The Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal

What Is the Watson Glaser Test?

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Updated May 10, 2024

Amy Dawson

Modern employers have changed the way that they recruit new candidates. They are no longer looking for people who have the technical skills on paper that match the job description.

Instead, they are looking for candidates who can demonstrably prove that they have a wider range of transferrable skills.

One of those key skills is the ability to think critically .

Firms (particularly those in sectors such as law, finance, HR and marketing ) need to know that their employees can look beyond the surface of the information presented to them.

They want confidence that their staff members can understand, analyze and evaluate situations or work-related tasks. There is more on the importance of critical thinking later in this article.

This is where the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking test comes into play.

The Watson Glaser critical thinking test is a unique assessment that provides a detailed analysis of a participant’s ability to think critically.

The test lasts 30 minutes and applicants can expect to be tested on around 40 questions in five distinct areas :

Assumptions

Interpretation.

The questions are multiple-choice and may be phrased as true/false statements in a bid to see how well the participant has understood and interpreted the information provided.

Employers around the world use it during recruitment campaigns to help hiring managers effectively filter their prospective candidates .

The Watson Glaser test has been used for more than 85 years; employers trust the insights that the test can provide.

In today’s competitive jobs market where every candidate has brought the best of themselves, it can be increasingly difficult for employers to decide between applicants.

On paper, two candidates may appear identical, with a similar level of education, work experience, and even interests and skills.

But that does not necessarily mean both or either of them is right for the job.

There is much information available on creating an effective cover letter and resume, not to mention advice on making a good impression during an interview.

As a result, employers are increasingly turning to psychometric testing to look beyond the information that they have.

They want to find the right fit: someone who has the skills that they need now and in the future. And with recruitment costs rising each year, making the wrong hiring decision can be catastrophic.

This is where the Watson Glaser test can help.

It can provide hiring managers with the additional support and guidance they need to help them make an informed decision.

The Watson Glaser test is popular among firms working in professional services (such as law, banking and insurance) . It is used for recruitment for junior and senior positions and some of the world’s most recognized establishments are known for their use of the test.

The Bank of England, Deloitte, Hiscox, Linklaters and Hogan Lovells are just a few employers who enhance their recruitment processes through Watson Glaser testing.

Critical thinking is all about logic and rational thought. Finding out someone’s critical thinking skill level is about knowing whether they can assess whether they are being told the truth and how they can use inferences and assumptions to aid their decision-making.

If you are working in a high-pressure environment, having an instinctive ability to look beyond the information provided to the underlying patterns of cause-and-effect can be crucial to do your job well.

Although it is often thought of concerning law firms and finance teams, it is easy to see how critical thinking skills could be applied to a wide range of professions.

For example, HR professionals dealing with internal disputes may need to think critically. Or social workers and other health professionals may need to use critical thinking to assess whether someone is vulnerable and in need of help and support when that person does not or cannot say openly.

Practice Watson Glaser Test with TestHQ

Critical thinking is about questioning what you already know . It is about understanding how to find the facts and the truth about a situation or argument without being influenced by other people’s opinions .

It is also about looking at the bigger picture and seeing how decisions made now may have short-term benefits but long-term consequences.

For those working in senior managerial roles, this ability to think objectively can make a big difference to business success.

As part of the critical thinking assessment, the Watson Glaser Test focuses on the acronym, 'RED':

  • R ecognize assumptions
  • E valuate arguments
  • D raw conclusions

Put simply, the RED model ensures you can understand how to move beyond subconscious bias in your thinking. It ensures that you can identify the truth and understand the differences between fact and opinion.

To recognize assumptions , you must understand yourself and others: what your thought patterns and past experiences have led you to conclude about the world.

Evaluating arguments requires you to genuinely consider the merits of all options in a situation, and not just choose the one you feel that you ‘ought’ to.

Finally, to draw an accurate and beneficial conclusion you must trust your decision-making and understanding of the situation.

Watson Glaser Practice Test Questions & Answers

As mentioned earlier, the Watson Glaser Test assesses five core elements. Here, they will be examined in more depth:

This part of the test is about your ability to draw conclusions based on facts . These facts may be directly provided or may be assumptions that you have previously made.

Within the assessment, you can expect to be provided with a selection of text. Along with the text will be a statement.

You may need to decide whether that statement is true, probably true, insufficient data (neither true nor false), probably false or false.

The test looks to see if your answer was based on a conclusion that could be inferred from the text provided or if it is based on an assumption you previously made.

Take a Watson Glaser Practice Test

Example Statement:

500 students recently attended a voluntary conference in New York. During the conference, two of the main topics discussed were issues relating to diversity and climate change. This is because these are the two issues that the students selected that are important to them.

Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Test

Many people make decisions based on assumptions. But you need to be able to identify when assumptions are being made.

Within the Watson Glaser test , you will be provided with a written statement as well as an assumption.

You will be asked to declare whether that assumption was made in the text provided or not .

This is an important part of the test; it allows employers to understand if you have any expectations about whether things are true or not . For roles in law or finance, this is a vital skill.

We need to save money, so we’ll visit the local shops in the nearest town rather than the local supermarket

Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Test

As a core part of critical thinking, 'deduction' is the ability to use logic and reasoning to come to an informed decision .

You will be presented with several facts, along with a variety of conclusions. You will be tasked with confirming whether those conclusions can be made from the information provided in that statement.

The answers are commonly in a ‘Yes, it follows/No, it does not follow’ form.

It is sometimes sunny on Wednesdays. All sunny days are fun. Therefore…

Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Test

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Critical thinking is also about interpreting the information correctly. It is about using the information provided to come to a valuable, informed decision .

Like the deduction questions, you will be provided with a written statement, which you must assume to be true.

You will also be provided with a suggested interpretation of that written statement. You must decide if that interpretation is correct based on the information provided, using a yes/no format.

A study of toddlers shows that their speech can change significantly between the ages of 10 months and three years old. At 1 year old, a child may learn their first word whereas at three years old they may know 200 words

Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Test

Evaluation of Arguments

This final part requires you to identify whether an argument is strong or weak . You will be presented with a written statement and several arguments that can be used for or against it. You need to identify which is the strongest argument and which is the weakest based on the information provided.

Should all 18-year-olds go to college to study for a degree after they have graduated from high school?

Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Test

There are no confirmed pass/fail scores for Watson Glaser tests; different sectors have different interpretations of what is a good score .

Law firms, for example, will require a pass mark of at least 75–80% because the ability to think critically is an essential aspect of working as a lawyer.

As a comparative test, you need to consider what the comparative ‘norm’ is for your chosen profession. Your score will be compared to other candidates taking the test and you need to score better than them.

It is important to try and score as highly as you possibly can. Your Watson Glaser test score can set you apart from other candidates; you need to impress the recruiters as much as possible.

Your best chance of achieving a high score is to practice as much as possible in advance.

Everyone will have their own preferred study methods, and what works for one person may not necessarily work for another.

However, there are some basic techniques everyone can use, which will enhance your study preparation ahead of the test:

Step 1 . Pay Attention to Online Practice Tests

There are numerous free online training aids available; these can be beneficial as a starting point to your preparation.

However, it should be noted that they are often not as detailed as the actual exam questions.

When researching for online test questions, make sure that any questions are specific to the Watson Glaser Test , not just critical thinking.

General critical thinking questions can help you improve your skills but will not familiarize you with this test. Therefore, make sure you practice any questions which follow the ‘rules’ and structure of a Watson Glaser Test .

Step 2 . Paid-for Preparation Packs Can Be Effective

If you are looking for something that mimics the complexity of a Watson Glaser test , you may wish to look at investing in a preparation pack.

There are plenty of options available from sites such as TestHQ . These are often far more comprehensive than free practice tests.

They may also include specific drills (which take you through each of the five stages of the test) as well as study guides, practice tests and suggestions of how to improve your score.

Psychologically, if you have purchased a preparation pack, you may be more inclined to increase your pre-test practice/study when compared to using free tools, due to having invested money.

Step 3 . Apply Critical Thinking to All Aspects of Your Daily Routine

The best way to improve your critical thinking score is to practice it every day.

It is not just about using your skills to pass an exam question; it is about being able to think critically in everyday scenarios.

Therefore, when you are reading the news or online articles, try to think whether you are being given facts or you are making deductions and assumptions from the information provided.

The more you practice your critical thinking in these scenarios, the more it will become second nature to you.

You could revert to the RED model: recognize the assumptions being made, by you and the author; evaluate the arguments and decide which, if any, are strong; and draw conclusions from the information provided and perhaps see if they differ from conclusions drawn using your external knowledge.

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Nine Top Tips for Ensuring Success in Your Watson Glaser Test

If you are getting ready to participate in a Watson Glaser test, you must be clear about what you are being asked to do.

Here are a few tips that can help you to improve your Watson Glaser test score.

1. Practice, Practice, Practice

Critical thinking is a skill that should become second nature to you. You should practice as much as possible, not just so that you can pass the test, but also to feel confident in using your skills in reality.

2. The Best Success Is Based on the Long-Term Study

To succeed in your Watson Glaser test , you need to spend time preparing.

Those who begin studying in the weeks and months beforehand will be far more successful than those who leave their study to the last minute.

3. Acquaint Yourself With the Test Format

The Watson Glaser test has a different type of question to other critical thinking tests.

Make sure that you are aware of what to expect from the test questions. The last thing you want is to be surprised on test day.

4. Read the Instructions Carefully

This is one of the simplest but most effective tips. Your critical thinking skills start with understanding what you are being asked to do. Take your time over the question.

Although you may only have 30 minutes to complete the test, it is still important that you do not rush through and submit the wrong answers. You do not get a higher score if you finish early, so use your time wisely.

5. Only Use the Information Provided in the Question

Remember, the purpose of the test is to see if you can come to a decision based on the provided written statement.

This means that you must ignore anything that you think you already know and focus only on the information given in the question.

6. Widen Your Non-Fictional Reading

Reading a variety of journals, newspapers and reports, and watching examples of debates and arguments will help you to improve your skills.

You will start to understand how the same basic facts can be presented in different ways and cause people to draw different conclusions.

From there, you can start to enhance your critical thinking skills to go beyond the perspective provided in any given situation.

7. Be Self-Aware

We all have our own biases and prejudices whether we know them or not. It is important to think about how your own opinions and life experiences may impact how you perceive and understand situations.

For example, someone who has grown up with a lot of money may have a different interpretation of what it is like to go without, compared to someone who has grown up in extreme poverty.

It is important to have this self-awareness as it is important for understanding other people; this is useful if you are working in sectors such as law.

8. Read the Explanations During Your Preparation

To make the most of practice tests, make sure you read the analysis explaining the answers, regardless of if you got the question right or wrong.

This is the crux of your study; it will explain the reasoning why a certain answer is correct, and this will help you understand how to choose the correct answers.

9. Practice Your Timings

You know that you will have five sections to complete in the test. You also know that you have 30 minutes to complete the test.

Therefore, make sure that your timings are in sync within your practice, so you can work your way through the test in its entirety.

Time yourself on how long each section takes you and put in extra work on your slowest.

What score do you need to pass the Watson Glaser test?

There is no standard benchmark score to pass the Watson Glaser test . Each business sector has its own perception of what constitutes a good score and every employer will set its own requirements.

It is wise to aim for a Watson Glaser test score of at least 75%. To score 75% or higher, you will need to correctly answer at least 30 of the 40 questions.

The employing organization will use your test results to compare your performance with other candidates within the selection pool. The higher you score in the Watson Glaser test , the better your chances of being hired.

Can you fail a Watson Glaser test?

It is not possible to fail a Watson Glaser test . However, your score may not be high enough to meet the benchmark set by the employing organization.

By aiming for a score of at least 75%, you stand a good chance of progressing to the next stage of the recruitment process.

Are Watson Glaser tests hard?

Many candidates find the Watson Glaser test hard. The test is designed to assess five different aspects of logical reasoning skills. Candidates must work under pressure, which adds another dimension of difficulty.

By practicing your critical thinking skills, you can improve your chances of achieving a high score on the Watson Glaser test .

How do I prepare for Watson Glaser?

To prepare for Watson Glaser , you will need to practice your critical thinking abilities. This can be achieved through a range of activities; for example, reading a variety of newspapers, journals and other literature.

Try applying the RED model to your reading – recognize the assumptions being made (both by you and the writer), evaluate the arguments and decide which of these (if any) are strong.

You should also practice drawing conclusions from the information available to you.

Online Watson Glaser practice assessments are a useful way to prepare for Watson Glaser. These practice tests will give you an idea of what to expect on the day, although the questions are not usually as detailed as those in the actual test.

You might also consider using a paid-for Watson Glaser preparation pack, such as the one available from TestHQ . Preparation packs provide a comprehensive test guide, including practice tests and recommendations on how to improve your test score.

How long does the Watson Glaser test take?

Candidates are allowed 30 minutes to complete the Watson Glaser test . The multiple-choice test questions are grouped into five distinct areas – assumptions, deduction, evaluation, inference and interpretation.

Which firms use the Watson Glaser test?

Companies all over the world use the Watson Glaser test as part of their recruitment campaigns.

It is a popular choice for professional service firms, including banking, law, and insurance. Firms using the Watson Glaser test include the Bank of England, Hiscox, Deloitte and Clifford Chance.

How many times can you take the Watson Glaser test?

Most employers will only allow you to take the Watson Glaser test once per application. However, you may take the Watson Glaser test more than once throughout your career.

What is the next step after passing the Watson Glaser test?

The next step after passing the Watson Glaser test will vary between employers. Some firms will ask you to attend a face-to-face interview after passing the Watson Glaser test, others will ask you to attend an assessment center. Speak to the hiring manager to find out the process for the firm you are applying for.

Start preparing in advance for the Watson Glaser test

The Watson Glaser test differs from other critical thinking tests. It has its own rules and formations, and the exam is incredibly competitive. If you are asked to participate in a Watson Glaser test it is because your prospective employer is looking for the ‘best of the best’. Your aim is not to simply pass the test; it is to achieve a higher score than anyone else taking that test .

Therefore, taking the time to prepare for the Watson Glaser test is vital for your chances of success. You need to be confident that you know what you are being asked to do, and that you can use your critical thinking skills to make informed decisions.

Your study is about more than helping you to pass a test; it is about providing you with the skills and capability to think critically about information in the ‘real world’ .

You might also be interested in these other Psychometric Success articles:

Critical Thinking Tests (2024 Guide)

Or explore the Aptitude Tests / Test Types sections.

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Critical Thinking Skills Toolbox

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watson glaser critical thinking appraisal fs (wgcta fs)

  • Introduction
  • Overview of Critical Thinking Skills
  • Teaching Observations
  • Avenues for Research

CTS Tools for Faculty and Student Assessment

  • Critical Thinking and Assessment
  • Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Helpful Links
  • Appendix A. Author's Impressions of Vignettes

A number of critical thinking skills inventories and measures have been developed:

     Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA)      Cornell Critical Thinking Test      California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI)      California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST)      Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT)      Professional Judgment Rating Form (PJRF)      Teaching for Thinking Student Course Evaluation Form      Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric      Peer Evaluation of Group Presentation Form

Excluding the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and the Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Facione and Facione developed the critical thinking skills instruments listed above. However, it is important to point out that all of these measures are of questionable utility for dental educators because their content is general rather than dental education specific. (See Critical Thinking and Assessment .)

Table 7. Purposes of Critical Thinking Skills Instruments

  Reliability and Validity

Reliability means that individual scores from an instrument should be the same or nearly the same from one administration of the instrument to another. The instrument can be assumed to be free of bias and measurement error (68). Alpha coefficients are often used to report an estimate of internal consistency. Scores of .70 or higher indicate that the instrument has high reliability when the stakes are moderate. Scores of .80 and higher are appropriate when the stakes are high.

Validity means that individual scores from a particular instrument are meaningful, make sense, and allow researchers to draw conclusions from the sample to the population that is being studied (69) Researchers often refer to "content" or "face" validity. Content validity or face validity is the extent to which questions on an instrument are representative of the possible questions that a researcher could ask about that particular content or skills.

Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-FS (WGCTA-FS)

The WGCTA-FS is a 40-item inventory created to replace Forms A and B of the original test, which participants reported was too long.70 This inventory assesses test takers' skills in:

     (a) Inference: the extent to which the individual recognizes whether assumptions are clearly stated      (b) Recognition of assumptions: whether an individual recognizes whether assumptions are clearly stated      (c) Deduction: whether an individual decides if certain conclusions follow the information provided      (d) Interpretation: whether an individual considers evidence provided and determines whether generalizations from data are warranted      (e) Evaluation of arguments: whether an individual distinguishes strong and relevant arguments from weak and irrelevant arguments

Researchers investigated the reliability and validity of the WGCTA-FS for subjects in academic fields. Participants included 586 university students. Internal consistencies for the total WGCTA-FS among students majoring in psychology, educational psychology, and special education, including undergraduates and graduates, ranged from .74 to .92. The correlations between course grades and total WGCTA-FS scores for all groups ranged from .24 to .62 and were significant at the p < .05 of p < .01. In addition, internal consistency and test-retest reliability for the WGCTA-FS have been measured as .81. The WGCTA-FS was found to be a reliable and valid instrument for measuring critical thinking (71).

Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT)

There are two forms of the CCTT, X and Z. Form X is for students in grades 4-14. Form Z is for advanced and gifted high school students, undergraduate and graduate students, and adults. Reliability estimates for Form Z range from .49 to .87 across the 42 groups who have been tested. Measures of validity were computed in standard conditions, roughly defined as conditions that do not adversely affect test performance. Correlations between Level Z and other measures of critical thinking are about .50.72 The CCTT is reportedly as predictive of graduate school grades as the Graduate Record Exam (GRE), a measure of aptitude, and the Miller Analogies Test, and tends to correlate between .2 and .4.73

California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI)

Facione and Facione have reported significant relationships between the CCTDI and the CCTST. When faculty focus on critical thinking in planning curriculum development, modest cross-sectional and longitudinal gains have been demonstrated in students' CTS.74 The CCTDI consists of seven subscales and an overall score. The recommended cut-off score for each scale is 40, the suggested target score is 50, and the maximum score is 60. Scores below 40 on a specific scale are weak in that CT disposition, and scores above 50 on a scale are strong in that dispositional aspect. An overall score of 280 shows serious deficiency in disposition toward CT, while an overall score of 350 (while rare) shows across the board strength. The seven subscales are analyticity, self-confidence, inquisitiveness, maturity, open-mindedness, systematicity, and truth seeking (75).

In a study of instructional strategies and their influence on the development of critical thinking among undergraduate nursing students, Tiwari, Lai, and Yuen found that, compared with lecture students, PBL students showed significantly greater improvement in overall CCTDI (p = .0048), Truth seeking (p = .0008), Analyticity (p =.0368) and Critical Thinking Self-confidence (p =.0342) subscales from the first to the second time points; in overall CCTDI (p = .0083), Truth seeking (p= .0090), and Analyticity (p =.0354) subscales from the second to the third time points; and in Truth seeking (p = .0173) and Systematicity (p = .0440) subscales scores from the first to the fourth time points (76). California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST)

Studies have shown the California Critical Thinking Skills Test captured gain scores in students' critical thinking over one quarter or one semester. Multiple health science programs have demonstrated significant gains in students' critical thinking using site-specific curriculum. Studies conducted to control for re-test bias showed no testing effect from pre- to post-test means using two independent groups of CT students. Since behavioral science measures can be impacted by social-desirability bias-the participant's desire to answer in ways that would please the researcher-researchers are urged to have participants take the Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale simultaneously when measuring pre- and post-test changes in critical thinking skills. The CCTST is a 34-item instrument. This test has been correlated with the CCTDI with a sample of 1,557 nursing education students. Results show that, r = .201, and the relationship between the CCTST and the CCTDI is significant at p< .001. Significant relationships between CCTST and other measures including the GRE total, GRE-analytic, GRE-Verbal, GRE-Quantitative, the WGCTA, and the SAT Math and Verbal have also been reported. The two forms of the CCTST, A and B, are considered statistically significant. Depending on the testing, context KR-20 alphas range from .70 to .75. The newest version is CCTST Form 2000, and depending on the testing context, KR-20 alphas range from .78-.84.77

The Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT)

Items within this inventory cover the domain of CT cognitive skills identified by a Delphi group of experts whose work resulted in the development of the CCTDI and CCTST. This test measures health science undergraduate and graduate students' CTS. Although test items are set in health sciences and clinical practice contexts, test takers are not required to have discipline-specific health sciences knowledge. For this reason, the test may have limited utility in dental education (78).

Preliminary estimates of internal consistency show that overall KR-20 coefficients range from .77 to .83.79 The instrument has moderate reliability on analysis and inference subscales, although the factor loadings appear adequate. The low K-20 coefficients may be result of small sample size, variance in item response, or both (see following table).

Table 8. Estimates of Internal Consistency and Factor Loading by Subscale for HSRT

Professional Judgment Rating Form (PJRF)

The scale consists of two sets of descriptors. The first set relates primarily to the attitudinal (habits of mind) dimension of CT. The second set relates primarily to CTS.

A single rater should know the student well enough to respond to at least 17 or the 20 descriptors with confidence. If not, the validity of the ratings may be questionable. If a single rater is used and ratings over time show some consistency, comparisons between ratings may be used to assess changes. If more than one rater is used, then inter-rater reliability must be established among the raters to yield meaningful results. While the PJRF can be used to assess the effectiveness of training programs for individuals or groups, the evaluation of participants' actual skills are best measured by an objective tool such as the California Critical Thinking Skills Test.

Teaching for Thinking Student Course Evaluation Form

Course evaluations typically ask for responses of "agree" or "disagree" to items focusing on teacher behavior. Typically the questions do not solicit information about student learning. Because contemporary thinking about curriculum is interested in student learning, this form was developed to address differences in pedagogy and subject matter, learning outcomes, student demographics, and course level characteristic of education today. This form also grew out of a "one size fits all" approach to teaching evaluations and a recognition of the limitations of this practice. It offers information about how a particular course enhances student knowledge, sensitivities, and dispositions. The form gives students an opportunity to provide feedback that can be used to improve instruction.

Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric

This assessment tool uses a four-point classification schema that lists particular opposing reasoning skills for select criteria. One advantage of a rubric is that it offers clearly delineated components and scales for evaluating outcomes. This rubric explains how students' CTS will be evaluated, and it provides a consistent framework for the professor as evaluator. Users can add or delete any of the statements to reflect their institution's effort to measure CT. Like most rubrics, this form is likely to have high face validity since the items tend to be relevant or descriptive of the target concept. This rubric can be used to rate student work or to assess learning outcomes. Experienced evaluators should engage in a process leading to consensus regarding what kinds of things should be classified and in what ways.80 If used improperly or by inexperienced evaluators, unreliable results may occur.

Peer Evaluation of Group Presentation Form

This form offers a common set of criteria to be used by peers and the instructor to evaluate student-led group presentations regarding concepts, analysis of arguments or positions, and conclusions.81 Users have an opportunity to rate the degree to which each component was demonstrated. Open-ended questions give users an opportunity to cite examples of how concepts, the analysis of arguments or positions, and conclusions were demonstrated.

Table 8. Proposed Universal Criteria for Evaluating Students' Critical Thinking Skills 

Aside from the use of the above-mentioned assessment tools, Dexter et al. recommended that all schools develop universal criteria for evaluating students' development of critical thinking skills (82).

Their rationale for the proposed criteria is that if faculty give feedback using these criteria, graduates will internalize these skills and use them to monitor their own thinking and practice (see Table 4).

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watson glaser critical thinking appraisal fs (wgcta fs)

Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, Form-S for education majors.

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Validating the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal

  • Published: 03 June 2006
  • Volume 54 , pages 361–383, ( 2007 )

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watson glaser critical thinking appraisal fs (wgcta fs)

  • Karma El Hassan 1 &
  • Ghida Madhum 1  

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This study validated the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) on a sample of 273 private university students in Lebanon. For that purpose, evidence for construct validation was investigated through identifying the test’s factor structure and subscale total correlations, in addition to differences in scores by gender, different levels, and streams using a series of ANOVA tests. Evidence for the test’s reliability and concurrent validity was also collected. Moreover, students in five courses that emphasize critical thinking were pre–post tested using the WGCTA. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a unidimensional factor while results showed no significant differences in scores on the WGCTA between males and females or between students at different levels except for graduate students in the Business stream. Furthermore, results revealed significant differences for the senior students between different streams. Finally, results showed no statistically significant changes in the mean scores of students who were pre- and post-tested except for nursing students. The test’s significant correlations with various criterion measures provided evidence of its convergent and divergent validities. The results were discussed in terms of the nature of the construct itself, and the effects of training and effective instructional strategies on growth of critical thinking. Recommendations for future research were proposed.

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Hassan, K.E., Madhum, G. Validating the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal. High Educ 54 , 361–383 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-006-9002-z

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Received : 31 January 2005

Accepted : 08 February 2006

Published : 03 June 2006

Issue Date : September 2007

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-006-9002-z

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Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The effects of cooperative learning techniques on perceived classroom environment and critical thinking skills of preservice teachers.

Antone Michael Goyak , Liberty University Follow

School of Education

Doctor of Education (EdD)

Scott B. Watson

Primary Subject Area

Education, Curriculum and Instruction; Education, Higher; Education, Teacher Training

College and University Classroom Environment Inventory, cooperative learning, critical thinking, learning environment, preservice teacher, Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, Form-S

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Curriculum and Instruction

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Goyak, Antone Michael, "The Effects of Cooperative Learning Techniques on Perceived Classroom Environment and Critical Thinking Skills of Preservice Teachers" (2009). Doctoral Dissertations and Projects . 147. https://digitalcommons.liberty.edu/doctoral/147

This study analyzed the effects of cooperative learning techniques versus lecture techniques on the following aspects of a higher education classroom: (a) the perception of a student's learning environment and (b) a student's critical thinking skills. Preservice teachers at a small Midwest college completed the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) and the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, Form-S (WGCTA-FS). Results revealed significantly higher means in the cooperative learning group in four of the eight constructs within the CUCEI. Results within the WGCTA-FS disclosed no significant differences between the means of the two groups. The outcomes of this study suggest that cooperative learning techniques have merit and profit in the undergraduate classroom. Suggestions for further research were also included.

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    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Form S was a reliable and valid instrument to measure critical thinking for students pursuing a teaching career. The participants were 137 students enrolled in Educational Psychology. The data showed that the alpha for the total WGCTA-FS was .76 and the split-half correlation was r=.44. The total ...

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  8. Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, Form-S

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Form ,S was a reliable and valid instrument to measure critical thinking for students pursuing a teaching career. The participants were 137 students enrolled in Educational Psychology. The data showed that the alpha for the total WGCTA-FS was .76 and the split-half correlation was r = .44. The ...

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    Critical thinking (CT) has been of longstanding interest among scholars, educators, and others who are concerned with thinking skills. The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) is the oldest and among the most widely used and studied CT measure. It was constructed around five subscales (or CT skills): inference, recognition of assumptions, deduction, interpretation, and ...

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    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Form S was a reliable and valid instrument to measure critical thinking for students pursuing a teacher career. The participants were 137 students enrolled in Educational Psychology. The data showed that the alpha for the total WGTA-FS was 0.76 and the split-half correlation was r=0.44. The total ...

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    Abstract. This study validated the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) on a sample of 273 private university students in Lebanon. For that purpose, evidence for construct validation was investigated through identifying the test's factor structure and subscale total correlations, in addition to differences in scores by gender, different levels, and streams using a series of ...

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  18. The Effects of Cooperative Learning Techniques on Perceived Classroom

    Preservice teachers at a small Midwest college completed the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) and the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal, Form-S (WGCTA-FS). Results revealed significantly higher means in the cooperative learning group in four of the eight constructs within the CUCEI.

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