieved a remarkable 75–80% conversion rate and improved show rates. This led to a substantial revenue boost, with a 10-15% increase in revenue attributed to Chili Piper's impact on lead conversion.

This case study example utilizes the power of video testimonials to drive the impact of their product.

Chili Piper incorporates screenshots and clips of their tool in use. This is a great strategy because it helps your viewers become familiar with how your product works, making onboarding new customers much easier.

In this case study example, we see the importance of efficient Workflow Management Systems (WMS). Without a WMS, you manually assign tasks to your team members and engage in multiple emails for regular updates on progress.

However, when crafting and designing your case study, you should prioritize having a good WMS.

Visme has an outstanding Workflow Management System feature that keeps you on top of all your projects and designs. This feature makes it much easier to assign roles, ensure accuracy across documents, and track progress and deadlines.

Visme’s WMS feature allows you to limit access to your entire document by assigning specific slides or pages to individual members of your team. At the end of the day, your team members are not overwhelmed or distracted by the whole document but can focus on their tasks.

7. Rush Order Helps Vogmask Scale-Up During a Pandemic

Case Study Examples

Vomask's reliance on third-party fulfillment companies became a challenge as demand for their masks grew. Seeking a reliable fulfillment partner, they found Rush Order and entrusted them with their entire inventory.

Vomask's partnership with Rush Order proved to be a lifesaver during the COVID-19 pandemic. Rush Order's agility, efficiency and commitment to customer satisfaction helped Vogmask navigate the unprecedented demand and maintain its reputation for quality and service.

Rush Order’s comprehensive support enabled Vogmask to scale up its order processing by a staggering 900% while maintaining a remarkable customer satisfaction rate of 92%.

Rush Order chose one event where their impact mattered the most to their customer and shared that story.

While pandemics don't happen every day, you can look through your customer’s journey and highlight a specific time or scenario where your product or service saved their business.

The story of Vogmask and Rush Order is compelling, but it simply is not enough. The case study format and design attract readers' attention and make them want to know more. Rush Order uses consistent colors throughout the case study, starting with the logo, bold square blocks, pictures, and even headers.

Take a look at this product case study template below.

Just like our example, this case study template utilizes bold colors and large squares to attract and maintain the reader’s attention. It provides enough room for you to write about your customers' backgrounds/introductions, challenges, goals and results.

The right combination of shapes and colors adds a level of professionalism to this case study template.

Fuji Xerox Australia Business Equipment Case Study

8. AMR Hair & Beauty leverages B2B functionality to boost sales by 200%

Case Study Examples

With limits on website customization, slow page loading and multiple website crashes during peak events, it wasn't long before AMR Hair & Beauty began looking for a new e-commerce solution.

Their existing platform lacked effective search and filtering options, a seamless checkout process and the data analytics capabilities needed for informed decision-making. This led to a significant number of abandoned carts.

Upon switching to Shopify Plus, AMR immediately saw improvements in page loading speed and average session duration. They added better search and filtering options for their wholesale customers and customized their checkout process.

Due to this, AMR witnessed a 200% increase in sales and a 77% rise in B2B average order value. AMR Hair & Beauty is now poised for further expansion and growth.

This case study example showcases the power of a concise and impactful narrative.

To make their case analysis more effective, Shopify focused on the most relevant aspects of the customer's journey. While there may have been other challenges the customer faced, they only included those that directly related to their solutions.

Take a look at this case study template below. It is perfect if you want to create a concise but effective case study. Without including unnecessary details, you can outline the challenges, solutions and results your customers experienced from using your product.

Don’t forget to include a strong CTA within your case study. By incorporating a link, sidebar pop-up or an exit pop-up into your case study, you can prompt your readers and prospective clients to connect with you.

Search Marketing Case Study

9. How a Marketing Agency Uses Visme to Create Engaging Content With Infographics

Case Study Examples

SmartBox Dental , a marketing agency specializing in dental practices, sought ways to make dental advice more interesting and easier to read. However, they lacked the design skills to do so effectively.

Visme's wide range of templates and features made it easy for the team to create high-quality content quickly and efficiently. SmartBox Dental enjoyed creating infographics in as little as 10-15 minutes, compared to one hour before Visme was implemented.

By leveraging Visme, SmartBox Dental successfully transformed dental content into a more enjoyable and informative experience for their clients' patients. Therefore enhancing its reputation as a marketing partner that goes the extra mile to deliver value to its clients.

Visme creatively incorporates testimonials In this case study example.

By showcasing infographics and designs created by their clients, they leverage the power of social proof in a visually compelling way. This way, potential customers gain immediate insight into the creative possibilities Visme offers as a design tool.

This example effectively showcases a product's versatility and impact, and we can learn a lot about writing a case study from it. Instead of focusing on one tool or feature per customer, Visme took a more comprehensive approach.

Within each section of their case study, Visme explained how a particular tool or feature played a key role in solving the customer's challenges.

For example, this case study highlighted Visme’s collaboration tool . With Visme’s tool, the SmartBox Dental content team fostered teamwork, accountability and effective supervision.

Visme also achieved a versatile case study by including relevant quotes to showcase each tool or feature. Take a look at some examples;

Visme’s collaboration tool: “We really like the collaboration tool. Being able to see what a co-worker is working on and borrow their ideas or collaborate on a project to make sure we get the best end result really helps us out.”

Visme’s library of stock photos and animated characters: “I really love the images and the look those give to an infographic. I also really like the animated little guys and the animated pictures. That’s added a lot of fun to our designs.”

Visme’s interactivity feature: “You can add URLs and phone number links directly into the infographic so they can just click and call or go to another page on the website and I really like adding those hyperlinks in.”

You can ask your customers to talk about the different products or features that helped them achieve their business success and draw quotes from each one.

10. Jasper Grows Blog Organic Sessions 810% and Blog-Attributed User Signups 400X

Jasper, an AI writing tool, lacked a scalable content strategy to drive organic traffic and user growth. They needed help creating content that converted visitors into users. Especially when a looming domain migration threatened organic traffic.

To address these challenges, Jasper partnered with Omniscient Digital. Their goal was to turn their content into a growth channel and drive organic growth. Omniscient Digital developed a full content strategy for Jasper AI, which included a content audit, competitive analysis, and keyword discovery.

Through their collaboration, Jasper’s organic blog sessions increased by 810%, despite the domain migration. They also witnessed a 400X increase in blog-attributed signups. And more importantly, the content program contributed to over $4 million in annual recurring revenue.

The combination of storytelling and video testimonials within the case study example makes this a real winner. But there’s a twist to it. Omniscient segmented the video testimonials and placed them in different sections of the case study.

Video marketing , especially in case studies, works wonders. Research shows us that 42% of people prefer video testimonials because they show real customers with real success stories. So if you haven't thought of it before, incorporate video testimonials into your case study.

Take a look at this stunning video testimonial template. With its simple design, you can input the picture, name and quote of your customer within your case study in a fun and engaging way.

Try it yourself! Customize this template with your customer’s testimonial and add it to your case study!

Satisfied Client Testimonial Ad Square

11. How Meliá Became One of the Most Influential Hotel Chains on Social Media

Case Study Examples

Meliá Hotels needed help managing their growing social media customer service needs. Despite having over 500 social accounts, they lacked a unified response protocol and detailed reporting. This largely hindered efficiency and brand consistency.

Meliá partnered with Hootsuite to build an in-house social customer care team. Implementing Hootsuite's tools enabled Meliá to decrease response times from 24 hours to 12.4 hours while also leveraging smart automation.

In addition to that, Meliá resolved over 133,000 conversations, booking 330 inquiries per week through Hootsuite Inbox. They significantly improved brand consistency, response time and customer satisfaction.

The need for a good case study design cannot be over-emphasized.

As soon as anyone lands on this case study example, they are mesmerized by a beautiful case study design. This alone raises the interest of readers and keeps them engaged till the end.

If you’re currently saying to yourself, “ I can write great case studies, but I don’t have the time or skill to turn it into a beautiful document.” Say no more.

Visme’s amazing AI document generator can take your text and transform it into a stunning and professional document in minutes! Not only do you save time, but you also get inspired by the design.

With Visme’s document generator, you can create PDFs, case study presentations , infographics and more!

Take a look at this case study template below. Just like our case study example, it captures readers' attention with its beautiful design. Its dynamic blend of colors and fonts helps to segment each element of the case study beautifully.

Patagonia Case Study

12. Tea’s Me Cafe: Tamika Catchings is Brewing Glory

Case Study Examples

Tamika's journey began when she purchased Tea's Me Cafe in 2017, saving it from closure. She recognized the potential of the cafe as a community hub and hosted regular events centered on social issues and youth empowerment.

One of Tamika’s business goals was to automate her business. She sought to streamline business processes across various aspects of her business. One of the ways she achieves this goal is through Constant Contact.

Constant Contact became an integral part of Tamika's marketing strategy. They provided an automated and centralized platform for managing email newsletters, event registrations, social media scheduling and more.

This allowed Tamika and her team to collaborate efficiently and focus on engaging with their audience. They effectively utilized features like WooCommerce integration, text-to-join and the survey builder to grow their email list, segment their audience and gather valuable feedback.

The case study example utilizes the power of storytelling to form a connection with readers. Constant Contact takes a humble approach in this case study. They spotlight their customers' efforts as the reason for their achievements and growth, establishing trust and credibility.

This case study is also visually appealing, filled with high-quality photos of their customer. While this is a great way to foster originality, it can prove challenging if your customer sends you blurry or low-quality photos.

If you find yourself in that dilemma, you can use Visme’s AI image edit tool to touch up your photos. With Visme’s AI tool, you can remove unwanted backgrounds, erase unwanted objects, unblur low-quality pictures and upscale any photo without losing the quality.

Constant Contact offers its readers various formats to engage with their case study. Including an audio podcast and PDF.

In its PDF version, Constant Contact utilized its brand colors to create a stunning case study design.  With this, they increase brand awareness and, in turn, brand recognition with anyone who comes across their case study.

With Visme’s brand wizard tool , you can seamlessly incorporate your brand assets into any design or document you create. By inputting your URL, Visme’s AI integration will take note of your brand colors, brand fonts and more and create branded templates for you automatically.

You don't need to worry about spending hours customizing templates to fit your brand anymore. You can focus on writing amazing case studies that promote your company.

13. How Breakwater Kitchens Achieved a 7% Growth in Sales With Thryv

Case Study Examples

Breakwater Kitchens struggled with managing their business operations efficiently. They spent a lot of time on manual tasks, such as scheduling appointments and managing client communication. This made it difficult for them to grow their business and provide the best possible service to their customers.

David, the owner, discovered Thryv. With Thryv, Breakwater Kitchens was able to automate many of their manual tasks. Additionally, Thryv integrated social media management. This enabled Breakwater Kitchens to deliver a consistent brand message, captivate its audience and foster online growth.

As a result, Breakwater Kitchens achieved increased efficiency, reduced missed appointments and a 7% growth in sales.

This case study example uses a concise format and strong verbs, which make it easy for readers to absorb the information.

At the top of the case study, Thryv immediately builds trust by presenting their customer's complete profile, including their name, company details and website. This allows potential customers to verify the case study's legitimacy, making them more likely to believe in Thryv's services.

However, manually copying and pasting customer information across multiple pages of your case study can be time-consuming.

To save time and effort, you can utilize Visme's dynamic field feature . Dynamic fields automatically insert reusable information into your designs.  So you don’t have to type it out multiple times.

14. Zoom’s Creative Team Saves Over 4,000 Hours With Brandfolder

Case Study Examples

Zoom experienced rapid growth with the advent of remote work and the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic. Such growth called for agility and resilience to scale through.

At the time, Zoom’s assets were disorganized which made retrieving brand information a burden. Zoom’s creative manager spent no less than 10 hours per week finding and retrieving brand assets for internal teams.

Zoom needed a more sustainable approach to organizing and retrieving brand information and came across Brandfolder. Brandfolder simplified and accelerated Zoom’s email localization and webpage development. It also enhanced the creation and storage of Zoom virtual backgrounds.

With Brandfolder, Zoom now saves 4,000+ hours every year. The company also centralized its assets in Brandfolder, which allowed 6,800+ employees and 20-30 vendors to quickly access them.

Brandfolder infused its case study with compelling data and backed it up with verifiable sources. This data-driven approach boosts credibility and increases the impact of their story.

Bradfolder's case study goes the extra mile by providing a downloadable PDF version, making it convenient for readers to access the information on their own time. Their dedication to crafting stunning visuals is evident in every aspect of the project.

From the vibrant colors to the seamless navigation, everything has been meticulously designed to leave a lasting impression on the viewer. And with clickable links that make exploring the content a breeze, the user experience is guaranteed to be nothing short of exceptional.

The thing is, your case study presentation won’t always sit on your website. There are instances where you may need to do a case study presentation for clients, partners or potential investors.

Visme has a rich library of templates you can tap into. But if you’re racing against the clock, Visme’s AI presentation maker is your best ally.

main features of a case study

15. How Cents of Style Made $1.7M+ in Affiliate Sales with LeadDyno

Case Study Examples

Cents of Style had a successful affiliate and influencer marketing strategy. However, their existing affiliate marketing platform was not intuitive, customizable or transparent enough to meet the needs of their influencers.

Cents of Styles needed an easy-to-use affiliate marketing platform that gave them more freedom to customize their program and implement a multi-tier commission program.

After exploring their options, Cents of Style decided on LeadDyno.

LeadDyno provided more flexibility, allowing them to customize commission rates and implement their multi-tier commission structure, switching from monthly to weekly payouts.

Also, integrations with PayPal made payments smoother And features like newsletters and leaderboards added to the platform's success by keeping things transparent and engaging.

As a result, Cents of Style witnessed an impressive $1.7 million in revenue from affiliate sales with a substantial increase in web sales by 80%.

LeadDyno strategically placed a compelling CTA in the middle of their case study layout, maximizing its impact. At this point, readers are already invested in the customer's story and may be considering implementing similar strategies.

A well-placed CTA offers them a direct path to learn more and take action.

LeadDyno also utilized the power of quotes to strengthen their case study. They didn't just embed these quotes seamlessly into the text; instead, they emphasized each one with distinct blocks.

Are you looking for an easier and quicker solution to create a case study and other business documents? Try Visme's AI designer ! This powerful tool allows you to generate complete documents, such as case studies, reports, whitepapers and more, just by providing text prompts. Simply explain your requirements to the tool, and it will produce the document for you, complete with text, images, design assets and more.

Still have more questions about case studies? Let's look at some frequently asked questions.

How to Write a Case Study?

  • Choose a compelling story: Not all case studies are created equal. Pick one that is relevant to your target audience and demonstrates the specific benefits of your product or service.
  • Outline your case study: Create a case study outline and highlight how you will structure your case study to include the introduction, problem, solution and achievements of your customer.
  • Choose a case study template: After you outline your case study, choose a case study template . Visme has stunning templates that can inspire your case study design.
  • Craft a compelling headline: Include figures or percentages that draw attention to your case study.
  • Work on the first draft: Your case study should be easy to read and understand. Use clear and concise language and avoid jargon.
  • Include high-quality visual aids: Visuals can help to make your case study more engaging and easier to read. Consider adding high-quality photos, screenshots or videos.
  • Include a relevant CTA: Tell prospective customers how to reach you for questions or sign-ups.

What Are the Stages of a Case Study?

The stages of a case study are;

  • Planning & Preparation: Highlight your goals for writing the case study. Plan the case study format, length and audience you wish to target.
  • Interview the Client: Reach out to the company you want to showcase and ask relevant questions about their journey and achievements.
  • Revision & Editing: Review your case study and ask for feedback. Include relevant quotes and CTAs to your case study.
  • Publication & Distribution: Publish and share your case study on your website, social media channels and email list!
  • Marketing & Repurposing: Turn your case study into a podcast, PDF, case study presentation and more. Share these materials with your sales and marketing team.

What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of a Case Study?

Advantages of a case study:

  • Case studies showcase a specific solution and outcome for specific customer challenges.
  • It attracts potential customers with similar challenges.
  • It builds trust and credibility with potential customers.
  • It provides an in-depth analysis of your company’s problem-solving process.

Disadvantages of a case study:

  • Limited applicability. Case studies are tailored to specific cases and may not apply to other businesses.
  • It relies heavily on customer cooperation and willingness to share information.
  • It stands a risk of becoming outdated as industries and customer needs evolve.

What Are the Types of Case Studies?

There are 7 main types of case studies. They include;

  • Illustrative case study.
  • Instrumental case study.
  • Intrinsic case study.
  • Descriptive case study.
  • Explanatory case study.
  • Exploratory case study.
  • Collective case study.

How Long Should a Case Study Be?

The ideal length of your case study is between 500 - 1500 words or 1-3 pages. Certain factors like your target audience, goal or the amount of detail you want to share may influence the length of your case study. This infographic has powerful tips for designing winning case studies

What Is the Difference Between a Case Study and an Example?

Case studies provide a detailed narrative of how your product or service was used to solve a problem. Examples are general illustrations and are not necessarily real-life scenarios.

Case studies are often used for marketing purposes, attracting potential customers and building trust. Examples, on the other hand, are primarily used to simplify or clarify complex concepts.

Where Can I Find Case Study Examples?

You can easily find many case study examples online and in industry publications. Many companies, including Visme, share case studies on their websites to showcase how their products or services have helped clients achieve success. You can also search online libraries and professional organizations for case studies related to your specific industry or field.

If you need professionally-designed, customizable case study templates to create your own, Visme's template library is one of the best places to look. These templates include all the essential sections of a case study and high-quality content to help you create case studies that position your business as an industry leader.

Get More Out Of Your Case Studies With Visme

Case studies are an essential tool for converting potential customers into paying customers. By following the tips in this article, you can create compelling case studies that will help you build trust, establish credibility and drive sales.

Visme can help you create stunning case studies and other relevant marketing materials. With our easy-to-use platform, interactive features and analytics tools , you can increase your content creation game in no time.

There is no limit to what you can achieve with Visme. Connect with Sales to discover how Visme can boost your business goals.

Easily create beautiful case studies and more with Visme

main features of a case study

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main features of a case study

What Is a Case Study and Why You Should Use Them

Case studies can provide more insights into your business while helping you conduct further research with robust qualitative data analysis to learn more.

If you're in charge of running a company, then you're likely always looking for new ways to run your business more efficiently and increase your customer base while streamlining as many processes as possible.

Unfortunately, it can sometimes be difficult to determine how to go about implementing the proper program in order to be successful. This is why many business owners opt to conduct a case study, which can help significantly. Whether you've been struggling with brand consistency or some other problem, the right case study can identify why your problem exists as well as provide a way to rectify it.

A case study is a great tool that many businesses aren't even aware exists, and there are marketing experts like Mailchimp who can provide you with step-by-step assistance with implementing a plan with a case study. Many companies discover that not only do they need to start a blog in order to improve business, but they also need to create specific and relevant blog titles.

If your company already has a blog, then optimizing your blog posts may be helpful. Regardless of the obstacles that are preventing you from achieving all your professional goals, a case study can work wonders in helping you reverse this issue.

main features of a case study

What is a case study?

A case study is a comprehensive report of the results of theory testing or examining emerging themes of a business in real life context. Case studies are also often used in the healthcare industry, conducting health services research with primary research interest around routinely collected healthcare data.

However, for businesses, the purpose of a case study is to help small business owners or company leaders identify the issues and conduct further research into what may be preventing success through information collection, client or customer interviews, and in-depth data analysis.

Knowing the case study definition is crucial for any business owner. By identifying the issues that are hindering a company from achieving all its goals, it's easier to make the necessary corrections to promote success through influenced data collection.

Why are case studies important?

Now that we've answered the questions, "what is a case study?" Why are case studies important? Some of the top reasons why case studies are important include:

 Importance of case studies

  • Understand complex issues: Even after you conduct a significant amount of market research , you might have a difficult time understanding exactly what it means. While you might have the basics down, conducting a case study can help you see how that information is applied. Then, when you see how the information can make a difference in business decisions, it could make it easier to understand complex issues.
  • Collect data: A case study can also help with data tracking . A case study is a data collection method that can help you describe the information that you have available to you. Then, you can present that information in a way the reader can understand.
  • Conduct evaluations: As you learn more about how to write a case study, remember that you can also use a case study to conduct evaluations of a specific situation. A case study is a great way to learn more about complex situations, and you can evaluate how various people responded in that situation. By conducting a case study evaluation, you can learn more about what has worked well, what has not, and what you might want to change in the future.
  • Identify potential solutions: A case study can also help you identify solutions to potential problems. If you have an issue in your business that you are trying to solve, you may be able to take a look at a case study where someone has dealt with a similar situation in the past. For example, you may uncover data bias in a specific solution that you would like to address when you tackle the issue on your own. If you need help solving a difficult problem, a case study may be able to help you.

Remember that you can also use case studies to target your audience . If you want to show your audience that you have a significant level of expertise in a field, you may want to publish some case studies that you have handled in the past. Then, when your audience sees that you have had success in a specific area, they may be more likely to provide you with their business. In essence, case studies can be looked at as the original method of social proof, showcasing exactly how you can help someone solve their problems.

What are the benefits of writing a business case study?

Although writing a case study can seem like a tedious task, there are many benefits to conducting one through an in depth qualitative research process.

Benefits of Case Studies

  • Industry understanding: First of all, a case study can give you an in-depth understanding of your industry through a particular conceptual framework and help you identify hidden problems that are preventing you from transcending into the business world.
  • Develop theories: If you decide to write a business case study, it provides you with an opportunity to develop new theories. You might have a theory about how to solve a specific problem, but you need to write a business case study to see exactly how that theory has unfolded in the past. Then, you can figure out if you want to apply your theory to a similar issue in the future.
  • Evaluate interventions: When you write a business case study that focuses on a specific situation you have been through in the past, you can uncover whether that intervention was truly helpful. This can make it easier to figure out whether you want to use the same intervention in a similar situation in the future.
  • Identify best practices: If you want to stay on top of the best practices in your field, conducting case studies can help by allowing you to identify patterns and trends and develop a new list of best practices that you can follow in the future.
  • Versatility: Writing a case study also provides you with more versatility. If you want to expand your business applications, you need to figure out how you respond to various problems. When you run a business case study, you open the door to new opportunities, new applications, and new techniques that could help you make a difference in your business down the road.
  • Solve problems: Writing a great case study can dramatically improve your chances of reversing your problem and improving your business.
  • These are just a few of the biggest benefits you might experience if you decide to publish your case studies. They can be an effective tool for learning, showcasing your talents, and teaching some of your other employees. If you want to grow your audience , you may want to consider publishing some case studies.

What are the limitations of case studies?

Case studies can be a wonderful tool for any business of any size to use to gain an in-depth understanding of their clients, products, customers, or services, but there are limitations.

One limitation of case studies is the fact that, unless there are other recently published examples, there is nothing to compare them to since, most of the time, you are conducting a single, not multiple, case studies.

Another limitation is the fact that most case studies can lack scientific evidence.

main features of a case study

Types of case studies

There are specific types of case studies to choose from, and each specific type will yield different results. Some case study types even overlap, which is sometimes more favorable, as they provide even more pertinent data.

Here are overviews of the different types of case studies, each with its own theoretical framework, so you can determine which type would be most effective for helping you meet your goals.

Explanatory case studies

Explanatory case studies are pretty straightforward, as they're not difficult to interpret. This type of case study is best if there aren't many variables involved because explanatory case studies can easily answer questions like "how" and "why" through theory development.

Exploratory case studies

An exploratory case study does exactly what its name implies: it goes into specific detail about the topic at hand in a natural, real-life context with qualitative research.

The benefits of exploratory case studies are limitless, with the main one being that it offers a great deal of flexibility. Having flexibility when writing a case study is important because you can't always predict what obstacles might arise during the qualitative research process.

Collective case studies

Collective case studies require you to study many different individuals in order to obtain usable data.

Case studies that involve an investigation of people will involve many different variables, all of which can't be predicted. Despite this fact, there are many benefits of collective case studies, including the fact that it allows an ongoing analysis of the data collected.

Intrinsic case studies

This type of study differs from the others as it focuses on the inquiry of one specific instance among many possibilities.

Many people prefer these types of case studies because it allows them to learn about the particular instance that they wish to investigate further.

Instrumental case studies

An instrumental case study is similar to an intrinsic one, as it focuses on a particular instance, whether it's a person, organization, or something different.

One thing that differentiates instrumental case studies from intrinsic ones is the fact that instrumental case studies aren't chosen merely because a person is interested in learning about a specific instance.

main features of a case study

Tips for writing a case study

If you have decided to write case studies for your company, then you may be unsure of where to start or which type to conduct.

However, it doesn't have to be difficult or confusing to begin conducting a case study that will help you identify ways to improve your business.

Here are some helpful tips for writing your case studies:

1. Your case study must be written in the proper format

When writing a case study, the format that you should be similar to this:

Case study format

Administrative summary

The executive summary is an overview of what your report will contain, written in a concise manner while providing real-life context.

Despite the fact that the executive summary should appear at the beginning of your case studies, it shouldn't be written until you've completed the entire report because if you write it before you finish the report, this summary may not be completely accurate.

Key problem statement

In this section of your case study, you will briefly describe the problem that you hope to solve by conducting the study. You will have the opportunity to elaborate on the problem that you're focusing on as you get into the breadth of the report.

Problem exploration

This part of the case study isn't as brief as the other two, and it goes into more detail about the problem at hand. Your problem exploration must include why the identified problem needs to be solved as well as the urgency of solving it.

Additionally, it must include justification for conducting the problem-solving, as the benefits must outweigh the efforts and costs.

Proposed resolution

This case study section will also be lengthier than the first two. It must include how you propose going about rectifying the problem. The "recommended solution" section must also include potential obstacles that you might experience, as well as how these will be managed.

Furthermore, you will need to list alternative solutions and explain the reason the chosen solution is best. Charts can enhance your report and make it easier to read, and provide as much proof to substantiate your claim as possible.

Overview of monetary consideration

An overview of monetary consideration is essential for all case studies, as it will be used to convince all involved parties why your project should be funded. You must successfully convince them that the cost is worth the investment it will require. It's important that you stress the necessity for this particular case study and explain the expected outcome.

Execution timeline

In the execution times of case studies, you explain how long you predict it will take to implement your study. The shorter the time it will take to implement your plan, the more apt it is to be approved. However, be sure to provide a reasonable timeline, taking into consideration any additional time that might be needed due to obstacles.

Always include a conclusion in your case study. This is where you will briefly wrap up your entire proposal, stressing the benefits of completing the data collection and data analysis in order to rectify your problem.

2. Make it clear and comprehensive

You want to write your case studies with as much clarity as possible so that every aspect of the report is understood. Be sure to double-check your grammar, spelling, punctuation, and more, as you don't want to submit a poorly-written document.

Not only would a poorly-written case study fail to prove that what you are trying to achieve is important, but it would also increase the chances that your report will be tossed aside and not taken seriously.

3. Don't rush through the process

Writing the perfect case study takes time and patience. Rushing could result in your forgetting to include information that is crucial to your entire study. Don't waste your time creating a study that simply isn't ready. Take the necessary time to perform all the research necessary to write the best case study possible.

Depending on the case study, conducting case study research could mean using qualitative methods, quantitative methods, or both. Qualitative research questions focus on non-numerical data, such as how people feel, their beliefs, their experiences, and so on.

Meanwhile, quantitative research questions focus on numerical or statistical data collection to explain causal links or get an in-depth picture.

It is also important to collect insightful and constructive feedback. This will help you better understand the outcome as well as any changes you need to make to future case studies. Consider using formal and informal ways to collect feedback to ensure that you get a range of opinions and perspectives.

4. Be confident in your theory development

While writing your case study or conducting your formal experimental investigation, you should have confidence in yourself and what you're proposing in your report. If you took the time to gather all the pertinent data collected to complete the report, don't second-guess yourself or doubt your abilities. If you believe your report will be amazing, then it likely will be.

5. Case studies and all qualitative research are long

It's expected that multiple case studies are going to be incredibly boring, and there is no way around this. However, it doesn't mean you can choose your language carefully in order to keep your audience as engaged as possible.

If your audience loses interest in your case study at the beginning, for whatever reason, then this increases the likelihood that your case study will not be funded.

Case study examples

If you want to learn more about how to write a case study, it might be beneficial to take a look at a few case study examples. Below are a few interesting case study examples you may want to take a closer look at.

  • Phineas Gage by John Martin Marlow : One of the most famous case studies comes from the medical field, and it is about the story of Phineas Gage, a man who had a railroad spike driven through his head in 1848. As he was working on a railroad, an explosive charge went off prematurely, sending a railroad rod through his head. Even though he survived this incident, he lost his left eye. However, Phineas Gage was studied extensively over the years because his experiences had a significant, lasting impact on his personality. This served as a case study because his injury showed different parts of the brain have different functions.
  • Kitty Genovese and the bystander effect : This is a tragic case study that discusses the murder of Kitty Genovese, a woman attacked and murdered in Queens, New York City. Shockingly, while numerous neighbors watched the scene, nobody called for help because they assumed someone else would. This case study helped to define the bystander effect, which is when a person fails to intervene during an emergency because other people are around.
  • Henry Molaison and the study of memory : Henry Molaison lost his memory and suffered from debilitating amnesia. He suffered from childhood epilepsy, and medical professionals attempted to remove the part of his brain that was causing his seizures. He had a portion of his brain removed, but it completely took away his ability to hold memories. Even though he went on to live until the age of 82, he was always forced to live in the present moment, as he was completely unable to form new memories.

Case study FAQs

When should you do a case study.

There are several scenarios when conducting a case study can be beneficial. Case studies are often used when there's a "why" or "how" question that needs to be answered. Case studies are also beneficial when trying to understand a complex phenomenon, there's limited research on a topic, or when you're looking for practical solutions to a problem.

How can case study results be used to make business decisions?

You can use the results from a case study to make future business decisions if you find yourself in a similar situation. As you assess the results of a case study, you can identify best practices, evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention, generate new and creative ideas, or get a better understanding of customer needs.

How are case studies different from other research methodologies?

When compared to other research methodologies, such as experimental or qualitative research methodology, a case study does not require a representative sample. For example, if you are performing quantitative research, you have a lot of subjects that expand your sample size. If you are performing experimental research, you may have a random sample in front of you. A case study is usually designed to deliberately focus on unusual situations, which allows it to shed new light on a specific business research problem.

Writing multiple case studies for your business

If you're feeling overwhelmed by the idea of writing a case study and it seems completely foreign, then you aren't alone. Writing a case study for a business is a very big deal, but fortunately, there is help available because an example of a case study doesn't always help.

Mailchimp, a well-known marketing company that provides comprehensive marketing support for all sorts of businesses, can assist you with your case study, or you can review one of their own recently published examples.

Mailchimp can assist you with developing the most effective content strategy to increase your chances of being as successful as possible. Mailchimp's content studio is a great tool that can help your business immensely.

Case Study Research Method in Psychology

Saul Mcleod, PhD

Editor-in-Chief for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Saul Mcleod, PhD., is a qualified psychology teacher with over 18 years of experience in further and higher education. He has been published in peer-reviewed journals, including the Journal of Clinical Psychology.

Learn about our Editorial Process

Olivia Guy-Evans, MSc

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MSc Psychology of Education

Olivia Guy-Evans is a writer and associate editor for Simply Psychology. She has previously worked in healthcare and educational sectors.

On This Page:

Case studies are in-depth investigations of a person, group, event, or community. Typically, data is gathered from various sources using several methods (e.g., observations & interviews).

The case study research method originated in clinical medicine (the case history, i.e., the patient’s personal history). In psychology, case studies are often confined to the study of a particular individual.

The information is mainly biographical and relates to events in the individual’s past (i.e., retrospective), as well as to significant events that are currently occurring in his or her everyday life.

The case study is not a research method, but researchers select methods of data collection and analysis that will generate material suitable for case studies.

Freud (1909a, 1909b) conducted very detailed investigations into the private lives of his patients in an attempt to both understand and help them overcome their illnesses.

This makes it clear that the case study is a method that should only be used by a psychologist, therapist, or psychiatrist, i.e., someone with a professional qualification.

There is an ethical issue of competence. Only someone qualified to diagnose and treat a person can conduct a formal case study relating to atypical (i.e., abnormal) behavior or atypical development.

case study

 Famous Case Studies

  • Anna O – One of the most famous case studies, documenting psychoanalyst Josef Breuer’s treatment of “Anna O” (real name Bertha Pappenheim) for hysteria in the late 1800s using early psychoanalytic theory.
  • Little Hans – A child psychoanalysis case study published by Sigmund Freud in 1909 analyzing his five-year-old patient Herbert Graf’s house phobia as related to the Oedipus complex.
  • Bruce/Brenda – Gender identity case of the boy (Bruce) whose botched circumcision led psychologist John Money to advise gender reassignment and raise him as a girl (Brenda) in the 1960s.
  • Genie Wiley – Linguistics/psychological development case of the victim of extreme isolation abuse who was studied in 1970s California for effects of early language deprivation on acquiring speech later in life.
  • Phineas Gage – One of the most famous neuropsychology case studies analyzes personality changes in railroad worker Phineas Gage after an 1848 brain injury involving a tamping iron piercing his skull.

Clinical Case Studies

  • Studying the effectiveness of psychotherapy approaches with an individual patient
  • Assessing and treating mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders, PTSD
  • Neuropsychological cases investigating brain injuries or disorders

Child Psychology Case Studies

  • Studying psychological development from birth through adolescence
  • Cases of learning disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, ADHD
  • Effects of trauma, abuse, deprivation on development

Types of Case Studies

  • Explanatory case studies : Used to explore causation in order to find underlying principles. Helpful for doing qualitative analysis to explain presumed causal links.
  • Exploratory case studies : Used to explore situations where an intervention being evaluated has no clear set of outcomes. It helps define questions and hypotheses for future research.
  • Descriptive case studies : Describe an intervention or phenomenon and the real-life context in which it occurred. It is helpful for illustrating certain topics within an evaluation.
  • Multiple-case studies : Used to explore differences between cases and replicate findings across cases. Helpful for comparing and contrasting specific cases.
  • Intrinsic : Used to gain a better understanding of a particular case. Helpful for capturing the complexity of a single case.
  • Collective : Used to explore a general phenomenon using multiple case studies. Helpful for jointly studying a group of cases in order to inquire into the phenomenon.

Where Do You Find Data for a Case Study?

There are several places to find data for a case study. The key is to gather data from multiple sources to get a complete picture of the case and corroborate facts or findings through triangulation of evidence. Most of this information is likely qualitative (i.e., verbal description rather than measurement), but the psychologist might also collect numerical data.

1. Primary sources

  • Interviews – Interviewing key people related to the case to get their perspectives and insights. The interview is an extremely effective procedure for obtaining information about an individual, and it may be used to collect comments from the person’s friends, parents, employer, workmates, and others who have a good knowledge of the person, as well as to obtain facts from the person him or herself.
  • Observations – Observing behaviors, interactions, processes, etc., related to the case as they unfold in real-time.
  • Documents & Records – Reviewing private documents, diaries, public records, correspondence, meeting minutes, etc., relevant to the case.

2. Secondary sources

  • News/Media – News coverage of events related to the case study.
  • Academic articles – Journal articles, dissertations etc. that discuss the case.
  • Government reports – Official data and records related to the case context.
  • Books/films – Books, documentaries or films discussing the case.

3. Archival records

Searching historical archives, museum collections and databases to find relevant documents, visual/audio records related to the case history and context.

Public archives like newspapers, organizational records, photographic collections could all include potentially relevant pieces of information to shed light on attitudes, cultural perspectives, common practices and historical contexts related to psychology.

4. Organizational records

Organizational records offer the advantage of often having large datasets collected over time that can reveal or confirm psychological insights.

Of course, privacy and ethical concerns regarding confidential data must be navigated carefully.

However, with proper protocols, organizational records can provide invaluable context and empirical depth to qualitative case studies exploring the intersection of psychology and organizations.

  • Organizational/industrial psychology research : Organizational records like employee surveys, turnover/retention data, policies, incident reports etc. may provide insight into topics like job satisfaction, workplace culture and dynamics, leadership issues, employee behaviors etc.
  • Clinical psychology : Therapists/hospitals may grant access to anonymized medical records to study aspects like assessments, diagnoses, treatment plans etc. This could shed light on clinical practices.
  • School psychology : Studies could utilize anonymized student records like test scores, grades, disciplinary issues, and counseling referrals to study child development, learning barriers, effectiveness of support programs, and more.

How do I Write a Case Study in Psychology?

Follow specified case study guidelines provided by a journal or your psychology tutor. General components of clinical case studies include: background, symptoms, assessments, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes. Interpreting the information means the researcher decides what to include or leave out. A good case study should always clarify which information is the factual description and which is an inference or the researcher’s opinion.

1. Introduction

  • Provide background on the case context and why it is of interest, presenting background information like demographics, relevant history, and presenting problem.
  • Compare briefly to similar published cases if applicable. Clearly state the focus/importance of the case.

2. Case Presentation

  • Describe the presenting problem in detail, including symptoms, duration,and impact on daily life.
  • Include client demographics like age and gender, information about social relationships, and mental health history.
  • Describe all physical, emotional, and/or sensory symptoms reported by the client.
  • Use patient quotes to describe the initial complaint verbatim. Follow with full-sentence summaries of relevant history details gathered, including key components that led to a working diagnosis.
  • Summarize clinical exam results, namely orthopedic/neurological tests, imaging, lab tests, etc. Note actual results rather than subjective conclusions. Provide images if clearly reproducible/anonymized.
  • Clearly state the working diagnosis or clinical impression before transitioning to management.

3. Management and Outcome

  • Indicate the total duration of care and number of treatments given over what timeframe. Use specific names/descriptions for any therapies/interventions applied.
  • Present the results of the intervention,including any quantitative or qualitative data collected.
  • For outcomes, utilize visual analog scales for pain, medication usage logs, etc., if possible. Include patient self-reports of improvement/worsening of symptoms. Note the reason for discharge/end of care.

4. Discussion

  • Analyze the case, exploring contributing factors, limitations of the study, and connections to existing research.
  • Analyze the effectiveness of the intervention,considering factors like participant adherence, limitations of the study, and potential alternative explanations for the results.
  • Identify any questions raised in the case analysis and relate insights to established theories and current research if applicable. Avoid definitive claims about physiological explanations.
  • Offer clinical implications, and suggest future research directions.

5. Additional Items

  • Thank specific assistants for writing support only. No patient acknowledgments.
  • References should directly support any key claims or quotes included.
  • Use tables/figures/images only if substantially informative. Include permissions and legends/explanatory notes.
  • Provides detailed (rich qualitative) information.
  • Provides insight for further research.
  • Permitting investigation of otherwise impractical (or unethical) situations.

Case studies allow a researcher to investigate a topic in far more detail than might be possible if they were trying to deal with a large number of research participants (nomothetic approach) with the aim of ‘averaging’.

Because of their in-depth, multi-sided approach, case studies often shed light on aspects of human thinking and behavior that would be unethical or impractical to study in other ways.

Research that only looks into the measurable aspects of human behavior is not likely to give us insights into the subjective dimension of experience, which is important to psychoanalytic and humanistic psychologists.

Case studies are often used in exploratory research. They can help us generate new ideas (that might be tested by other methods). They are an important way of illustrating theories and can help show how different aspects of a person’s life are related to each other.

The method is, therefore, important for psychologists who adopt a holistic point of view (i.e., humanistic psychologists ).

Limitations

  • Lacking scientific rigor and providing little basis for generalization of results to the wider population.
  • Researchers’ own subjective feelings may influence the case study (researcher bias).
  • Difficult to replicate.
  • Time-consuming and expensive.
  • The volume of data, together with the time restrictions in place, impacted the depth of analysis that was possible within the available resources.

Because a case study deals with only one person/event/group, we can never be sure if the case study investigated is representative of the wider body of “similar” instances. This means the conclusions drawn from a particular case may not be transferable to other settings.

Because case studies are based on the analysis of qualitative (i.e., descriptive) data , a lot depends on the psychologist’s interpretation of the information she has acquired.

This means that there is a lot of scope for Anna O , and it could be that the subjective opinions of the psychologist intrude in the assessment of what the data means.

For example, Freud has been criticized for producing case studies in which the information was sometimes distorted to fit particular behavioral theories (e.g., Little Hans ).

This is also true of Money’s interpretation of the Bruce/Brenda case study (Diamond, 1997) when he ignored evidence that went against his theory.

Breuer, J., & Freud, S. (1895).  Studies on hysteria . Standard Edition 2: London.

Curtiss, S. (1981). Genie: The case of a modern wild child .

Diamond, M., & Sigmundson, K. (1997). Sex Reassignment at Birth: Long-term Review and Clinical Implications. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine , 151(3), 298-304

Freud, S. (1909a). Analysis of a phobia of a five year old boy. In The Pelican Freud Library (1977), Vol 8, Case Histories 1, pages 169-306

Freud, S. (1909b). Bemerkungen über einen Fall von Zwangsneurose (Der “Rattenmann”). Jb. psychoanal. psychopathol. Forsch ., I, p. 357-421; GW, VII, p. 379-463; Notes upon a case of obsessional neurosis, SE , 10: 151-318.

Harlow J. M. (1848). Passage of an iron rod through the head.  Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 39 , 389–393.

Harlow, J. M. (1868).  Recovery from the Passage of an Iron Bar through the Head .  Publications of the Massachusetts Medical Society. 2  (3), 327-347.

Money, J., & Ehrhardt, A. A. (1972).  Man & Woman, Boy & Girl : The Differentiation and Dimorphism of Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Money, J., & Tucker, P. (1975). Sexual signatures: On being a man or a woman.

Further Information

  • Case Study Approach
  • Case Study Method
  • Enhancing the Quality of Case Studies in Health Services Research
  • “We do things together” A case study of “couplehood” in dementia
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8 Essential Components of a Case Study (Includes Interview Questions)

By Boast on February 1, 2022

8 essential components of a case study

Building trust with your prospects is crucial to growing your business. However, earning that trust can be challenging. You need to show proof that you can deliver on your promises. One way to show proof is through case studies. In this blog, I’ll explain what case studies are and share the eight essential components of a case study.

What is a Case Study?

From a broad perspective, a case study is an in-depth analysis of a particular subject. Generally, the study covers a problem-solution-results format. When applied to the business world, a case study examines how a customer had a problem, found a solution using a particular product or service, and shares the results of the solution.

Case studies are an excellent way for businesses to highlight the relationship between their product or service and its customers. It shares real data and results as social proof for potential customers.

Generally speaking, case studies appear as a one-page written article with visuals to support the content. However, it doesn’t have to end there. Case studies can be converted into a video, infographic, or podcast to be shared on your website, podcast platforms, and social media.

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8 Essential Components of a Case Study

Case studies are a powerful way to show how your business has positively impacted your customers’ lives. To have the most success, including the following eight essential components of a case study is imperative. I’ve also included some questions to help guide your interview with your customer.

1. Start with a Compelling Title and Summary

As with any story, you should include an eye-catching headline. You want to keep the title short but relative to the story. Try to encompass the title around the work you did with your customer.

You should also include a brief summary of the entire story into 2-4 sentences. The summary is the first thing your audience will read after clicking on the title. You want to share with the reader what to expect as they continue to read. We recommend including bullet points after the summary to include key metrics to share their success.

2. Share Background Information About Your Customer

Before diving into the problem, you should share a little information about your customer. This will help your reader understand who your customer is and how long they’ve been using your product or service. In most cases, this information helps your reader find a connection.  

Use the following questions to guide you as you write an “about customer” section in your case study:

  • What industry are they from? 
  • Where are they located? 
  • How many employees do they have? 
  • How long have they been a customer?

3. Explain the Challenge Your Customer Faced

Once your readers understand who your customer is, it’s time to explain the problem or pain point your customer was experiencing. Describe the initial challenge your customer faced before using your product or service.

The problem is central to the story you’re telling. Prospects who are experiencing similar pain points will be able to relate well to the study. Consider asking the following questions:

  • What were your pain points before using our product or service?
  • What could have happened if you did not find a solution?
  • Did you try other solutions before finding our product or service?

4. Discuss Your Customer’s Decision Process

It’s helpful to discuss your customer’s decision process and the steps they went through before discovering your product or service. Explaining this process may help potential customers work through their own situation.

In this section of your case study, you want to discuss how your customer found you. Try asking your customer these questions:

  • How did you hear about our product or service?
  • When evaluating your options, what was most important to you?
  • Who was involved in the decision-making process?

Consider the goals and objectives your customer set in place as they began their journey to find a solution. Again, this information can help spark a connection between your reader and may drive them to give your product or service a try.

5. Explain the Solution and Implementation

After you share how your customer made the decision to choose your product or service as their solution, you want to explain how it was implemented. Focus on your customer’s experience with your onboarding process.

Sharing this process in your case study gives prospects a look into how your implementation process works. Try asking your customer the following questions:

  • Did the implementation of our product/service meet your expectations?
  • How long did it take to complete the onboarding process?
  • Who was involved in the implementation process?

6. Share the End Results

Conclude your case study with the end results. Share the impressive metrics your customer achieved while using your product or service. Remember, the more numbers and hard data you can include, the better.

Apart from the measurable results, it’s also important to share the qualitative results. Explain the benefits your customer has received since using your product or service. Did they accomplish the goals and objectives they initially set out to achieve?

7. Include Supporting Visuals and Quotes

One component you don’t want to forget is supporting visuals and quotes. Visuals can range from images, infographics, GIFs, and videos. Images are some of the most common elements to include. Consider adding your customer’s logo, headshot, or photo from their business. Infographics can be helpful if there is a lot of data to be shared.

If you’re able to record an interview with your customer, you can turn the case study into a video testimonial as well. Video testimonials are a powerful way to share your customer’s story in a visual format. Hearing the words directly from your customer establishes an emotional connection, and emotions drive buying decisions .

Additionally, you should include direct quotes to add to your text. Select one or two quotes from your customer to enhance the content. Direct quotes provide a sense of authenticity to the story.

8. Don’t Forget the Call To Action (CTA)

Your case study is a form of Proof-Based Marketing , real proof that shows prospects how you’ve been able to help others. The last essential component to your case study should be a call to action or CTA. As with any marketing content, you want to include a CTA to bring in new leads and customers. 

When done correctly, your case study can also convince others experiencing similar problems to try out your product or service. It’s best to include your CTA throughout the case study as some prospects will take less convincing than others.

There you have it, eight essential components of a case study. We recommend including all of these elements into your case studies for the most success. Remember to include your customer throughout the process and get their written consent to use their information as marketing content.

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5 Benefits of Learning Through the Case Study Method

Harvard Business School MBA students learning through the case study method

  • 28 Nov 2023

While several factors make HBS Online unique —including a global Community and real-world outcomes —active learning through the case study method rises to the top.

In a 2023 City Square Associates survey, 74 percent of HBS Online learners who also took a course from another provider said HBS Online’s case method and real-world examples were better by comparison.

Here’s a primer on the case method, five benefits you could gain, and how to experience it for yourself.

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What Is the Harvard Business School Case Study Method?

The case study method , or case method , is a learning technique in which you’re presented with a real-world business challenge and asked how you’d solve it. After working through it yourself and with peers, you’re told how the scenario played out.

HBS pioneered the case method in 1922. Shortly before, in 1921, the first case was written.

“How do you go into an ambiguous situation and get to the bottom of it?” says HBS Professor Jan Rivkin, former senior associate dean and chair of HBS's master of business administration (MBA) program, in a video about the case method . “That skill—the skill of figuring out a course of inquiry to choose a course of action—that skill is as relevant today as it was in 1921.”

Originally developed for the in-person MBA classroom, HBS Online adapted the case method into an engaging, interactive online learning experience in 2014.

In HBS Online courses , you learn about each case from the business professional who experienced it. After reviewing their videos, you’re prompted to take their perspective and explain how you’d handle their situation.

You then get to read peers’ responses, “star” them, and comment to further the discussion. Afterward, you learn how the professional handled it and their key takeaways.

HBS Online’s adaptation of the case method incorporates the famed HBS “cold call,” in which you’re called on at random to make a decision without time to prepare.

“Learning came to life!” said Sheneka Balogun , chief administration officer and chief of staff at LeMoyne-Owen College, of her experience taking the Credential of Readiness (CORe) program . “The videos from the professors, the interactive cold calls where you were randomly selected to participate, and the case studies that enhanced and often captured the essence of objectives and learning goals were all embedded in each module. This made learning fun, engaging, and student-friendly.”

If you’re considering taking a course that leverages the case study method, here are five benefits you could experience.

5 Benefits of Learning Through Case Studies

1. take new perspectives.

The case method prompts you to consider a scenario from another person’s perspective. To work through the situation and come up with a solution, you must consider their circumstances, limitations, risk tolerance, stakeholders, resources, and potential consequences to assess how to respond.

Taking on new perspectives not only can help you navigate your own challenges but also others’. Putting yourself in someone else’s situation to understand their motivations and needs can go a long way when collaborating with stakeholders.

2. Hone Your Decision-Making Skills

Another skill you can build is the ability to make decisions effectively . The case study method forces you to use limited information to decide how to handle a problem—just like in the real world.

Throughout your career, you’ll need to make difficult decisions with incomplete or imperfect information—and sometimes, you won’t feel qualified to do so. Learning through the case method allows you to practice this skill in a low-stakes environment. When facing a real challenge, you’ll be better prepared to think quickly, collaborate with others, and present and defend your solution.

3. Become More Open-Minded

As you collaborate with peers on responses, it becomes clear that not everyone solves problems the same way. Exposing yourself to various approaches and perspectives can help you become a more open-minded professional.

When you’re part of a diverse group of learners from around the world, your experiences, cultures, and backgrounds contribute to a range of opinions on each case.

On the HBS Online course platform, you’re prompted to view and comment on others’ responses, and discussion is encouraged. This practice of considering others’ perspectives can make you more receptive in your career.

“You’d be surprised at how much you can learn from your peers,” said Ratnaditya Jonnalagadda , a software engineer who took CORe.

In addition to interacting with peers in the course platform, Jonnalagadda was part of the HBS Online Community , where he networked with other professionals and continued discussions sparked by course content.

“You get to understand your peers better, and students share examples of businesses implementing a concept from a module you just learned,” Jonnalagadda said. “It’s a very good way to cement the concepts in one's mind.”

4. Enhance Your Curiosity

One byproduct of taking on different perspectives is that it enables you to picture yourself in various roles, industries, and business functions.

“Each case offers an opportunity for students to see what resonates with them, what excites them, what bores them, which role they could imagine inhabiting in their careers,” says former HBS Dean Nitin Nohria in the Harvard Business Review . “Cases stimulate curiosity about the range of opportunities in the world and the many ways that students can make a difference as leaders.”

Through the case method, you can “try on” roles you may not have considered and feel more prepared to change or advance your career .

5. Build Your Self-Confidence

Finally, learning through the case study method can build your confidence. Each time you assume a business leader’s perspective, aim to solve a new challenge, and express and defend your opinions and decisions to peers, you prepare to do the same in your career.

According to a 2022 City Square Associates survey , 84 percent of HBS Online learners report feeling more confident making business decisions after taking a course.

“Self-confidence is difficult to teach or coach, but the case study method seems to instill it in people,” Nohria says in the Harvard Business Review . “There may well be other ways of learning these meta-skills, such as the repeated experience gained through practice or guidance from a gifted coach. However, under the direction of a masterful teacher, the case method can engage students and help them develop powerful meta-skills like no other form of teaching.”

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How to Experience the Case Study Method

If the case method seems like a good fit for your learning style, experience it for yourself by taking an HBS Online course. Offerings span seven subject areas, including:

  • Business essentials
  • Leadership and management
  • Entrepreneurship and innovation
  • Finance and accounting
  • Business in society

No matter which course or credential program you choose, you’ll examine case studies from real business professionals, work through their challenges alongside peers, and gain valuable insights to apply to your career.

Are you interested in discovering how HBS Online can help advance your career? Explore our course catalog and download our free guide —complete with interactive workbook sections—to determine if online learning is right for you and which course to take.

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Case Study Method Definition, Characteristics, Stages & Sources

Introduction case study method of data collection.

The credit of introducing case study method  goes to Frederic Leplay, an English philosopher. Herbert Spencer adopted it and Healey was the first who supported this method and studied Juvenile Delinquency. Later on sociologists, Anthropologists, Ethnologists and other researcher were interested in the study of various cultures by case study method.

Meaning of Case Study

A case study is a comprehensive study of a social unit of society, which may be a person, family group, institution, community or event. A case study focuses attention on a single unit thoroughly. The aim is that to find out the influencing factors of a social unit and the relationship between these factors and a social unit.

Definitions of Case Study Method

  • P.V. Young. Case study is a comprehensive study of a social unit, be it a person, a group of persons, an institution, a community or a family.
  • Groode and Hatt. it is a method of exploring and analyzing the life of a social unit.
  • C.H. Cooley. Case study depends our perception and gives clear insight into life directory.
  • Johoda. Case study is a small inclusive and intensive study of an individual in which investigators brings to bear their skills and method.

Keeping the above definitions in view we conclude that case study is a method of studying a social unit and its aspects deeply and thoroughly.

Characteristics of Case Study

Following are the characteristics

  • The number of unit to be studied is small.
  • It studies a social unit deeply and thoroughly.
  • It is qualitative as well as quantitative.
  • It covers sufficient wide cycle of time.
  • It has continuity in nature.

Stages in a Case Study Method of Data Collection

The techniques and processes of a case study method are given as following.

  • Choice of a case or selection of a problem.
  • Description of the events.
  • Factors influencing study.
  • Data processing.
  • Data recording.

Sources of Data for Case Study

  • Personal documents, viz diaries, memories, autobiographies, letters etc of the researcher.
  • Qualification and interest of the researcher.
  • Life history of the respondents.
  • Motives and objectives of the study.

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How to Write a Case Study: From a Definition to Examples

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  • Icon Calendar 20 May 2024
  • Icon Page 7100 words
  • Icon Clock 32 min read

Case studies are essential in presenting detailed information regarding a subject of interest. Psychology, business, marketing, law, and medicine case studies have a standard structure. Some examples of commentaries include collective, descriptive, instrumental, intrinsic, and exploratory case studies. People can use various methods, like observation, surveys, focus groups, interviews, and design thinking to gather the necessary research data for presentation. A standard case study should have an introduction and background, parties involved, problem, possible solutions, discussion, alternative solutions, limitations, action plan, outcome, and conclusion. In turn, creating an outline helps to organize the main ideas chronologically. Compelling case studies should have a formal tone and be contained in paragraphs. Each passage in a case study should dwell and expound on a single view and have a topic sentence, supporting evidence, and transitioning statement.

General Guidelines on How to Write an Outstanding Case Study

Case studies that tell the story about a specific individual, group, event, or institution provide the best way to prove evidence and its application, developing a better understanding of the phenomenon under analysis. Basically, a good case study is a descriptive paper that gathers qualitative data. Moreover, people should read this article because it concisely defines what is a case study, examples from different areas of study, their types, and data collection methods. Among other types of papers , scholars who present case investigations should follow proper outlines to guide the writing process and ensure clarity of ideas. Although students can use different ways to write a case study, they should include an introduction and background, parties involved, research problem, conceivable solutions, discussion, alternative solutions, limitations, action plan, outcome, and conclusion.

How to Write a Case Study: From a Definition to Examples

Definition of What Is a Case Study

A case study is an in-depth analysis of an individual, group, event, or institution. People can explore every aspect of a subject’s life to understand the patterns and causes of behavior. For example, case studies are common in psychology, education, anthropology, political science, and social work. Investigating a research issue provides more insights into the subject of interest and uses the acquired knowledge to generalize concepts.

➖ Focus of a Case Study

Case studies have a narrow focus, which makes them relevant to a specific subject. Basically, individuals may describe a single item. They seek to expose important details of concepts under investigation. In case studies where scholars evaluate events, they focus on a single aspect. Moreover, good papers should have a clear heading on the feature that one evaluates. For example, this trend allows readers to understand the focus of the work. Therefore, writers should cover a single aspect of any case under investigation.

➖ Use of a Case Study

People need case studies when they intend to obtain specific, appropriate, and comprehensive knowledge about a subject of interest. For example, they can use different qualitative and quantitative methods to gather research information from credible sources about the chosen topic. The resulting evidence is important for explaining, comparing, evaluating, and recognizing various aspects of the research problem. Case studies are common in learning institutions, commercial companies, healthcare facilities, and government agencies where individuals evaluate important concepts or address existing challenges.

➖ Difference From Research Papers

A case study differs from a research paper or an executive summary due to its narrow scope. For example, academic research has a wide scope that includes the purpose of the study, sample population, duration of study, relevant theories, results, and other aspects covered. However, various types of papers focus on a narrow span of themes that involve human subjects. In turn, case studies allow scholars to conduct an in-depth evaluation of a subject regarding an individual, group, event, or institution.

➖ Difference From Essays

Case studies differ from various types of essays because they focus on specific situations to provide approaches and solutions. For example, writing a case study in history suggests formal research that requires supporting evidence to justify a claim. However, an essay is a form of writing that informs a targeted audience about a topic or subject. Academic papers contain an explanation and elucidation of a specific concept.

➖ Combining Objective and Subjective Information

A case study covers objective and subjective aspects. For instance, researchers should identify valid research data for investigation. The primary aim is to develop a basis for inferences that authors intend to make. One should make an objective description of the features identified. Hence, writers should provide details of the subjective aspects of the theme and cover reliable sources. In turn, they should give sensory details. As a result, this strategy makes it possible for readers to develop an intrinsic understanding of the subject under analysis. Besides, it allows students to offer a means of expressing how people should feel toward the theme under investigation.

➖ Descriptive Information

Learning to prepare a case study helps people to collect detailed descriptive data. For example, when mastering their descriptive writing, they gain skills to evaluate various features accurately. It becomes possible for learners to identify unique details for writing. Besides, the strategy lays down the foundation of extensive research. In turn, scholars who complete case studies effectively can carry out a comprehensive investigation of many topics. They also gain proper skills to understand and analyze essential concepts. Therefore, knowing how to write a case study enables people to develop skills to collect data in various research studies.

➖ Study Hypothesis

Preparing a case study enables students to develop a research hypothesis. Scholars who analyze modern cases gain significant knowledge that can be used to identify and solve complex issues. Basically, students develop a deeper understanding of various concepts. For example, they can predict outcomes related to case study circumstances that they examine. In this case, hypotheses are useful in research studies. Hence, experienced students postulate ideas before making inquiries. Moreover, they engage in different study methods to validate their research proposal. Thus, preparing case studies gives learners the experience of writing a null and alternative hypothesis that guides knowledge.

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Example of a Good Psychology Case Study

In a psychology case study scenario, a doctor diagnosed a 15-year-old French female living with her parents and younger siblings with anxiety, separation anxiety, and attention disorder. The patient lived with her parents, who experienced significant marital problems. Parents had separated several times and were discussing a possible divorce. The patient’s mother reported a history of psychiatric treatment for depression and anxiety. In addition, the father had a history of bipolar disorder and psychiatric treatment.

The patient recorded poor academic performance in several classes. Moreover, parents were looking for a new school because of poor grades recorded in the previous educational year. The patient presented the following symptoms:

  • frequent sadness and crying;
  • high appetite and overeating;
  • anxiety and irritability;
  • insomnia and hopelessness;
  • loss of concentration;
  • low self-esteem and guilt.

In addition to the above symptoms, the patient presented difficulties in interpersonal relationships, persistent negative thoughts about her physical appearance, and blame regarding her parent’s marital challenges. The doctor explored the patient’s medical history to discover she suffered from overweight and asthma. Besides, the patient had accessed supportive psychotherapy and used anti-depressants to stabilize her mental condition. Rejection by a potential boyfriend triggered the first episode of stress. However, her parents’ marital challenges started the current stress and psychological difficulties attack.

The doctor used Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) for children to diagnose the patient with a depressive disorder. DIS is a semi-structured diagnostic interview that allows doctors to assess the presence of a wide range of psychiatric disorders. The doctor used DIS to determine specific symptoms’ presence, chronology, duration, and associated deficiency in this case study. The patient responded to “no,” “somewhat,” and “yes” questions regarding her symptoms. The doctor determined that the patient experienced sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest, short temper, irritation, tiredness, memory loss, sleep disorders, excessive eating, and weight gain. The physician observed that the patient suffered from a depressive disorder that caused anxiety, fear of separation, and attention deficit.

The doctor treated the patient with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps to manage depression among French adults. In this case, the patient attended 12 CBT sessions to acquire stress management skills and social interaction capabilities necessary for coping with high-risk situations. This intervention was essential in reducing interpersonal worries and intrapersonal anxiety, like anger and depression. The first 12 sessions were required to train the patient to use active behavior and cognitive coping methods to deal with problems. Thus, the doctor enhanced the intervention with eight sessions of group psychoeducation to ensure the patient obtained social support to maintain the needed temperance.

The first four sessions were used to teach the patient about the impact of negative thoughts on mood. According to a case study, the patient gained adequate knowledge on overcoming dysfunctional thought patterns and increasing positive beliefs. The patient completed a daily log of positive and negative thoughts. Besides, the doctor required her to identify effective ways to challenge dysfunctional thoughts.

The subsequent three sessions allowed the patient to learn more about pleasant activities, time management, and goal-setting activities that can improve mood. Some essential activities in these sessions included recording enjoyable activities, completing a daily and weekly planner, and establishing specific goals and actions for achieving them. The last three sessions focused on how interpersonal relationships affect mood. The physician focused on training the patient on effective ways to increase and maintain social support and enhance assertive communication skills. These skills were necessary for enabling the patient to identify functional relationships and appropriate communication strategies for maintaining such positive associations.

The doctor may have used other methods, like psychological evaluation, to diagnose the patient’s depressive disorder. This method would not involve assessing the patient’s family medical history and social experiences. Psychological evaluation allows physicians to ask patients about their condition and past experiences. The information helps to reveal the core factors undermining patients’ overall health outcomes. Besides, the physician may have adopted peer support as an appropriate intervention method to assist the patient in curbing depression. From a case study, the intervention provides sustainable solutions to existing problems by encouraging patients to embrace desirable behaviors to enhance their mental resilience.

Example of a Good Medical Case Study

In a medical case study scenario, a pharmacist clinician received a referral of a 58-year-old white woman for pharmacotherapy consideration and diabetes management. The patient had a history of multiple medical conditions, like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and long-standing musculoskeletal pain from a previous car accident. Other medical conditions include anemia, knee replacement, and several hospital admissions for asthma-related complications.

The patient’s medication includes a pre-mixture of insulin lispro protamine suspension and preparation. The patient takes 33 units before breakfast and 23 before supper. The patient reported that she takes a little more insulin during the days when her blood glucose increases. However, she still needs to receive previous instructions on using an insulin adjustment formula. In addition, the patient uses an inhaler to manage her asthmatic condition.

The patient’s current major complaint is an increase in asthma complications. The patient needs prednisone tapers due to previous undesirable outcomes. For example, she reported experiencing growth in her blood glucose readings during her last round of prednisone therapy. The scenario occurred despite her significant reduction in carbohydrate intake. However, the patient reported facing financial challenges that prevent her from purchasing the required fluticasone or salmeterol, which forces her to take prednisone and albuterol to manage the worsening asthma episodes.

Results from a physical examination revealed that the patient appeared obese with minimal distress. According to a case study, she weighed 110 kg and had a height of 5.8 feet. The patient had a blood pressure of 130/78 mmHg and a pulse of 87 bmp. Her lungs were clear to auscultation and were without wheezing or rales. The patient also reported experiencing foot swelling when she remains active or stands for long hours. The patient said she was taking furosemide tablets to control her swelling.

The clinician discovered that the patient experienced persistent and severe asthma with poor control methods. She failed to embrace effective strategies to manage and control her asthmatic condition. The situation worsened her diabetic condition and treatment. In this case, the patient’s financial conditions affected her ability to maintain desirable, appropriate medication behavior. Other factors hindering better health outcomes include insufficient patient education regarding the role of specific medications.

The clinician proposed using a systematic method to evaluate the proper intervention for the patient. The findings emphasized patient-oriented evidence to support the most appropriate intervention. The physician developed an intervention plan that provided the patient with the necessary support throughout her treatment. The main aim was to identify possible side effects, drug interactions, or toxicity issues that require immediate attention.

However, the clinician could use an alternative method, like providing a medication-based intervention to the patient. The clinician would have identified alternative drugs for the patient and recommended a hospital admission for close assessment. This intervention would allow the clinician to identify the most appropriate medication to restore the patient’s overall health by managing asthma and diabetes more effectively. From a case study, the medication-based intervention would enable the patient to gain adequate knowledge of the proper medications and appreciate the need to follow guided prescriptions.

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Example of a Good Marketing Case Study

In a marketing case study scenario, Bivea is a skin and personal care brand start-up that targets the American market. The company has experienced significant growth from a signature product to diverse pharmaceutical inventions. Although Bivea has recorded positive change in the United States (US), there were challenges in promoting success in Asia, Latin American, and Eastern European markets. The clear benefit concept has failed to encourage company growth in the Asian market.

Bivea succeeded with new product rollouts throughout the past decade. The company succeeded in maintaining consistency in its visual and verbal messaging. However, these promotion methods are not suitable for the dynamic market of the twenty-first century. For example, a rise in critical consumers, aggressive compensations, and private labels pose a significant marketing threat to the company. The current challenges include high costs to penetrate the targeted markets and low consumer acceptance.

Bivea management considered introducing private-label skin care products to lower the cost of entering the targeted markets. According to a case study, this intervention allowed the company to create pre-made formulations that retailers could put their labels on and sell under their brand. As a result, the alternative enabled local retailers to lower the high cost and time investment associated with creating their formulas from scratch. Besides, Bivea lowered the operational price related to legal and taxation policies in different countries.

The private-label skin care products enabled the company to create a stable and reliable network of local retailers. For instance, the organization successfully attracted local companies in skin and personal care products. In this case, the visual and verbal messaging promotion technique successfully attracted and maintained a stable network of retailers. However, this marketing approach hindered the company from establishing its brand effectively.

Although Bivea succeeded in creating a reliable network of retailers, alternative approaches would assist the institution in selling its brand to local consumers. For example, the management would launch online-based marketing strategies to reach younger consumers through various social media platforms. This intervention would allow the company to attract a new segment of customers and establish a strong brand in the Asian market. The new marketing strategy would enable the company to understand the unique needs of young consumers. The resulting evidence would help Bivea to diversify its products to meet the needs of the new customer segment. From a case study, other benefits include an added competitive advantage as Bevia promotes its brand in the Asian market.

Example of a Good Business Case Study

In a business case study scenario, a company ABC experienced stiff competition from upcoming organizations due to inefficient operational systems. ABC was a cosmetic company that focused on producing and distributing beauty products. The company relied on a conventional operating model that remained unchanged over the last decade. The management disregarded the need to embrace change or adopt technology-based solutions. However, such practices exposed the company to stiff competition from emerging cosmetic firms that embraced innovative solutions, like intelligent machines, advanced analytics, and digital connectivity. The company recorded a drop in overall revenue in the previous financial year.

The company had 20% Baby Boomers, 70% Generation Z, and 10% Millennial employees. This diverse workforce posed significant operational challenges as the company needed to catch up in embracing new technological solutions. Most of the Baby Boomers held leadership positions and believed the company should use proven strategies. In addition, they thought that all employees should receive appraisals based on their overall performance levels. On the other hand, Generation X employees considered job security the most crucial aspect of their careers. Workers in this generation should have improved their overall skills and expertise. These traits of older employees discouraged Millennials from embracing technology-based and innovative solutions that can enhance their productivity. The result was a demoralized workforce that failed to meet the company’s expectations.

The management established a team of experts to review the current situation in the firm and propose a practical solution that could boost the company’s productivity. The team interviewed employees to determine the primary cause of existing challenges affecting overall productivity. Results obtained from a case study revealed that generational difference was the primary barrier to the company’s progress. There was a significant breakdown in communication between older employees. For example, Millennials overlooked the need to express their concerns and views to senior managers who were Baby Boomers. In turn, Baby Boomer and Generation Z employees regarded Millennials as negligent and non-cooperative. These social challenges hindered the flow of information within the company and discouraged employees’ ability to implement desirable changes.

Experts noted that the company should embrace new technologies to improve performance. The findings revealed that most of the activities in the company were similar and redundant. Furthermore, most of the activities were straightforward and did not require specialized skills for execution. According to a case study, experts realized the company could adopt technology-based solutions to automate most operations. Other proposals included training employees to understand the need to embrace technology-based solutions. The team of experts proposed a collaborative approach where the company would seek professional support from professionals on practical technological solutions to automate the production of cosmetic products.

The management hired Siemens to provide automation solutions to the production process. Siemens provided automated solutions through automotive-embedded software developments aligned with ABC’s needs. All employees received adequate training on operating computerized systems. Other support services included employee mentoring and team-building activities to encourage employees to embrace modern technology. The strategy was crucial in ensuring that Baby Boomer and Generation X employees appreciated the need to integrate technology-based solutions to enhance efficiency. However, most older employees felt intimidated by Millennials, who had well-versed knowledge about new technologies. On their part, Millennials thought that Baby Boomer and Generation Z employees created systemic barriers to embracing latest technologies. Other challenges included increased operational costs due to a large and less effective workforce.

The company may have adopted alternative solutions by laying off older employees and hiring more Millennials to champion technology-based solutions. The management should have opted to promote employees interested in the technology-based to take up management roles. This strategy would ensure speedy implementation of effective solutions to encourage efficiency and lower operational costs. From a case study, the management would provide Millennials with a supportive work environment to ensure that they create new and innovative interventions to address emerging issues.

Example of a Good Legal Case Study

In a legal case study scenario, an African American artist composed a rap song and posted it on YouTube. The song gained two million viewers within two days. Another White artist created a parody of the rap song after one week. The parody had five million views within the first day of release on YouTube. The views for the original song constantly increased to 8 million over the next five weeks. However, the parody gained popularity too, gaining over 15 million views within five weeks.

The African American artist filed a legal suit against the White musician for violating the copyright rules. The complainant argued that the White musician used the original song for personal economic gain. The plaintiff argued that the large number of followers for the parody translated to a monetary value. The complainant explained that the White musician targeted the African American artist for personal economic gain. The cultural difference between Whites and Blacks, including discrimination toward minority groups, allowed the parody song to gain popularity.

The defendant filed a response and argued that the primary purpose of the parody was to create humor. The large following on YouTube indicated people’s tendency to appreciate comedy and satire. The defendant encouraged the court to reject the legal application because the economic value gained from the parody was a justifiable reward for creating humor. The respondent explained that comedy is a talent and jesters focus on creating satire. According to a case study, the income earned from comedy is not the primary motivation for creating a comic parody. The respondent explained that the parody did not violate the First Amendment as the primary intention was fair use. With this regard, the defendant explained that the parody allowed the original song to gain popularity, as evidenced by an increase in viewers from two to eight million. In this case, the satire was composed for fair use instead of imposing unhealthy competition against the original song.

The judge of the district court ruled in favor of the defendant. The judge cited the First Amendment as the constitutional law that protects parody work in the United States (US). The Constitution regards parody as a unique form of expression where artists can criticize or provide commentary on the original work. Such rights allow people to find fault or comment about the artist or something connected to the original work. The White artist did not violate the fair use exception enumerated in section 107 of the Copyright Act. It focuses on the purpose and character of the use, the nature of the amount and substantiality of the original work, and the effect on the market value of the targeted piece of art. The judge explained that the White artist intended to create humor, which may have increased the value of the original song.

The judge’s evaluation revealed that the parody was fair use since the White artist intended to make a social commentary. The White artist’s intention was not to attract any commercial gain. However, the realized economic growth was a reward for creating humor. The judge explained that the monetary gain realized was a form of appreciation from the audience who value the social role of parodies. As a result, the judge rejected the argument by the complainant that all White artists took advantage of cultural differences to criticize the rap song for their personal economic gains.

The judge made a correct ruling by applying constitutional law in safeguarding the social role of parody work. Artists are central to communicating essential messages about community and social or cultural values. The First Amendment and Fair Use Act are necessary legislatures allowing people to express their views regarding a piece of art. Positive criticism by other artists is a crucial function that enables people to improve the value of their work.

This legal case study has academic value since it reveals effective ways of applying constitutional law in promoting and protecting different art genres. Law students can use the commentaries to understand how to apply the Constitution in instances that lead to a conflict of interest. Such practices are necessary in considering the public interest when making legal decisions. It also requires critical thinking to safeguard each party’s fundamental and constitutional rights. The example of parody is unique since it promotes people’s right to express contrary opinions without fear of intimidation. From a case study, legal students should appreciate such values to use their profession to support an inclusive society where people have equal rights to express their views.

Types of Case Studies

A practical case study is a process-oriented paper. For example, students explore and describe the nature of a process. In this case, it is prudent for learners to explain what happens over time in the aspect under analysis. Besides, this description allows readers to understand how some characteristics came into existence. Therefore, when writing case studies, authors should provide a clear description of people, events, or institutions that transpired in the aspect under analysis.

🔸 Collective Case Study

Writing a collective case study allows people to analyze a group to understand the manifestation of a specific behavior or health condition. Scholars may study people in a particular setting or explore the entire community to gain insights into an existing challenge, research question, or topic of interest. A good example of writing a collective case study is when a psychologist explores how access to resources in a community affects the overall psychological well-being of its members. Psychologists strive to establish an existing or implied relationship between two variables.

Collective investigations may use qualitative research methods to evaluate several research works and determine a pattern of findings that explains the relationship between resources and psychological well-being in the targeted community. Alternatively, writing a collective case study may involve a quantitative research approach where individuals gather primary evidence from the targeted group to determine how access to scarce resources influences their overall mental well-being. Maslow hierarchy of needs theory is an excellent example of a model that resulted from a collective report. Maslow studied a large group of people to make justifiable conclusions about how the hierarchy of needs affects their satisfaction levels.

🔸 Descriptive Case Study

Writing a descriptive case study relates to a real-world situation that affects people or groups and how they find justifiable solutions. Basically, scholars create a concise and thorough account of the facts regarding the case. They make expert commentary to assist the targeted audience in understanding the causes of the underlying research problem, some factors that influence possible solutions, and the expected outcomes. Other significant findings from writing a descriptive case study include lessons learned and their connection to existing theories, concepts, policies, and applicable tools. Descriptive case studies are helpful teaching tools that lead to better insights into existing issues. Results from a descriptive research work offer essential lessons relevant to the described or related problems.

Researchers use descriptive case studies to analyze and evaluate the identified solution critically. This approach helps to determine whether the solution and its implementation achieved the intended goals. Results can explain why specific solutions may fail to achieve intended outcomes. One can describe the possibility of adopting alternative solutions when the initial ones fail. Kolb’s experiential learning theory is an excellent example of a concept that resulted from writing a descriptive case study. This theory has a four-stage learning cycle where learners encounter varying degrees of experience. For example, students undergo the experiencing, reflecting, thinking, and acting stages to demonstrate effective learning. These conclusions resulted from an extensive case study of how people acquire and apply knowledge in their real lives.

🔸 Instrumental Case Study

An instrumental case study uses a situation to gain new insights into the incident. A good example is when some individuals show interest in gaining insights into adult obesity rates. They may conduct a case study with female African American adults and a diet or exercise program. The scope of writing an instrumental case study would be understanding the relationship between obesity and specific eating or physical exercise habits. The findings from writing an instrumental case study may reveal why some female African American adults become obese despite maintaining healthy eating habits or engaging in regular physical activity. In turn, Pavlov’s classical conditioning theory is an excellent example of an approach that can be used for writing an instrumental case study. Pavlov discovered that pairing a neutral stimulus with absolute inducement that triggers an unconditional response leads to a conditioned incentive. The interaction triggers a conditioned response that is like the initial unconditioned action. This theory reveals why people acquire unique behaviors or health conditions depending on their interactions with the immediate environment.

🔸 Intrinsic Case Study

An intrinsic case study has the central focus as the subject itself. For instance, psychologists may establish a survey to understand how a person’s experience shapes some behaviors. Intrinsic case studies start from vague objectives and lead to specific outcomes. One may develop questions regarding observed behaviors and past experiences. Results reveal the connection between lived experiences, unique characters, and conduct.

Self-actualization theory by Carl Rogers is an excellent example of a good approach to writing an intrinsic case study. For example, self-actualization refers to the lifelong process where people maintain and enhance their self-concept. Some individuals reflect and reinterpret their past experiences to improve their overall outcomes. Unique experiences motivate them to improve their general capacities and make the necessary improvements and behavioral adjustments. Rogers established that the congruence between a person’s ideal self and actual behaviors leads to self-actualization. Such outcomes enable people to become inherently excellent and creative in addressing situations when they write intrinsic case studies.

🔸 Exploratory Case Study

Researchers use an exploratory case study to provide an in-depth analysis of a specific subject of interest. They conduct extensive and complex investigations on identified issues. Exploratory case studies aim to understand the meaning and implication of collected research data and create new perceptions toward the core subject. The main advantage of this investigation is the ability to narrow down the topic and formulate a clear hypothesis and problem statement.

Operant conditioning within behaviorism by Edward Thorndike is an excellent example of a theory for writing an exploratory case study. Thorndike examined the relationship between events and classical conditioning. He also examined the connection between operant conditioning and learning from possible consequences of specific behaviors. Writing an exploratory study requires an in-depth analysis of the various stimuli that influence people to adopt behaviors as a primary way of response. Some consequences that people realize from specific actions affect them to acquire some conduct.

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Top 5 Data-Collecting Methods for Writing a Case Study Example

1️⃣ observation research method.

Researchers use an observation method when examining things and collecting relevant research data. For example, one may observe animals or humans in their natural settings. This method enables investigators to avoid direct interactions with targeted subjects when writing a case study. Such practices lead to writing accurate findings due to lower risks of interruptions.

2️⃣ Survey Study

Scholars use surveys to obtain data from written or multiple-choice answers about different subjects from targeted respondents. For example, an individual may conduct an online survey to minimize interactions with participants. This method helps to gather internal and external feedback regarding products, policies, or issues directly affecting people. In this case, researchers can collect qualitative data from surveys to make justifiable conclusions concerning the topic of interest.

3️⃣ Researching Focus Groups

Focus group methods are essential in gathering research information from participants. Scholars may engage people from a specific group to gather qualitative evidence of their feelings, opinions, or emotions. This method does not focus on collecting statistical evidence about issues of concern. Instead, researchers use focus groups to understand how people feel about or perceive a situation directly affecting them. For example, for writing a case study, companies can use focus groups to understand better how their consumers recognize or think about a new product.

4️⃣ Conducting Interviews for Writing a Case Study

Interviews involve a personal or face-to-face interaction between researchers and identified respondents. Scholars share their interview questions with participants before the interview. This approach is essential in ensuring that respondents are comfortable participating in the proposed study. In this case, participants fill out consent forms after understanding the research and its purpose. The method supports collecting qualitative or quantitative data from respondents, depending on the study’s nature. For example, quantitative interviews result in objective research data, like the frequency of a particular activity or the probability of an event. In turn, the process requires assigning a numerical value to each response to obtain quantitative data. Qualitative interviews have similar closed-ended questions for all respondents.

5️⃣ Design Thinking Research

Design thinking is a data collection method focusing on brainstorming with participants to obtain unique ideas or resolutions to existing research problems. For example, when writing a case study, managers may use this method to receive possible solutions from their employees regarding an existing conflict situation. Design thinking sessions may be face-to-face or virtual, depending on specific locations of respondents and investigators. As a result, design thinking leads to qualitative data regarding the subject of interest.

Presenting a Perfect Case Study in 10 Sections

I. introduction and background in a case study.

A case study’s introduction and background section should have a hook and an attention-getter to capture the reader’s attention. For example, a college essay introduction determines whether readers can sacrifice their time to read the information presented. This paragraph should summarize the main ideas regarding the research topic. Other important details include writing a thesis statement, which includes the main concepts presented in a case study.

II. Parties Involved

When writing case studies, authors should describe the main participants involved in a scenario with its methodology and research method. Starting from a topic sentence, this section should reveal the relationship between participants and other key aspects. In addition, information regarding the methods used to identify participants is necessary since it improves the quality of the evidence presented. This section helps to determine how the key parties’ relationship influences the outcomes.

III. Problem

Authors of case studies should provide a clear explanation of the problem under investigation. For example, each case study should have a unique situation with several possible solutions. A clear problem description sets the stage for understanding the researcher’s key objectives for writing a case study. In turn, the research problem should be feasible with possible solutions related to identified subjects.

IV. Possible Solutions

A good case study should present at least one possible solution to the identified problem. The relationship between subjects and other key aspects should lead to a practical solution. Moreover, researchers should justify why identified solutions are applicable. Hence, the answer should be viable within the identified scope.

V. Discussion

One should provide a comprehensive discussion on the choices’ validity. Constructive discussions are necessary to provide additional research information to make essential interpretations. Readers should rely on the discourse to appreciate that proposed solutions are valid in addressing the identified research problem sufficiently. Researchers should avoid vague and misleading arguments when writing a case study.

VI. Alternative Solutions

For writing this section, authors should describe alternative solutions relating to a particular case study. For example, a viable statement should have multiple solutions, each with unique benefits or problems. On the other hand, the target audience should be able to evaluate alternative solutions to research issues identified. This approach allows readers to determine the effectiveness of the identified solution. Besides, each person may have independent and valid opinions on why some solutions are more reasonable than others.

VII. Limitations

Practical solutions have possible setbacks during their implementation. Researchers should identify potential problems associated with their findings or case studies. Including limitations to identified solutions reveals the ability to apply critical thinking in determining the most applicable solutions. However, potential problems should be realistic and functional within each case study’s research scope.

VIII. Action Plan

The action plan entails the steps that companies, parties, or other stakeholders should take to address the problem. For example, practical solutions are achievable when executing using the necessary steps. The action plan should entail chronological execution steps that lead to desired outcomes. Readers should follow through with the proposed action plan to understand how they lead to the intended results.

IX. Outcome

Good case studies should include the anticipated or realized outcomes. People present their focus on enlightening the audience on effective ways to address existing research problems. In this case, appropriate investigations should consist of plausible results that align with study objectives. For instance, one should explain the outcomes realized from an adopted solution.

X. Conclusion

When all sections of a case study are written, scholars need to end their papers with good conclusion examples. This last paragraph is needed since any problem, solution, outcome, limitation, or action must lead to a specific conclusion. Hence, people need to provide a summary of all sections in their final paragraph of a case study.

Note: Some sections can be skipped, depending on assignment requirements and case study length.

Creating a Correct Case Study Outline

The outline of a case study should contain the main points presented in chronological order. Writers need to cover only significant issues in essay outline. Besides, they include supporting evidence to support the main points. In turn, one should create a clear thesis statement from the identified main issues, which should appear at the beginning of essay structure. The effective thesis statement must capture the reader’s attention and provide a general topic overview.

Other Design Features for Writing a Case Study

Case studies should have a formal tone and key ideas presented chronologically. The introduction should have an attention-getter and a thesis statement. Each paragraph should begin with a justifiable claim, followed by supporting evidence and transitioning statement. In practice, each section should dwell on one idea. However, authors should avoid complex, unclear terms that may obstruct the intended meaning. Hence, they should avoid unnecessary repetitions when presenting research information and writing a case study.

Difference From Writing and Overall Structure of a Client’s Case Study

Writing a case study for a client would differ because it should involve the client’s description. For example, the writer must accurately describe the client’s company under analysis when writing a business case study. Although employees may participate in providing the correct information and evidence, one should provide detailed and accurate company’s descriptions. Other important sections include an introduction to the existing problems, desired resolution plan, progress, and results.

Summing Up on How to Write a Good Case Study

Writing a case study is essential in developing a deeper understanding of different concepts. Basically, these papers must have a clear description of individuals, groups, events, or institutions, while scholars must focus on some aspects of the actions under analysis. In this case, they mix different types of evidence, providing readers with essential details. These research works are process-oriented and describe how vital concepts came into existence. In turn, people must learn about how to write a good case study because they gain skills to process descriptive information. As a result, they gain valid experience to design a good hypothesis based on increased knowledge of different concepts.

  • A case study is a detailed exploration of a unique subject, individual, community, group, place, event, organization, or phenomenon.
  • The basic writing format of a case study should include an introduction with a thesis statement, an analysis of an existing problem, recommendations, a discussion, an identification of alternative solutions, limitations, an action plan, outcomes, and a conclusion.
  • All case studies should follow a similar structure regardless of their area of study.
  • Students can use different data collection methods in their research, including but not limited to observation, survey, focus group, interview, and design thinking.

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Definition and Key Features of Case Study Research

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A case study is one type of research method and qualitative research. A case study is important as it defines as a study involving descriptive information about an individual or a small group of individuals. The result of the case studies is in a narrative description of behavior or experience that is normally qualitative in nature. It is not used to discover generalizable truths or make a prediction and also not used to determine cause and effect. The case study research is more emphasis on the exploration and description of a phenomenon. The central characteristics of the case study research are usually narrowly focused as it provides a specific detail that combines both the objective and subjective data to result in in-depth understanding.

A case study is used to answer questions of how or why rather than quantitative study generally asked questions of who, what, where, how much and how many. A case study is commonly used to collect in-depth data in a natural setting where the researcher has little or no control over the events as there is a real-life context. The main goal of a case study is to deliver information that may research in the formation of a hypothesis for future research. A case study is regularly used in an educational setting and social science research. For example, it is commonly used to study psychological problems such as the development of a child in a broken family or the effects on a student who are being bullied and abused. As for the educational setting that was used for the case study is to explore the development of writing skills in a small group of individuals taking a creative writing class.

There are different types of case study methods as it depends on the goals of the researcher and the nature of the question being asked. The first type of case study method is called illustrative. This type of method is used to describe an event or situation in order to make people be more familiar with the topic in question or perhaps become aware of the terminology associated with the topic. The second type of case study method id called exploratory. This method is a summarize case study as it gathered basic and original data that could be used to categorize a particular question for a larger study. It is an exploratory in nature because it was not designed to produce detailed data from any conclusions.

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The third type of case study is the cumulative method. The cumulative method commonly designed to pull information together for several situations or event and summative it in a way to allow resulting greater generalization. The cumulative method can save time and money as this method is not creating new and repetitive studies. The fourth method of case study is called critical instance. These studies are used to study situations of certain unique interest or to challenge a universal or generalized belief. These situations or events may be examined to rear questions or to challenge the previous proclamations.

Thus, the researcher will start to design their case study approach once the basic type of case study has been chosen and the question has been recognized. The researcher can use a different range of approaches and methods such as interviews, field studies, protocol or transcript analyses, direct participant observations, a review of documents and achieved records or an exploration of artifacts to collect data in order to gain a full and detailed picture of the participant or small group. Researchers may use a single method approach (one method) or use a multi-modal approach (several methods) to collect data.

The researcher will need to make the decision of the strategy for analyzing the data after he or she has determined the data collection methods and the type of data that will be used and recorded in the study. Typically, case study researchers will interpret their data either holistically or through coding procedures. In a holistic approach, it commonly reviews all the data as a whole and tries to draw conclusions based on the data entirely. It is known as an appropriate approach because the question that being studied is more general and get an overview of the data. Sometimes by breaking the data into smaller pieces might be useful as it involves searching the data to identify and categorize specific actions or characteristics. By assigning a numeric code, it allows the data to be analyzed using statistical in quantitative methods.

There are a few advantages and disadvantages regardless of the type of case study, data collection method or the data analysis method. The first advantages are in the case study; it is more flexible than many other types of research because it eventually allows the researcher to explore and discover the development of the research. Secondly, the case study emphasizes in-depth content that allows the researcher to investigate deep and use a variety of data sources to get a full picture. Furthermore, the data that is collected is in a natural setting and context. Third advantages are case study often resulting in new hypotheses that can be tested later and explore new discovery on a proven theory that can result in further exploration. Lastly, researchers are also able to analyze or study a situation, events, and behaviors. The disadvantages in case studies are that the originality of the data usually cannot be replicated because it has some level of subjectivity and researcher preference may be a problem. It is not possible to conduct the research on a large scale because of the in-depth nature of the data as it concerns about the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the results.

Fortunately, there are some major challenges in conducting case study research. The first challenge is to choose the right research topic. It is important to choose the topic carefully because the research topic is the main groundwork by means the researcher cannot do anything else until he or she figures out the basic focus of their topic. The topic chosen is best when the researcher has an interest in it. The second challenge is on choosing the right methodology for the case study. After a topic is chosen, the researcher needs a methodology in which is a procedure for conducting the research in order to move forward. The researcher sometimes not too sure which method is best suitable to achieve the research aims and objective.

Without confirming the right topic for the appropriate methodology, the research cannot be proceeding further. The third challenge is the problems in using survey questionnaires. Although questionnaire clearly stated that individuals’ own perspective would be valued and there were no right or wrong answers, the researcher noticed that the participants still seemed to search and asking others nearby the right or positive answers rather than expressing their own views. The final challenge is knowing how to dealing with the collected data. The researcher might find out irrelevant data which bring the result of an inaccurate and misinterpreted data collected in the process.

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Definition and Key Features of Case Study Research. (2021, Jan 11). Retrieved from https://samploon.com/definition-and-key-features-of-case-study-research/

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Top 6 Types Of Case Study And Its Features And Methods

Before we can talk about types of case study and the features, we have to know- what is a case study?  It is a method of research that uses a well-detailed, thorough and exhaustive examination of the subject matter at hand and its condition as at that time.  A case study is a form of research that is why it is called case study research.

There are different types of studies for different sets of researchers, and each has a different case study format. It is usually a learning tool for Teachers, historians, social workers, etc. the researcher recognizes definite problems by thorough investigation and several discussions on the issue in question . They are then able to identify the key contributors and aggravating situations.

Case Study Structure

By virtue of its Nature and for you to know how to write a case study you have to pay attention to structure. Every form of writing must have a structure for it to be considered as organized. Generally, it is divided into:

ElementFunction
IntroductionThis is where the case is introduced to the reader, with short background info on the topic and insights on previous writings on the subject matter
AimsThis has to do with the reason and purpose of the paper and the question it intends to answer
MethodThe approach that will be employed in order to achieve the aim and data will be gathered or collected.
ResultsA description of the outcome of findings through interviews, questionnaires 
DiscussionAn explanation of the findings and extraction of problems from such explanations and the lessons that can be learnt for that case.
RecommendationSuggestion for actions to take in the future in order to help the situation or proffer solutions,

6 Types of Case Study

1. historical case study.

This method involves the observation of the advancement of a particular concept over a period of time. It is an all-inclusive analysis and report from a historical angle. Most times professional case study writing service makes use of this method in order to give a case study help acasestudy.com is a good place to check for such.  This method pays attention to dates and timeline in relation to presently occurring situations and occurrences.

2. Observational Case Study

Using this method, data is gathered by participant observation which is then augmented by formal or informal interview. A good example would be observing workers in the staff break room within a company.  In this case, the researcher can choose to observe some group of persons and their interaction with certain concepts and ideologies in order to gather data about the subject.

3. Illustrative case studies

This is a form of descriptive learning that uses one or more occurrences of an event to demonstrate the situation at hand. The aim is to give the readers an in-depth common idea about the topic being treated. When writing such a case study , the idea is to have whoever reads it inclined to the common understanding of the topic.

Most times, these studies are very objective such that they do not require a lot of interpretation. They rarely involve humans because when it does several variables come into play concerning that subject matter.

4. Exploratory or pilot case studies

This is a summarized method done before executing a full-scale investigation. The main reason for this type of study is to assist in classifying questions and choose measurement parameters before the actual investigation. However, if you are not careful, you may be tempted to make a premature conclusion based on the initial summary.

Usually, the goal is to show that more investigations will be required and considered necessary. It is very popular in psychological fields.  For example, some psychologists may decide to do a study of troupers that come home after active combat. Although the end goal is to identify the causes of PTSD, however at the very beginning attention may be put on the veterans themselves to establish PTSD.

5. Cumulative case studies

This is used to gather information put together by different sites at different times, in order to come up with a single body of information which makes it hot to write. The aim of these studies usually is to gather the information from these past studies and form a greater, concrete overview of the topic in question without going through the rigours of extra costs or time being used on fresh studies.

An example here would be a case where a researcher decides not only to study the Vietnam veterans, but also the ones from world war 2 and the Persian Gulf veterans. By this, the researcher is able to give a collective study on the concept as a whole and not fixating on just one place at one time.

6. Critical instance case studies

This method is used mostly to question existing generalizations or extensive claims about concepts. The aim here is to look into two or more findings and examine the situation without forming any generalization. Instead, each situation is considered uniquely. 

Case studies are very important especially in the world of academia, it assists in the world of making new discoveries and improving the old one. They can also be used in almost any field or discipline and most times they do not occur in isolation. You can check online for some case study examples if you need to see practical samples of these, there are a lot of them.

Positive Words Research – Types Of Case Study And Its Features

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Assessing carbon sink capacity in coal mining areas: a case study from taiyuan city, china.

main features of a case study

1. Introduction

2. materials and methods, 2.1. study area, 2.2. data source and processing, 2.2.1. data source, 2.2.2. data processing, 2.3. using carbon absorption coefficient to estimate carbon absorption, 2.4. using carbon density to estimate carbon storage, 2.4.1. estimation of carbon storage, 2.4.2. selection and calibration of carbon density, 2.5. using npp to estimate nep, 2.5.1. estimation of npp, 2.5.2. estimation of nep, 3.1. carbon absorption in mining areas, 3.2. carbon storage in mining areas, 3.3. nep estimation in mining areas, 4. discussion, 4.1. discussion on estimation results and their methods, 4.1.1. discussion on carbon absorption and its estimation methods, 4.1.2. discussion on carbon storage and its estimation methods, 4.1.3. discussion on npp and its estimation methods, 4.1.4. discussion on r h , nep, and their estimation methods, 4.2. evaluation of methods for estimating carbon sink capacity in mining areas, 4.3. novelty and limitations for estimating carbon sink capacity in mining areas, 4.4. countermeasures for coal mining enterprises to stabilize carbon sinks in mining areas, 5. conclusions, supplementary materials, author contributions, institutional review board statement, informed consent statement, data availability statement, conflicts of interest, abbreviations.

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Click here to enlarge figure

Land Use TypeArea in 2021
(t/hm )
Notes
Cultivated land5.66
Forest land201.75
Grassland0Undivided in 2021
Land for mining and industry7.16Belonging to construction land
Land for residential area7.76
Land for transportation3.89
Water area and land for water conservancy facilities0.35Abbreviated as water area
Other land8.79
Land Use TypeCarbon Absorption Coefficient
(t/hm )
Source
Cultivated land0.007An et al. [ ]
Forest land0.581Cao and Cui. [ ]; Zhang et al. [ ]
Grassland0.021Zhan et al. [ ]; Zhang et al. [ ]
Water area0.253Cao and Cui. [ ]; Zhang et al. [ ]; Zhong et al. [ ]
Other land0.005Han et al. [ ]; Zhang et al. [ ]; Zhong et al. [ ]
Land Use TypeAboveground Carbon Density (t/hm )Underground Carbon Density (t/hm )Soil Carbon Density (t/hm )Carbon Density of Dead Organic Matter (t/hm )
Cultivated land1.650.3287.090.16
Forest land28.675.98100.612.87
Grassland3.352.1078.840.33
Land for mining and industry0.03061.550
Land for residential area0050.070
Land for transportation0047.770
Water area0.02000
Other land0.810.1418.760.08
Land Use TypeCultivated LandForest LandGrasslandWater AreaOther Land
Carbon absorption (t)0.04117.2200.090.04
Land Use TypeAboveground
Carbon Storage (t)
Underground Carbon Storage (t)Soil Carbon Storage (t)Dead Organic Matter Carbon Storage (t)Total Carbon Storage (t)
Cultivated land9.341.81492.930.91504.99
Forest land5784.171206.4720,298.07579.0227,867.73
Grassland00000
Land for mining and industry0.210440.700440.91
Land for residential area00388.540388.54
Land for transportation00185.830185.83
Water area0.010000.01
Other land7.121.23164.900.70173.95
Mining area5800.851209.5121,970.96580.6329,561.96
Study AreaTRNPP NPP
This study10.39470.701441.09805.25
Wuzhong City10.19189.451423.53353.02
Zhongning County10.15196.891419.51365.69
Guyuan City7.12439.301156.51754.81
Longde County5.76500.111043.70843.23
Study AreaEstimation Results of NPP
[g/(m ·a)]
Study Time (Year)MethodSource
This study805.252021Miami model
Fenhe River Basin291.57From 2000 to 2015CASA modelTian et al. [ ]
Shanxi Province273.67From 2000 to 2019CASA modelSu et al. [ ]
Loess Plateau300.74From 2001 to 2019CASA modelSong et al. [ ]
Lvliang contiguous poverty areas241.24–331.70From 2000 to 2018CASA modelSun et al. [ ]
IndexUnitsMain Estimation MethodsAdvantageDisadvantageNotes
Carbon absorptiontThe product of carbon absorption coefficient and areaThe simplest methodThe carbon absorption coefficient is not yet unifiedCarbon absorption is also known as a carbon sink.
Carbon storagetThe product of carbon density and areaThe method is relatively simpleThe InVEST model ignores the influence of interannual changes in carbon density;
at least two years of carbon storage data are required to obtain carbon sink capacity.
Carbon sink refers to the increase in carbon storage over two years.
NEPg/(m ·a)NPP minus R The most complex methodAffected by NPP and R calculation results, the estimation accuracy of NPP is relatively low.NEP with a positive value represents carbon sink.
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Chen, F.; Liu, Y.; Guo, J.; Bai, H.; Wu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Li, R. Assessing Carbon Sink Capacity in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study from Taiyuan City, China. Atmosphere 2024 , 15 , 765. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15070765

Chen F, Liu Y, Guo J, Bai H, Wu Z, Liu Y, Li R. Assessing Carbon Sink Capacity in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study from Taiyuan City, China. Atmosphere . 2024; 15(7):765. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15070765

Chen, Fan, Yang Liu, Jinkai Guo, He Bai, Zhitao Wu, Yang Liu, and Ruijin Li. 2024. "Assessing Carbon Sink Capacity in Coal Mining Areas: A Case Study from Taiyuan City, China" Atmosphere 15, no. 7: 765. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos15070765

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  • The incidence of infratentorial arteriovenous malformation-associated aneurysms: an institutional case series and systematic literature review
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  • http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3918-5869 Mark Davison 1 ,
  • Maximos McCune 2 ,
  • Nishanth Thiyagarajah 2 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2045-972X Ahmed Kashkoush 1 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0009-0001-1362-1944 Rebecca Achey 1 ,
  • Michael Shost 3 ,
  • http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3646-3635 Gabor Toth 2 ,
  • Mark Bain 1 , 2 ,
  • Nina Moore 1 , 2 , 4
  • 1 Department of Neurosurgery , Cleveland Clinic Foundation , Cleveland , Ohio , USA
  • 2 Cerebrovascular Center , CCF , Cleveland Heights , Ohio , USA
  • 3 Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine , Cleveland , OH , USA
  • 4 Department of Biomedical Engineering , Lerner Research Institute , Cleveland , OH , USA
  • Correspondence to Dr Mark Davison, Neurological Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA; davisom{at}ccf.org

Background Arteriovenous malformation (AVM)-associated aneurysms represent a high-risk feature predisposing them to rupture. Infratentorial AVMs have been shown to have a greater incidence of associated aneurysms, however the existing data is outdated and biased. The aim of our research was to compare the incidence of supratentorial vs infratentorial AVM-associated aneurysms.

Methods Patients were identified from our institutional AVM registry, which includes all patients with an intracranial AVM diagnosis since 2000, regardless of treatment. Records were reviewed for clinical details, AVM characteristics, nidus location (supratentorial or infratentorial), and presence of associated aneurysms. Statistical comparisons were made using Fisher’s exact or Wilcoxon rank sum tests as appropriate. Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined independent predictors of AVM-associated aneurysms. As a secondary analysis, a systematic literature review was performed, where studies documenting the incidence of AVM-associated aneurysms stratified by location were of interest.

Results From 2000–2024, 706 patients with 720 AVMs were identified, of which 152 (21.1%) were infratentorial. Intracranial hemorrhage was the most common AVM presentation (42.1%). The incidence of associated aneurysms was greater in infratentorial AVMs compared with supratentorial cases (45.4% vs 20.1%; P<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that infratentorial nidus location was the singular predictor of an associated aneurysm, odds ratio: 2.9 (P<0.0001). Systematic literature review identified eight studies satisfying inclusion criteria. Aggregate analysis indicated infratentorial AVMs were more likely to harbor an associated aneurysm (OR 1.7) and present as ruptured (OR 3.9), P<0.0001.

Conclusions In this modern consecutive patient series, infratentorial nidus location was a significant predictor of an associated aneurysm and hemorrhagic presentation.

  • Arteriovenous Malformation
  • Posterior fossa
  • Angiography

https://doi.org/10.1136/jnis-2024-022003

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Contributors All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection and analysis were performed by MD, MM, and NT. Manuscript preparation was performed by MD and all authors participated in manuscript revisions. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

Competing interests None declared.

Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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