A guide to bottom-up versus top-down for problem-solving

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Most people already have an approach to problem-solving that works for them. But when you operate a team, it’s harder to arrive at a consensus.

As a team leader, it’s up to you to develop a strategy that lets you and your group find solutions quickly and efficiently.

You could make the decision independently and communicate next steps for your team to execute — the top-down approach. Or, you could aim for a collaborative process that seeks input from your teammates, and together you craft the solution — the bottom-up approach.

Understanding the difference between bottom-up versus top-down means deciding which management style leads to the best solutions possible for your team.

What’s the top-down approach?

Most people are familiar with top-down management or problem-solving strategies. Also known as autocratic leadership, it’s the traditional decision-making approach you might associate with the manager-employee reporting flow.

In this approach, the entire problem-solving process occurs at the management level, with information gathering and analysis happening at senior levels. Leaders work backward from a big-picture goal, identifying milestones and subtasks until they have a plan of action. Once complete, they communicate their instructions and expectations to team members.

Because of its hierarchical nature and centralized decision-making process, top-down problem-solving works best across large groups or complex problems. Its rigid organizational structure maintains order and provides clear direction and accountability.

The top-down strategy works best when:

  • You have a complex issue that you need to break down into more manageable parts
  • The situation requires a broad understanding of the big picture before the details
  • Precise goal-setting needs to occur before you begin working on a solution
  • Your team’s eager to solve problems but isn’t sure how to do so
  • You need to evaluate and prioritize many potential solutions

Benefits and limitations of top-down

Top-down problem-solving has a lot going for it, especially when it comes to large organizations and cross-functional groups. But its drawbacks could impact team morale, so you should consider the process carefully before implementation.

  • Familiarity: Top-down methodology is often the standard, so there’s less of a learning curve for newcomers to the team. As their leader, you can easily incorporate familiar elements into your management style.
  • Clarity: Its centralized nature means all decisions and communication flow out from the same source, reducing miscommunications and leaving little chance for confusion.
  • Accountability: By clearly defining different teams and their responsibilities, you can quickly identify, evaluate, and address the source of any problems.
  • Speed: Because the method involves only high-level management, you can implement decisions faster than if your project relied on multiple stakeholders.


  • Strain: Since decisions happen at the top, an individual leader’s error could cause delays, cost overruns, and other significant problems.
  • Less creativity: Top-down methods don’t permit others outside management to contribute ideas. Without fresh perspectives and collaboration, you limit employee creativity and innovation — or stifle it entirely.
  • Disengagement: Because they aren’t actively contributing to the problem-solving process, team members may feel disengaged from their work or like their opinions don’t matter.
  • Singular perspective: Top-down methods often disconnect decision-makers from team members doing actual work. If management doesn’t bridge the gap and solicit input from knowledgeable workers at lower levels, they can’t properly inform decisions.

What’s the bottom-up approach?

The bottom-up approach is a democratic system that offers more collaboration and flexibility, making it perfect for industries requiring iterative change, like creative fields and software development.

With bottom-up analysis, solutions and implementation happen across the org chart, emphasizing contributions from the employees who actually work in the field. The lower echelons of the team can provide valuable input that differs from the managerial perspective.

The process begins by breaking a challenge into smaller, more manageable parts for individual contributors to work on. This lets everyone get each component right before moving on to the next. Once the pieces are complete, you bring them together to form the big picture: the solution to your problem.

The bottom-up methodology works best in small groups because it’s harder to give every voice equal consideration on larger teams. Use this approach when:

  • The problem’s so complex you can’t fully understand it at the outset
  • The problem requires detailed and fundamental knowledge before your team can move on to higher-level work
  • You can’t visualize how each individual component fits together to solve the problem
  • Your team needs to experiment and create iterations of various components to develop the best solution

Benefits and limitations of bottom-up

Using the bottom-up approach addresses many disadvantages of the top-down problem-solving style. But it does have the potential to become scattered and disorganized, so you need to approach it with caution.

  • Input: Each team member contributes and takes ownership of the solution, reducing the chances of a managerial blindspot.
  • Creativity: The collaborative nature of the process means that everyone can offer feedback, participate in brainstorming, and offer critiques of the potential solution.
  • Morale: This method brings everyone the opportunity to influence the outcome, encouraging team members to buy into the solution and invest in the team’s success.
  • Disruption: Inviting everyone to find the solution can extend the time it takes to finalize it, potentially slowing the problem-solving process and reducing productivity.
  • Poor dynamics: Welcoming everyone to contribute to the solution doesn’t mean they will. Some people aren’t comfortable offering honest feedback, which can stifle creativity.
  • Unequal insight: Company goals, budgeting, and forecasting affect decisions, and that information isn’t always accessible across team levels. Providing equal weight to every idea can dilute upper management’s more informed input, leading to blind spots.

Bottom-up versus top-down: Which is best for your team?

Both the top-down and bottom-up approaches are powerful project management tools, but they have their pros and cons. The best choice depends on the current state of your organization and leadership style.

If you work in a start-up environment, taking advantage of the bottom-up approach can help you learn more about the business and industry from your team. With everyone involved from the beginning, you can more easily solicit and consider their input, encouraging greater innovation and creativity.

But if you work for a regulated corporate organization, top-down is likely the better option. It streamlines the process and offers a clearer reporting structure to avoid confusion. If you do choose this route, take the time to familiarize yourself with the challenges facing all company levels. That way, you don’t become disconnected from the work happening on the ground.

If you prefer the control of the top-down method but appreciate input from your team members, it’s possible to blend both methodologies.

The countercurrent method combines the strengths of both systems to create a bilateral approach. Upper management oversees high-level initiatives, like long-term goals and budgets, and communicates them to the rest of the organization. But employees are then free to contribute within their department and send solutions to the executive level for approval. It’s a more complex system, but it offers the best of both worlds.

Top project management tools

When it comes down to productivity tools, it doesn’t matter which side of the bottom-up versus top-down divide you land on. You need software to communicate with your team and provide transparency to your decisions. Roadmunk by Tempo can help.

Roadmunk improves organizational alignment by creating and communicating clear timelines, swimlane portfolios, and project roadmaps. Your team members and project stakeholders will know exactly what the plan is and how to launch it to success.

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Top-down approach vs. bottom-up approach: What’s the difference?

The top-down approach to management is when company-wide decisions are made solely by leadership at the top, while the bottom-up approach gives all teams a voice in these types of decisions. Below, we cover the details, pros, and cons of top-down vs. bottom-up management.

The top-down approach to management is a strategy in which the decision-making process occurs at the highest level and is then communicated to the rest of the team. This style can be applied at the project, team, or even the company level, and can be adjusted according to the particular group’s needs.

What is the top-down approach to management?

In the top-down approach to management, a team or project manager makes decisions, which then filter down through a hierarchical structure. Managers gather knowledge, analyze it, and draw actionable conclusions. They then develop processes that are communicated to and implemented by the rest of the team. You may hear this style of management referred to as “command and control” or “autocratic leadership.”

The top-down approach is probably what you think of when you think of the management process. Traditional industries like retail, healthcare, or manufacturing typically apply the top-down management style .

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How the top-down approach works

When approaching a project from the top down, higher-level decision-makers start with a big picture goal and work backward to determine what actions different groups and individuals will need to take in order to reach that goal.

The entire project planning process takes place at the management level. Then, once an action plan has been created, decision-makers communicate it to the rest of the team to be implemented (usually without much room for adjustment ).

The top-down approach can be effective because it remains the same from project to project, allowing teams to establish a well-practiced process that grows more efficient over time. Since the nature of the top-down style is so steady and reliable, many organizations (think: IBM, The New York Times, and other legacy organizations) choose to operate their entire companies according to this approach.

When to use the top-down approach

Today, very few organizations apply a purely top-down approach to management. Most teams apply a hybrid approach that falls somewhere along a spectrum of combinations between top-down and bottom-up management styles. 

The top-down approach is more rigid and structured, so teams with multiple sub-teams, many different project parts, or any other factor that makes processes difficult to keep organized will benefit from incorporating elements of top-down methodology. Smaller teams or teams with a narrower project focus will have the freedom to lean more heavily on the bottom-up style.

Advantages of top-down management

There are benefits to a top-down management style, especially for larger teams that consist of multiple smaller teams or groups that function together in a broader organizational hierarchy.

[inline illustration] Advantages of top-down management (infographic)

Well-known management style

The top-down management style is common, which means there’s less of a learning curve for new hires if they came from a company that uses this structure. As a team leader, you can help new team members adjust more quickly by incorporating some familiar elements of top-down methodology into your management style.

Greater clarity

The top-down approach results in clear, well-organized processes that leave little room for confusion. Because all decisions are made in one place and all communication flows in one direction, mix-ups and misunderstandings happen less frequently than with other management styles.

More accountability

When problems or inefficiencies do occur, the top-down management approach makes it easy to track them to their source. With clearly defined teams that each have their own separate responsibilities, it’s easier to locate, diagnose, and solve problems quickly and efficiently.

Quicker implementation

Since the decision-making process takes place at just one level of management, they can be finalized, distributed, and implemented much more quickly than decisions that require input from multiple leaders or project stakeholders .

Disadvantages of top-down management

Though top-down methodology has some advantages, there are also drawbacks to consider in how this approach might impact individual team members and overall team morale . Ultimately, top-down management doesn’t work for everyone. It can limit creativity and slow down problem-solving, so it may not be the best choice for teams that require greater flexibility and responsiveness.

[inline illustration] disadvantages of top-down management (infographic)

More of a strain on leadership

Since all decisions are made at the top, a mismatched project management hire can have a bigger impact on the success of the team. Many process problems are only visible at the lower level, so project managers who fail to solicit feedback from individual team members before making decisions can inadvertently cause significant problems, delays, and losses.

Less creativity

With all communication flowing from leaders to team members with little room for dialogue, the top-down approach allows fewer opportunities for creative collaboration. Less interdepartmental collaboration may also eliminate fresh perspectives and stifle innovation.

Team disengagement

One challenge with the top-down management approach is that it requires proactive work to keep non-leadership team members feeling engaged, connected, and respected. When all decisions are made at the top, the rest of the team might feel that their feedback and opinions aren’t valued.

Greater distance between decision-makers and decisions

While a bottom-up approach allows decisions to be made by the same people who are working directly on a project, the top-down style of management creates distance between that team and decision-makers. This can lead to poorly-informed decisions if leadership doesn’t ask for input or feedback from their project team.  

What does bottom-up management look like?

When approaching project objectives from the bottom up, a team will collaborate across all levels to determine what steps need to be taken to achieve overall goals. The bottom-up approach is newer and more flexible than the more formal top-down strategy, which is why it’s more commonly found in industries where disruption and innovation are a priority. 

Examples of bottom-up management include:

Hybrid OKRs : broader objectives are set at the company level, but KRs (key results) are set by teams and individuals.

Scrum teams : the daily standup meeting brings the entire team together to coordinate collaboratively. 

Democratic management: leaders work with team members to determine what decisions should be made at each level, allowing for better collaboration while also maintaining structure.

Advantages of bottom-up management

The bottom-up style of management solves many of the problems that come with the top-down approach. This approach has advantages that make it a great fit for creative teams and industries where collaboration is key, like software development, product design, and more.

[inline illustration] Advantages of bottom-up management (infographic)

More informed decisions

In collaborative settings, those who work directly on projects and oversee project management can speak to the decisions that will impact their future work. Upper managers work directly with team members to chart a course of action, which prevents potential process blind spots that might otherwise appear when decisions are made without team input.

Better team morale

The bottom-up approach encourages greater buy-in from team members because everyone is given the opportunity to influence decisions regardless of seniority. It also facilitates better relationships between colleagues by offering members of all seniority levels an equal opportunity to influence project outcomes. In doing so, this approach increases the likelihood that all members will be invested in the team’s success.

More room for creativity

In top-down processes, there are fewer opportunities for teams to give input or suggestions. Collaborative approaches like the bottom-up approach, on the other hand, create opportunities for feedback, brainstorming , and constructive criticism that often lead to better systems and outcomes.

Disadvantages of bottom-up management

Of course, there’s a reason that the bottom-up approach hasn’t been more widely adopted: it comes with a number of challenges that make it incompatible with certain types of teams, projects, and industries.

[inline illustration] Disadvantages of bottom-up management (infographic)

Reduced momentum

A purely bottom-up approach to solving a problem might result in “too many cooks in the kitchen.” When everyone in a group is invited to collaborate, it can be harder to arrive at a decision and, as a result, processes can slow down. 

To avoid this: Consider assigning one to two group leaders who take into consideration all of the input and then make a decision based on feedback. 

Shift in team dynamics

Though it’s important to give team members the opportunity to provide feedback, not everyone is comfortable doing so—especially with leadership in the room. Keep in mind that everyone has different comfort levels and pushing too hard for feedback might stifle honesty or creativity. 

To avoid this: Offer different environments for team members to contribute, like in small group breakout rooms, 1:1 meetings, or quarterly anonymous feedback surveys. Encourage more senior team members to find ways to break the ice with new contributors so everyone feels comfortable participating.

Lack of high-level insight

In many ways, it makes sense for project decisions to be made at the project level. However, projects are still impacted by higher-level factors like company goals, budgeting, forecasting, and metrics that aren’t always available at the team level. Processes designed from the bottom-up can suffer from blind spots that result from a lack of access to insights  from upper management.

To avoid this: Create a communication flow that provides team leads with summaries of information from the company level that may be relevant to project-level decisions. As a team lead, you can pass along information to your team as you see fit to ensure team decisions are aligned with company-wide positions and goals.

Cross-functional team management tips

The key to implementing a management approach that works is to invest in your people as much as you do in your processes. The challenges of the top-down management approach can be alleviated or even eliminated entirely if the people at the top of the process aren’t just good managers, but are leaders too. 

Build relationships outside the management team

Since process-related communication flows top to bottom in top-down companies, it’s easy for individuals and groups to become siloed and eventually feel isolated. Create opportunities for communication across departments, teams, management levels, and even geographical locations to help ensure that your team members can build meaningful relationships with each other.

Facilitate cross-team communication

Whether your team uses a top-down or bottom-up approach, provide purpose-built opportunities for collaboration between teams that don’t normally work together. Though not part of your day-to-day processes, these additional brainstorms can help stimulate creativity, build relationships, and lead to creative solutions that can later be implemented to benefit the greater group.

Supplement with additional forms of feedback

Non-management teammates may feel less invested when their opinions and perspectives aren’t considered by the people making decisions at the top. Build new channels for bottom-up feedback to not only increase buy-in with lower-level team members, but also give decision-makers valuable insight into gaps or issues with processes.

Great management is all about balance

When it comes down to it, effective managers know how to balance the efficiency of the top-down approach with the collaborative and creative advantages that come from the entire team. 

By blending elements of different management styles, you can find an approach that works best for you and your unique team. Once you decide the right approach, you can establish streamlined workflow management. 

Test out Asana’s workflow management software to build and track your team workflows and communication all in one place. 

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Difference between Bottom-Up Model and Top-Down Model

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Top-Down Design Model:   In the top-down model, an overview of the system is formulated without going into detail for any part of it. Each part of it then refined into more details, defining it in yet more details until the entire specification is detailed enough to validate the model. if we glance at a haul as a full, it’s going to appear not possible as a result of it’s so complicated For example: Writing a University system program, writing a word processor. Complicated issues may be resolved victimization high down style, conjointly referred to as Stepwise refinement where, 

  • We break the problem into parts,
  • Then break the parts into parts soon and now each of parts will be easy to do.   


  • Breaking problems into parts help us to identify what needs to be done.
  • At each step of refinement, new parts will become less complex and therefore easier to solve.
  • Parts of the solution may turn out to be reusable.
  • Breaking problems into parts allows more than one person to solve the problem.   

Bottom-Up Design Model:   In this design, individual parts of the system are specified in detail. The parts are linked to form larger components, which are in turn linked until a complete system is formed. Object-oriented language such as C++ or java uses a bottom-up approach where each object is identified first. 


  • Make decisions about reusable low-level utilities then decide how there will be put together to create high-level construct. ,

The contrast between Top-down design and bottom-up design.   

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Table of Contents

What is a top-down approach, benefits of a top-down approach, companies using top-down approach, top-down approach examples, what is a bottom-up approach, benefits of a bottom-up approach, companies using bottom-up approach, bottom-up approach examples, top down vs bottom up management: key differences, choosing the best approach for your team or business, top down approach vs bottom up approach: understanding the differences.

Top Down Approach vs Bottom Up Approach: Understanding the Differences

The strategies organizations use to manage and make decisions can significantly influence their success and adaptability. Among the most debated strategies are the top-down and bottom-up approaches, each offering distinct advantages and posing unique challenges. This article explores these two management styles, delving into their characteristics, the environments in which they thrive, and the outcomes they typically produce. Whether you're a seasoned leader re-evaluating your organization's direction or a startup entrepreneur deciding on your first management framework , understanding the nuances of the top-down versus bottom-up approaches can equip you with the knowledge to choose the best path for your team or business.

A top-down approach is a method or strategy of analysis, problem-solving, or organization where the process begins at the highest conceptual level and progresses to the details. This approach often contrasts with the bottom-up approach, which starts with the details and works upwards to form a comprehensive view or solution. Here are some key aspects of the top-down approach:

  • Overview First: The top-down approach starts with a broad overview or general outline of the system, project, or problem. This includes defining main objectives and goals before diving into specifics.
  • Breaking Down: After establishing a high-level perspective, the next step involves breaking down the larger system or problem into smaller, more manageable components or tasks. This division continues until the desired level of detail is achieved.
  • Simplifies Complexity: This approach starts with a macro view, simplifying complex systems or problems, making them easier to understand and manage by showing how different parts relate to the whole.
  • Focus on Priorities: It allows managers or decision-makers to focus on key priorities and strategic alignments from the outset, which can guide the detailed work that follows.
  • Decision Making: In planning and decision-making, top-down approaches align lower-level activities and decisions with the overarching goals or policies decided at higher levels.

The top-down approach offers several benefits across different fields, from project management to software development. Here are some of the key advantages:

  • Clear Vision and Direction: Starting from the top allows leaders to set clear objectives and establish a vision for the entire project or organization. This helps ensure that all efforts are aligned with the overarching goals, providing a consistent direction that guides all subsequent actions and decisions.
  • Simplified Decision Making: The top-down approach simplifies decision-making processes by focusing on the big picture and main priorities. It helps filter out less relevant issues and concentrate resources on what truly matters, improving efficiency and effectiveness.
  • Easier Management and Control: This approach facilitates management and control as the hierarchy and roles are clearly defined from the outset. Higher-level managers can more easily oversee and coordinate various parts of a project or organization since each lower level's activities are designed to align with top-level objectives.
  • Facilitates Planning and Allocation of Resources: With a comprehensive view from the top, it becomes easier to plan and allocate resources effectively across different parts of the organization or project. Leaders can assess needs and distribute resources in a manner that supports the most critical aspects first.
  • Improves Communication: A top-down approach can streamline communication by clarifying what information needs to flow between different levels of the organization. It ensures that all members are on the same page and that important messages and strategies are communicated clearly and directly from the top.
  • Quick Implementation: In some cases, especially where rapid decision-making is critical, the top-down approach allows for quicker implementation of policies and decisions since directives come from the top and move down without requiring extensive consultations at every level.
  • Reduces Complexity: This approach can reduce complexity by breaking down large projects or problems into smaller, more manageable parts after defining the main goals and structures. This simplifies understanding and executing tasks.

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The companies listed below are recognized for their structured hierarchy and centralized decision-making processes, which are characteristic of the top-down approach:

  • General Electric (GE): Historically known for its strong central leadership and hierarchical structure.
  • IBM: A legacy company that has used a top-down approach to drive innovation and maintain order across its global operations.
  • Toyota: While known for its bottom-up elements like the Toyota Production System, Toyota's strategic decisions come from the top to ensure global consistency and quality control .
  • Apple: Particularly under Steve Jobs, Apple was known for its top-down approach to product design and decision-making.
  • McDonald's: Uses a top-down approach to maintain consistent service and product quality worldwide.
  • Walmart: Employs a structured top-down management style to ensure uniformity and efficiency across all its stores and operations.
  • Boeing: As a major manufacturer, Boeing uses a top-down approach to manage its complex projects and products.
  • Goldman Sachs: In the financial industry, a top-down approach helps maintain strict control over decision-making processes and aligns operations with broader business strategies.
  • Lockheed Martin: This defense contractor uses a top-down approach to align with governmental contracts and control project management.
  • ExxonMobil: In the oil and gas industry, centralized decision-making is crucial for managing extensive resources and investments.

The top-down approach can be applied in various fields and projects. Here are some examples across different domains to illustrate how the top-down approach works in practice:

Corporate Strategy Development

A multinational corporation like Coca-Cola formulates global strategic goals at its headquarters. These strategies are then communicated to regional managers, who adapt and implement these strategies at the local level to align with local market conditions and opportunities.

Software Development

In software engineering , a top-down approach might involve defining the software's architecture and high-level functionality before breaking these down into modules and detailed coding tasks. For instance, a development team at Microsoft might start by defining the overall functionality for a new feature in Microsoft Office and then detailing the specific components and tasks required to build that feature.

Government Policy Making

A government might use a top-down approach when implementing new national policies. For example, introducing a new healthcare reform might start with legislation at the national level, followed by directives issued to state and local governments on how to implement the changes.

Event Planning

In planning a large event, such as the Olympics, the organizing committee first sets the vision and key objectives. They then outline the major focus areas, such as logistics, security, and marketing, before detailing the specific tasks within each area.

Educational Program Design

A university might redesign its curriculum using a top-down approach. First, the educational goals and outcomes for a department are defined. Then, specific courses and content are developed to meet these predefined goals.

Marketing Campaigns

A large retail company planning a national marketing campaign for a new product launch would start by setting the overall campaign goals and key messages at the corporate level. Then, specific marketing tactics, such as social media ads, in-store promotions, and online marketing, would be developed to support these goals.

Military Operations

Military strategies often begin with broad objectives determined by high-level leadership. Based on these top-level strategies, detailed operational plans are developed, specifying the tactics and resources needed for each operation phase.

Financial Budgeting

In financial management, a company may use a top-down approach for budgeting where top executives establish the overall budget limits based on strategic objectives. Departmental budgets are then created within these top-level constraints.

A bottom-up approach is a strategy used across various fields, including management, software development, and project planning , where the process begins at the most detailed and basic level and works upwards to form a comprehensive picture or solution. This approach often contrasts with the top-down approach, which starts at the highest conceptual level and progresses to the details. Here are the key aspects of the bottom-up approach:

  • Detail-Oriented Start: The bottom-up approach starts at the grassroots level, focusing on specific details, small components, or individual elements before integrating them into a larger system or conclusion.
  • Incremental Development: This method involves building systems incrementally, piece by piece, ensuring that each component works properly before integrating it into the larger system. This helps identify and fix issues at an early stage.
  • Empowerment and Participation: The bottom-up approach encourages participation and decision-making from the lower levels of the organization or group. This can increase engagement, innovation, and morale as individuals feel their contributions are valued.
  • Local Insights and Adaptability: The bottom-up approach starts at the grassroots level and takes advantage of local knowledge and expertise. This can be particularly beneficial in solving complex problems that require a nuanced understanding of specific contexts.
  • Flexibility: This approach allows for more flexibility as changes can be made more easily at the lower levels without needing extensive revisions to a top-level plan.
  • Problem-Solving: In a bottom-up approach, problem-solving is often more effective because it's done at the level where the problems occur, allowing for more accurate and tailored solutions.

The bottom-up approach offers several benefits, particularly when flexibility, innovation, and detailed insight are crucial. Here are some key advantages of using a bottom-up approach:

  • Enhanced Innovation: A bottom-up approach can foster greater innovation by involving team members closest to the problems or tasks. These individuals often have unique insights and creative ideas that can lead to novel solutions.
  • Increased Employee Engagement: This approach empowers employees by actively involving them in decision-making processes, which can boost morale, increase job satisfaction, and reduce turnover. Employees are more likely to be engaged when they feel their opinions are valued, and their contributions can make a direct impact.
  • Greater Flexibility and Responsiveness: Starting from the ground allows organizations to adapt more to changes and challenges. Since decisions are made closer to the operational level, responses can be quicker and more tailored to the specific context or issue.
  • Improved Problem-Solving: Problems are often identified and solved more effectively when tackled by those who encounter them daily. The bottom-up approach leverages individuals' hands-on experience to address issues accurately and efficiently.
  • Detailed and Comprehensive Understanding: As the process starts at the ground level, it naturally incorporates a deeper understanding of all aspects of the project or problem, ensuring no detail is overlooked. This detailed scrutiny helps in building a thorough and robust overall picture.
  • Democratization of the Workplace: It democratizes the workplace by distributing decision-making authority. This can lead to a more inclusive work culture where diverse perspectives are considered, leading to well-rounded decisions.
  • Better Risk Management: With more individuals involved in the analysis and decision-making process, risks can be identified early and managed more effectively from various angles and perspectives.
  • Local Optimization: In a bottom-up approach, each component or part of a project is optimized independently, leading to better performance and efficiency at the local level positively impacting the overall outcome.

The bottom-up approach is particularly prevalent in industries and companies emphasizing innovation, flexibility, and rapid adaptation to changing market conditions. Here are some examples of companies known for leveraging a bottom-up approach:

  • Google: Known for encouraging its employees to work on projects that interest them personally, Google's bottom-up approach has led to many innovations and improvements to existing products.
  • Valve Corporation: This video game developer operates without a formal management hierarchy, allowing employees to choose the projects they work on and make decisions collectively.
  • W.L. Gore & Associates: The maker of Gore-Tex and other products, W.L. Gore, operates with a famously flat organizational structure. Teams form organically around projects rather than being assigned by top management.
  • Semco Partners: Under the leadership of Ricardo Semler, Semco radically restructured its management approach to give a significant amount of autonomy to its employees, influencing everything from their salaries to the direction of the business.
  • Whole Foods (now part of Amazon): Before its acquisition by Amazon, Whole Foods was known for allowing individual stores to decide what products to stock based on local customer preferences and feedback.
  • Pixar: Known for its creative processes, Pixar encourages a collaborative and inclusive approach where everyone can pitch ideas and provide project feedback.
  • Spotify: Spotify utilizes a structure composed of small, autonomous "squads" responsible for specific features or aspects of the business, allowing for agile development processes and quick adaptation to user needs.
  • Zappos: Focused on delivering exceptional customer service, Zappos empowers its representatives to make independent decisions to satisfy customers without managerial approval.
  • Patagonia: This outdoor clothing and gear designer is committed to environmental sustainability and involves employees at all levels in its initiatives and product development strategies.
  • Atlassian: The Australian enterprise software company uses a bottom-up approach to foster innovation within its teams, allowing them to pursue projects that they believe will benefit the company most.

The bottom-up approach can be highly effective in various contexts, emphasizing grassroots involvement, detailed insights, and local optimizations. Here are some examples illustrating how the bottom-up approach is used across different fields:

Product Development in Tech Startups

A tech startup might use a bottom-up approach by allowing software developers to create small, independent features or improvements based on user feedback and analytics. These features are then integrated into the broader product framework, enhancing user experience and product functionality.

Community-Led Urban Planning

Local government agencies may employ a bottom-up approach by engaging community members in planning neighborhood improvements. Through community meetings and feedback sessions, residents have direct input on projects such as park placements, road improvements, and public service enhancements, ensuring the plans reflect the actual needs and desires of the community.

Research and Development (R&D)

In an R&D setting, such as at a biotech firm, scientists and researchers might work independently or in small teams on specific experiments or studies based on their areas of expertise. The results from these individual projects contribute to the overall understanding of a larger research question, like developing a new pharmaceutical drug.

Financial Services

A financial services firm might use a bottom-up approach in investment management, where individual portfolio managers can make investment decisions based on their research and analysis of specific sectors or companies. Their decisions contribute to the performance of the overall fund.

Environmental Conservation Initiatives

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working on environmental conservation often use a bottom-up approach by involving local communities in the conservation efforts. This could include training locals to monitor and report on wildlife activity or involving them in reforestation projects, ensuring that conservation efforts are tailored to the local ecology and community needs.

Educational Curriculum Development

Teachers in a school district might collaborate to develop curriculum modules based on their experiences and the specific needs of their students. These modules are then integrated into the district’s overall curriculum, ensuring it is comprehensive and meets the needs of all students.

Healthcare Public Health Campaigns

In public health, a bottom-up approach might involve local health workers in designing and implementing health campaigns that are culturally appropriate and relevant to the community's specific health challenges. This approach can increase the effectiveness and acceptance of health initiatives.

Software Bug Fixes and Enhancements

A software company might employ a bottom-up approach by encouraging developers to identify and fix bugs or enhancements based on user feedback. These improvements are incorporated into the next software release cycle, improving product quality.

Here is a table that summarizes the major differences between top-down and bottom-up management styles:

Top Down vs Bottom Up - choosing one approach depends on your business objectives, organizational culture, industry, and specific team dynamics. Here’s how you can determine the best approach for your team or business:

1. Consider Your Business Objectives

Top-Down: A top-down approach may be more suitable if your objectives require strict organizational compliance and uniformity or are safety-critical. This approach ensures that decisions align closely with the overarching goals set by the upper management.

Bottom-Up: If your objectives include fostering innovation, adapting quickly to market changes, or developing tailored solutions, a bottom-up approach might be better. It leverages the diverse ideas and expertise of employees at all levels.

2. Assess Organizational Culture

Top-Down: This approach works well in organizations that value structure, clear authority lines, and predictable outcomes. Traditional corporations, governmental organizations, and military setups often benefit from it.

Bottom-up: This approach is ideal for organizations that value flexibility, employee empowerment, and a collaborative work environment. Startups, creative industries, and research institutions might find it more effective.

3. Evaluate Industry Requirements

Top-Down: This approach is essential in industries where regulations and compliance are crucial, such as finance, healthcare, and manufacturing. It helps maintain control and ensures that all parts of the organization comply with external standards and internal policies.

Bottom-up: This approach is beneficial in dynamic industries such as technology and marketing, where customer feedback and rapid innovation are keys to success. It can quickly integrate new insights and adapt to changes.

4. Analyze Team Dynamics and Size

Top-Down: More effective in larger organizations or teams where managing a large number of employees systematically is crucial. It helps in maintaining order and disseminating information efficiently.

Bottom-Up: Suitable for smaller teams or organizations where close collaboration and quick decision-making are needed. It allows for greater flexibility and faster response times.

5. Examine Decision-Making Preferences

Top-Down: If decision-making is to remain centralized with senior leaders who have overarching knowledge and responsibility, this approach would be preferable.

Bottom-Up: If decision-making should be more democratic and include inputs from a wider range of stakeholders, consider adopting a bottom-up approach.

6. Look at the Need for Innovation vs. Control

Top-Down: Emphasizes control and a unified strategic direction, which can be beneficial when clear guidance and compliance are necessary.

Bottom-Up: Drives innovation by utilizing all employees' creative and intellectual capital, which can be more suited to environments where innovation provides a competitive edge.

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Consider Long-Term Strategic Goals

Align the choice of management approach with your long-term strategic goals. If the goal is to scale and standardize operations, top-down might be advantageous. Conversely, bottom-up could be more effective if the goal is to disrupt the market or continuously innovate.

Decision Process

When choosing the best approach, consider a hybrid approach that combines top-down and bottom-up elements. Many successful organizations find that a balance of these approaches allows them to benefit from structured strategic alignment while also capitalizing on their employees' innovative potential. This flexibility can be particularly valuable in rapidly changing industries or during organizational change.

Whether you lean towards a top-down or bottom-up approach depends on your organization's specific needs, the nature of the industry, and the culture you want to cultivate. While the top-down approach offers clear direction and control, ideal for organizations requiring strict compliance and uniformity, the bottom-up approach excels in environments that demand flexibility, rapid innovation, and employee empowerment. Understanding the strengths and limitations of each management style can greatly enhance how effectively you lead and manage your team.

A structured course can benefit those looking to deepen their understanding of effective project management strategies and refine their approach. The PMP Certification from Simplilearn is an excellent resource for those who aim to master project management principles and confidently lead projects, regardless of the preferred management style.

1. Top down vs bottom up approach. Which is best?

Neither the top-down nor the bottom-up approach is universally best. The choice depends on the organization's goals, culture, and specific circumstances. Top-down ensures consistency and alignment with strategic goals in structured environments, while bottom-up excels in innovation, flexibility, and employee engagement in dynamic settings.

2. What is an example of a bottom-up approach?

An example of a bottom-up approach is Google’s policy of allowing employees to spend 20% of their time on projects they choose independently, which has led to successful products like Gmail and Google News.

3. What is an example of a top-down approach?

An example of a top-down approach is the annual budgeting process in large corporations. In this process, top management sets overall budget limits and strategic priorities, which are then broken down into allocations for each department to implement.

4. What is the top-down approach used for?

The top-down approach is used to maintain strategic alignment, control, and consistency across an organization. It effectively manages large-scale projects, ensures compliance with regulations, and implements clear and unified organizational goals.

5. What is the bottom-up approach used for?

The bottom-up approach harnesses creativity, improves problem-solving, and increases employee engagement by involving lower-level employees in decision-making processes. It is particularly useful in environments where innovation, adaptability, and detailed insights from ground-level operations are critical for success.

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Top-Down Vs. Bottom-Up Approach: A Comprehensive Guide

what is top down approach in problem solving

There is no business management approach or even leadership style that fits all.

In the complex world of organizational decision-making, two different methods emerged as crucial players: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach .

These models shape how businesses create their plans, carry out projects, come to agreements, and even set their overall goals.

In this guide, we’ll first take a deep dive into these two approaches, exploring their core ideas, advantages, drawbacks, and examples that will provide valuable insights.

Then, we’ll explore how to integrate them to harness the strengths of both. Here’s a little teaser:

In a world where most organizations follow a top-down style of management, the key is to foster bottom-up engagement and empower employees to actively contribute to your strategy.

By balancing these two approaches, you’ll be able to bridge the gap between leadership and frontline teams, fostering collaboration, innovation, and ownership for effective strategy execution.

Let’s dive in!

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Top-Down Approach

What is the top-down approach.

The top-down approach refers to a method where directives and decisions cascade from the upper management or higher-level leaders and filter down through the organizational structure.

This top-down management approach is often implemented through a top-down model of leadership, where strategies and instructions are formulated by higher-ups and then transmitted for execution at lower levels. Companies that adopt a top-down management approach are essentially choosing an autocratic leadership model.

In this context, the concept of top-down processing comes into play. It revolves around leaders deciding on the big-picture strategy , company goals, metrics, and initiatives that will guide the activities of different departments within the organization. This approach is built on the assumption that leadership possesses the necessary insights to make informed decisions that benefit the organization as a whole.

Advantages of the top-down approach

The top-down approach offers several advantages that can contribute to effective decision-making, streamlined communication, and cohesive implementation .

Clear direction

This approach establishes a unified sense of direction from upper management to all organizational levels. Alignment around common goals, strategies, and objectives minimizes confusion and fosters collective effort.

Efficient decision-making

With decision-making concentrated at the higher level, the top-down approach allows for quicker and more decisive choices. This is especially valuable in time-sensitive situations or during emergencies that require immediate action.

Effective coordination

By channeling information and decisions through a well-defined hierarchy, this model facilitates efficient coordination across different departments and functions. This can lead to smoother workflow and better integration of efforts.

Fast communication

The top-down model allows rapid communication of decisions, updates, and changes. This proves valuable for sharing critical information with a large number of employees in a short period of time.

📚 Recommended read : How to Execute Your Internal Communications Strategy In 8 Steps

Disadvantages of the top-down approach

Now that we’ve seen its advantages, it's time to explore its potential downsides.

Limited employee engagement and ownership

When decisions are made exclusively by upper management, employees at lower levels may feel excluded, leading to reduced motivation and satisfaction. Since they are not empowered as decision-makers, they don’t feel a sense of ownership which may result in a lack of commitment to executing these decisions effectively.

Lack of creativity and innovation

The top-down approach can stifle creativity and innovation , as decisions are primarily driven by a small group of leaders. Innovative ideas from front-line staff may not be considered or implemented, hindering the organization's ability to adapt and evolve.

Limited local knowledge

The executive team may not have a complete understanding of the day-to-day operations and challenges faced by lower-level employees. This lack of local knowledge can result in decisions that are disconnected from the realities of on-the-ground execution.

Reduced adaptability

A top-down management approach might struggle to adapt to rapidly changing environments or unforeseen circumstances since decisions made at the top may overlook emerging trends or unexpected challenges.

📚 Recommended read : Check out our Strategy Report, “You're doomed or you adapt”

When to use the top-down approach?

Taking the pros and cons into account, you’ll find the top-down approach works well in certain situations within an organization.

Crisis management & urgent decision-making

In states of emergency or impossible deadlines, democracy flies out of the window. There is no time to debate the decision, and the leadership team needs to step up and make the call. When inaction is worse than a bad decision, execution becomes a top priority.

Consistency & standardization

For tasks that require consistent processes, such as compliance with industry regulations or maintaining a uniform brand image, the top-down model helps ensure that the same guidelines are followed across the organization.

Large-scale initiatives

When introducing large-scale organizational changes , such as restructuring or implementing new technology systems, this approach can effectively manage the transition by providing a clear roadmap for implementation.

Bottom-Up Approach

What is the bottom-up approach.

In the bottom-up approach, the decision-making originates from individuals at lower levels —such as front-line staff, team members, and lower-level employees— and gradually rises to influence the entire company.

The bottom-up process involves synthesizing individual experiences, expertise, and suggestions to inform higher-level decisions. This approach gives value to the diverse perspectives of employees, acknowledging that those directly engaged in day-to-day operations can provide valuable insights into the strategy.

By adopting a bottom-up management style, leadership fosters open communication, encourages active employee involvement, and promotes the exchange of ideas. Engaging employees in the decision-making process enables organizations to tap into a reservoir of collective knowledge, foster a sense of ownership, and elevate overall employee engagement .

Advantages of the bottom-up approach

The bottom-up approach has its pros and can contribute to increased innovation and improved involvement from teams across the organization.

Diverse perspectives

This model values input from a wide range of employees across different roles and levels. The diversity of perspectives leads to well-rounded decisions that take into account several viewpoints and potential implications.

📚 Recommended read: Why Diversity Matters for Strategic Execution

Fast adaptability

Organizations that embrace the bottom-up model are often more adaptable to change. Employee input helps identify emerging trends and potential disruptions, allowing the organization to respond faster.

Innovation and creativity boost

Employees at the front lines often have unique insights and creative ideas based on their direct experiences. A bottom-up approach encourages the sharing of these ideas, fostering a culture of innovation and continuous improvement.

Increased employee engagement & buy-in

Employees are more likely to support and embrace decisions when they've had a role in shaping them. So, when employees feel that their opinions are valued and their contributions matter, they become more engaged. This leads to smoother implementation and reduces resistance to change.

Effective problem-solving

Lower-level employees often have a deep understanding of operational challenges and can provide practical solutions that might escape the notice of the leadership team. Embracing a bottom-up approach taps into this expertise, enabling effective problem-solving.

Disadvantages of the bottom-up approach

While the bottom-up approach offers various benefits, it also comes with possible disadvantages that need to be considered.

Time-consuming decision-making

Involving a larger number of employees in the decision-making process can be time-consuming. Consensus-building and gathering input from various sources may slow down the decision-making process.

Lack of long-term vision

Bottom-up decisions can sometimes focus on short-term goals and immediate concerns, potentially neglecting long-term strategic objectives. Bottom-up decisions might lack alignment with the bigger picture and the organization's overall strategic goals .

Organizational fragmentation

An excessive bottom-up approach without the right coordination can result in silos since teams might prioritize their own needs without considering the organization as a whole.

Risk of uninformed decisions

Not all lower-level employees have the same level of expertise or access to information. This can lead to uninformed decisions based on partial or limited information.

When to use the bottom-up approach?

The bottom-up model is particularly effective in certain scenarios like the ones below.

Innovation and creativity

When looking for innovative ideas and creative solutions, the bottom-up process allows you to tap into the diverse perspectives of your employees at all levels. This encourages brainstorming, experimentation, and out-of-the-box thinking.

Complex problem-solving

For complex challenges that require a deep understanding of operational intricacies, a bottom-up approach can involve employees who have hands-on experience and expertise in the specific area, leading to more effective solutions.

Localized decision-making

When decisions need to be tailored to specific departments, teams, or regions, the bottom-up model ensures that localized needs and nuances are taken into account, avoiding one-size-fits-all solutions.

Identifying improvement opportunities

A bottom-up approach can uncover hidden inefficiencies and opportunities for optimization since employees at lower levels often identify areas for improvement that might not be apparent to upper management.

Top-Down Vs. Bottom-Up Examples

We often hear that "it's easier said than done." And it’s true...

Let's look into some practical examples that explore both approaches.

Top-down approach examples

Example 1: Company-wide protocol rollout

In a large organization in the healthcare industry , a new patient care protocol is introduced. The executive leadership, led by the Chief Medical Officer and administrative heads, crafts a strategy to enhance patient outcomes. This strategy includes standardized procedures for diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up care. These directives then flow down the hierarchy, ensuring consistent patient care practices across departments and units.

Example 2: Organization-wide restructuring

A well-established manufacturing company decides to implement an organizational restructuring to improve efficiency and agility. The company's executive leadership, including the CEO and senior management, develop a strategic plan that involves merging certain departments, streamlining workflows and processes, and redefining reporting structures. This top-level strategy is then communicated down the hierarchy to department heads and managers.

Bottom-up approach examples

Example 1: Streamlined problem-solving

The development team at Meerkat.app, a software startup , encounters a roadblock in a critical project. Instead of waiting for top-down directives, the team members take the initiative to collaborate and brainstorm solutions. Through open discussions, they identify a more efficient coding methodology that can overcome the obstacle. This innovation is then presented to upper management for approval.

Example 2: Collaborative project planning

A construction company is about to embark on a complex project different from anything they've done before—let's say, constructing a state-of-the-art research facility. To ensure meticulous project planning , they gather the insights of their on-site engineers, project managers, and skilled workers who are intimately familiar with the practical aspects of construction. Through collaborative discussions and workshops, each team member contributes their expertise, estimating task durations, resource needs, and potential challenges. This collective input is then woven into a detailed project plan.

The Key To Success: Driving Bottom-Up Engagement In A Top-Down Organization

Achieving synergy between top-down directives and bottom-up contributions is often the key to successful strategy execution .

By fostering bottom-up engagement within a top-down structure, organizations can tap into the collective intelligence of their teams. This empowers employees to actively contribute their perspectives, solutions, and suggestions, thereby enriching strategies and initiatives.

The result is an organization that not only benefits from the strategic vision of its leadership but also thrives on the ground-level expertise of its diverse team members.

Balancing these two models not only enhances decision-making but also nurtures a culture of ownership, creativity, and adaptability.

How to effectively integrate both approaches?

When it comes to combining top-down and bottom-up models, the possibilities are vast and varied. Here are some suggestions to get you started:

  • Enforce leadership's role in empowering employees: Leadership should exemplify active listening and responsiveness, setting a precedent for open communication .
  • Open channels for two-way communication: Establish platforms where employees can freely share ideas, concerns, and suggestions with leadership. ‍
  • Share your strategy rationale and goals: Foster transparency by sharing not just the strategy and goals but also the rationale behind them. Understanding the "why" behind upper management decisions will boost employee engagement. ‍
  • Implement collaborative strategy development: Leverage team inputs and diverse perspectives for strategy formulation, enhancing alignment between departmental goals and the overall strategy. ‍
  • Empower frontline teams for decision-making: Encourage autonomy and decision-making at lower levels to nurture a sense of ownership and accountability . ‍
  • Promote cross-functional collaboration : Encourage collaboration among teams from different departments, cultivating diverse insights and holistic solutions. ‍
  • Recognize and reward employee involvement: Celebrate innovative contributions from all organizational levels to inspire engagement. ‍
  • Develop champions of engagement at all levels: Cultivate advocates for engagement across the organization to drive a culture of participation. ‍
  • Measure engagement : Define metrics, goals, and KPIs to measure employee participation and ownership. That way, you’ll know what’s working and what needs to improve.
💡 Pro Tip : While these strategies and tactics may help combine both approaches and achieve bottom-up engagement, it’s not a one-time thing... It’s a process that involves a cultural shift. In order to sustain bottom-up engagement over time , you need to integrate engagement practices into your organizational processes and nurture an environment of continuous improvement.

Top-down & bottom-up integration—examples

Example 1: Budget allocation

In an effort to allocate its annual budget effectively, a large organization combines top-down and bottom-up approaches. The executive leadership establishes high-level budgetary goals and strategic priorities, providing a framework for departments. Simultaneously, the finance team collaborates with department heads to gather specific budget requirements based on project needs.

✅ Combining this bottom-up input with the top-down framework creates a comprehensive budget that aligns with strategic goals while accommodating practical departmental needs.

Example 2: Forecasting

A tech company seeks to forecast next year's sales. Combining approaches, the executive team sets high-level sales targets based on trends and growth goals, providing the forecast's direction. Simultaneously, the sales team, with customer insights, offers bottom-up input, estimating potentials in their sectors. Integrating these inputs enriches the forecast with market dynamics.

✅ The approach marries strategic vision with practical insights for an ambitious yet realistic forecast.

Real-life Example: IBM

IBM employs a balanced approach that combines both top-down and bottom-up methods.

At the top-down level, IBM's executive leadership defines the company's overarching strategic direction, setting the stage for its operations and initiatives. This top-down guidance aligns the organization towards specific goals, such as expansion into emerging markets or the development of cutting-edge technologies.

Simultaneously, IBM values bottom-up input to drive innovation. Employees are encouraged to contribute insights and ideas, leveraging their industry knowledge and customer understanding. This input influences the creation of diverse products and services, like cloud solutions and AI platforms. IBM's culture fosters collaboration across teams and geographies, enriching decision-making with varied viewpoints.

✅ This balance of strategic direction and employee-driven innovation empowers IBM to navigate the ever-evolving technology landscape effectively.

📚 Recommended read : How IBM Became A Multinational Giant Through Multiple Business Transformations

Striking The Optimal Balance With Cascade ⚖️

Cascade is the world’s #1 strategy execution platform that helps businesses connect siloed metrics, initiatives, and investments with their realized performance for accelerated decision-making. With Cascade, you gain full visibility of your strategy enabling your organization to cultivate a culture of strategic agility and collaboration.

In the journey to achieve the perfect balance between top-down and bottom-up approaches, Cascade serves as an invaluable ally with features that allow seamless integration of strategic vision and ground-level insights.

Cascade Planner : Navigate your strategic planning process with structure and ease by breaking down the complexity from the big-picture strategy to goal-setting, initiatives, and projects for your frontline employees.

Cascade Planner view example

Measures & Metrics : Track your progress and directly link your business data to core initiatives for clear data-driven alignment. Enable employees to update their progress and see how their day-to-day efforts contribute to overall goals.

Alignment & Relationship Maps : Visualize how different organizational plans work together to form your strategy and map dependencies, blockers, and risks that may lie along your journey. Dive deeper into your strategy's horizontal and vertical alignment from the corporate to initiative and even project level.

Cascade Alignment Map view example

Dashboards & Reports : Access real-time visualizations of your strategic performance and share them with your stakeholders, suppliers, and contractors. Combine information from different parts of your business and strategy.

Cascade Dashboard view example

👉🏻 Take Cascade for a spin! Sign up today for a free forever plan or book a guided 1:1 tour with one of our Cascade in-house strategy execution experts.

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McKinsey Problem Solving: Six steps to solve any problem and tell a persuasive story

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The McKinsey problem solving process is a series of mindset shifts and structured approaches to thinking about and solving challenging problems. It is a useful approach for anyone working in the knowledge and information economy and needs to communicate ideas to other people.

Over the past several years of creating StrategyU, advising an undergraduates consulting group and running workshops for clients, I have found over and over again that the principles taught on this site and in this guide are a powerful way to improve the type of work and communication you do in a business setting.

When I first set out to teach these skills to the undergraduate consulting group at my alma mater, I was still working at BCG. I was spending my day building compelling presentations, yet was at a loss for how to teach these principles to the students I would talk with at night.

Through many rounds of iteration, I was able to land on a structured process and way of framing some of these principles such that people could immediately apply them to their work.

While the “official” McKinsey problem solving process is seven steps, I have outline my own spin on things – from experience at McKinsey and Boston Consulting Group. Here are six steps that will help you solve problems like a McKinsey Consultant:

Step #1: School is over, stop worrying about “what” to make and worry about the process, or the “how”

When I reflect back on my first role at McKinsey, I realize that my biggest challenge was unlearning everything I had learned over the previous 23 years. Throughout school you are asked to do specific things. For example, you are asked to write a 5 page paper on Benjamin Franklin — double spaced, 12 font and answering two or three specific questions.

In school, to be successful you follow these rules as close as you can. However, in consulting there are no rules on the “what.” Typically the problem you are asked to solve is ambiguous and complex — exactly why they hire you. In consulting, you are taught the rules around the “how” and have to then fill in the what.

The “how” can be taught and this entire site is founded on that belief. Here are some principles to get started:

Step #2: Thinking like a consultant requires a mindset shift

There are two pre-requisites to thinking like a consultant. Without these two traits you will struggle:

  • A healthy obsession looking for a “better way” to do things
  • Being open minded to shifting ideas and other approaches

In business school, I was sitting in one class when I noticed that all my classmates were doing the same thing — everyone was coming up with reasons why something should should not be done.

As I’ve spent more time working, I’ve realized this is a common phenomenon. The more you learn, the easier it becomes to come up with reasons to support the current state of affairs — likely driven by the status quo bias — an emotional state that favors not changing things. Even the best consultants will experience this emotion, but they are good at identifying it and pushing forward.

Key point : Creating an effective and persuasive consulting like presentation requires a comfort with uncertainty combined with a slightly delusional belief that you can figure anything out.

Step #3: Define the problem and make sure you are not solving a symptom

Before doing the work, time should be spent on defining the actual problem. Too often, people are solutions focused when they think about fixing something. Let’s say a company is struggling with profitability. Someone might define the problem as “we do not have enough growth.” This is jumping ahead to solutions — the goal may be to drive more growth, but this is not the actual issue. It is a symptom of a deeper problem.

Consider the following information:

  • Costs have remained relatively constant and are actually below industry average so revenue must be the issue
  • Revenue has been increasing, but at a slowing rate
  • This company sells widgets and have had no slowdown on the number of units it has sold over the last five years
  • However, the price per widget is actually below where it was five years ago
  • There have been new entrants in the market in the last three years that have been backed by Venture Capital money and are aggressively pricing their products below costs

In a real-life project there will definitely be much more information and a team may take a full week coming up with a problem statement . Given the information above, we may come up with the following problem statement:

Problem Statement : The company is struggling to increase profitability due to decreasing prices driven by new entrants in the market. The company does not have a clear strategy to respond to the price pressure from competitors and lacks an overall product strategy to compete in this market.

Step 4: Dive in, make hypotheses and try to figure out how to “solve” the problem

Now the fun starts!

There are generally two approaches to thinking about information in a structured way and going back and forth between the two modes is what the consulting process is founded on.

First is top-down . This is what you should start with, especially for a newer “consultant.” This involves taking the problem statement and structuring an approach. This means developing multiple hypotheses — key questions you can either prove or disprove.

Given our problem statement, you may develop the following three hypotheses:

  • Company X has room to improve its pricing strategy to increase profitability
  • Company X can explore new market opportunities unlocked by new entrants
  • Company X can explore new business models or operating models due to advances in technology

As you can see, these three statements identify different areas you can research and either prove or disprove. In a consulting team, you may have a “workstream leader” for each statement.

Once you establish the structure you you may shift to the second type of analysis: a bottom-up approach . This involves doing deep research around your problem statement, testing your hypotheses, running different analysis and continuing to ask more questions. As you do the analysis, you will begin to see different patterns that may unlock new questions, change your thinking or even confirm your existing hypotheses. You may need to tweak your hypotheses and structure as you learn new information.

A project vacillates many times between these two approaches. Here is a hypothetical timeline of a project:

Strategy consulting process

Step 5: Make a slides like a consultant

The next step is taking the structure and research and turning it into a slide. When people see slides from McKinsey and BCG, they see something that is compelling and unique, but don’t really understand all the work that goes into those slides. Both companies have a healthy obsession (maybe not to some people!) with how things look, how things are structured and how they are presented.

They also don’t understand how much work is spent on telling a compelling “story.” The biggest mistake people make in the business world is mistaking showing a lot of information versus telling a compelling story. This is an easy mistake to make — especially if you are the one that did hours of analysis. It may seem important, but when it comes down to making a slide and a presentation, you end up deleting more information rather than adding. You really need to remember the following:

Data matters, but stories change hearts and minds

Here are four quick ways to improve your presentations:

Tip #1 — Format, format, format

Both McKinsey and BCG had style templates that were obsessively followed. Some key rules I like to follow:

  • Make sure all text within your slide body is the same font size (harder than you would think)
  • Do not go outside of the margins into the white space on the side
  • All titles throughout the presentation should be 2 lines or less and stay the same font size
  • Each slide should typically only make one strong point

Tip #2 — Titles are the takeaway

The title of the slide should be the key insight or takeaway and the slide area should prove the point. The below slide is an oversimplification of this:

Example of a single slide

Even in consulting, I found that people struggled with simplifying a message to one key theme per slide. If something is going to be presented live, the simpler the better. In reality, you are often giving someone presentations that they will read in depth and more information may make sense.

To go deeper, check out these 20 presentation and powerpoint tips .

Tip #3 — Have “MECE” Ideas for max persuasion

“MECE” means mutually exclusive, collectively exhaustive — meaning all points listed cover the entire range of ideas while also being unique and differentiated from each other.

An extreme example would be this:

  • Slide title: There are seven continents
  • Slide content: The seven continents are North America, South America, Europe, Africa Asia, Antarctica, Australia

The list of continents provides seven distinct points that when taken together are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive . The MECE principle is not perfect — it is more of an ideal to push your logic in the right direction. Use it to continually improve and refine your story.

Applying this to a profitability problem at the highest level would look like this:

Goal: Increase profitability

2nd level: We can increase revenue or decrease costs

3rd level: We can increase revenue by selling more or increasing prices

Each level is MECE. It is almost impossible to argue against any of this (unless you are willing to commit accounting fraud!).

Tip #4 — Leveraging the Pyramid Principle

The pyramid principle is an approach popularized by Barbara Minto and essential to the structured problem solving approach I learned at McKinsey. Learning this approach has changed the way I look at any presentation since.

Here is a rough outline of how you can think about the pyramid principle as a way to structure a presentation:

pyramid principle structure

As you build a presentation, you may have three sections for each hypothesis. As you think about the overall story, the three hypothesis (and the supporting evidence) will build on each other as a “story” to answer the defined problem. There are two ways to think about doing this — using inductive or deductive reasoning:

deductive versus inductive reasoning in powerpoint arguments

If we go back to our profitability example from above, you would say that increasing profitability was the core issue we developed. Lets assume that through research we found that our three hypotheses were true. Given this, you may start to build a high level presentation around the following three points:

example of hypotheses confirmed as part of consulting problem solving

These three ideas not only are distinct but they also build on each other. Combined, they tell a story of what the company should do and how they should react. Each of these three “points” may be a separate section in the presentation followed by several pages of detailed analysis. There may also be a shorter executive summary version of 5–10 pages that gives the high level story without as much data and analysis.

Step 6: The only way to improve is to get feedback and continue to practice

Ultimately, this process is not something you will master overnight. I’ve been consulting, either working for a firm or on my own for more than 10 years and am still looking for ways to make better presentations, become more persuasive and get feedback on individual slides.

The process never ends.

The best way to improve fast is to be working on a great team . Look for people around you that do this well and ask them for feedback. The more feedback, the more iterations and more presentations you make, the better you will become. Good luck!

If you enjoyed this post, you’ll get a kick out of all the free lessons I’ve shared that go a bit deeper. Check them out here .

Do you have a toolkit for business problem solving? I created Think Like a Strategy Consultant as an online course to make the tools of strategy consultants accessible to driven professionals, executives, and consultants. This course teaches you how to synthesize information into compelling insights, structure your information in ways that help you solve problems, and develop presentations that resonate at the C-Level. Click here to learn more or if you are interested in getting started now, enroll in the self-paced version ($497) or hands-on coaching version ($997). Both versions include lifetime access and all future updates.

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What is the top-down vs. bottom-up approach?

what is top down approach in problem solving

Different product teams take different product management approaches. Making critical decisions and overseeing the product development process from conception to market introduction is part of product management.

Top-Down Vs. Bottom-Up Approach

Throughout the whole process of product management, a lot of problem-solving happens at the organizational and user levels. Thus, product teams rely on two main approaches for processing and arranging information to make it smoother: top-down and bottom-up.

In product management, top-down and bottom-up approaches are the two ways to prioritize features, align these priorities with stakeholders, create a well-rounded product management strategy, and make informed decisions.

The top-down approach begins with the high-level vision and mission of the company. It then works downward to establish a product vision that helps achieve the company’s mission. After that, the top-down approach defines the specific features that will achieve the product vision.

On the other hand, the bottom-up approach begins with individual user problems and needs and works upward. It identifies the products or features that will fulfill those needs and align them with the overall product vision and strategy.

Top-down approach

The top-down approach is a strategy of product management where the whole workflow starts from management and goes down toward the roadmap and feature levels. In other words, the priorities are passed to the product managers by the company’s senior executives (or, if fortunate enough, the priorities are created in collaboration with the executives).

This approach is common in two scenes:

  • Early-stage startups (before product-market fit ) where product managers are hired to execute and do more than product discovery
  • Massive corporations with big product portfolios that hire product managers to do project management

The flow of the top-down approach

Now, let’s discuss the order of the top-down approach in product management.

Top-Down Approach Graphic

1. Determining the vision

Oftentimes, the company’s board has a vision that states the (ideal) future of the company and clarifies the business purpose. However, the vision is only the first step in the puzzle — it’s quite wide and hard to execute. So, the board will consider it as a guiding star and move into the next step.

2. Mapping objectives

The objectives are the trackers. They tell the company whether they are moving towards their vision or not. Objectives are usually formed from measurable KPIs, product metrics, or OKRs .

In the top-down approach, the company’s board, along with the product leaders (senior product managers, group product managers, etc.) will hold one or more planning meetings (quarterly planning or annual planning) to determine the objectives they assume will move the company towards the vision. They’ll then prioritize, refine, and finalize them, and then communicate them with the entire company.

3. Structuring initiatives

Product initiatives are a high-level representation of the steps the product team should take to achieve objectives and move closer to the vision. They are the key themes (a mix of features and tasks) the company will invest in delivering.

With the help of the product leaders, the company board will turn the objectives into initiatives that solve multiple problems. The initiative should also be paired with one or more objectives to track progress. Then, the initiatives will be communicated company-wide.

what is top down approach in problem solving

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what is top down approach in problem solving

4. Translating initiatives into roadmaps and features

After finalizing the initiatives, the board and the product leaders might want to hold a workshop to brainstorm features that fit into each objective. However, this step is optional and most companies skip it.

After determining the set of features that the company wants to deliver within a certain timeframe, the product leaders will negotiate the product roadmap with the company board, finalize it, and communicate it with the company.

After that, the product leaders will start assigning initiatives and features to different product managers and product teams, and the actual work of designing and building them will start.

Bottom-up approach

On the other hand, the bottom-up approach is where the product team is more involved in determining features and aligning them with strategy. Typically, the whole flow starts with the product team gathering data and customer feedback , as well as doing a lot of market research. Based on the discovery and research work they do, they’ll determine the set of features that customers need and align them strategically with the company’s strategy, vision, and mission.

It’s also known that the bottom-up approach can lead to more user-centered products because it considers user needs when determining priorities. This approach is common in two scenes:

  • Startups or scale-ups after finding the product-market fit. This is because they need to interact more with the customers and solve their problems to retain them
  • Large companies that invest in their product teams to build a product-centric culture

The flow of the bottom-up approach:

Bottom-Up Approach

1. Continuous customer feedback

The bottom-up approach is a built-in, company-wide mindset. The company should have already invested in the voice-of-customer (VOC) initiative or built a strategy for continuous customer feedback.

Customer feedback should have a continuous flow to the product team to always keep them informed. Some of the customer feedback channels are:

  • User interviews
  • Feedback forms
  • Communities
  • Customer success or support tickets
  • Sales reports

2. Brainstorming

With continuous flowing feedback, the product team will always have user problems in mind, along with ideas on how to improve the experience and delight customers. The product managers often organize brainstorming sessions, or perhaps design sprints, to achieve a couple of goals:

  • Organizing problems and ideas
  • Refining the problems
  • Brainstorming solutions
  • Using OSTs to come up with validation plans
  • Aligning the problems and proposed solutions with the company vision and strategy

3. Align with the company’s board

After coming up with problems and validated solutions, product leaders align with the board on:

  • Why solving the problem is a priority
  • How the problem fits into the vision and strategy
  • What are the validated solutions and what signals validated them
  • Any pivots or changes in strategy that the company should do (depending on the market conditions and updates)

Once the alignment is done, the product team(s) can kick-start the execution and build the products their customers need.

Benefits of a hybrid model

In product management, we combine everything. We rarely use one sole framework, method, or approach. We mix and match and tailor to our needs. And that’s the same thing you should do.

Top-down is all about getting the priorities from upper management to build your roadmap, while bottom-up is all about involving the customers more and gathering their feedback to build a backlog and construct a vision from a continuous feedback flow.

Combining both through a voice-of-customer pipeline (aka a feedback pipeline) that connects target users to upper management will come with multiple benefits:

Better product decision-making

By balancing between both, the product manager can align the high-level goals passed from the executives with the customer needs to prioritize their product backlogs.

More alignment

Combining both approaches ensures that all company initiatives and decisions related to product management align with the strategy of the company and with the user’s problems and needs.

More great articles from LogRocket:

  • How to implement issue management to improve your product
  • 8 ways to reduce cycle time and build a better product
  • What is a PERT chart and how to make one
  • Discover how to use behavioral analytics to create a great product experience
  • Explore six tried and true product management frameworks you should know
  • Advisory boards aren’t just for executives. Join LogRocket’s Content Advisory Board. You’ll help inform the type of content we create and get access to exclusive meetups, social accreditation, and swag.

Enhances the product manager’s agility

By shifting focus between both strategies, the product manager will learn how and when to prioritize initiatives that target core customer problems, as well as strategic initiatives passed from the executives.

By switching between both and aligning the stakeholders on the priority, the product manager will improve their agility and have a more holistic view of the problems.

For any product team, the top-down and bottom-up approaches are crucial strategies. The top-down approach provides a high-level vision for the product, while the bottom-up approach ensures that the planned features in the roadmap are prioritized and designed to satisfy the market’s needs and bridge any gaps.

By integrating both strategies, product managers can create an all-around product vision and strategy that balances business objectives with the needs of the users. To build products that meet the target market’s needs and drive business success, product teams need to comprehend the pluses and minuses of both strategies.

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Which Management Style Is Right for You: Top-Down or Bottom-Up Approach?

By Kate Eby | June 28, 2018

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The top-down approach relies on higher authority figures to determine larger goals that will filter down to the tasks of lower level employees. In comparison, the bottom-up style of communication features a decision-making process that gives the entire staff a voice in company goals. Each task remains fluid as employees achieve their goals.

Included on this page, we’ll detail the key features of both the top-down approach and bottom-up communication , what the top down bottom up approach looks like in project management , industries that leverage both approaches , and more.

The Purposes of Top-Down and Bottom-Up Management Styles

Both the top-down and bottom-up styles of management offer significant advantages for the companies that leverage each approach. Both styles distinguish between high level and low level work, but how each management styles achieves this process varies widely. As with any business, the goals of each are to appropriately and efficiently think, teach, gain insight, and develop an overall leadership system that works well for the company and generates revenue.

The downward communication approach can spawn many positive business impacts through unique aspects of management, including the following:

  • Creating clear lines of authority
  • Standardizing products and services
  • Facilitating quality control
  • Streamlining tasks and achieving goals quickly

By comparison, the bottom-up approach utilizes alternative ways of management to achieve success. These can include the following:

  • Forming a unique perception of the company, its goals, and its employees
  • Measuring operational risk (in terms of fraud, model, and employee risk)
  • Reallocating assets and decision-making power
  • Giving voice to all employees

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What Is a Top-Down Policy?

The top-down policy , also referred to as autocratic leadership , is a management process driven by a business’ upper level of executives.

Senior project managers create company-wide decisions that trickle down to lower departments. The decisions are first weighed on variables like frequency and severity, and then made based on the higher or lower levels of such variables. Upper management gathers and acts upon the knowledge, which employees carry out.

This policy type relies on a hierarchy of high versus low rank employees — the high ranking individuals rely on it for the decision of tasks and goals, and the low ranking employees to complete tasks and achieve goals. This structured programming of management leads to neatly defined subsystems of employees and departments. Sometimes referred to as a stepwise design or decomposition , a system and its goals are broken down into compositional sub-systems in order to gain insight into the smaller aspects that make up a larger system. This format is made more specific with the assistance of black boxes , which make the backward-looking approach easier to follow as upper management pushes down decisions. There is a distinct splitting of work between employees in different departments. This delegation of tasks is sometimes referred to as reverse engineering or a big picture outlook because of the way larger goals are fragmented into small tasks that are then handed down to lower level employees.

There are many industries in the workforce that find this business approach especially appealing. In particular, designers, software developers, and engineers are drawn to the top-down policy because reverse product engineering often leads to the best final outcome. Similarly, investors leverage this policy because it is non data-intensive and analyzes the entire economy rather than the ebbs and flows of an individual business or sector of an industry. The top-down style is also leveraged across companies in an effort to budget effectively.

Top-down budgeting assesses the larger budgeting strategies of a company and allots a certain amount to certain departments, events, and employees. Well-known, popularized figureheads who own companies also leverage this approach. For example, the Martha Stewart Living company, owned and managed by lifestyle expert Martha Stewart, utilizes the top-down approach — therefore, Stewart makes the decisions, holds the most equity in the company, and drives the brand awareness due to her worldwide popularity.

The perks of top-down approach make it widely utilized across many industries. These benefits include the following:

  • Decreased Risk: Since the highest level of management is also usually the most informed and most knowledgeable about the business, there is a decreased risk involved in the decision-making process when lower level employees are taken out of the equation.
  • Strong Management: The upper authorities in a company will be able to determine best practices and reach goals easier with decisions created and enforced at the highest ranks of a business. Should you need to make immediate changes, a top-down change (also known as an executive-driven change ) can come into play to resolve any problems within an organization, bypassing a slower decision making process involving lower level employees.
  • Good Organization: Tasks are determined and filtered down company lines without any confusion because business goals are set by upper management and will not be affected by outside opinions.
  • Minimized Cost: Lower level employees are free to complete their own tasks unique to their role in the company and aren’t saddled with the responsibility of setting company-wide goals.

Of course, there are also some downfalls to the top-down approach:

  • Limited Creativity: Employees are siloed in their responsibilities and are unable to contribute to the overall goals of the company — sometimes leading to frustration and a lack of motivation to perform.
  • Dictatorial: The approach can seem oppressive to the employees who aren’t a part of the process.
  • Slow Response to Challenges: When a challenge arises as a result of a decision, it can take time for upper management to establish a solution because there are limited minds contributing to decisions.

What Is a Top-Down Approach in Business?

Companies utilize the top-down approach in order to assess, determine, and implement business decisions made by upper executives.

The processes are streamlined and communicated to lower rank employees, who carry out these tasks. Consequentially, projects are more easily managed, and risk is decreased significantly due to strategic decisions created from the top management. This approach relies on the executive level to decide how to prioritize, manage, and conduct everyday processes.

What Is Bottom-Up Communication?

Bottom-up communication revolves around the inclusion of all employees, their ideas, and their perceptions of the business in order to make the most informed decisions.

In this case, a business invites the entire team to participate in the company’s management and decision-making process. Communication and an all-encompassing approach is a vital aspect of this style of management, lending itself to the appropriate name of bottom-up communication.

The bottom-up communication style of business leverages all of its employee’s perceptions of business and ideas for the company. This process allows the company to identify its most targeted — and most appropriate — goals. Bottom-up communication is sometimes referred to as the seed model , as small ideas from each employee grow into complex, organic goals that lead to eventual successes. In a sense, there is a merging of employees and each of their roles into a broader focus dealing with the entire company. This forward-looking approach considers each aspect of a company by taking in the respective employees’ inputs to make a better decision for the entire company.

There are many industries that benefit from this holistic style of business management. These users embody the use of a pieced together system that creates a more informed, complex company with targeted goals. Sometimes known as parsing , businesses analyze a sequence of information in order to determine its overall function and structure, which leads to the most comprehensive view of a project. This gives way to the most appropriate decision. Biologists, pharmacologists, and people involved in the homebuilding industry all use small, pointed pieces of a project or company to generate a targeted goal. Banking companies in particular, like Ernst & Young, use the bottom-up approach to analyze aspects of their company in comparison to the microeconomic variables of the economy. These companies in wide-ranging industries benefit from having a well-rounded perception before jumping to quick decisions that may not have a positive affect.

In practice, this approach is extremely successful and results in many benefits for the companies who utilize it. These pros of practicing bottom-up communication include the following:

  • Increased Company-Wide Communication: When every employee actively participates in the decision-making process, the overall communication among members of the organization will increase significantly.
  • Build Morale: All members of the business community will feel included and valued, which fosters a supportive and communicative environment where employees can thrive and grow together.
  • Share Solutions: A wide hearth of brain power goes into the problems of the company as they arise, which will result in quicker problem solving and more efficient solutions.
  • Increased Collaboration: Employees of all levels are granted the opportunity to discuss problems, bounce ideas off of one another, and build trust across departments.

Despite the benefits of the bottom-up communication style, however, there are some potential pitfalls:

  • Bogging Down of Employees: When all employees participate in larger decisions (that are typically saved for upper management), they can get bogged down by the sheer responsibility. Employees can be taken away from their own tasks and pulled into larger projects, causing them to lose precious time.
  • Slowed Time Creating Plans and Reaching Goals: When many people with varying ideas contribute to the company’s decision-making process, conflicts and disagreements can arise. This can lead to delays in making plans and reaching goals.
  • Inaccurate Reflections of Data: A variety of people working on the same projects simultaneously can cause skewed results and inaccurate decisions in the long term.

What Is the Bottom-Up Approach in Budgeting?

Businesses leverage the bottom-up approach in an effort to produce the most comprehensive budget plan for all departments, resources, and employees.

The approach gathers input from all members of the business and allots a certain dollar value to each department that is appropriate for their business needs. As a result of this inclusive approach to budgeting, every aspect of business is considered equally as the budgeting plan is created.

What Is Bottom-Up Approach in Project Management?

The inclusive nature of the bottom-up approach benefits project management. The open communication and shared solutions among all employees ensure that projects remain fluid and goals are achieved in a timely fashion.

As unforeseen events pop up during projects, targets are shifted through the open line of communication between business executive and lower-ranking employees. Collaboration fostered through the bottom-up approach gives businesses the transparency needed to maintain successful processes.

What Is Bottom-Up Leadership Style?

Keeping all employees, business processes, and departments in mind, leaders who adopt the bottom-up approach encourage input from all areas of the organization.

This leadership style allows for communication and continued fluidity as they are able to consider a greater number of opinions when making decisions. Rather than having a singular, overarching leader responsible for decision making, ideas are exchanged across a widespread group.

History of the Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approach

The development of the top-down and bottom-up approaches was a result of trial and error in managing, maintaining, and achieving success in a business. Although there are great differences in the two styles, both were created by developing a system that resulted in the most success, revenue, and employee happiness.

The top-down approach came to be in the 1970s, when IBM researchers Harlan Mills and Niklaus Wirth developed the top-down approach for software development field. Mills created a concept of structured programming that aided in the increased quality and decreased time dedicated to creating a computer program. This process was then successfully tested by Mills in an effort to automate the New York Times morgue index. Similarly, Wirth developed a programming language, named Pascal, that relied on the top-down approach to build this particular system. Wirth went on to write an influential paper on the topic, titled “Program Development by Stepwise Refinement,” that detailed the benefits of leveraging a top-down approach in project management, specifically within the software development field. From these studies completed by both Mills and Wirth, the top-down approach evolved into the popular management style discussed earlier.

The Origins of the Bottom-Up Approach

A more modern management technique, the bottom-up approach developed concurrently with a shift in focus towards Industrial and Organizational Psychology (I/O). Explained by the American Psychological Association (APA), I/O is defined as “the scientific study of human behavior in organizations and the workplace.” As I/O came to be a more widely-recognized study, there was a significant trend upwards in the use of bottom-up management. The field of I/O encourages employers to consistently value their employees and make their contributions to the company a top priority. This approach caused upper management to lessen their hold on decision-making power, and instead, allowed for lower ranking employees to contribute more frequently.

The Hawthorne Experiments, completed as early as 1924, found that employees who were given brighter lights at their work station were more productive than those who received dimmer lights. The belief behind this correlation was that employees were more likely to contribute more to the company when they felt cared for and valued. An advocate for the I/O movement and the bottom-up approach, Elton Mayo added to the human relations movement happening during the mid-20th century. Mayo believed that by improving the social aspects of the workplace, the company would ultimately benefit. Eventually, this led to the development of human resources (HR) departments . HR departments dedicated themselves directly to this newfound engagement to employees and their investment in the company. Even more radical divisions of bottom-up management have come to the surface in later years. One such approach is holacracy , which fully leans in to the bottom-up policy and is founded on ideas like transparent and moveable roles in a company, and a circular structure of authority instead of a vertical platform.

Industries that Use Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches

The top-down and bottom-up approaches have gained traction in certain sectors of the workforce. Sometimes a highly authoritative upper management and a delegation of tasks is better than employees with fluid roles and a large say in the decisions of a company, and vice versa. Below is a conclusive list of the industries that embody certain management styles over others.

  • Investing/Banking: The top-down approach of banking focuses on how macroeconomic factors of the economy drive the market and stock prices, and then make business decisions accordingly. This approach is sometimes referred to as the big data bottom-up approach because of the large influx of numbers used to make company-wide decisions. The bottom-up approach in banking deals with microeconomic factors, focusing less on market cycles and more on an individual company’s performance in comparison to the larger market. Decisions are made on a case-by-case basis, and there is no dependency between companies.
  • Nanotechnology: This industry utilizes both approaches for different purposes. The top-down approach is leveraged when developing molecular manufacturing strategies, whereas the bottom-up approach is ideal for developing conventional manufacturing strategies. In 1989, the Foresight Institute first applied bothy styles to the nanotechnology field.
  • Neuroscience & Psychology: The ways in which people process information, and how they consequently analyze it, is part of both the top-down and the bottom-up approaches. Sensory input is thought of as a bottom-up approach because someone takes in information from the environment in order to make an informed decision. Comparatively, higher cognitive processes are thought of as a top-down procedure because these functions are done with little voluntary thought or outside influence.
  • Public Health: The top-down approach in public health deals with programs that are run by whole governments of intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) that aid in combating worldwide health-related problems. HIV control and smallpox eradication are two examples of top-down policies in the public health sphere. The bottom-up approach is more plausible when combating local issues, like access to health care clinics. This approach invites the input of community members to deal with issues that affect people in closer proximity.
  • Architecture: This category can be broken down based on two schools of art: the Ecole des Beaux-Arts School of Design and the Bauhaus. The former begins designs with a basic drawing plan that outlines a project in full, lending itself to a top-down approach. The latter starts by developing a small-scale system that will eventually become a larger, more architectural piece, making it a bottom-up approach.
  • Ecology: There are top-down and bottom-up structures that are part of our natural world. In some ecosystems, top predators control the structure of a population. This is an example of a top-down approach. In comparison, other ecosystems exist on a bottom-up approach. These ecosystems, like some marine ecosystems, rely on the productivity of the primary producer at the lowest level to maintain the functionality of the rest of the population.

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How to master the seven-step problem-solving process

In this episode of the McKinsey Podcast , Simon London speaks with Charles Conn, CEO of venture-capital firm Oxford Sciences Innovation, and McKinsey senior partner Hugo Sarrazin about the complexities of different problem-solving strategies.

Podcast transcript

Simon London: Hello, and welcome to this episode of the McKinsey Podcast , with me, Simon London. What’s the number-one skill you need to succeed professionally? Salesmanship, perhaps? Or a facility with statistics? Or maybe the ability to communicate crisply and clearly? Many would argue that at the very top of the list comes problem solving: that is, the ability to think through and come up with an optimal course of action to address any complex challenge—in business, in public policy, or indeed in life.

Looked at this way, it’s no surprise that McKinsey takes problem solving very seriously, testing for it during the recruiting process and then honing it, in McKinsey consultants, through immersion in a structured seven-step method. To discuss the art of problem solving, I sat down in California with McKinsey senior partner Hugo Sarrazin and also with Charles Conn. Charles is a former McKinsey partner, entrepreneur, executive, and coauthor of the book Bulletproof Problem Solving: The One Skill That Changes Everything [John Wiley & Sons, 2018].

Charles and Hugo, welcome to the podcast. Thank you for being here.

Hugo Sarrazin: Our pleasure.

Charles Conn: It’s terrific to be here.

Simon London: Problem solving is a really interesting piece of terminology. It could mean so many different things. I have a son who’s a teenage climber. They talk about solving problems. Climbing is problem solving. Charles, when you talk about problem solving, what are you talking about?

Charles Conn: For me, problem solving is the answer to the question “What should I do?” It’s interesting when there’s uncertainty and complexity, and when it’s meaningful because there are consequences. Your son’s climbing is a perfect example. There are consequences, and it’s complicated, and there’s uncertainty—can he make that grab? I think we can apply that same frame almost at any level. You can think about questions like “What town would I like to live in?” or “Should I put solar panels on my roof?”

You might think that’s a funny thing to apply problem solving to, but in my mind it’s not fundamentally different from business problem solving, which answers the question “What should my strategy be?” Or problem solving at the policy level: “How do we combat climate change?” “Should I support the local school bond?” I think these are all part and parcel of the same type of question, “What should I do?”

I’m a big fan of structured problem solving. By following steps, we can more clearly understand what problem it is we’re solving, what are the components of the problem that we’re solving, which components are the most important ones for us to pay attention to, which analytic techniques we should apply to those, and how we can synthesize what we’ve learned back into a compelling story. That’s all it is, at its heart.

I think sometimes when people think about seven steps, they assume that there’s a rigidity to this. That’s not it at all. It’s actually to give you the scope for creativity, which often doesn’t exist when your problem solving is muddled.

Simon London: You were just talking about the seven-step process. That’s what’s written down in the book, but it’s a very McKinsey process as well. Without getting too deep into the weeds, let’s go through the steps, one by one. You were just talking about problem definition as being a particularly important thing to get right first. That’s the first step. Hugo, tell us about that.

Hugo Sarrazin: It is surprising how often people jump past this step and make a bunch of assumptions. The most powerful thing is to step back and ask the basic questions—“What are we trying to solve? What are the constraints that exist? What are the dependencies?” Let’s make those explicit and really push the thinking and defining. At McKinsey, we spend an enormous amount of time in writing that little statement, and the statement, if you’re a logic purist, is great. You debate. “Is it an ‘or’? Is it an ‘and’? What’s the action verb?” Because all these specific words help you get to the heart of what matters.

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Simon London: So this is a concise problem statement.

Hugo Sarrazin: Yeah. It’s not like “Can we grow in Japan?” That’s interesting, but it is “What, specifically, are we trying to uncover in the growth of a product in Japan? Or a segment in Japan? Or a channel in Japan?” When you spend an enormous amount of time, in the first meeting of the different stakeholders, debating this and having different people put forward what they think the problem definition is, you realize that people have completely different views of why they’re here. That, to me, is the most important step.

Charles Conn: I would agree with that. For me, the problem context is critical. When we understand “What are the forces acting upon your decision maker? How quickly is the answer needed? With what precision is the answer needed? Are there areas that are off limits or areas where we would particularly like to find our solution? Is the decision maker open to exploring other areas?” then you not only become more efficient, and move toward what we call the critical path in problem solving, but you also make it so much more likely that you’re not going to waste your time or your decision maker’s time.

How often do especially bright young people run off with half of the idea about what the problem is and start collecting data and start building models—only to discover that they’ve really gone off half-cocked.

Hugo Sarrazin: Yeah.

Charles Conn: And in the wrong direction.

Simon London: OK. So step one—and there is a real art and a structure to it—is define the problem. Step two, Charles?

Charles Conn: My favorite step is step two, which is to use logic trees to disaggregate the problem. Every problem we’re solving has some complexity and some uncertainty in it. The only way that we can really get our team working on the problem is to take the problem apart into logical pieces.

What we find, of course, is that the way to disaggregate the problem often gives you an insight into the answer to the problem quite quickly. I love to do two or three different cuts at it, each one giving a bit of a different insight into what might be going wrong. By doing sensible disaggregations, using logic trees, we can figure out which parts of the problem we should be looking at, and we can assign those different parts to team members.

Simon London: What’s a good example of a logic tree on a sort of ratable problem?

Charles Conn: Maybe the easiest one is the classic profit tree. Almost in every business that I would take a look at, I would start with a profit or return-on-assets tree. In its simplest form, you have the components of revenue, which are price and quantity, and the components of cost, which are cost and quantity. Each of those can be broken out. Cost can be broken into variable cost and fixed cost. The components of price can be broken into what your pricing scheme is. That simple tree often provides insight into what’s going on in a business or what the difference is between that business and the competitors.

If we add the leg, which is “What’s the asset base or investment element?”—so profit divided by assets—then we can ask the question “Is the business using its investments sensibly?” whether that’s in stores or in manufacturing or in transportation assets. I hope we can see just how simple this is, even though we’re describing it in words.

When I went to work with Gordon Moore at the Moore Foundation, the problem that he asked us to look at was “How can we save Pacific salmon?” Now, that sounds like an impossible question, but it was amenable to precisely the same type of disaggregation and allowed us to organize what became a 15-year effort to improve the likelihood of good outcomes for Pacific salmon.

Simon London: Now, is there a danger that your logic tree can be impossibly large? This, I think, brings us onto the third step in the process, which is that you have to prioritize.

Charles Conn: Absolutely. The third step, which we also emphasize, along with good problem definition, is rigorous prioritization—we ask the questions “How important is this lever or this branch of the tree in the overall outcome that we seek to achieve? How much can I move that lever?” Obviously, we try and focus our efforts on ones that have a big impact on the problem and the ones that we have the ability to change. With salmon, ocean conditions turned out to be a big lever, but not one that we could adjust. We focused our attention on fish habitats and fish-harvesting practices, which were big levers that we could affect.

People spend a lot of time arguing about branches that are either not important or that none of us can change. We see it in the public square. When we deal with questions at the policy level—“Should you support the death penalty?” “How do we affect climate change?” “How can we uncover the causes and address homelessness?”—it’s even more important that we’re focusing on levers that are big and movable.

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Simon London: Let’s move swiftly on to step four. You’ve defined your problem, you disaggregate it, you prioritize where you want to analyze—what you want to really look at hard. Then you got to the work plan. Now, what does that mean in practice?

Hugo Sarrazin: Depending on what you’ve prioritized, there are many things you could do. It could be breaking the work among the team members so that people have a clear piece of the work to do. It could be defining the specific analyses that need to get done and executed, and being clear on time lines. There’s always a level-one answer, there’s a level-two answer, there’s a level-three answer. Without being too flippant, I can solve any problem during a good dinner with wine. It won’t have a whole lot of backing.

Simon London: Not going to have a lot of depth to it.

Hugo Sarrazin: No, but it may be useful as a starting point. If the stakes are not that high, that could be OK. If it’s really high stakes, you may need level three and have the whole model validated in three different ways. You need to find a work plan that reflects the level of precision, the time frame you have, and the stakeholders you need to bring along in the exercise.

Charles Conn: I love the way you’ve described that, because, again, some people think of problem solving as a linear thing, but of course what’s critical is that it’s iterative. As you say, you can solve the problem in one day or even one hour.

Charles Conn: We encourage our teams everywhere to do that. We call it the one-day answer or the one-hour answer. In work planning, we’re always iterating. Every time you see a 50-page work plan that stretches out to three months, you know it’s wrong. It will be outmoded very quickly by that learning process that you described. Iterative problem solving is a critical part of this. Sometimes, people think work planning sounds dull, but it isn’t. It’s how we know what’s expected of us and when we need to deliver it and how we’re progressing toward the answer. It’s also the place where we can deal with biases. Bias is a feature of every human decision-making process. If we design our team interactions intelligently, we can avoid the worst sort of biases.

Simon London: Here we’re talking about cognitive biases primarily, right? It’s not that I’m biased against you because of your accent or something. These are the cognitive biases that behavioral sciences have shown we all carry around, things like anchoring, overoptimism—these kinds of things.

Both: Yeah.

Charles Conn: Availability bias is the one that I’m always alert to. You think you’ve seen the problem before, and therefore what’s available is your previous conception of it—and we have to be most careful about that. In any human setting, we also have to be careful about biases that are based on hierarchies, sometimes called sunflower bias. I’m sure, Hugo, with your teams, you make sure that the youngest team members speak first. Not the oldest team members, because it’s easy for people to look at who’s senior and alter their own creative approaches.

Hugo Sarrazin: It’s helpful, at that moment—if someone is asserting a point of view—to ask the question “This was true in what context?” You’re trying to apply something that worked in one context to a different one. That can be deadly if the context has changed, and that’s why organizations struggle to change. You promote all these people because they did something that worked well in the past, and then there’s a disruption in the industry, and they keep doing what got them promoted even though the context has changed.

Simon London: Right. Right.

Hugo Sarrazin: So it’s the same thing in problem solving.

Charles Conn: And it’s why diversity in our teams is so important. It’s one of the best things about the world that we’re in now. We’re likely to have people from different socioeconomic, ethnic, and national backgrounds, each of whom sees problems from a slightly different perspective. It is therefore much more likely that the team will uncover a truly creative and clever approach to problem solving.

Simon London: Let’s move on to step five. You’ve done your work plan. Now you’ve actually got to do the analysis. The thing that strikes me here is that the range of tools that we have at our disposal now, of course, is just huge, particularly with advances in computation, advanced analytics. There’s so many things that you can apply here. Just talk about the analysis stage. How do you pick the right tools?

Charles Conn: For me, the most important thing is that we start with simple heuristics and explanatory statistics before we go off and use the big-gun tools. We need to understand the shape and scope of our problem before we start applying these massive and complex analytical approaches.

Simon London: Would you agree with that?

Hugo Sarrazin: I agree. I think there are so many wonderful heuristics. You need to start there before you go deep into the modeling exercise. There’s an interesting dynamic that’s happening, though. In some cases, for some types of problems, it is even better to set yourself up to maximize your learning. Your problem-solving methodology is test and learn, test and learn, test and learn, and iterate. That is a heuristic in itself, the A/B testing that is used in many parts of the world. So that’s a problem-solving methodology. It’s nothing different. It just uses technology and feedback loops in a fast way. The other one is exploratory data analysis. When you’re dealing with a large-scale problem, and there’s so much data, I can get to the heuristics that Charles was talking about through very clever visualization of data.

You test with your data. You need to set up an environment to do so, but don’t get caught up in neural-network modeling immediately. You’re testing, you’re checking—“Is the data right? Is it sound? Does it make sense?”—before you launch too far.

Simon London: You do hear these ideas—that if you have a big enough data set and enough algorithms, they’re going to find things that you just wouldn’t have spotted, find solutions that maybe you wouldn’t have thought of. Does machine learning sort of revolutionize the problem-solving process? Or are these actually just other tools in the toolbox for structured problem solving?

Charles Conn: It can be revolutionary. There are some areas in which the pattern recognition of large data sets and good algorithms can help us see things that we otherwise couldn’t see. But I do think it’s terribly important we don’t think that this particular technique is a substitute for superb problem solving, starting with good problem definition. Many people use machine learning without understanding algorithms that themselves can have biases built into them. Just as 20 years ago, when we were doing statistical analysis, we knew that we needed good model definition, we still need a good understanding of our algorithms and really good problem definition before we launch off into big data sets and unknown algorithms.

Simon London: Step six. You’ve done your analysis.

Charles Conn: I take six and seven together, and this is the place where young problem solvers often make a mistake. They’ve got their analysis, and they assume that’s the answer, and of course it isn’t the answer. The ability to synthesize the pieces that came out of the analysis and begin to weave those into a story that helps people answer the question “What should I do?” This is back to where we started. If we can’t synthesize, and we can’t tell a story, then our decision maker can’t find the answer to “What should I do?”

Simon London: But, again, these final steps are about motivating people to action, right?

Charles Conn: Yeah.

Simon London: I am slightly torn about the nomenclature of problem solving because it’s on paper, right? Until you motivate people to action, you actually haven’t solved anything.

Charles Conn: I love this question because I think decision-making theory, without a bias to action, is a waste of time. Everything in how I approach this is to help people take action that makes the world better.

Simon London: Hence, these are absolutely critical steps. If you don’t do this well, you’ve just got a bunch of analysis.

Charles Conn: We end up in exactly the same place where we started, which is people speaking across each other, past each other in the public square, rather than actually working together, shoulder to shoulder, to crack these important problems.

Simon London: In the real world, we have a lot of uncertainty—arguably, increasing uncertainty. How do good problem solvers deal with that?

Hugo Sarrazin: At every step of the process. In the problem definition, when you’re defining the context, you need to understand those sources of uncertainty and whether they’re important or not important. It becomes important in the definition of the tree.

You need to think carefully about the branches of the tree that are more certain and less certain as you define them. They don’t have equal weight just because they’ve got equal space on the page. Then, when you’re prioritizing, your prioritization approach may put more emphasis on things that have low probability but huge impact—or, vice versa, may put a lot of priority on things that are very likely and, hopefully, have a reasonable impact. You can introduce that along the way. When you come back to the synthesis, you just need to be nuanced about what you’re understanding, the likelihood.

Often, people lack humility in the way they make their recommendations: “This is the answer.” They’re very precise, and I think we would all be well-served to say, “This is a likely answer under the following sets of conditions” and then make the level of uncertainty clearer, if that is appropriate. It doesn’t mean you’re always in the gray zone; it doesn’t mean you don’t have a point of view. It just means that you can be explicit about the certainty of your answer when you make that recommendation.

Simon London: So it sounds like there is an underlying principle: “Acknowledge and embrace the uncertainty. Don’t pretend that it isn’t there. Be very clear about what the uncertainties are up front, and then build that into every step of the process.”

Hugo Sarrazin: Every step of the process.

Simon London: Yeah. We have just walked through a particular structured methodology for problem solving. But, of course, this is not the only structured methodology for problem solving. One that is also very well-known is design thinking, which comes at things very differently. So, Hugo, I know you have worked with a lot of designers. Just give us a very quick summary. Design thinking—what is it, and how does it relate?

Hugo Sarrazin: It starts with an incredible amount of empathy for the user and uses that to define the problem. It does pause and go out in the wild and spend an enormous amount of time seeing how people interact with objects, seeing the experience they’re getting, seeing the pain points or joy—and uses that to infer and define the problem.

Simon London: Problem definition, but out in the world.

Hugo Sarrazin: With an enormous amount of empathy. There’s a huge emphasis on empathy. Traditional, more classic problem solving is you define the problem based on an understanding of the situation. This one almost presupposes that we don’t know the problem until we go see it. The second thing is you need to come up with multiple scenarios or answers or ideas or concepts, and there’s a lot of divergent thinking initially. That’s slightly different, versus the prioritization, but not for long. Eventually, you need to kind of say, “OK, I’m going to converge again.” Then you go and you bring things back to the customer and get feedback and iterate. Then you rinse and repeat, rinse and repeat. There’s a lot of tactile building, along the way, of prototypes and things like that. It’s very iterative.

Simon London: So, Charles, are these complements or are these alternatives?

Charles Conn: I think they’re entirely complementary, and I think Hugo’s description is perfect. When we do problem definition well in classic problem solving, we are demonstrating the kind of empathy, at the very beginning of our problem, that design thinking asks us to approach. When we ideate—and that’s very similar to the disaggregation, prioritization, and work-planning steps—we do precisely the same thing, and often we use contrasting teams, so that we do have divergent thinking. The best teams allow divergent thinking to bump them off whatever their initial biases in problem solving are. For me, design thinking gives us a constant reminder of creativity, empathy, and the tactile nature of problem solving, but it’s absolutely complementary, not alternative.

Simon London: I think, in a world of cross-functional teams, an interesting question is do people with design-thinking backgrounds really work well together with classical problem solvers? How do you make that chemistry happen?

Hugo Sarrazin: Yeah, it is not easy when people have spent an enormous amount of time seeped in design thinking or user-centric design, whichever word you want to use. If the person who’s applying classic problem-solving methodology is very rigid and mechanical in the way they’re doing it, there could be an enormous amount of tension. If there’s not clarity in the role and not clarity in the process, I think having the two together can be, sometimes, problematic.

The second thing that happens often is that the artifacts the two methodologies try to gravitate toward can be different. Classic problem solving often gravitates toward a model; design thinking migrates toward a prototype. Rather than writing a big deck with all my supporting evidence, they’ll bring an example, a thing, and that feels different. Then you spend your time differently to achieve those two end products, so that’s another source of friction.

Now, I still think it can be an incredibly powerful thing to have the two—if there are the right people with the right mind-set, if there is a team that is explicit about the roles, if we’re clear about the kind of outcomes we are attempting to bring forward. There’s an enormous amount of collaborativeness and respect.

Simon London: But they have to respect each other’s methodology and be prepared to flex, maybe, a little bit, in how this process is going to work.

Hugo Sarrazin: Absolutely.

Simon London: The other area where, it strikes me, there could be a little bit of a different sort of friction is this whole concept of the day-one answer, which is what we were just talking about in classical problem solving. Now, you know that this is probably not going to be your final answer, but that’s how you begin to structure the problem. Whereas I would imagine your design thinkers—no, they’re going off to do their ethnographic research and get out into the field, potentially for a long time, before they come back with at least an initial hypothesis.

Want better strategies? Become a bulletproof problem solver

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Hugo Sarrazin: That is a great callout, and that’s another difference. Designers typically will like to soak into the situation and avoid converging too quickly. There’s optionality and exploring different options. There’s a strong belief that keeps the solution space wide enough that you can come up with more radical ideas. If there’s a large design team or many designers on the team, and you come on Friday and say, “What’s our week-one answer?” they’re going to struggle. They’re not going to be comfortable, naturally, to give that answer. It doesn’t mean they don’t have an answer; it’s just not where they are in their thinking process.

Simon London: I think we are, sadly, out of time for today. But Charles and Hugo, thank you so much.

Charles Conn: It was a pleasure to be here, Simon.

Hugo Sarrazin: It was a pleasure. Thank you.

Simon London: And thanks, as always, to you, our listeners, for tuning into this episode of the McKinsey Podcast . If you want to learn more about problem solving, you can find the book, Bulletproof Problem Solving: The One Skill That Changes Everything , online or order it through your local bookstore. To learn more about McKinsey, you can of course find us at McKinsey.com.

Charles Conn is CEO of Oxford Sciences Innovation and an alumnus of McKinsey’s Sydney office. Hugo Sarrazin is a senior partner in the Silicon Valley office, where Simon London, a member of McKinsey Publishing, is also based.

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Five routes to more innovative problem solving

Massimo Curatella Designer Facilitator Writer

Massimo Curatella

Solve problems better: bottom-up and top-down

Use the creative tension between intention and uncertainty to build unthinkable solutions.

When you solve a problem, you have two main approaches to follow: top-down and bottom-up . Combining them empowers designers to generate novel and useful solutions that are often not achievable with linear thinking.

Top-down is the direct, forward-looking approach

The top-down approach to problem-solving is the most immediate way to initiate. Designers establish goals, identify constraints, execute research, test prototypes, and implement possible solutions to test in the application field.

Sometimes there is not enough time and resources to explore the problem. Suppose we don’t define the problem we’re trying to solve in the best way possible by identifying its domain, boundaries, and relationships. In that case, we have fewer opportunities to find successful and innovative solutions.

Bottom-up is the boundaryless exploration

When we dedicate focused, structured activities to explore different aspects of the problem and generate ideas for possible solutions, we’re building opportunities for innovation from the bottom-up.

Designers need to go beyond thinking in the familiar, direct, and rational way in the discovery and ideation phase. There are many structured methods to facilitate creativity and imagination. And facilitated collaborative thinking allows us to beyond the obvious and superficial solutions by pushing us to visualize possible better scenarios.

The bottom-up approach facilitates discovering alternative and innovative solutions not readily available when constrained in the traditional, linear thinking method.

Combine bottom-up with top-down problem-solving to find better solutions

Use the creative tension between intention and uncertainty to build unthinkable solutions.

Everyday problem-solvers as designers can reap the benefits of a combined top-down and bottom-up approach to find novel and useful solutions.

One response to “Solve problems better: bottom-up and top-down”

[…] if we are under stress and have limited time to make decisions, we should always dedicate focused time to understanding our goals. Having our destination clear, we can identify the steps and the […]

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Top-Down Vs. Bottom-Up: Which Approach is Better for Your Business?


Managing a business is no small feat. You have to make decisions, plan strategies, allocate resources, and monitor performance. But how do you decide what is the best way to do these things? Do you follow a top-down approach or a bottom-up approach?

In this blog post, we will explain what these two approaches are, how they work, and what are their pros and cons. We will also give you some tips on when to use each approach and how to balance them.

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What is the Top-Down Approach?

A top-down approach is a management style where the leaders or executives set the goals, objectives, and strategies for the organization. They then communicate them to the lower levels of the organization, who are expected to follow them without much input or feedback.

The top-down approach is based on the assumption that the leaders have the best knowledge and vision of the organization and its environment. They are able to see the big picture and make decisions that align with the overall mission and vision of the organization.

The top-down approach is often used in situations where there is a need for speed, efficiency, consistency, and control. For example, when launching a new product, implementing a change, or dealing with a crisis.

What is the Bottom-Up Approach?

A bottom-up approach is where the employees or lower levels of the organization are involved in the decision-making process. They are encouraged to share their ideas, opinions, and feedback with the leaders or executives, who then consider them before making the final decisions.

The bottom-up approach is based on the assumption that the employees have the best knowledge and experience of the daily operations and challenges of the organization. They are able to provide valuable insights and suggestions that can improve the quality and effectiveness of the decisions.

The bottom-up approach is often used in situations where there is a need for innovation, creativity, diversity, and empowerment. For example, improving a process or solving a problem.

Differences Between Top-Down and Bottom-Up Approaches

The main difference between top-down and bottom-up approaches is the direction of the flow of communication and decision-making. In top-down approach, communication and decision-making flow from top to bottom. In bottom-up approach, communication and decision-making flow from bottom to top.

Another difference is the level of participation and autonomy of the employees. Employees have low participation and autonomy in the top down approach. They are expected to follow orders and instructions without questioning or challenging them. In bottom-up approach, employees have high participation and autonomy. They are expected to contribute ideas and opinions and take initiative in their work.

A third difference is the type of culture and environment that each approach creates. In top-down approach, the culture and environment are more formal, hierarchical, and centralized. There is a clear chain of command and authority. In bottom-up approach, the culture and environment are more informal, flat, and decentralized. There is more collaboration and teamwork.

Top Down Vs Bottom Up Approach: Differences

Advantages of Top-Down Approach

Provides clarity and direction for the organization. The goals, objectives, and strategies are clearly defined and communicated by the leaders. This helps to align everyone’s efforts and avoid confusion or conflict.

Ensures consistency and quality across the organization. The decisions are made by the leaders who have the expertise and experience to ensure that they meet the standards and expectations of the organization.

Saves time and resources for the organization. The decisions are made quickly and efficiently by the leaders who have access to all the relevant information and resources. This reduces delays and wastage.

Enhances control and accountability for the organization. The leaders have full authority and responsibility for the outcomes of their decisions. They can monitor and evaluate the performance of their subordinates and take corrective actions if needed.

Advantages of Bottom-Up Approach

Fosters innovation and creativity for the organization. The employees are given opportunities to express their ideas and opinions freely. This stimulates their creativity and generates new solutions.

Improves motivation and engagement for the organization. The employees feel valued and respected for their contributions. This boosts their morale and commitment.

Enhances learning and development for the organization. The employees learn from each other and from the feedback they receive from the leaders. This improves their skills and knowledge.

It builds trust and collaboration for the organization. The employees develop mutual trust and respect with the leaders and with each other. This improves communication and cooperation.

Disadvantages of Top-Down Approach

It can create resistance and resentment for the organization. The employees may feel ignored or imposed upon by the leaders. They may not agree with or understand the decisions that are made for them. This can lead to dissatisfaction or rebellion.

Stifles innovation and creativity for the organization. The employees may not have the chance or the incentive to share their ideas or opinions with the leaders. They may also fear being criticized or rejected by the leaders. This can limit their creativity and potential.

Causes communication and coordination problems for the organization. The leaders may not have enough information or feedback from the lower levels of the organization. They may also have difficulty communicating or coordinating with a large number of subordinates. This can result in errors or misunderstandings.

Creates dependency and complacency for the organization. The employees may rely too much on the leaders for guidance and direction. They may also lose their initiative and sense of responsibility. This can reduce their productivity and performance.

Disadvantages of Bottom-Up Approach

Creates confusion and conflict for the organization. The goals, objectives, and strategies may not be clear or consistent across the organization. There may be too many or conflicting ideas or opinions from the employees. This can lead to confusion or conflict.

Compromises consistency and quality for the organization. The decisions may not meet the standards or expectations of the organization. There may be variations or discrepancies in the quality of work or service across the organization. This can affect the reputation or credibility of the organization.

It can waste time and resources of the organization. The decisions may take too long or too much effort to make. There may be duplication or inefficiency in the use of information or resources across the organization. This can increase costs or delays.

Reduces control and accountability for the organization. The leaders may have difficulty overseeing or influencing the outcomes of their decisions. They may also have difficulty holding their subordinates accountable for their actions or results. This can affect the performance or security of the organization.

When to Use Top-Down Approach and Bottom-Up Approach

There is no one-size-fits-all answer to which approach is better for your business. It depends on various factors, such as:

Nature and complexity of the decision or task

Urgency and importance of the decision or task

Availability and reliability of information and resources

Skills and experience of the leaders and employees

Culture and values of the organization

As a general rule, you should use a top-down approach when you need to:

Make quick and decisive decisions

Ensure consistency and quality across the organization

Deal with a crisis or a change

Have a clear vision and direction for the organization

You should use a bottom-up approach when you need to:

Generate new and diverse ideas

Improve motivation and engagement across the organization

Solve a complex or ambiguous problem

Collaborative and empowering culture in the organization

Top-Down or Bottom-Up: Which Method Should Your Company Choose?

The best way to manage your business is to balance both top-down and bottom-up approaches. You should not rely on one approach exclusively, but rather use them in combination to achieve optimal results. One way to do this is to use an iterative or incremental process, where you alternate between top-down and bottom-up phases. For example, you can start with a top-down phase where you define the overall goal or problem, then switch to a bottom-up phase where you develop or test possible solutions or components, then go back to a top-down phase where you evaluate or refine your solutions or components, then repeat until you reach your desired outcome.

Here are some additional tips on how to balance top-down and bottom-up approaches:

Involve both leaders and employees in setting goals, objectives, and strategies for the organization. This will ensure alignment and buy-in from all levels of the organization.

Communicate clearly and frequently with both leaders and employees about the expectations, progress, and outcomes of the decisions or tasks. This will ensure transparency and feedback from all levels of the organization.

Delegate authority and responsibility to both leaders and employees according to their skills, experience, and interests. This will ensure empowerment and accountability from all levels of the organization.

Recognize and reward both leaders and employees for their contributions, achievements, and improvements. This will ensure appreciation and recognition from all levels of the organization.

Top-down approach and bottom-up approach are two different management styles that have their own advantages and disadvantages. Depending on your situation, you may need to use one approach more than the other, or balance them both.

The key is to understand your goals, objectives, strategies, resources, challenges, opportunities, strengths, weaknesses, culture, values, leaders, employees, customers, competitors, stakeholders, environment, etc.

By doing so, you will be able to choose the right approach for your business.

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Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up: What's the Difference

These both are the techniques that are used look into the type of securities and make a selection for them. You can also connect these approaches with business and finance also.

what is top down approach in problem solving

The top down and bottom up are simple and common approaches. Yet the people do not know the real or the major differences among both of these approaches. Each of the approaches is not very difficult and very easy to understand.

Therefore, today we will talk more about the top-down vs bottom-up and what are the key differences between both of them. 

A guide on Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up: What's the Difference?

Both the top-down and bottom-up approaches provide important advantages for the companies that control each approach. Both of the approaches are most commonly used for low-level and high-level work. But how each approach is used by the management is something that matters and might vary accordingly.

With any type or kind of business, the goals are different and the aspects of thinking, teaching, and gaining insights can be variable. Each of the approaches among the top-down and bottom-up are different in some minor regions. The top-down approach can vary from the general to specific and the bottom-up approach starts at the specific and then moves to the general. 

What do you mean by the term top-down approach?

In the terms of management, the top-down approach allows the head of the corporate to make the finalized decision. After the decision making it is then given a form of structural filter. The managers then tend to look out for knowledge and gather them in one single place. The gathered information is then analyzed and the conclusions are drawn. 

The final decision is then forwarded to the rest of the team members which is then practiced by other employees. Many high-scale industries, for example, industries that manufacture goods integrate top-down method.

How does the method work?

The top-down system works by making a decision through the knowledge held by the higher authorities and is then passed onto the other team members for to give their opinions on the deduced conclusion. The working of the top-down approach is very simple.

It is done by analyzing the decision and then the major decision is then taken by consulting the other team members as well. The top-down approach can be effective because it remains the same from project to project. The top-down approach is well-practiced and grows more efficient over time. 

When and where you can use the top-down management method?

Top-down organization method is used by most of the top-notch management companies. Most of the teams implement the hybrid approach. The hybrid approach means implementing an approach that lies between the both of them that is either between the top-down approach or the bottom-up approach.

This management method is more effective and more well-structured as well. Hence, the cooperation fields or teams that have further smaller subclasses can benefit from the top-down approach. 

It is important to discuss this if you want to know Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up: What's the Difference

Advantages of the top-down approach

Several benefits can be gained by the large teams with smaller sub-teams. A lot of people do not exactly know the advantages of the top-down approach. Therefore, some of the basic and most highlighting advantages that can be gained by the top-down approach are mentioned below.

No room for confusion

This management method (top-down) gives or predicts accurate results, due to which the method is more efficient. The reason for less room for confusion is due to the discussions that take in a single place with a good flow. Hence, there is very little chance of misunderstandings or confusion.

Good management style

This approach is easy to implement. The learning curve for the particular approach that is, a top-down approach is much wide and easier. If you are a team leader then you can easily adjust your other team members to the good management style of a top-down approach.

Helps in achieving goals more quickly

While practicing the top-down approach one major benefit is that it is not much time-consuming. The problems are sorted out more efficiently and are then looked into by the head for the conclusions that are drawn in much lesser time as compared to the bottom-up approach.

These are some of plus points of top down approach when talking about Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up: What's the Difference.

Disadvantages of a top-down approach

With the numerous advantages, there are some disadvantages as well. Therefore, some of the disadvantages of the top-down approach are mentioned below.

The team is not involved in the decision making

In this method, all team members concerning the management department cannot conclude decisions. It is the head of the company or the cooperate that takes the final decision and then passes it forward.

Risk of missing out on better and great ideas

The administration technique is based on the single decision by the head of the department and since the base of the top-down approach does not involve other employees like the bottom-up approach, it reduces major profitable opportunities. 

what is top down approach in problem solving

What is bottom-up management or approach and what does It look like?

The bottom-up approach is very different than the previous, top-down approach. The bottom-up analysis mainly depends upon the specific and general characteristics of the individual stock. In the bottom-up approach or the analysis, the main concentration is on the business within a business or depends upon the sector-to-sector parts and fundamentals.

The bottom-up analysis or the bottom-up approach takes its start from the company level but it does not just end there. To put it simply, the bottom-up approach and the bottom-up management is a way of making corporate decisions that initiate from the bottom of the hierarchy instead of initiating from the top, hence the name bottom-up approach. In the bottom-up analysis, the decision-making is not only up to the head or the leader of the sector. 

Instead, the decision is finalized by the leader after examining the conclusions deduced by the team members. The top-down approach focuses more on the part where it breaks down the certain problem into much smaller parts. But on the contrary, the bottom-up approach first keeps its focus on solving the smaller problems and then integrating them into a whole and complete solution. The bottom-up approach is mostly practiced for many future tasks like goal setting, budgeting, and forecasting. 

What are the advantages of the bottom-up approach?

There are several advantages and various ways through which any entity can be benefitted. However, there are still a lot of people who do not know the basic advantages of the bottom-up approach. 

Therefore, some of the basic and most highlighted advantages of the bottom-up approach are mentioned below.

Increased rate of collaboration

Since the bottom-up approach is done by collective decision making the chances of a higher collaboration rate are much more. It is promising that when the team members work together and the conclusion is deduced by analyzing the several decisions into one single place.

Improved employee motivation

Working with the bottom-up approach there is a much higher chance of improved employee motivation. The implementation of the bottom-up approach increases more responsibilities and the opportunities to contribute. Such factors affect the motivational levels of your other team members as well. 

Increased levels of trust between the higher and lower grade employees

The other major advantage that is mostly gained by practicing the bottom-up approach is the increased levels of trust between the other employees belonging to different levels. It is quite popularly known that the bottom-up approach is implemented when the problems are analyzed together as a team. 

Hence, this approach of working together and deducing the conclusions by mutual understanding and working together gives a high rise to the trust levels between every employee.

Disadvantages of the Bottom-up approach

Everything has its pros and cons. Likewise, the bottom-up approach has its disadvantages as well. Some of the disadvantages accompanied by the bottom-up approach are mentioned below.

Can be time-consuming

The bottom-up approach can be quite a time-taking and can take much longer as well to deduce the conclusion. Therefore, if you are looking for a quick approach then the bottom-up approach is not for you.

Ego can get in the way

While making certain decisions with the other employees’, the ego factor is very common. It is because some employees, especially those belonging to the higher class may not like working with their juniors or may not like the idea of them making any solid decision. Hence, if you want to be hassle free and do not want ego to come in between then take an alternative approach.

The above-mentioned information explains what is a top-down approach and a bottom-up approach. It also explains the Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up: What's the Difference topic pretty well. You need to understand the basics and draw a meaning from them.

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Sunday, November 24, 2013

Top-down vs. bottom-up problem solving approaches at mckinsey.

what is top down approach in problem solving

Top-Down Approach

Bottom-up approach, top-down vs. bottom-up thinking, why the top-down approach is preferred, why the bottom-up approach is not preferred, a common exception - excel modeling, 155 comments:.

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A big thanks to Dr Oselumen i never believe that there still exist a real death spell caster after all this years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until i was opportune to meet Dr Oselumen a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr oselumen had helped before, when i contacted him with his email via [email protected] i explain how my ex have been giving me problem in my marriage, she never allowed me a moment of peace, and i need to end it by killing her, and i don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so i needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why i decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as i have contacted the right person at the right time, i co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, she slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr Oselumen indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact dr oselumen for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth ,death spell to kill anyone who have scammed you in the past ,spell for increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex lover back, if things is not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email [email protected] call or add him on whatsapp +2348054265852.

what is top down approach in problem solving

Hiv disease for the last 3 years and had pain hard to eat and cough are nightmares,especially the first year At this stage, the immune system is severely weakened, and the risk of contracting opportunistic infections is much greater. However, not everyone with HIV will go on to develop AIDS. The earlier you receive treatment, the better your outcome will be.I started taking ARV to avoid early death but I had faith in God that i would be healed someday.As a Hiv patent we are advise to be taking antiretroviral treatments to reduce our chance of transmitting the virus to others , few weeks ago i came on search on the internet if i could get any information on Hiv treatment with herbal medicine, on my search i saw a testimony of someone who has been healed from Hiv her name was Achima Abelard and other Herpes Virus patent Tasha Moore also giving testimony about this same man,Called Dr Itua Herbal Center.I was moved by the testimony and i contacted him by his [email protected] . We chatted and he send me a bottle of herbal medicine I drank it as he instructed me to.After drinking it he ask me to go for a test that how i ended my suffering life of Hiv patent,I'm cured and free of Arv Pills.I'm forever grateful to him Drituaherbalcenter.Here his contact Number +2348149277967...He assure me he can cure the following disease..Hiv,Cancer,Herpes Virus,Hpv,Pile,Weak Erection,Lyme Disease,Epilepsy,Glaucoma.,Brain Tumor,psoriasis, Cataracts,Macular degeneration,Cardiovascular disease,Chronic Diarrhea,Lung disease.Enlarged prostate,Osteoporosis.Alzheimer's disease, Dementia. ,Bladder Cancer,Autism,Colorectal Cancer,Breast Cancer,Kidney Cancer,Leukemia,Lung Cancer,Tay tach disease,Non Hodgkin Lymphoma,Skin Cancer,Lupus,Uterine Cancer,Prostate Cancer, Seizures, fibromyalgia ,ALS,Hepatitis,Copd,Parkinson disease.Genetic disease,Fibrodysplasia disease,Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva,Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Syndrome,Stroke,Hpv,Weak Erection,Liver/Kidney Inflammatory,Men/Woman infertility, bowel disease ,Huntington's disease ,Diabetes,Fibroid.

I am very happy to inform the general public that I am finally cured from Herpes simplex virus recently with the use of herbal medicine, the powerful herbal medicine cured me completely and i was tested negative after usage, I am using this means to inform other's who have the virus that there is a cure for Herpes simplex 1&2 . It is absolutely true. I was cured by Dr Alli, only him I can recognize who cure Herpes perfectly well. I will advice you to contact this great doctor who God has send to put an end to the sorrowful and deadly disease. Contact him via Email  [email protected] or add him on WhatsApp +2348100772528

What a beautiful and wonderful testimony, sometimes things you don't believe can just happen. My name is Adams Vera, from U.S.A am 28 years old i got married at the age of 24 i have only one child and i was living happily. After three years of my marriage my husband behavior became so strange and i don't really understand what was going on, he packed out of the house to another woman i love him so much that i never dreamed of losing him, i try my possible best to make sure that my husband get back to me but all to no avail i cry and i cry seeking for help because i was heart broken until i coincidentally came across an online spell caster called Dr. Osasu , i contacted him and explained to him what i have been going through in my marriage and he gave me the full assurance that my husband will come back to me and my marriage will be restored, He told me what to do to get my husband back and i did, he said after 3days my husband will come back to me and start begging, it really happen it was so surprising and everything was just like a miracle, ever since my family have been living with so much happiness and our relationship was now very tight because of this great and powerful spell caster.he is a very great and powerful spell caster that can be trusted and there is nothing concerning life issues he cannot solve because i am a living testimony. i know there are so many people out there who are going through similar problems in one way or the other, believe me this is the right spell caster to contact and all your problems will be forgotten. contact Dr. Osasu viaWhatsapp: +2347064365391 Email:Account [email protected]

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Nice information on here, I would like to share with you all my experience trying to get a loan to expand my Clothing Business here in Malaysia. It was really hard on my business going down due to my little short time illness then when I got heal I needed a fund to set it up again for me to begin so I came across Mr Benjamin a loan consultant officer at Le_Meridian Funding Service He asked me of my business project and I told him i already owned One and i just needed loan of 200,000.00 USD he gave me form to fill and I did also he asked me of my Valid ID in few days They did the transfer and my loan was granted. I really want to appreciate there effort also try to get this to anyone looking for business loan or other financial issues to Contact Le_Meridian Funding Service On Email: [email protected] / [email protected] He also available on WhatsApp Contact:+1-9893943740.

I don't really know how it sound when i say such thing here, I've been searching for help on how to get rid of my ex lover that broke up with me 5 months ago and scamming me of my hard earn money .. I was traumatized by the incidence and nearly wanted to commit suicide because i was left with nothing but i thank God that i got the contact of Ogbeifun the spiritual father that helped me to get ride of my ex lover that scammed me after much searching of help from different places. When i got in touch with Dr Ogbeifun, i explained everything to him and he gave me his words of encouragement and told me what i wanted, if i need him back or i need revenge and i told him i want him dead because the wicked must not go unpunished so Ogbeifun help me cast a death spell on him and within 48 hours my ex lover was found dead in his apartment with a suicide note and since that day i became a happy woman and now i have regain all that i have lost in the past with the help of Dr Ogbeifun. If you need any assistance whatsoever like getting cured from sickness, getting pregnant, spell of various type E.T.C. Then, I suggest that you get in touch with Lord noble now through his Email ID: [email protected] call or add him on whatsapp +2348102574680    

The Le_Meridian Funding Service went above and beyond their requirements to assist me with my loan which i used expand my pharmacy business,They were friendly, professional, and absolute gems to work with.I will recommend  anyone looking for loan to contact. [email protected]  Or [email protected] ... + 19893943740.

I am not sure I could have done it without you Dr Azaka. I would have given up and believed that because my husband was with someone else and we were done. I wanted to thank you for your love spell during my recent separation from my husband of 30 years. I wanted to share my happiness with you all. My husband was cheating on me and when i found out we had a fight which lead to him filling for a divorce i cried and fell sick, when i was searching about love quotes online i saw people talking about Dr Azaka love Spell and his great work whose case was similar to mine they left his contact info i contacted him and he told me not to worry that after 24 hrs he will cancel the divorce and be back to me after i did everything he asked me to do. to my greatest surprise the next day evening it was my husband he knelt down begging me to accept him back, thank you once again dr Azaka, your love spell effect never cease to amaze me, you are are indeed a blessing to me he can also help you .Here’s his contact, Email him via [email protected] or Call/WhatsApp him: +2349059389105 'Thank you. We are forever indebted..

I want to testify of this great death spell caster. This great man helped me cast a death spell on my wicked step father and just within 24hours the wicked man had a motor crash and died. All thanks to this great death spell caster called dr oselumen. You too can contact him now for an urgent death spell cast on anyone via Email [email protected] call or add him on whatsapp +2348054265852. contact dr oselumen today for any spell , court case spell , love spell , money spell , deliverance spell , healing spell,spell to remove black magic out of your life , family and marriage problem. 

What a wonderful and a straight forward spell caster that has brought back joy and happiness into my life! Am giving this testimony because am so happy, I want to thank Dr. Osasu for the great thing He has done in my life , He brought happiness back to my life, I never believed in spell casters until my life fell apart when my lover of 6 years decided to call it quit almost when we wanted to get married. I was so emotional breakdown to the extent i could not do anything reasonable again, after 2months in pain before an old friend of mine introduced me to a spell caster on line called Dr Osasu, this was after I have been scammed by various fake spell casters. I was introduced me to Dr Osasu a true Spell Caster. In less than 24 hours i saw wonders, my lover came back to me and my life got back just like a completed puzzle, and after 1month later we got married and it was just like a dream to me because i thought i had lost him forever. Thank you Dr. Osasu for helping me but most of all, Your Honesty and Fast Accurate Results. email: [email protected] WhatsApp Number: +2347064365391

Spell to fix your broken marriage or relationship problem or after a divorce or Breakup,I was recently scam by two of them, until one faithful day i meet a man called Dr Oselumen who help me to get back to the father of my kid after we have been separated for two years,I only pay for the items required for the spell and he cast the spell for me within 24hours my ex husband called me and beg me to forgive him for everything until the end of the world he will never leave me again we are back together.if you need a real and quick love spell or you are passing through pregnancy problem Dr Oselumen is the answer, Pleas e if any body needs. LOVE SPELL,LOTTERY,PREGNANCY SPELL, DIVORCE SPELL,STOP COURT CASE AND WIN ANY COURT PROBLEM,DEATH SPELL,BUSINESS SPELL AND MANY MORE YOU MAY NEED. Email him now for your own help. via email [email protected] add him on whatsapp line or call +2348054265852. 

FINALLY FREE FROM HERPES VIRUS I thought my life had nothing to offer anymore because lifebecame meaningless to me because I had Herpes virus, thesymptoms became very severe and bold and made my familyrun from and abandoned me so they won't get infected. I gaveup everything, my hope, dreams,vision and job because thedoctor told me there's no cure. I consumed so many drugs butthey never cured me but hid the symptoms inside me makingit worse. I was doing some research online someday when Icame across testimonies of some people of how DR Ebhotacured them from Herpes, I never believed at first and thoughtit was a joke but later decided to contact him on the detailsprovided and when I messaged him we talked and he sent mehis herbal medicine and told me to go for a test after twoweeks. Within 7 days of medication the symptomsdisappeared and when I went for a test Lo and behold I wasNEGATIVE by the Doctor Who tested me earlier. Thank you DREbhota because I forever owe you my life and I'll keep ontelling the world about you. If you are going through samesituation worry no more and contact DR Ebhota viadrebhotasolution@gmail. com or WhatsApp him via +2348089535482.he also special on cureing 1. HIV/AIDS2. HERPES 3. CANCER 4.ALS 5. HEPATITIS B 6.DIABETES 7. HUMAN PAPILOMA VIRUS DISEASE(HPV)8. ALZHEIMER 9. LUPUS (Lupus Vulgaris or LupusErythematosus 

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Thank you Dr Williams for what you have done for me am so greatful my lover is back to me and we are now living happily together. Dr Williams love spell is very powerful and effective and it does not have any side effect as he promised I decided to give Dr Williams a try when my lover left me for another he helped me to cast a love spell on my lover that brought him back to me what makes me excited the most is that my lover did not even know he is under a spell if you are passing through relationship love problem I advice you to contact Dr Williams to get your problem solve. It's very hard to loose a love one and I know how it feels so do not let somebody take away your lover from you. Contact Dr Williams today and get your problem solve and if you need his help below here is his email address. drwilliams533@gmail. com or you can also reach him on his WhatsApp +2348136785562

best spell caster 2020 is Dr Abuu the great wizard from African I want to use this medium to thank him for bringing my ex wife back to me, he only told me to provide the spiritual items needed for the love spell and which I did, and he also told me that after getting the items, in 48 hours I will start seeing the result and truly is a man of his words,,, contact him today and get your problem solved. He can help you with any kind of spell casting…. Email him. ([email protected] you can also reach him on WhatsApp +2348115685795

I don't really know how it sound when i say such thing here, I've been searching for help on how to get rid of my ex lover that broke up with me 5 months ago and scamming me of my hard earn money .. I was traumatized by the incidence and nearly wanted to commit suicide because i was left with nothing but i thank God that i got the contact of Ogbeifun the spiritual father that helped me to get ride of my ex lover that scammed me after much searching of help from different places. When i got in touch with Dr Ogbeifun, i explained everything to him and he gave me his words of encouragement and told me what i wanted, if i need him back or i need revenge and i told him i want him dead because the wicked must not go unpunished so Ogbeifun help me cast a death spell on him and within 48 hours my ex lover was found dead in his apartment with a suicide note and since that day i became a happy woman and now i have regain all that i have lost in the past with the help of Dr Ogbeifun. If you need any assistance whatsoever like getting cured from sickness, getting pregnant, spell of various type E.T.C. Then, I suggest that you get in touch with Lord noble now through his Email ID: ogbefunhearlingtemple@ gmail. com call or add him on whatsapp +2348102574680

I don't really know how it sound when i say such thing here, I've been searching for help on how to get rid of my ex lover that broke up with me 5 months ago and scamming me of my hard earn money .. I was traumatized by the incidence and nearly wanted to commit suicide because i was left with nothing but i thank God that i got the contact of Ogbeifun the spiritual father that helped me to get ride of my ex lover that scammed me after much searching of help from different places. When i got in touch with Dr Ogbeifun, i explained everything to him and he gave me his words of encouragement and told me what i wanted, if i need him back or i need revenge and i told him i want him dead because the wicked must not go unpunished so Ogbeifun help me cast a death spell on him and within 48 hours my ex lover was found dead in his apartment with a suicide note and since that day i became a happy woman and now i have regain all that i have lost in the past with the help of Dr Ogbeifun. If you need any assistance whatsoever like getting cured from sickness, getting pregnant, spell of various type E.T.C. Then, I suggest that you get in touch with Lord noble now through his Email ID: [email protected] call or add him on whatsapp +2348102574680

Good news this is to everyone out there with different health challenges, as I know there are still a lot of people suffering from different health issues and are therefore looking for solutions. I bring you Good news. There is a man called Dr odion a herbal practitioner who helped cure me from HSV (2), i had suffered from this diseases for the past 5 years and i have spent so much money trying to survive from it. I got my healing by taking the herbal medicine Dr odion sent to me to drink for about 14 days . 3 days after completion of the dosage, I went for a medical checkup and I was tested free from HSV. all thanks to God for leading me to Dr odion who was able to cure me completely from this deadly diseases, I’m sharing this so that other people can know of this great healer called Dr odion because I got to know him through elizabeth who he cured from HIV. I was made to understand that he can cure several other deadly diseases and infections. Don’t die in ignorance or silent and don’t let that illness take your life. Contact Dr odion through his email [email protected] You can also whatsapp/call him on:+2349019421176 . He cure all forms of disease {1}HIV/AIDS {2}DIABETES {3}EPILEPSY {4} BLOOD CANCER {5} HPV {6} BRAIN TUMOR {7} HEPATITIS {8}COPD{9} SICKLE AND ANAEMIA.etc Be kind enough to share as you received

Hi viewers, I'm posting this Because i found lots of people having marriage problems which I also experienced. I recently found help from a man called Dr. Oselumen he did a great job that made my man fell back in love with me again after ten months of separation. I want you to know there are fake online spell Dr .s if someone out there needs help, can email this great spell caster, [email protected] check or connect with him on WhatsApp +2348054265852. He will give you the best result. CONTACT HIM FOR ANY KIND OF HELP,MONEY SPELL,LOTTERY SPELL,PREGNANCY SPELL,DIVORCE SPELL,SPELL TO STOP COURT CASE AND WIN ANY COURT PROBLEM,DEATH SPELL,BUSINESS SPELL,HEALING SPELL,SPELL TO REMOVE BLACK MAGIC OUT FROM YOUR LIFE,FAMILY AND MARRIAGE PROBLEM.

First of all thanks to Dr.Agbazara for bringing back my lover to me within 48 hour. I have nothing to say than to Thank you and to let you know that i am happy.. My Lover treats me better and he spends most of her time with me now telling me how much he loves me than ever before.. If you have any problems with your lover contact Dr.Agbazara via email: ( [email protected] ) or WhatsApp +2348104102662 because he is the solution to every relationship problems

I am very glad for what Dr Ogedegbe did for me, i meant dr ogedegbe through a friend he helped win a court case of divorce few weeks ago and when i contacted him, he help me to cast a death spell on my mother in-law who was really troubling my life and future, she never wanted my progress, each time I get a job from a company, I get drove back because of the witchcraft mother in-law I have, I never knew my mother in-law was the one troubling me, until one day I contacted Dr Ogedegbe for help and he told me that my mother in-law is the one troubling me and he help me cast a death spell on her. I am happy because the evil doer is dead and ever since then my life has turned around for good things, I now work fine for me and am now i am happily living beautifully with my family, thanks to Dr Ogedegbe. I recommend you to contact Dr Ogedegbe via email dr.ogedegbe6@gmail. com or call/whatsapp him via +2348109374702..

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Going through divorce with the partner you love is like been in hell, my husband filed for a divorce without giving me reasons. I was totally down for I had no idea of what was happening and I tried to confront him to know what led to such action but he didn't give me listening ears.. I tried getting to know what happened through his family members but that didn't work either and this time was going mad about everything till I searched for help online and I came across Lord Zakuza contact number +1 740 (573) 9483 and I messaged him to let him know what I was going through and Lord Zakuza encouraged and promised to help me with his powerful spell and within 48 hours after contacting Lord Zakuza and followed all his instructions, my attorney called me to get me informed that the divorce case has been cancelled and after 30 minutes, I got a call from my husband pleading and begging for forgiveness and right now we are back together with so much love and care. Thank You Lord Zakuza.

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DR JOHN SOCO is simply the best spell caster and helper. My name is Precious Kurlan, Out of respect for you and your spells I must make this testimony know to all. I've been to other spell casters without seeing any result.I just wished I came to you earlier, i got the best from you. My ex husband was gone for a year and I went everywhere and other spell casters for help but no result until my friend introduce me to Dr John Soco After the Love Spell was done, I finally got a calls from him in 24 hours like DR JOHN SOCO assured me. His spells worked wonders and my husband is back with full of love. It's a miracle! He suddenly came back with flowers saying that i should forgive him, i was truly flabbergasted and shocked when my husband kneel down begging for forgiveness and for me to accept him back. I'm really short of words and joyful, you are a God sent to me and my entire family. And now i am a joyful woman once again. Thank you so much Dr John Soco To everyone who is looking for a real spell caster should contact DR John Soco On: [email protected] You can also Whatsapp him on +1 706 871 4571 .

what is top down approach in problem solving

I was married for 16 years to a loving mother and wife. We had 2 children together who are now 11 & 13. I reconnected with an old girlfriend from college on Facebook and we began an affair and I left my wife. The woman I had an affair with is a wonderful woman and I love her too and our kids had begun accepting the situation and my wife has kind of moved on, but not in love with the man she is seeing. I thought I fell out of love with my wife and I felt terrible about what I did to her - she is a good woman and I don't know what came over me. I decided to try and get her back and I was recommended to Lord Zakuza for help to get reunited with my wife and within 48 hours after I made contact with Lord Zakuza my wife decided to work things out with me and now we are back together with our children living as one happy family... I really don't know the words to use in appreciation of what Lord Zakuza did for me but I will say thank you sir for reuniting I and my family back. For those in trying times with their marriages or relationship can WhatsApp Lord Zakuza for help or text with this number +1 740-573-9483 or you can send him an email to [email protected]

what is top down approach in problem solving

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A big thanks to Dr Oselumen i never believe that there still exist a real death spell caster after all this years of disappointment from the enormous spammers on the Internet who go about scamming people, until i was opportune to meet Dr Oselumen a real spell caster, through a close friend called Jennifer who Dr oselumen had helped before, when i contacted him with his email via [email protected] i explain how my ex have been giving me problem in my marriage, he never allowed me a moment of peace, and i need to end it by killing him, and i don't want to make use of assassin because it will be risky so i needed to do it in a spiritual way that's why i decided to contact him, he assured me not to worry as i have contacted the right person at the right time, i co-operated with him and in less than a week my ex was dead, he slept and never woke up all thanks to Dr Oselumen indeed he's really a humble man. you can contact dr oselumen for any death spell, such as to kill your superior in the office and take his or her place, death spell to kill your father and inherit his wealth ,death spell to kill anyone who have scammed you in the past ,spell for increase in salaries, spell for promotion at the office, spell to get your ex lover back, if things is not working well in your life then you need to contact him now via Email droselumen@gmail. com call or add him on whatsapp +2348054265852.  

I was married for 16 years to a loving mother and wife. We had 2 children together who are now 11 & 13. I reconnected with an old girlfriend from college on Facebook and we began an affair and I left my wife. The woman I had an affair with is a wonderful woman and I love her too and our kids had begun accepting the situation and my wife has kind of moved on, but not in love with the man she is seeing. I thought I fell out of love with my wife and I felt terrible about what I did to her - she is a good woman and I don't know what came over me. I decided to try and get her back and I was recommended to Lord Zakuza for help to get reunited with my wife and within 48 hours after I made contact with Lord Zakuza my wife decided to work things out with me and now we are back together with our children living as one happy family. I really don't know the words to use in appreciation of what Lord Zakuza did for me but I will say thank you sir for reuniting I and my family back. For those in trying times with their marriages or relationship can browse through his website via: lordzakuzaspells.com or WhatsApp Lord Zakuza for help or text with this number +1 740 573 9483 or you can send him an email to [email protected]

Are you facing any kind of difficulty in life and want the help of a spell caster, are you facing divorce and want a reconciliation Dr.OKOLO is the right and genuine man for the job, he is really good at what he does because he also helped me to recover my husband after separation contact him on WhatsApp: +2347031895935 OR email [email protected] I would advise you to contact DR OKOLO because he is the right man to help you get your problem solved.You can reach him for the following spell work: love spell,divorce spell,Forgiveness Spell Attractiveness Spell, marriage spell, death spell, lottery spell,herbal medicine for any kind of health problem

what is top down approach in problem solving

LOVE SPELL CASTER (DR. OGEDEGBE) THAT HELPED ME BRING BACK MY EX BOYFRIEND CONTACT HIM NOW FOR ANY KIND OF HELP…….With so much joy in my heart i am here to express myself on how Dr. OGEDEGBE saved my relationship from breaking up. Myself and my boyfriend were having some misunderstanding and it was tearing our relationship apart to the extent my boyfriend was seeking for a break up. So I have no option than to go to the internet to seek a solution to my problem. It was there I came across Dr. OGEDEGBE details and about how he has helped a lot of people by restoring their relationship. I contacted Dr.OGEDEGBE and in less than 48 hours my boyfriend cancelled the break up. Now myself and my boyfriend live together in peace and harmony all thanks to Dr.OGEDEGBE for saving my relationship from breaking up. Dr. OGEDEGBE contact information are via email: [email protected] or call his phone number or WhatsApp: +2348109374702 .

what is top down approach in problem solving

POWERFUL SPELL CASTER THAT BROUGHT MY EX HUSBAND BACK INTO MY LIFE AFTER HE LEFT ME  I will advise you out there if you have any problem contact DR.DAVID, i give you 100% guarantee that he will help you.. Email him: @[email protected] or WhatsApp him on +2347040654140 Website: http://awesomespelltemplem.website2.me https://www.facebook.com/Awesomelovepelltemple https://awesomespelltemple.blogspot.com/

what is top down approach in problem solving

After 8 years in marriage with my husband with 1 kid, my husband started acting weird and going out with other ladies and showed me cold love, on several occasions he threatens to divorce me if I dare question him about his affair with other ladies, I was totally devastated and confused until a old friend of mine told me about a spell caster on the internet called DR JOHN SOCO who help people with relationship and marriage problem by the powers of love spells, at first I doubted if such thing ever exists but decided to give it a try, when I contact him, he helped me cast a love spell and within 48 hours my husband came back to me and started apologizing, now he has stopped going out with other ladies and his with me for good and for real. Contact this great love spell caster for your relationship or marriage problem to be solved today via: Drjohnsoco @ gmail. com or directly WhatsApp +1 706 871 4571 .

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This year has been so blissful to me for God has given me a reason to live happily again after been heart broken for 3 months when my husband neglected me and went back to he's mistress. I suffered and went through all types of emotional tortures for I couldn't get any help to get my man back not until I was refereed to Lord Zakuza by my co-worker who gave me her full assurance about him that he can be of help to me. I got in touch with Lord Zakuza and I hearken to his words and followed the instructions given to me by him. Could you believe that my husband got back home within 48 hours as said by him and today, my marriage is restored & I'm so thankful, appreciative & grateful to God for using Lord Zakuza to get my man back after 3 months of broken marriage. Is there anyone out there who needs to get back to he's or her lover back or needs any help of any kind? Then, I suggest that you get in touch with Lord Zakuza now through his Email ID: [email protected] or WhatsApp him on + 1 (740) 573–9483 for more information. God bless you sir.

All thanks to Dr. Ojie the great herbal healer for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of herpes since 2017 and I was taking my medications, I wasn't satisfied i needed to get the herpes out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for herpes i saw a comment about Dr.Ojie ,how he cured herpes with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and miraculously i was cured from herpes , thank you dr Ojie you can also contact him on [email protected] or Whatsapp or call +2349015357322 Doctor Ojie can cure the following diseases :: Kidney failure ,Herpes1/2, CANCER, ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease), Hepatitis A/B, chronic pancreatitis, Emphysema, COPD (Chronic , Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), asthma, Acute angle-closure Glaucoma, Diabetes, CHRONIC PANCREATITIS.

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Do you want to find your lost love then call our best Indian astrology Kabir ji whose number is- +91 9024389199 visit us- https://www.theamarastro.com/intercaste-marriage-problem Do you want to get your lost love or want to bring the same in your life, then call our best Indian astrology Kabir ji whose number is - +91 9024389199 visit us- https://www.theamarastro.com/get-your-love-back

Are you in bad need of love spell to bring back your ex lover or reunite your marriage!DR JOHN for quick 24 hours solution. my name is Caroline Kate and I had a problem with my husband 14 Years, which lead us apart. When he broke up with me, I was confuse and did not know what to do to get him back, I felt so empty inside. Until i came across DR JOHN on the internet on how He has helped so many people solve there various problem. I emailed Him and I told Him my problem and i did what he asked me to do for him to help me, to briefly make the long story short, Before I knew it, in less than 24 HOURS, my Husband gave me a call and he came back to me and told me he was sorry about what was going on between the both of us. Finally I am writing this testimony to offer my thanks and deep gratitude to you DR JOHN for keeping to your words and your promises in bringing him back to me in just 24 hours of your powerful spell casting, and for using your gifted and great powers to bring him back. If you need his help, you can email him at: drjohnsoco @ gmail .com You can also WhatsApp him on +1 706 871 4571 ..

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Hi, I've been searching for help on how to get my ex lover back that broke up with me 2 years ago.. I was traumatized by the break up and nearly wanted to commit suicide but I thank God that I got the contact of LORD ZAKUZA the spiritual father that helped me to get back my ex lover after much searching of help from different places. When I got in touch with LORD ZAKUZA, I explained everything to him to he gave me his words of encouragement and told me that he was going to prepare a spell for me that will help me get back my ex lover within 48 hours and I believed in his words for I was referred to him by a friend who he helped and right now, my ex lover is back and we are living happily together to get married next month. If you need any assistance whatsoever like getting cured from sickness, getting pregnant E.T.C. Then, I suggest that you get in touch with LORD ZAKUZA now through his WhatsApp him on + 1 (740) 573–9483 or Email: [email protected] I'm forever grateful to you LORD ZAKUZA.

A lot of people go through pains in their relationships it’s hard to give up on true love, sometimes we pretend to be fine but we are not, fighting to get the one we love is also fighting to get back our joy and happiness. Lord Zakuza is here to help the broken hearts for he's capable and able to get your EX lovers, partners, wife and husband back with he's powerful love spells. Get in touch with him as soon as you can through his website: lordzakuzaspells.com or WhatsApp number on +1 (740) 573-9483 or email him through [email protected]

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I have great joy in my heart as I'm writing this testimony about the great man called Dr.John, When my lover left me, I thought i will not be able to get her back after all she has put me through, but I am so happy that after the interference of Dr.John, I was able to get my lover back within 48 hours. And I can proudly say that who ever need help in getting his lover back should contact Dr.John on these contact details below WhatsApp +1 706 871 4571, or Drjohnsoco @ gmail. com, for quicker response of what I have just witness.

Hi everyone I’m MAGGIE and am here to share the wonderful work Dr Odianosen did for me. After 5 years in marriage with my husband with 2 kids, my husband started acting weird and going out with other ladies and showed me cold love, on several occasions he threatens to divorce me if I dare question him about his affair with other ladies, I was totally devastated and confused until a old friend of mine told me about a spell caster on the internet called Dr. Odianosen who help people with relationship and marriage problem by the powers of love spells, at first I doubted if such thing ever exists but decided to give it a try, when I contact him, he helped me cast a love spell and within 48hours my husband came back to me and started apologizing, now he has stopped going out with other ladies and his with me for good and for real. Contact this great love spell caster for your relationship or marriage problem to be solved today via email: [email protected] or Call or WhatsApp: +2348107771101 for more info

i  want to let the world know about Dr, Paul the Great spell caster that brought back my husband to me when I thought all hope was lost. Dr, Paul    used his powerful spell to put a smile on my face by bringing back my man with his spell, at first i thought i was dreaming when my husband came back to me on his knees begging me to forgive him and accept him back and ever since then he loves me more than i ever expected so i made a vow to my self that i will let the World know about Dr, Paul    because he is a God on earth. Do you have problems in your relationship ? have your partner broke up with you and you still love and want him back ? Do you have problem with your finance ? or do you need help of any kind then contact Dr, Paul   today for i give you 100% guarantee that he will help you just as he helped me. Dr,  Paul   email is:   [email protected] or contact him on WhatsApp +27679901055

Do you need black magic spells to get rid of your husband's mistress ? Do you want to fix your marriage or relationship or you want to get back with your ex after the breakup or you want to put a stop to that Divorce? Do you want revenge on your enemies or do you want a death spell cast on someone who has wronged you in the past ? If yes then let me recommend a tested and trusted voodoo man called Dr noble who has helped me to destroy my enemy (Donald) that almost ruined my life just because I got married to his ex girlfriend which was no fault of mine. I contacted Dr Noble for his powerful death spell and in 48 hours Donald died in an accident. It was the greatest news to me that day. Finally my enemy is out of the way, thank you Dr Noble. Here is Dr Noble's contact via noblesolutiontemple. com or add him on WhatsApp for quicker communication +2349 05 9610 643

I want to share to the world how Dr Maggi helped me cure my Herpes with his herbs i never believe it will work because i was introduce to him by my friend who was cure of herpes by Dr Maggi, so i will tell you all who is looking for a cure to their herpes, he took research before he could finally get the solution to it. thank God today am a beneficiary to these cure and i went back to the hospital after 7days of taking the herbs and i was tested negative, and he also cure any kind of  cancer without any surgery and he heal with natural herb. please i urge you to contact him now through his email address: [email protected] or call/whatsApp him on +19179796387

Amazing things I have experienced in my life. I visited here on Fb on the 8th of August and I saw a wonderful testimony of Lisa on a psychic page about the good works of DR Owo. I never believed it, because I have never heard anything about such a miracle before. Nobody would have been able to convince me about it not until DR Owo did a marvelous work for me that restored My marriage of 6 years by getting my husband back to me .  I was truly shocked when my husband knelt down pleading for forgiveness to accept him back. I am really short of words to use to show my appreciation to Dr Owo For his a God sent to me and my Entire family for divine restoration of my marriage. Contact him now for any kind of help via email: [email protected]

Yes it is true that Dr John is the best to restore broken homes and relationships. My name is precious kurlan , and i was a client for DR John and i must tell you that he is a real spell caster. When i contacted this spell caster my boyfriend had left me for 7 years and i have always wanted him back to me. I contacted DR John to help me about a three weeks ago and i have reconnected with my boyfriend. When my ex boyfriend left me it was turmoil for me. This became a disaster for me that i had a physiological trauma and my family were very worried about my health. After 4 years, I met DR John through a testimony also and he told me to calm myself that no matter what the problem is, he is well and ready to help anyone who comes to him. Just in 3 days, my ex called me and wanted to meet. I agreed and made preparations to meet him and he told me how he had felt guilty for what he did and he wanted me back. I praised DR John for his marvelous handiwork and i will recommend him to anyone who needs a spell caster. Contact him to help you and fast at his email: [email protected] , You can also WhatsApp him on +1 706 871 4571 ..

Hello everyone my name is Deanna from France. My husband and I have been married for over 10 years. We met when I was 18 and he was 21. We’ve been through a lot emotionally together. There were several HUGE fights and painful situations in our marriage, but we always seemed to come out stronger on the other side. Out of the blue my husband just sprung the divorce talk on me, I was totally depressed until I found Dr.Ogbeifun website online and I ordered for a Love spell. You won’t believe my husband called me at the exact time this spell caster finished his spell work in 48hrs. I was totally amazed! He is wonderful and his spells work so fast. His Email ID: [email protected] call or add him on whatsapp +2348102574680 don't hesitate to contact him   

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I'm Tonia Anderson by name, I am from the States, Suffolk county to be precise. I am here today to testify of the good works LORD ZAKUZA has done in my life, I never knew great men still exist until I found him. I have been suffering from heart break for the past 3 years, my partner who I invested on cheated on me with my best friend on my matrimonial bed, I was yet to recover from this terrible shock and needed help to make him stop cheating. A friend of mine directed me to this spell caster called Lord Zakuza. I doubted him at first but as things went further, I had to give him my trust and I did exactly what he told me to do. Ever since then, I have been happy all my life and my love life with my partner has been so wonderful and all this happened within 48 hours of contacting Lord Zakuza.. You can also need his help for anything and here's his contact information's. Email: lordzakuza7 @ gmail. com and Website: lordzakuzaspells.com or Call/text/WhatsApp +1 (740) 573-9483.

HOW I GOT CURED FROM HERPES VIRUS I was diagnosed of HERPES virus and i have tried all I can to get cured but all to no avail,,until I saw a post in a health forum about a herbalist man who prepare herbal medications to cure all kind of diseases including HERPES virus,at first I doubted if it was real but decided to give it a try,when I contacted this herbalist via his email and he prepared a HERPES herbal cure and sent it to me via UPS delivery company service, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step by direction on how to apply it,after applying theUPS delivery company service, when I received this herbal medicine, he gave me step by direction on how to apply it,after applying the. way I was instructed,I was totally cured of this deadly disease called HERPES, all thanks to Dr oboh.Email [email protected] this great herbal doctor via WhatsApp+2348089281017 HE CAN ALSO CURE SICKNESS LIKE{1}HIV/AIDS {2}DIABETES {3}EPILEPSY {4} BLOOD CANCER {5} HPV {6} ALS {7} HEPATITIS {8}LOVE SPELL {9} SICKLE AND ANAEMIA.. or via whatsapp +2348089281017

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To everyone out there who thinks love spells don't work, I’m here to tell you that Lord Zakuza love spell is the best and most powerful.. I am a wealthy man who has lots of assets and possessions but I have difficulty with women. Whenever I try to settle down with any, we end up breaking up and I had no idea of why I was going through such an experience in my relationship. It was so worrying that I couldn’t be myself anymore and I started searching for help everywhere even at my place of work. I was going through my work activities online and I came across a testimony of a lady called ( Febe Anouk ) regarding how Lord Zakuza helped her to restore her relationship with his love spell, I had to give it a try because I needed my Ex lover back that I love so much. I visited Lord Zakuza website online and I told him everything I was going through. Lord Zakuza consoled me and promised to help me out with my situation by preparing a love spell for me. I followed the instructions given by him to me and within 48 hours, my Ex lover came looking for me and pleaded for forgiveness. Since I came in contact with Lord Zakuza, things have changed for good in my life and right now, I am married with two beautiful kids and my home is blessed. All thanks to Lord Zakuza I am forever thankful to you. Visit his website for any help via lordzakuzaspells.com or WhatsApp him on +1 740-573-9483. Try him and your life will be blessed.

I am so happy that I made the right decision when I turned to Dr. Osasco, who helped me get my ex back by casting a love spell on him. One of the best decisions I've ever made was to contact Dr. Osasco to help me get my lover back. I was a life full of happiness after contacting Dr. Osasco, because not only did he not bring me his lover, but he also fell in love with himself more unique and excellent. If you need to spice up your relationship with more love and attention, contact Dr. Osasco on his email address [ [email protected] ] and be happy, just like me, thanks to Dr. Osasco for your great work.

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My husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promised never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. Thank you Dr OGEDEGBE for saving my broken Marriage. Dr OGEDEGBE is the best online spell caster that is powerful and genuine, you can as well contact him for the following services, Death Spell, Lottery Spell, Promotion Spell, Goodluck Spell, Pregnancy Spell. etc Email him now today. Email him: [email protected] or  [email protected] whatsapp him via +2348109374702

i am here to share out my testimony on how i got back my husband, i am a lady with 2 kids i am from Indian, my husband left me and his kids for about 12 months i go through a lot of pain i do all i could to make him returned to me and to his kids but nothing works out. It was really a stressful period for me because I could not go through the heartbreak. I was told to get a love spell doctor to help me out, which I did. I was lucky to get DR.COROBO Contact who was able to help me out, it cast a love spell that brought my husband back to me and to his kids. Thanks so much DR. COROBO I really appreciate what you have done for me. Here is his contact if you may require it by solving your relationship email. [email protected] call whatsapp +2348101571054 bye.

I had major issues with my lover. she always seemed to be distant and hiding his phone. I found out that she was seeing her ex and we broke up. I was heartbroken. We had a messy break up and she hated me afterwards. she blocked me on everything and wouldn't talk to me. I read good reviews about dr noble at noblesolutiontemple. com so I tried one of his love spells to bring her back. Nothing else was working so I let him (Dr. Noble) handle it... About two weeks after my love spell was cast I was starting to think it wasn't going to work. Then out of the blue she started texting me again. she said she was sorry for what she put me through and that it was the biggest mistake of her life. He knows now that I am the love of her life and she doesn't want to lose me ever again. Making that happen was nothing short of a serious miracle! Thank you Dr Noble for bringing back my ex lover .You can reach dr noble on WhatsApp via +2349 05961 0643.

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I'm so Happy to write this article because I know it will help a lot of people who are suffering from Herpes. I am here to testify about the wonderful and most safe cure for herpes . I was positive to the deadly Virus called herpes and I lost hope completely because I was rejected even by my closest friends. I searched online to know and inquire about a cure for herpes and I saw testimony online on how Herbalist called Dr Osamu who cured so many people from Herpes virus and other similar diseases. I decided to contact the great herbalist because I know that nature has the power to heal everything. I contacted him to know how he can help me and he told me never to worry that he will help me with the natural roots and herbs. After 2 days of contacting him, he told me that the cure is ready and he sent it to me via UPS and it got to me after 4 days. I used the medicine as he instructed (morning and evening ) and I got cured. it's really like a dream but I'm so happy that's the reason i decided to also add more comment of Him so that more people can be saved just like me and if you need his help, contact him via Email: [email protected] or WhatsApp:+2349012406016

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What would i have done to get my husband back if not for the help of DR JOHN SOCO. my name is Sarah Nicky and I was in totally confused when my husband divorced me and said he was tired of me. My life was nothing without him and i tried all i could to make him cancel the divorce but he said his mind was made up and we went our separate ways. when my friend when searching for help and i was told to get in touch with DR JOHN SOCO for help by an New friend of mine when she heard what i was going through and i hurriedly contacted DR JOHN SOCO and explained everything to him and he told me that my husband will come back to me begging me to accept him back all within 24 hours just like everyone he had helped. DR JOHN SOCO restored the love and connection between me and my husband he truly returned back to me after 24 hours and it still amazes me. For more enquires on how to get in touch with DR JOHN SOCO, Email: [email protected] or WhatsApp him on +1 (706) 871 4571..

I'm Tom Kingsley,USA.It's been a while since I've written to thank Dr OHIKHOBO who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in 2016, i went to many hospitals for a cure but there was no solution, so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay. One day my Aunt Rosa introduce me to Doctor OHIKHOBO having seen so many testimony online about his herbal medication to cure HERPES and gave me his email:[email protected] , so I emailed him. He told me all the things I needed to do and also gave me instructions to follow, which I followed properly. Before I knew what was happening after one weeks the HERPES that was in my body vanished. so if you are you are having herpes or any kind of disease listed below *DIABETES *CANCER *STROKE *INFERTILITY *HEART DISEASE *HIV *COLD SORES *GENITAL WARTS And you also want cure, you can also email him at:[email protected] or through his WhatsApp +2348103601042

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HOW Pedro Jerome GRANTED ME A BUSINESS LOAN!!! Hello everyone, I am Arnnette Speak from the USA and want to use this medium to express gratitude to Pedro Jerome for fulfilling his promise by granting me a loan, i was stuck in a financial situation and needed to refinance and pay my bills as well as start up a Business. I tried seeking for loans from various loan firms both private and corporate organizations but never succeeded and most banks declined my credit request. But as God would have it, i was introduced by a friend named Esther to Pedro Jerome LOAN FIRM and undergone the due process of obtaining a loan from the company, to my greatest surprise within 48hrs just like my friend Esther said, i was also granted a loan of $387,000.00 USD; So my advice to everyone who desires a loan, "if you must contact any firm with reference to securing a loan online with low interest rate of 3% and better repayment plans/schedule, please contact Pedro Jerome LOAN FIRM. Besides, he doesn't know that I am doing this but due to the joy in me, I'm so happy and wish to let people know more about this great company who truly gives out loans, it is my prayer that GOD should bless them more as they put smiles on peoples faces. You can contact them via email on {[email protected] / whatsapp text: +1 863 231 0632 }

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I want to say thanks to this great man called Dr. Osasu who helped me in my marriage life. my name is Lilette Griffin lives in USA, So I was married to Albert we both love and like each other before our marriage, he care about my well being so i was so happy that i have found a man like this in my life my parents love him so much because of his kindness towards me and the way he care about me after four years in my marriage, no child he was not showing me much care anymore but i notice something is going on which i no. then i keep on with the relationship and i was hoping one day God will open my way to have a child in my home then i keep on going to church from one play to another by telling all the pastors about my problems that i don't have a child so many of them promise me that soon i we have a child in my home i keep on hoping in God's miracle on till one day when i went for a visit in my friend office then i was welcome by my friend we started dis causing about so many things on marriage life i was so shock she ask me about my wedding and what is going on till now i still don't have a child then i told her my dear sister i don't no what to do anymore and am scared of loosing my husband who have be caring for me for a long time now then she said i we not loosing him i ask how? then she said there is one man called Dr. Osasu who help in a relationship then i keep on asking how about him she told me this man can do all thing and make things possible i never believe her for once that this man she is talking about can do it so fast. also i ask her how do i get his contact she said i should not worry my self then she gave me his contact email ID and his number to contact him i said ok i will try my best to do so she wish me the best of luck in life then i went home gotten home, found that my door is open i was scared thinking so many things i don't no who is in my house now i look at the key in my hand i was thinking i did not lock my door shortly a word came into my mind that i should go inside and check if there is any body at home or my husband getting inside, i found that my husband move away his things in the house then i started calling his number refuses to pick i was like a mad Dog i cried and cried don't no what to do then i remember to that a friend of mine gave me a contact today i take my computer i emailed this man called Dr. Osasu also i called him on his cell phone which i received from my friend he spoke to me very well and i was happy my husband we come back to me so after the work was well done by Dr. Osasu, just in three days i heard my phone ringing not knowing it was my husband telling me his sorry about what he did to me then i accepted him again a month later, i was pregnant for him so i rest my testimony till i deliver safely i we give the best testimony again so my sisters and brothers if you are in such pain kindly contact this great man with this email [email protected] OR WhatsApp +2347064365391

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In 2001 my life was complicated, I felt like committing suicide because I was no longer getting the love and affection i deserve from my boyfriend. June 5, 2002 he said it was over between us, my heart was shattered. I spoke to my friend about it and she told me how Lord Bubuza restored her relationship with his spell so I contacted him immediately on WhatsApp: +1 505 569 0396, I told him my problem and he promised to help me with his spell. I followed his instructions and 16 hours after the spell was casted my boyfriend came back crying and begging to forgive and accept him back. It's 20 years today since lord Bubuza helped me and we are happily married with kids now. Don't give up on your lover, contact lord Bubuza for help via WhatsApp: +1 505 569 0396 or email: [email protected] or website: https://lordbubuzamiraculouswork.com

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After 3 years of suffering, my husband left me and my kids hated me for no reason, I got sacked at work without any genuine reasons, I shared tears daily living a lonely life but I was determined what is the cost of my predicament, one day as I was going through some articles on the internet I saw a testimony of mrs Vanessa testifying how she got her life revived by Dr Iyere the honest man know and I quickly contacted him VIA ([email protected]) and I explained my situation to him and he told me my ex who I broke up with to my husband was responsible for my misfortune and he vows to frustrate my life because I didn’t marry him. Dr Iyere ask me what I wanted him to do to my ex who is after my life I told him to cast a dead spell on him because as long as he is alive he will never allow me a moment of peace, which he did and within 3 days he was dead and since his death my life have been so transformed, my kids now love me and my husband is back to me I latter got a call to return to work that the sack was a mistake, wow what a miracle… Thanks allot Dr Iyere. You can contact Dr via call or Whatsapp: +2348106427180 Website:https://driyereherbalcentre.weebly.com

My husband and I have been married for about 7 years now, We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone. He started coming home late from work, he hardly cared about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the Internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr Osita can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he did a spell for me. Two days later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promised never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. My family and I are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Osita. If you need a spell caster that can cast a spell that truly works, I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. This is his Email: ([email protected]) or WhatsApp him (+15088120454) http://drositamiraclespell.website2.me

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My husband and I have been married for about 7 years now. We were happily married with two kids, a boy and a girl. 3 months ago, I started to notice some strange behavior from him and a few weeks later I found out that my husband is seeing someone. He started coming home late from work, he hardly cared about me or the kids anymore, Sometimes he goes out and doesn't even come back home for about 2-3 days. I did all I could to rectify this problem but all to no avail. I became very worried and needed help. As I was browsing through the Internet one day, I came across a website that suggested that Dr Osita can help solve marital problems, restore broken relationships and so on. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he did a spell for me. Two days later, my husband came to me and apologized for the wrongs he did and promised never to do it again. Ever since then, everything has returned back to normal. My family and I are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Osita. If you need a spell caster that can cast a spell that truly works, I suggest you contact him. He will not disappoint you. This is his Email: ([email protected]) or WhatsApp him (+15088120454) Web-site:: http://drositamiraclespell.website2.me

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My boyfriend said he was tired of our relationship and needed a breakup, he started avoiding me, His attitude was killing me slowly so I did research on the internet seeking help. There I saw testimonies of how lord Bubuza helped reunite couples with his spell and how he gave lottery winning numbers to people and helped them win a lottery so I immediately sent him a text: +1 984 240 7211 seeking help. He responded. He promised to help me get my boyfriend back with his spell, I did as he instructed and he casted the spell. It was like a dream because 16 hours after the spell was casted my boyfriend came back begging me on his knees to forgive and accept him back. I am so excited and now I believe Lord Bubuza is a God on Earth. Are you heart broken? Do you need help to win a lottery ? Contact Lord Bubuza via WhatsApp/Call/text: +1 984 240 7211 or email: [email protected]

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what is top down approach in problem solving

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what is top down approach in problem solving

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what is top down approach in problem solving

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what is top down approach in problem solving

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Problem Solving: Top-down design and Step-wise refinement

A top-down approach (also known as stepwise design) is essentially the breaking down of a system to gain insight into the sub-systems that make it up. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in yet greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. Once these base elements are recognised then we can build these as computer modules. Once they are built we can put them together, making the entire system from these individual components.

what is top down approach in problem solving

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What Is Top-Down Processing?

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

what is top down approach in problem solving

Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist and international bestselling author. Her books, including "13 Things Mentally Strong People Don't Do," have been translated into more than 40 languages. Her TEDx talk,  "The Secret of Becoming Mentally Strong," is one of the most viewed talks of all time.

what is top down approach in problem solving

  • Explanations
  • Influential Factors
  • Potential Pitfalls

Top-down processing involves perceiving things based on your prior experiences and knowledge. In other words, you use what you already know to make sense of the new information you encounter. It refers to how our brain utilizes existing knowledge and expectations to interpret new sensory information.

Instead of interpreting the world based solely on the information we gather from our senses, the brain uses pre-existing concepts, ideas, and knowledge to comprehend sensory input.

We are surrounded by an endless amount of sensory stimuli at any given time, but our attentional and processing resources are limited. Top-down processing is vital for perception since it lets us quickly interpret and understand our environment. In doing so, we can make decisions and respond quickly when needed.

This article explores top-down processing in greater depth and explores some of the factors that can influence how it works.

"Traditionally, “top-down perception” refers to situations in which context, learning, or expectation alters a perceptual process," write researchers Nicholas Gaspelin, PhD, and Steven J. Luck, PhD, in an article in the Journal of Cognition .

In top-down processing, perceptions begin with the most general and move toward the more specific. Our expectations and prior knowledge heavily influence these perceptions.

Put simply; your brain applies what it knows to fill in the blanks and anticipate what's next.

For example, if half of a tree branch is covered, you usually have an idea of what it looks like, even though half is not being shown. This is because you know what trees look like from prior knowledge.

While this process relies on past learning, context, and expectations, it is an automatic process.

Processing information from the top down allows us to make sense of information that has already been brought in by the senses, working downward from initial impressions down to particular details.

Why We Use Top-Down Processing

In a world where we are surrounded by virtually limitless sensory experiences and information, top-down processing can help us quickly make sense of the environment. It allows us to use our perceptual and attentional resources more efficiently to interpret incoming sensory data and make decisions.

Top-down processing also helps us fill in gaps in ambiguous or incomplete situations.

Our senses are constantly taking in new information. At any given time, we're experiencing a never-ending stream of sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and physical sensations. If we had to focus equally on all of these sensations every second of every day, we would be overwhelmed.

Top-down processing helps simplify our understanding of the world. It allows us to quickly make sense of all the information our senses bring in to navigate the world more effectively, recognize patterns, and make decisions.

As you begin to take in more information about your environment, your initial impressions (based on previous experiences and patterns) influence how you interpret the finer details.

This type of processing can be useful when we are looking for patterns in our environment, but these predispositions can also hinder our ability to perceive things in new and different ways.

Influences on This Process

Several things can influence top-down processing, including context and motivation . Specific circumstances, how we feel about a certain topic, and even our emotional state while having an experience might affect top-down processing.

The context, or circumstances, in which an event or object is perceived can affect what we expect to find in that particular situation. Context can provide clues that tell us how we should interpret something we encounter.

For example, if you are reading an article about food and nutrition, you might interpret a word you're unfamiliar with as something related to food.

Motivation can also make you more likely to interpret something in a particular way. For example, if you were shown a series of ambiguous images, you might be more motivated to perceive them as food-related when hungry.


What you expect to encounter in a situation can also affect how you ultimately interpret it. If you believe that you will experience something in a specific situation, it is going to influence how your brain processes what you encounter.

Your previously existing knowledge about a specific topic or situation will also have an effect on your you perceive new information. For example, a novice might process information differently than someone who holds expertise in the subject.

In ambiguous situations, your brain is more likely to rely on top-down processing to fill in the gaps. For example, when interpreting a visual illusion , your brain often fills in missing visual information to help make sense of an ambiguous figure.

The Kanizsa triangle illusion is one example of how top-down processing can fill gaps to allow the brain to perceive a cohesive shape.

The illusion consists of three incomplete circles and triangles resulting in a white triangle in the center. The edges of the triangle do not exist in the image, but the brain uses top-down processing to perceive a familiar shape.

Examples of Top-Down Processing

In order to better understand how top-down processing works, it can be helpful to explore a few examples of this phenomenon in action.

The Stroop Effect

One classic example of top-down processing in action is a phenomenon known as the Stroop effect . In this task, people are shown a list of words printed in different colors. They’re then asked to name the ink color, rather than the word itself. 

Interestingly, people are much slower and make more mistakes when the meaning of the word and the ink color doesn’t match. So, for example, people have a harder time when the word "red" is printed in green ink instead of red ink.

Top-down processing explains why this task is so difficult. People automatically recognize the word before they think about the specific features of that word (like what color it's written in). This makes it easier to read the word aloud rather than to say the color of the word.

Perceptual Set

A perceptual set refers to the tendency to perceive things in a certain way based on past experiences, emotions, cultural influences, and expectations. This tendency is an example of top-down processing.

Our existing mental frameworks play a role in guiding these perceptual sets. For example, people have a schema , or cognitive framework, for faces that makes it easier to recognize people who are familiar to us, even in a crowd.

This same schema, however, also leads us to sometimes see faces where there are none. This is why you might see faces in everyday objects, a phenomenon known as face pareidolia.

You type a message to your boss, proofread it, and hit 'Send.' Only after the message has gone into the nether sphere do you spot three typos in the first few sentences.

If you've experienced some version of this scenario, you're not alone. Most people find it difficult to catch their own typos. But it's not because they're unintelligent. According to psychologist Tom Stafford, it may actually be because you're smart!

"When you're writing, you're trying to convey meaning. It's a very high-level task... We don't catch every detail, we're not like computers or NSA databases. Rather, we take in sensory information and combine it with what we expect, and we extract meaning," he explained in an interview with Wired magazine.

Because writing is such a high-level task, your brain tricks you into reading what you think you should see on the page. It fills in missing details and corrects errors without you even noticing. This allows you to focus on the more complex task of turning sentences into complex ideas.

Reading Misspelled Text

The same principles apply to the ability to read text riddled with misspellings.

For example:

Yuo cna porbalby raed tihs esaliy desptie teh msispeillgns.

Passages like this have been bouncing around the internet for years. But how do we read them? How do our brains so quickly make sense of these jumbled letters? The answer is simple: top-down processing.

Potential Pitfalls of Top-Down Processing

While top-down processing has important benefits, it can sometimes have downsides. Basing our interpretations on past knowledge can lead to faster decision-making, but it can also lead to mistakes.

Top-down processing can also prevent us from seeing novel ways of thinking about a problem. This can prevent you from learning new things, considering alternative solutions, or overcoming biased thinking.

Gaspelin N, Luck SJ. " Top-down" does not mean "voluntary ".  J Cogn . 2018;1(1):25. doi:10.5334/joc.28

Gregory RL. Concepts and Mechanisms of Perception . Duckworth; 1974.

de Haas B, Schwarzkopf DS. Spatially selective responses to Kanizsa and occlusion stimuli in human visual cortex . Sci Rep . 2018;8(1):611. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-19121-z

Palmer CJ, Clifford CWG. Face pareidolia recruits mechanisms for detecting human social attention . Psychol Sci . 2020;31(8):1001-1012. doi:10.1177/0956797620924814

Stockton N. What's up with that: Why it's so hard to catch your own typos . Wired . August 12, 2014.

Bernstein D. Essentials of Psychology 7th Edition . Cengage Learning; 2018.

Stroop JR. Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions . J Exp Psychol . 1935;18(6):643-662. doi:10.1037/h0054651

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

Python Programming – Top-Down Approach Of Problem Solving

Python Programming - Top-Down Approach Of Problem Solving

You can learn about Functions in Python  Programs with Outputs helped you to understand the language better.

Top-down design is the technique of breaking down a problem into various major tasks needed to be performed. Each of these tasks is further broken down into separate subtasks, and so on till each sub-task is sufficiently simple to be written as a self-contained or procedure module. The entire solution to the problem will then consist of a series of simple modules. In top-down design, you initially describe the problem you are working on at the highest or most general level. The description of the problem at this level will usually be concerned with what must be done – not how it must be done.

  • Introduction to Python Programming – The Basic Model Of Computation
  • Introduction to Python Programming – Programming Languages
  • Introduction to Python Programming – Documentation

The description will be in terms of complex, higher-level operations. You must take all of the operations at this level and individually break them down into simpler steps that begin to describe how to accomplish the tasks. If these simple steps can be represented as acceptable algorithmic steps, you need not split them any further. If that is not the case, then you split each of these second-level operations individually into still simpler steps. This stepwise refinement continues until each of the original top-level operations has been described in terms of acceptable shortest (primitive) statements.

  • The top-down approach is used in the system analysis and design process.

The top-down approach, starting at the general levels to gain an understanding of the system and gradually moving down to levels of greater detail is done in the analysis stage. In the process of moving from top to bottom, each component is exploded into more and more details. Thus, the problem at hand is analyzed or broken down into major components, each of which is again broken down if necessary.

  • The top-down process involves working from the most general down to the most specific.

The design of modules is reflected in hierarchy charts such as the one shown in Figure 10.1. The purpose of procedure Main is to coordinate the three branch operations e.g. Get, Process, and Put routines. These three routines communicate only through Main. Similarly, Sub1 and Sub2 can communicate only through the Process routine.

Python Programming - Top-Down Approach Of Problem Solving chapter 10 img 1

  • Using the top-down approach, attention is first focussed on global aspects of the overall system. As the design progress takes place, the system is decomposed into subsystems and more consideration is given to specific issues.

Advantages of Top-down Approach

The advantages of the top-down approach are as follows:

a. This approach allows a programmer to remain “on top of” a problem and view the developing solution in context. The solution always proceeds from the highest level downwards. With other techniques, you may find yourselves bogged down with very low-level decisions at a very early stage. It will be difficult to make these deci¬sions if it is not clear as to how they may affect the overall solution of the problem.

b. This would be a very good way to delay deci¬sions on problems whose solution may not be readily available. At each stage in the development, the individual operation will be split up into a number of more elementary steps. If you are not sure how to proceed with Step 1 you can still work on Step 2.

c. By dividing the problem into a number of sub-problems, it is easier to share problem development. For example, one person may solve one part of the problem and the other person may solve another part of the problem.

d. Since debugging time grows quickly when the program is longer, it will be to our advantage to debug a long program divided into a number of smaller segments or parts rather than one big chunk. The top-down development process specifies a solution in terms of a group of smaller, individual subtasks. These subtasks thus become the ideal units of the program for testing and debugging. If you add a new piece of code, say “p” to the overall program “P”, and an error condition occurs, you can definitely state that the error must either be in “p” itself or in the interface between “p” or “P” because “P” has been previously checked and certified.

By testing the program in small pieces, you greatly simplify the debugging process. In addition, you will have the satisfaction of knowing that everything you have coded so far is correct.

e. Another advantage of the top-down development process is that it becomes an ideal structure for managing and implementing a program using a team of programmers. A senior programmer can be made responsible for the design of a high-level task and its decomposition into subtasks. Each of those subtasks can then be “given out” to a junior programmer who works under the direction of the senior staff. Since almost all software projects are done by teams of two or more programmers, this top-down characteristic helps in faster completion of the system.

In summary, the top-down method is a program design technique that analyses a problem in terms of more elementary subtasks. Through the technique of stepwise splitting, you expand and define each of the separate subtasks until the problem is solved. Each subtask is tested and verified before it is expanded further. Thus, there are additional advantages:

a. Increased comprehension of the problem. b. Unnecessary lower-level detail is removed. c. Reduced debugging time.

Bottom-up Approach of Problem Solving

When faced with a large and complex problem, it may be difficult to see how the whole thing can be done. It may be easier to solve parts of the problem individually, taking the easier aspects first and thereby gaining the insight and experience to tackle the more difficult tasks, and finally to try and join them all together to form the complete solution. This is called a bottom-up approach.

This approach suffers from the disadvantage that the parts of the program may not fit together easily. There may be a lack of consistency between mod¬ules, and considerable re-programming may have to be carried out. Hence, this approach is not much favored.

Docstrings serve as documentation for your function to describe what the function does in the pro¬gram so that anyone who reads the function’s docstring understands what your function does, without having to go through all the code in the function definition. These are optional constructs enclosed by triple quotes. It is a comment in the programming language.

Function Parameters and Arguments

Parameters are the value(s) provided in the parenthesis when you write the function header. You can add as many parameters as you want, just separate them with a comma.

  • In other words, the parameter is a name used inside a function to refer to the value passed as an argument.

Arguments are the value(s) provided in function call/invoke statement. This value is assigned to the corresponding parameter in the function. The vari¬ables you write after your function name in def statements are often called the formal parameters of the function. The values you supply when you call the function are called the actual parameters, or argu¬ments. By default, parameters have a positional behavior and you need to inform them in the same order that they were defined. It is common to say that the function takes arguments and returns the result. The return statement can contain an expression that gets evaluated and the value is returned. If there is no expression in the statement or the return statement itself is not present inside a function, then the function will return the None object.

  • The parameter passed by the client is known as the actual parameter. The parameter specified by the function is called the formal parameter.
  • The argument is a value provided to a function when the function is called. This value is assigned to the corresponding parameter in the function.

Parameters are placeholders for information that you give to a function so it can carry out an action. For example, if a function is defined as follows: def display(message): then, the message is a parameter or formal argument. Although display has only one parameter, the function can have many. To define functions with multiple parameters, list them out, separated by commas. In the following statement, It will display a message for you is an argument or actual argument, display(“It will display message for you”) Here are a few things to know about function parameters:

(a) A function can have any number of parameters (or no parameters). (b) When you define a function, you specify how many parameters it has. (c) You can define default values for any or all of the parameters. Here are a few things to know about arguments: (a) Arguments are passed when you call the function. (b) If the parameter has a default value, you don’t have to pass an argument. (c) You can pass an argument as a literal or as a name.

  • The values being passed through a function-call statement are called arguments or actual arguments. The values received in the function definition or header are called parameters or formal parameters.

In Example 4 shown above i.e. def power(x, n): x and n are known as parameters or formal parame¬ters. Whereas in PW = power(a, b) a and b are known as arguments or actual arguments. Arguments in Python can be literals, variables, or expressions.

  • Function header cannot contain expressions.

Anonymous functions

You can use the lambda keyword to create small anonymous functions. These functions are called anonymous because they are not declared in the standard manner by using the def keyword. (a) Lambda forms can take any number of argu¬ments but return just one value in the form of an expression. They cannot contain commands or multiple expressions. (b) An anonymous function cannot be a direct call to print because lambda requires an expression. (c) Lambda functions have their own local name¬space and cannot access variables other than those in their parameter list and those in the global namespace. (d) Although it appears that lambdas are a one-line version of a function, they are not equivalent to inline statements in C or C++, whose purpose is bypassing function stack allocation during invocation for performance reasons. Syntax: The syntax of lambda functions contains only a single statement, which is as follows: lambda [argl [,arg2, argn]]:expression Following is the example to show how lambda form of function works:

Example Demo of Anonymous function.

The return STATEMENT

A Python function could also optionally return a value. This value could be a result produced from your function’s execution or even be an expression or value that you specify after the keyword ‘return’. And, after a return statement is executed, the program flow goes back to the state next to your function call and gets executed from there. So, to call a Python function at any place in your code, you will only have to use its name and pass arguments in its parentheses, if any. A return statement with no arguments is the same as a return None.

Example Demo of return statement.

Let’s Try

Lifetime  and Scope of Variables

A variable’s lifetime is the period of time for which it resides in the memory. The lifetime of variables inside a function is as long as the function executes. They are destroyed once you return from the function. Hence, a function does not remember the value of a variable from its previous calls.

All variables in a program may not be accessible at all locations in that program. This depends on where you have declared a variable. The variable declared in one part of the program may not be accessible to the other parts. The scope of a variable determines the portion of the program where you can access a particular identifier. There are two basic scopes of variables in Python.

  • Global scope
  • Local scope

Variables that are defined inside a function body have a local scope. In other words, it is local to that function and those defined outside have a global scope. This means that local variables can be accessed only inside the function in which they are declared, If you then try to access the variable x outside the function, it will give NameError.

Global variables can be accessed throughout the program body by all functions. When you call a function, the variables declared inside it are brought into scope, def func1 ( ) : x=9 # Local scope print(x) func1 ( ) >>> 9 >>> y=9 # Global scope def func2(): print(y) func2 ( ) >>> 9 >>> Let us discuss the global scope of a variable in brief. (a) The global names are variables assigned at the top level of the enclosing module file. It means that it is visible everywhere within the program. (b) The global names must be declared only if they are assigned within a function. (c) Global variables must be referenced within a function without being declared. See Example 14.

Example Demo of local and global variables.

When the above code is executed, it produces following result: Inside the function local total: 60 Outside the function global total: 0

global Statements

The global statements are remotely like declaration statements in Python. They do not type or size declarations, though they are namespace declarations. The global statement tells Python that a function plans to change one or more global names, i.e., names that live in the enclosing module’s scope (namespace).

A namespace is a practical approach to define the scope, and it helps to avoid name conflicts.


A function that doesn’t return a value is called a void function or non-fruitful function whereas a function that returns a value is called fruitful function, void functions might display something on the screen or have some other effect, but they don’t have a return value. If you try to assign the result to a variable, you get a special value called None.

A void function internally returns an empty value None.

Library  functions

Input ( ) is built-in functions, used to obtain informa-tion from the user.

>>> input ( ” Enter a number : ” ) Enter a number: 57 ‘ 57 ‘ Note that this returns the input as a string. If you want to take 57 as an integer, you need to apply the int() function to it. The int( ) converts a value to an integer.

>>> int(input(“Enter a number”)) Enter a number: 57 57

Example Demo of Input ( ) function.

The eval ( ) function converts a string containing a valid expression to an object. For example, x = 9 print(eval(‘x + 1’)) >>> 10 >>> >>> c = eval ( ” 3 , 5 , 6 ” ) # c = ( 3 , 5 , 6 ) >>> c ( 3 , 5 , 6 ) >>>

The print ( ) function enables a Python program to display textual information to the user, print(“Hello, World!”) print(“I am learning Python”)

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what is top down approach in problem solving

Grayson Path selected to lead Amarillo as new city manager

A MARILLO, Texas (KFDA) - Following an extensive selection process, the Amarillo City Council has selected their top choice for city manager.

In a special meeting, the council met and made a decision between the two finalists: Matthew Allen from Garden City, Kansas and Grayson Path from Paris, Texas.

After deliberation, along with community input , Grayson Path was selected to serve as the new city manager.

The position for city manager has been vacant for almost a year . The Amarillo City Council is ready to have a full team.

“When you don’t have a permanent leader in place, it’s kind of hard to think longer term,” said Les Simpson, city council place 4. “And so I think what this will help us to do is not only the budgeting and other things that we’re looking at, problems that we’re trying to solve, it’s being able to take a longer term approach with the leader that’s going to be here permanently for the long haul.”

Council says it was a tough decision, as both candidates were highly qualified for the position.

Mayor Cole Stanley says it was Grayson Path’s candidness and problem-solving approach that ultimately stood out.

“Who’s the guy who’s most eager to get in this fight that we have for a wastewater treatment plant? You’re talking a $300 million problem that’s been 20 years in the making and we’re asking you to literally show up here and help us clean up this mess,” said Mayor Cole Stanley, City of Amarillo.

Simpson also praised Path’s track record in problem-solving, particularly in his previous role in Paris, Texas.

“If you look at some of the problems even in Paris, they had problems with trash, we have problems with trash. You know, they have problems with a underfunded pension plan with their fire department and he was able to solve that problem and get the community to buy into it,” said Simpson.

Path says it is all about carrying out the policies and procedures of the council.

“My vision is to have an efficient, effective, transparent and responsive team from the managers to the staff. My role is to give them the resources they need, the support they need, so we can get a good job done for the citizens, a good job for the council,” said Path.

After today’s decision, staff will put together a contract for Grayson Path. If he accepts, the mayor says he would like to see him start his role by mid-August, right in time for budget discussions.

Following an extensive selection process, the Amarillo City Council has selected their top choice for city manager.


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