Choose Your Test

Sat / act prep online guides and tips, how are ap exams scored.

Advanced Placement (AP)


If you’re studying for an AP exam right now or are thinking about taking an AP class in the future, you might be wondering: how are AP exams scored?

In this post, we'll break down the scoring process, all the way from the raw scores you earn on the multiple-choice section and essays to how you get a final score on a scale of 1-5. Knowing how AP exams are scored can help you do your best on them—especially if you want a perfect 5!

The AP Scoring Scale

Each AP test is given a score from 1 to 5. According to the College Board (the group that administers AP tests), these numbers translate in the following ways:

  • 5: Extremely Well Qualified
  • 4: Well Qualified
  • 3: Qualified
  • 2: Possibly Qualified
  • 1: No recommendation

Any score that's 3 or higher is considered a passing score, though some colleges only accept 4s and 5s for credit. (See AP’s college database for specific policies at each university.) Getting a 5 is especially desirable because, for most exams, it puts you in the top 10-20% of scorers. See our list of AP classes for more info on passing rates.

Your 1-5 score is a scaled score, converted from a composite score. Your composite score is calculated from the total number of raw points you earned from your correct multiple-choice answers and your free response. It’s a bit confusing, but we will guide you through the process!

How Are AP Tests Scored?

The majority of AP exams consist of two sections: multiple choice and free response. On some exams each section is weighted equally, whereas on others one section is worth slightly more. You can look up the specifics for each exam on the official AP courses pages .

The multiple-choice section is graded by a computer. There are no deductions for incorrect or blank answers, so your raw multiple-choice score is simply the number of questions you get correct.

The free-response section is graded during the annual AP Reading held in the first two weeks of June. The AP Reading is basically a huge convention. Tons of teachers and college professors gather to grade thousands and thousands of student-written responses for each exam.

This is why you don't get your AP scores until July even though you take the test in May: the written portion of your exam isn't graded until mid-June.

After that, the College Board has to calculate the composite score and final scaled score for each exam, equating the test so the scores stay even from year to year. (For example, they want to make sure a 3 on the AP US History exam means the same thing from one year to another, even if one version of the test turned out to be more difficult for students.)

( Side note: There is a good chance that an AP teacher at your school goes to the AP Reading each year. It can be interesting and helpful to talk to them about what happens at the convention, how quickly free responses are scored, and the best and worse free responses they’ve seen. These are answers that will vary a lot from subject to subject but could ultimately be helpful to you!)


This is a picture from the English Literature Reading from this blog post over at AP Central . It's worth taking a look at if you are curious about what the AP Reading is like!

Each free response is given a "holistic" score, meaning it's evaluated for its overall effectiveness or correctness. Typically, points aren’t deducted for the occasional small error, such as a spelling or grammar mistake. Most tests grade their free responses between 1 and 9, with 1 being least effective and 9 being nearly perfect.

Your raw free-response score is the total of the scores you get for each response.

Looking for help studying for your AP exam? Our one-on-one online AP tutoring services can help you prepare for your AP exams. Get matched with a top tutor who got a high score on the exam you're studying for!

How to Get a Scaled AP Score Between 1 and 5

After your multiple-choice section is graded by a machine and your free response is graded by a human, your essay and multiple-choice scores are combined to give you a composite score. This score is just a way of combining the two section scores so that they are weighted correctly. For example, for AP English, multiple choice is worth 45% and free response is worth 55%. Often, composite scores are between 0 and 100, or 0 and 150.

The composite score is then converted to a number on the scaled score range 1-5. This means that for each scaled score, there is a range of possible composite scores that could earn it. For example, a 5 could be any composite score between 110 and 150 on one exam.

Since scaling varies year to year, there are no exact cutoff numbers for scores for AP tests, and the College Board does not release detailed scoring data. Furthermore, you will not see what your composite score was on your AP score report— you'll only get the final number between 1 and 5 .

However, many teachers, prep books, and websites have come up with formulas to predict the scaled score for each AP test, which can help when you are grading your practice tests and trying to come up with a target score .

Scoring Example: AP English Language and Composition

As we've seen, AP test scoring is not exactly straightforward. To help clarify the process, we will walk through a scoring example using the most popular test, AP English Language and Composition.


Also known as the class in which you annotate every. Single. Thing.

Here are the basics of the AP English exam : it has 55 multiple-choice questions, worth 45% of your score, and three essays, worth 55% of your score. Each essay is graded between 1 and 9.

Before we get into the scoring example, remember that this guide is an estimation since score conversions can vary year to year based on test difficulty. While it's impossible to precisely predict an AP test score before you get your score, you can still get an idea of how the process works.

Step 1: Add Up Your Correct Answers to Get Your Raw Scores

There are 55 multiple-choice questions on the AP English exam. Let's say you get 40 right, get eight wrong, and leave seven blank. Your raw multiple-choice score would be an even 40 points.

Out of the three essays, let's say you earn the following scores from the graders: 4, 7, and 8. This gives you  a total raw essay score of 19 (4+7+8).

Step 2: Convert Your Raw Scores to a Single Composite Score

Now, this is the tricky part in which we will convert each of those raw scores to a single composite score between 0 and 150.

The maximum converted essay score is 82.5, or 55% of 150. The maximum converted multiple-choice score is 67.5, or 45% of 150. To figure out your composite score, use this formula:

(Multiple Choice Raw Score x 1.23) + (Essay Raw Score x 3.05) = Composite Score

In this example, your multiple-choice composite score would be 49.2, and your essay composite score would be 57.95. Thus, your total composite score would be 107 (rounded down).

Step 3: Use the Chart to Estimate Your Scaled Score

The last step is easy. Use the chart below to estimate your final AP score (on a scale of 1-5):

As you can see, your score of 107 would earn you a 5 —but just barely!

Again, these numbers are estimates and will shift from year to year based on test difficulty. Since 107 is just over the mark of 104, it's possible that in some years it could net you a 4 instead of a 5.

What About Scoring Other AP Tests?

We’ve learned how to score an AP English Language and Composition exam. However, you can’t use this exact same process for every AP test. Most AP tests have slightly different section weights and question totals, so the scoring formulas are different.

For example, AP Calculus AB has fewer multiple choice questions (45), more free responses (six total), and weighs each section at 50%.


Each AP subject is a unique challenge ... and has its own scoring formula.

So how can you figure out how the AP tests you are taking are graded?

First, if you’re taking the AP class for the test you want to take, ask your teacher if he or she has a formula for converting practice test scores to scaled scores. Most AP teachers have a formula they use with their students for practice exams.

If you’re not taking the class or your teacher doesn’t have a formula, either find a prep book for your specific test or search online.

Remember that all formulas are estimates. So if you really want a 5, you shouldn’t aim for the lowest possible composite—you should aim for perfection, or very close. That’s the only way to guarantee you'll get a 5 on test day.

On the other hand, if you just want to make sure you pass, try to aim for a 4 so that even if you make more mistakes than you're hoping to, you’ll still get at least a 3!

Want to build the best possible college application?   We can help.   PrepScholar Admissions combines world-class admissions counselors with our data-driven, proprietary admissions strategies. We've guided thousands of students to get into their top choice schools, from state colleges to the Ivy League. We know what kinds of students colleges want to admit and are driven to get you admitted to your dream schools. Learn more about PrepScholar Admissions to maximize your chance of getting in:

What’s Next?

Curious about the benefits of taking an AP Exam? See our in-depth guide about what AP tests are and why you should take them .

Also studying for the SAT? Get tips from our resident 1600 full scorer , and check out how to improve a low SAT Math score .

Studying for the ACT instead? Get tips on the essay , read a guide to the daily ACT question , and learn how you can score a perfect 36 .

Halle Edwards graduated from Stanford University with honors. In high school, she earned 99th percentile ACT scores as well as 99th percentile scores on SAT subject tests. She also took nine AP classes, earning a perfect score of 5 on seven AP tests. As a graduate of a large public high school who tackled the college admission process largely on her own, she is passionate about helping high school students from different backgrounds get the knowledge they need to be successful in the college admissions process.

Ask a Question Below

Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Improve With Our Famous Guides

  • For All Students

The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 160+ SAT Points

How to Get a Perfect 1600, by a Perfect Scorer

Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section:

Score 800 on SAT Math

Score 800 on SAT Reading

Score 800 on SAT Writing

Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section:

Score 600 on SAT Math

Score 600 on SAT Reading

Score 600 on SAT Writing

Free Complete Official SAT Practice Tests

What SAT Target Score Should You Be Aiming For?

15 Strategies to Improve Your SAT Essay

The 5 Strategies You Must Be Using to Improve 4+ ACT Points

How to Get a Perfect 36 ACT, by a Perfect Scorer

Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:

36 on ACT English

36 on ACT Math

36 on ACT Reading

36 on ACT Science

Series: How to Get to 24 on Each ACT Section:

24 on ACT English

24 on ACT Math

24 on ACT Reading

24 on ACT Science

What ACT target score should you be aiming for?

ACT Vocabulary You Must Know

ACT Writing: 15 Tips to Raise Your Essay Score

How to Get Into Harvard and the Ivy League

How to Get a Perfect 4.0 GPA

How to Write an Amazing College Essay

What Exactly Are Colleges Looking For?

Is the ACT easier than the SAT? A Comprehensive Guide

Should you retake your SAT or ACT?

When should you take the SAT or ACT?

Stay Informed

Follow us on Facebook (icon)

Get the latest articles and test prep tips!

Looking for Graduate School Test Prep?

Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here:

GRE Online Prep Blog

GMAT Online Prep Blog

TOEFL Online Prep Blog

Holly R. "I am absolutely overjoyed and cannot thank you enough for helping me!”

Search button

Graded Written Paper

The graded written paper will help the Admission Office assess the student’s written expression in an academic setting. This will further the holistic understanding of the student’s application and help admission officers evaluate the student’s potential contributions and ability to thrive in the University’s rigorous academic environment.

We ask all students to submit a graded written paper for consideration as part of their application to Princeton.

When selecting a paper to submit, please keep in mind the following guidelines:

The paper should be writing done for an academic course, preferably an English, social studies or history course, during the last three years of secondary school, including senior year.

You may send a paper, essay, research paper or essay exam. We are interested in seeing expository writing only, not creative writing.

One to two pages in length is sufficient.

The paper should include the course instructor’s grade, and comments if your instructor provided any.

Princeton no longer requires applicants to submit the optional writing section of the SAT or ACT (the SAT Essay or ACT Writing Test), because taking the test with the optional writing section adds an additional cost that may be a financial burden to some applicants. We became concerned that students at schools where the ACT or SAT is offered for free, but only without the optional writing section, would then need to pay to take the test with the optional writing section. Please review our standardized testing policy .

NOTE: If submitting an official score report is a financial hardship, Princeton will continue to review applications with self-reported scores, verified by a school official such as a school counselor, teacher or dean.

For Transfer Applicants

For transfer applicants, a graded paper may come from a course taken within the last two to three years of schooling. While we prefer that it be in the subjects of either English or history, we will also consider papers from courses in the humanities and social sciences for our transfer applicants, provided they meet all other requirements listed.

How to Submit the Graded Written Paper

To submit your graded written paper, choose one  of the following options:

Option 1:  Upload the graded written paper alongside your application materials when submitting the Common Application or QuestBridge Application.

Option 2:  Mail, email or upload the graded written paper to your applicant portal.

The grade and the teacher comments should appear on the paper. If a grading rubric was used, please include this information along with your paper. The Admission Office is more interested in the quality of the writing than the grade it received and encourages you to submit a graded written paper that shows your best efforts, regardless of the grade.

If your school does not offer grades for student work, please submit teacher comments and a rubric. 

If you have already graduated and are taking a year off, you may contact your secondary school to obtain a graded written paper.

Please see additional information about the graded written paper on the pages that offer further details for:

Transfer students

International students

Home-schooled students

  • U.S. Locations
  • UMGC Europe
  • Learn Online
  • Find Answers
  • 855-655-8682
  • Current Students

Online Guide to Writing and Research

Assessing your writing, explore more of umgc.

  • Online Guide to Writing

How Is Writing Graded?

syllabus word on wood stamps stack on books, curriculum and training concept

Students often want to know how their writing assignments are graded—that is, what is an A paper, a B paper, and so on. Generally speaking, there are two basic ways to determine how your papers will be graded.

Understand your assignment, which often will include a rubric.

Understand general grading standards professors usually apply to papers.

Assignments and What Rubrics Have To Do with Them 

Virtually every college and graduate-level assignment will include instructions from your professor. Often, rubrics, which provide criteria for each possible grade you might receive, will accompany your assignments. 

Some rubrics can be quite detailed, breaking down the assignment and describing the grading criteria for each requirement. Other rubrics merely provide general writing standards associated with each grade. In either case, your first and best source for understanding assignment’s associated grading standards is the content of the assignment itself.

As you familiarize yourself with an assignment and its rubric, keep in mind the following:

Prioritize the criteria for a particular assignment over the criteria listed in the section below. 

When an assignment comes with a rubric, study the rubric and familiarize yourself with it. Aside from your professor, this is the best guide to successfully meeting the assignment requirements.

Prioritize your professor’s advice above all. College and graduate professors often provide their own descriptions of their assignments and a list of requirements. Sometimes these can differ from the accompanying rubric. If you are ever in doubt about your assignment and its requirements, contact your professor with your questions. 

Some General (Though Not Exhaustive) Grading Standards for Academic Papers

Although each professor and class is unique, there are some general qualities that attach to each grade. The following grading standards may be useful as you assess your own writing, but remember, a number of factors ultimately contribute to your grade, including your specific instructor's guidelines and preferences. Always defer to your assignment-specific or class-specific standards for grading information, and reach out to your instructor with any questions.

  • The Grade of A
  • The Grade of B
  • The Grade of C
  • The Grade of D
  • The Grade of F

The A paper is characterized by outstanding writing marked by superior readability and command of content.

The paper thoroughly addresses the assignment prompt. 

The paper proceeds in a clear, logical fashion that makes the information accessible to the reader. 

The paper’s purpose is clear, followed by details reflecting this purpose.  

The style throughout the paper accommodates the reader. 

The diction throughout the paper, and sentence construction, contribute to understanding. 

The student’s grammar, mechanics, and format are flawless.

The B paper is characterized by distinguished writing and fulfills the assignment requirements; however, the writing contains some of the following weaknesses:

The paper is well organized, but the presentation of content sometimes inhibits understanding.

The audience for which the paper is intended is sometimes unclear.

The student’s diction at times is vague and hinders precise communication. 

The student’s grammar, mechanics, and formatting flaws interfere with reading and comprehension.

The C paper is characterized by satisfactory writing that is generally effective but contains any one of the following weaknesses:

The paper lacks clear organization, or some material is not clearly explained; the paper’s audience and purpose are not clear.

The student’s sentences, although grammatically correct, often make information difficult to extract.

The student’s diction throughout the paper interferes with readability, but the reader can still glean the meaning; sections of the paper require rereading. 

The paper contains repeated errors in grammar, mechanics, or format.

The D paper struggles to communicate information and contains weak writing. In a professional work environment, such writing would be considered incompetent because it suffers from any one of the following problems:

The paper contains two or more of the problems listed for the C paper.

The paper lacks evidence of audience accommodation.

The paper contains poor diction, such as garbled wording that prevents understanding. 

The student’s sentences have mechanical errors, such as persistent run‑on sentences and comma splices.

The student’s grammar, spelling, or format problems create frequent obstacles to understanding.

The paper fails on multiple levels. A failing grade on a writing assignment usually means that your paper contains two or more of the problems listed for the D paper.

Mailing Address: 3501 University Blvd. East, Adelphi, MD 20783 This work is licensed under a  Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License . © 2022 UMGC. All links to external sites were verified at the time of publication. UMGC is not responsible for the validity or integrity of information located at external sites.

Table of Contents: Online Guide to Writing

Chapter 1: College Writing

How Does College Writing Differ from Workplace Writing?

What Is College Writing?

Why So Much Emphasis on Writing?

Chapter 2: The Writing Process

Doing Exploratory Research

Getting from Notes to Your Draft


Prewriting - Techniques to Get Started - Mining Your Intuition

Prewriting: Targeting Your Audience

Prewriting: Techniques to Get Started

Prewriting: Understanding Your Assignment

Rewriting: Being Your Own Critic

Rewriting: Creating a Revision Strategy

Rewriting: Getting Feedback

Rewriting: The Final Draft

Techniques to Get Started - Outlining

Techniques to Get Started - Using Systematic Techniques

Thesis Statement and Controlling Idea

Writing: Getting from Notes to Your Draft - Freewriting

Writing: Getting from Notes to Your Draft - Summarizing Your Ideas

Writing: Outlining What You Will Write

Chapter 3: Thinking Strategies

A Word About Style, Voice, and Tone

A Word About Style, Voice, and Tone: Style Through Vocabulary and Diction

Critical Strategies and Writing

Critical Strategies and Writing: Analysis

Critical Strategies and Writing: Evaluation

Critical Strategies and Writing: Persuasion

Critical Strategies and Writing: Synthesis

Developing a Paper Using Strategies

Kinds of Assignments You Will Write

Patterns for Presenting Information

Patterns for Presenting Information: Critiques

Patterns for Presenting Information: Discussing Raw Data

Patterns for Presenting Information: General-to-Specific Pattern

Patterns for Presenting Information: Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern

Patterns for Presenting Information: Specific-to-General Pattern

Patterns for Presenting Information: Summaries and Abstracts

Supporting with Research and Examples

Writing Essay Examinations

Writing Essay Examinations: Make Your Answer Relevant and Complete

Writing Essay Examinations: Organize Thinking Before Writing

Writing Essay Examinations: Read and Understand the Question

Chapter 4: The Research Process

Planning and Writing a Research Paper

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Ask a Research Question

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Cite Sources

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Collect Evidence

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Decide Your Point of View, or Role, for Your Research

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Draw Conclusions

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Find a Topic and Get an Overview

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Manage Your Resources

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Outline

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Survey the Literature

Planning and Writing a Research Paper: Work Your Sources into Your Research Writing

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found? - Human Resources

Research Resources: What Are Research Resources?

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found?

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found? - Electronic Resources

Research Resources: Where Are Research Resources Found? - Print Resources

Structuring the Research Paper: Formal Research Structure

Structuring the Research Paper: Informal Research Structure

The Nature of Research

The Research Assignment: How Should Research Sources Be Evaluated?

The Research Assignment: When Is Research Needed?

The Research Assignment: Why Perform Research?

Chapter 5: Academic Integrity

Academic Integrity

Giving Credit to Sources

Giving Credit to Sources: Copyright Laws

Giving Credit to Sources: Documentation

Giving Credit to Sources: Style Guides

Integrating Sources

Practicing Academic Integrity

Practicing Academic Integrity: Keeping Accurate Records

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material - Paraphrasing Your Source

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material - Quoting Your Source

Practicing Academic Integrity: Managing Source Material - Summarizing Your Sources

Types of Documentation

Types of Documentation: Bibliographies and Source Lists

Types of Documentation: Citing World Wide Web Sources

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - APA Style

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - CSE/CBE Style

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - Chicago Style

Types of Documentation: In-Text or Parenthetical Citations - MLA Style

Types of Documentation: Note Citations

Chapter 6: Using Library Resources

Finding Library Resources

Chapter 7: Assessing Your Writing

How Is Writing Graded?: A General Assessment Tool

The Draft Stage

The Draft Stage: The First Draft

The Draft Stage: The Revision Process and the Final Draft

The Draft Stage: Using Feedback

The Research Stage

Using Assessment to Improve Your Writing

Chapter 8: Other Frequently Assigned Papers

Reviews and Reaction Papers: Article and Book Reviews

Reviews and Reaction Papers: Reaction Papers

Writing Arguments

Writing Arguments: Adapting the Argument Structure

Writing Arguments: Purposes of Argument

Writing Arguments: References to Consult for Writing Arguments

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Anticipate Active Opposition

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Determine Your Organization

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Develop Your Argument

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Introduce Your Argument

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - State Your Thesis or Proposition

Writing Arguments: Steps to Writing an Argument - Write Your Conclusion

Writing Arguments: Types of Argument

Appendix A: Books to Help Improve Your Writing


General Style Manuals

Researching on the Internet

Special Style Manuals

Writing Handbooks

Appendix B: Collaborative Writing and Peer Reviewing

Collaborative Writing: Assignments to Accompany the Group Project

Collaborative Writing: Informal Progress Report

Collaborative Writing: Issues to Resolve

Collaborative Writing: Methodology

Collaborative Writing: Peer Evaluation

Collaborative Writing: Tasks of Collaborative Writing Group Members

Collaborative Writing: Writing Plan

General Introduction

Peer Reviewing

Appendix C: Developing an Improvement Plan

Working with Your Instructor’s Comments and Grades

Appendix D: Writing Plan and Project Schedule

Devising a Writing Project Plan and Schedule

Reviewing Your Plan with Others

By using our website you agree to our use of cookies. Learn more about how we use cookies by reading our  Privacy Policy .

What are your chances of acceptance?

Calculate for all schools, your chance of acceptance.

Duke University

Your chancing factors


what does a graded essay mean

How the ACT’s Graded: A Breakdown

Do you know how to improve your profile for college applications.

See how your profile ranks among thousands of other students using CollegeVine. Calculate your chances at your dream schools and learn what areas you need to improve right now — it only takes 3 minutes and it's 100% free.

The ACT is roughly three hours of reading things, bubbling in scantrons, erasing them — and also writing, if your dream school requires it. It’s all in the name of trying to give colleges a gauge of how prepared you are to handle their workload, and it’s a necessary evil that we understand all too well.

So how exactly is this beast of a test graded? We’ll show you. But first, let’s take a look at what kind of test the ACT is.

Test Logistics

  • Four sections to the test: English, mathematics, science, and reading. There’s an optional fifth essay section required by most top colleges.
  • The English section gives you 45 minutes to answer 75 questions about grammar and rhetoric.
  • The math section comprises 60 questions to be answered in 60 minutes, about all the math the ACT thinks you should’ve learned by senior year, including but not limited to algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.
  • The science section is actually an extended reading section testing your graph-reading and logical reasoning skills. 40 questions in 35 minutes.
  • The reading section is your typical reading comprehension test. 40 questions in 35 minutes.
  • The essay section has you write a persuasive piece in 40 minutes that requires you to summarize both sides of the argument, pick your position, and explain how your position relates to the other factions.
  • There is a short break after the English and math sections are over; that’s the only break you get.
  • No cell phones or electronics allowed, a number two pencils is required, and an approved calculator is allowed for the math section only.
  • Fun fact: if your calculator has buttons over an inch in height, you’re required to be assigned special seating where your other fellow test-takers won’t be able to see what buttons you’re pressing during the math section. So if you like solitude, the best way to go (according to the ACT, at least) is to buy an extra-large calculator.

Grading Methodology — Multiple Choice

As we can see, the bulk of the ACT consists of multiple-choice questions. This is the age-old game of counting how many graphite circles you can put in the right places. And the ACT likes to keep things simple; if your bubble is in the right place, you get a point. If it isn’t, you don’t get any points for that question, but you also don’t lose any of the points you already have.

(So if you completely draw a blank on a question, feel free to guess! Nobody’s penalizing you for it, anyway.)

After the scantron machine’s tallied up the number of right answers you got for each multiple-choice section, it generates a set of “raw scores” for you based on how many points you earned out of all the points that it was possible to earn. The graders then put your raw score up against a curve of all the other people who took the test with you in the same sitting, and assign you a “scaled score” out of 36 based on where you scored compared to the distribution of the rest of the test-taker population. So in that way, the ACT is curved.

At the end of the day, you’ll get four scaled scores out of 36 for each of the multiple choice sections, and while your scaled scores by section will show up on your score report to colleges, what’s printed in the largest font size at the top of the entire report is something called a “composite score.” It’s the average of all four of your scaled scores, rounded to the nearest whole number. In this way, the ACT favors jacks of all trades over masters of one — strengths in one or two areas won’t be able to completely mask weaknesses in others.

The Essay Section

So whether this comes as good news or not-so-good news to you, the ACT composite score does not include the writing section. However, your writing score will also be printed alongside your multiple choice section scores as a score out of — you guessed it — 36.

The ACT assigns two readers to each essay they receive, and each reader is handed a rubric with four different “domains” by which to evaluate your essay — your ideas and analysis (the soundness of your logic and the depth of your argument), your development and support (how well you back up your claims), your organization (self-explanatory), and your use of language and conventions (your grammar, rhetorical devices, tone, voice, and the like).  

For each domain, a reader can assign you a score ranging from one to six. A perfect score in any domain is 12 points, meaning that you got a six from each reader (and they probably really enjoyed your work!). But there is a catch to this — both readers must not differ by over a point in grading you in any of the domains. If there is a two-point difference or more between the two readers, a third reader will be called in to read your essay and give a third set of grades (that hopefully fall into the plus-minus one margin of error).

After the points are assigned, a writing score is calculated based on the totals from all four domains with a perfect score being a 48. This score is also scaled, like the multiple-choice, into a number 36 or less.

If you chose to take the essay section of the ACT, an English Language Arts score will appear on your grade report, which is a composite score drawn from your essay, English, and reading sections. If you skipped out on the essay, this won’t show up.

Adcoms and the Score Report

It goes without saying that yes — your composite score is probably going to be the first place that college admissions offers look when they receive any score report. But hey, you can’t really blame them. It’s literally the first thing on the page under the ACT logo, and it’s in a big green box in bold sans-serif.

In other words, it’s kind of hard to miss.

But rest assured that they do look past that; adcoms are interested in you and your individual strengths. They will take into consideration your scores in each section, especially if you’re applying with a specific major in mind. A prospective chemical engineer’s math and science scores are probably going to be given more consideration than their English score, for example.

So don’t worry — the ACT is simply a way for these colleges to get two different perspectives on your skills. The composite score shows them a holistic overview of your relative power level, while the section-by-section breakdown shows how this power is distributed. And colleges value both of these perspectives.

Want to know how your ACT score impacts your chances of acceptance to your dream schools? Our free Chancing Engine will not only help you predict your odds, but also let you know how you stack up against other applicants, and which aspects of your profile to improve. Sign up for your free CollegeVine account today to gain access to our Chancing Engine and get a jumpstart on your college strategy!

Related CollegeVine Blog Posts

what does a graded essay mean

Berkeley Graduate Division

  • Basics for GSIs
  • Advancing Your Skills

Grading Essays

Grade for Learning Objectives Response to Writing Errors Commenting on Student Papers Plagiarism and Grading

Information about grading student writing also appears in the Grading Student Work section of the Teaching Guide. Here are some general guidelines to keep in mind when grading student writing.

Grade for Learning Objectives

Know what the objective of the assignment is and grade according to a standard (a rubric) that assesses precisely that. If the purpose of the assignment is to analyze a process, focus on the analysis in the essay. If the paper is unreadable, however, consult with the professor and other GSIs about how to proceed. It may be wise to have a shared policy about the level of readiness or comprehensibility expected and what is unacceptable.

Response to Writing Errors

The research is clear: do not even attempt to mark every error in students’ papers. There are several reasons for this. Teachers do not agree about what constitutes an error (so there is an unavoidable element of subjectivity); students do not learn when confronted by too many markings; and exhaustive marking takes way too much of the instructor’s time. Resist the urge to edit or proofread your students’ papers for superficial errors. At most, mark errors on one page or errors of only two or three types. One approach to avoid the temptation of marking every error is to read or skim the whole essay quickly once without marking anything on the page – or at least, with very minimal marks. Some instructors find this a useful method in order to get a general sense of the essay’s organization and argument, thus enabling them to better identify the major areas of concern. Your second pass can then focus more in-depth on a few select areas that require improvement.

Commenting on Student Papers

The scholarly literature in this area distinguishes formative from summative comments. Summative comments are the more traditional approach. They render judgment about an essay after it has been completed. They explain the instructor’s judgment of a student’s performance. If the instructor’s comments contain several critical statements, the student often becomes protective of his or her ego by filtering them out; learning from mistakes becomes more difficult. If the assignment is over with, the student may see no reason to revisit it to learn from the comments.

Formative comments, on the other hand, give the student feedback in an ongoing process of learning and skill building. Through formative comments, particularly in the draft stage of a writing assignment, instructors guide students on a strategic selection of the most important aspects of the essay. These include both what to keep because it is (at least relatively) well done and what requires revision. Formative comments let the student know clearly how to revise and why.

For the purposes of this guide, we have distinguished commenting on student writing (which is treated here) from grading student writing (which is treated in the Teaching Guide section on grading ). While it is true that instructors’ comments on student writing should give reasons for the grade assigned to it, we want to emphasize here that the comments on a student’s paper can function as instruction , not simply as justification. Here are ten tips.

  • Use your comments on a student’s paper to highlight things the paper accomplishes well and a few major things that would most improve the paper.
  • Always observe at least one or two strengths in the student’s paper, even if they seem to you to be low-level accomplishments — but avoid condescension. Writing is a complex activity, and students really do need to know they’re doing something right.
  • Don’t make exhaustive comments. They take up too much of your time and leave the student with no sense of priority among them.
  • Don’t proofread. If the paper is painfully replete with errors and you want to emphasize writing mechanics, count the first ten errors on the page, draw a line at that point, and ask the student to identify them and to show their corrections to you in office hours. Students do not learn much from instructors’ proofreading marks. Direct students to a writing reference guide such as the Random House Handbook.
  • Notice patterns or repeated errors (in content or form). Choose the three or four most disabling ones and direct your comments toward helping the students understand what they need to learn to do differently to correct this kind of error.
  • Use marginal notes to locate and comment on specific passages in the paper (for example “Interesting idea — develop it more” or “I lost the thread of the argument in this section” or “Very useful summary here before you transition to the next point”). Use final or end comments to discuss more global issues (e.g., “Work on paragraph structure” or “The argument from analogy is ineffective. A better way to make the point would be…”)
  • Use questions to help the student unpack areas  that are unclear or require more explanation and analysis. E.g.: “Can you explain more about what you mean by “x”?”; “What in the text shows this statement?”; “Is “y” consistent with what you’ve argued about “z”?” This approach can help the student recognize your comments less as a form of judgment than a form of dialogue with their work. As well, it can help you avoid “telling” the student how they should revise certain areas that remain undeveloped. Often, students just need a little more encouragement to focus on an area they haven’t considered in-depth or that they might have envisioned clearly in their head but did not translate to the page.
  • Maintain a catalogue of positive end comments: “Good beginning for a 1B course.” “Very perceptive reading.” “Good engagement with the material.” “Gets at the most relevant material/issues/passages.” Anything that connects specific aspects of the student’s product with the grading rubric is useful. (For more on grading rubrics , see the Grading section of the Teaching Guide.)
  • Diplomatic but firm suggestions for improvement: Here you must be specific and concrete. Global negative statements tend to enter students’ self-image (“I’m a bad writer”). This creates an attitudinal barrier to learning and makes your job harder and less satisfying. Instead, try “The most strategic improvement you could make is…” Again, don’t try to comment on everything. Select only the most essential areas for improvement, and watch the student’s progress on the next draft or paper.
  • Typical in-text marks: Provide your students with a legend of your reading marks. Does a straight underline indicate “good stuff”? Does a wavy underline mean something different? Do you use abbreviations in the margins? You can find examples of standard editing marks in many writing guides, such as the Random House Handbook.
  • The tone of your comments on student writing is important to students. Avoid sarcasm and jokes — students who take offense are less disposed to learn. Address the student by name before your end-comments, and sign your name after your remarks. Be professional, and bear in mind the sorts of comments that help you with your work.

Plagiarism and Grading

Students can be genuinely uninformed or misinformed about what constitutes plagiarism. In some instances students will knowingly resort to cutting and pasting from unacknowledged sources; a few may even pay for a paper written by someone else; more recently, students may attempt to pass off AI-generated essays as their own work. Your section syllabus should include a clear policy notice about plagiarism and AI so that students cannot miss it, and instructors should work with students to be sure they understand how to incorporate outside sources appropriately.

Plagiarism can be largely prevented by stipulating that larger writing assignments be completed in steps that the students must turn in for instructor review, or that students visit the instructor periodically for a brief but substantive chat about how their projects are developing, or that students turn in their research log and notes at intermediate points in the research process.

All of these strategies also deter students from using AI to substitute for their own critical thinking and writing. In addition, you may want to craft prompts that are specific to the course materials rather than overly-general ones; and you may also require students to provide detailed analysis about specific texts or cases. AI tools like ChatGPT tend to struggle significantly in both of these areas.

For further guidance on preventing academic misconduct, please see Academic Misconduct — Preventing Plagiarism .

You can also find more information and advice about AI technology like ChatGPT at the Berkeley Center for Teaching & Learning.

UC Berkeley has a campus license to use Turnitin to check the originality of students’ papers and to generate feedback to students about their integration of written sources into their papers. The tool is available in bCourses as an add-on to the Grading tool, and in the Assignments tool SpeedGrader. Even with the results of the originality check, instructors are obligated to exercise judgment in determining the degree to which a given use of source material was fair or unfair.

If a GSI does find a very likely instance of plagiarism, the faculty member in charge of the course must be notified and provided with the evidence. The faculty member is responsible for any sanctions against the student. Some faculty members give an automatic failing grade for the assignment or for the course, according to their own course policy. Instances of plagiarism should be reported to the Center for Student Conduct; please see If You Encounter Academic Misconduct .

Walden University

Writing Assessment: Scoring Criteria

  • Doctoral Writing Assessment
  • Assessment Overview
  • Scoring Criteria
  • Essay Tips and Resources
  • Essay Scores
  • Post-Assessment Resources
  • Frequently Asked Questions
  • Vision and Mission
  • Technical Support
  • Staff Biographies
  • Tips and Resources

Skip to Open Chat in New Window

Essay Scoring Rubric

Your Writing Assessment essay will be scored based on the rubric in your DRWA Doctoral Writing Assessment classroom focusing on:

  • Central idea of essay is clear, related to the prompt, and developed
  • Paraphrase and analysis of reading material supports the overall argument
  • Organization of ideas uses a logical structure, clear paragraphs, and appropriate transitions
  • Grammar and mechanics effectively communicates meaning

To view the scoring criteria for each rubric category, visit the DRWA Doctoral Writing Assessment: Essay Score module in your DRWA classroom.

To test out of the required Graduate Writing I and Graduate Writing II courses, you must show mastery of the writing skills represented in the rubric in your DRWA Doctoral Writing Assessment classroom.

If you are required to take Graduate Writing I and/or Graduate Writing II based on your assessment score, you can learn more about the learning outcomes of these courses below.

Graduate Writing I Learning Outcomes

Graduate writing ii learning outcomes, top 3 scoring criteria faqs.

  • Previous Page: Assessment Overview
  • Next Page: Essay Tips and Resources
  • Office of Student Disability Services

Walden Resources


  • Academic Residencies
  • Academic Skills
  • Career Planning and Development
  • Customer Care Team
  • Field Experience
  • Military Services
  • Student Success Advising
  • Writing Skills

Centers and Offices

  • Center for Social Change
  • Office of Academic Support and Instructional Services
  • Office of Degree Acceleration
  • Office of Research and Doctoral Services
  • Office of Student Affairs

Student Resources

  • Form & Style Review
  • Quick Answers
  • ScholarWorks
  • SKIL Courses and Workshops
  • Walden Bookstore
  • Walden Catalog & Student Handbook
  • Student Safety/Title IX
  • Legal & Consumer Information
  • Website Terms and Conditions
  • Cookie Policy
  • Accessibility
  • Accreditation
  • State Authorization
  • Net Price Calculator
  • Contact Walden

Walden University is a member of Adtalem Global Education, Inc. Walden University is certified to operate by SCHEV © 2024 Walden University LLC. All rights reserved.

what does a graded essay mean

The Smart Guide to the MEE

  • MEE Jurisdictions
  • Format & Overview of the MEE
  • A Step-by-Step Approach on How to Read, Organize, & Draft Your Answer to an MEE Essay Question
  • 15 MEE Tips to Increase Your Essay Score
  • How to Study & Prepare for the MEE
  • MEE Practice: How to Use Model Essay Answers & Sample Examinee Answers Effectively
  • Where to Find Past MEE’s

MEE Grading & Scoring

  • What’s Next?
  • Download the PDF

A Guide to Mastering the Multistate Essay Exam (MEE)

What you’ll learn:.

  • How the MEE is Graded & Scored
  • MEE Grading Standards… with MEE Grading Key
  • How an MEE Score is Determined – Raw Scores and Scaled Scores
  • The Total Percentage Weight of an MEE Score (in each jurisdiction)

What You REALLY Need to Know About MEE Grading and Scoring

All written scores are combined, and then scaled using a complex formula.  For UBE jurisdictions, the written portions of the exam (MEE + MPT) are combined and scaled to a number between 1-200.

Other than that, you shouldn’t really worry about the specifics of grading and scoring .  Your main focus should be on studying the law, essay practice so you write an excellent essay answer, and comparing your practice essays to the MEE Analyses released by the NCBE.

How an MEE Score is Determined (Raw Scores → Scaled Scores)

  • Graders use a process called Calibration to ensure fairness when grading and rank-ordering papers.  Calibration is achieved by test-grading “calibration packets” of 30 student papers to see what the range of answers is, and then resolving any differences in grading among those graders and/or papers.  This process ensures graders are using the same criteria so grading judgments are consistent for rank-ordering.³
  • For UBE Jurisdictions , an examinee’s scores for the MEE and MPT are combined, which comprises the examinee’s combined written “raw score” for the exam. This combined written “raw score” is then scaled putting the written raw score on a 200-point scale .  Specifically, the combined “raw score” is scaled to the mean and standard deviation of the Scaled MBE Scores for all examinees of the examinee’s respective jurisdiction (the state in which you take the bar exam).  This means that an examinee’s written portion is scaled “relative” to the other examinee answers in that jurisdiction.
  • Step # 3: The total written “scaled score” is weighted accordingly, depending on how much the written component is worth for that jurisdiction’s bar exam .  For UBE jurisdictions, the total written “scaled score” is 50% of the total exam score (30% for the MEE + 20% for the MPT).

Total Weight of MEE Score

In other jurisdictions, the MEE/essays is normally worth between 30% and 45% .  Some jurisdictions have additional state essays and/or have a minimum passing score for the MEE/essay portion.

MEE Grading Standards

Many jurisdictions do not release their grading standards or grading scale, but a few states do.

Here are the grading standards and scale for Washington State.

For other MEE jurisdictions, we have confirmed the following raw essay grading scales (see chart below).  The NCBE recommends a six-point (0 to 6) raw grading scale , 4 but jurisdictions can use another scale.  If you know a grading scale that isn’t listed, we would appreciate that you contact us so we may include it.

Additional Resources on MEE Grading & Scaling

If you’re interested in more details on MEE grading and scaling, please see the following articles:

  • 13 Best Practices for Grading Essays and Performance Tests by Sonja Olson, The Bar Examiner, Winter 2019-2020 (Vol. 88, No. 4).
  • Essay Grading Fundamentals by Judith A. Gundersen, The Testing Column, The Bar Examiner, March 2015.
  • Q&A: NCBE Testing and Research Department Staff Members Answer Your Questions by NCBE Testing and Research Department, The Testing Column, The Bar Examiner, Winter 2017-2018.
  • It’s All Relative—MEE and MPT Grading, That Is by Judith A. Gundersen, The Testing Column, The Bar Examiner, June 2016.
  • Procedure for Grading Essays and Performance Tests by Susan M. Case, Ph.D., The Testing Column, The Bar Examiner, November 2010.
  • Scaling: It’s Not Just for Fish or Mountains by Mark A. Albanese, Ph.D., The Testing Column, The Bar Examiner, December 2014.
  • What Everyone Needs to Know About Testing, Whether They Like It or Not by Susan M. Case, Ph.D., The Testing Column, The Bar Examiner, June 2012.
  • Quality Control for Developing and Grading Written Bar Exam Components by Susan M. Case, Ph.D., The Testing Column, The Bar Examiner, June 2013.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Scaling Written Test Scores to the MBE by Susan M. Case, Ph.D., The Testing Column, The Bar Examiner, Nov. 2006.
  • Demystifying Scaling to the MBE: How’d You Do That? by Susan M. Case, Ph.D., The Testing Column, The Bar Examiner, May 2005.

what does a graded essay mean

Want To Save This Guide For Later?

No problem! Just click below to get the PDF version of this guide for free.

³See, 13 Best Practices for Grading Essays and Performance Tests by Sonja Olson, The Bar Examiner, Winter 2019-2020 (Vol. 88, No. 4), at Item 5.

4 See Id ., at Item 3.

what does a graded essay mean

Fill Out This Form For Your PDF

Download now.

what does a graded essay mean

Teaching Guides

  • Online Course Development Resources
  • Principles & Frameworks
  • Pedagogies & Strategies
  • Reflecting & Assessing
  • Challenges & Opportunities
  • Populations & Contexts

Quick Links

  • Services for Departments and Schools
  • Examples of Online Instructional Modules
  • Plans & Pricing
  • Case Briefs
  • Multiple-Choice Questions
  • Help & Support
  • Searching for and Finding Content
  • Quimbee-ABA Offers
  • Student-Managed Groups
  • Law School/Institutional/Organization Groups
  • Quimbee MPRE Review
  • Quimbee MBE Review (now retired)
  • Quimbee Bar Review
  • Continuing Legal Education (CLE)
  • Refer-A-Friend Program
  • Quimbee Merch
  • Knowledge Base

How are the graded tasks scored? What does the graded essay score mean?

Quimbee bar review, quimbee bar review+, bar review course, bar prep, graded tasks, graded essays, graded pt, graded essay, graded performance test, essay grading, essay score, essay scoring, bar exam, bar review, ube jurisdictions and california.

Our attorneys grade on three components (legal and factual content, organization and clarity, and application logic and reasoning), and they give a score of 1-6 on each component.

The final score is an average of these three component scores with the maximum composite score being six.

Generally, a composite score of 4 or above would put you in a good position to pass the bar exam, assuming that you do reasonably well on the MBE.

Our attorney graders use a score sheet tailored to each specific Florida essay question. The score sheet was written by a subject-matter expert who understands how the essays are graded by Florida bar examiners.

The score sheet lists each point your essay should have hit and the points available for each. Comparing your graded essay and personalized feedback with the essay score sheet will help you understand how your essay was scored. There are 100 total points available, but you only need to score around 35 or 40 to be in a good position to pass the Florida bar.

Please note that there are no model answers available for Florida essays, but the Florida State Bar website does provide sample answers. These sample answers scored well on previous bar exams, but they are not meant to be perfect or excellent answers and should only be used as a reference. We do not recommend studying from these answers as they frequently contain mistakes of law and other inaccuracies.

*Please note that graded tasks are only included in Quimbee Bar Review+.

Tutorials, Study Guides & More

Grades in essay results

August 23, 2009 by Roy Johnson

sample from HTML program and PDF book

1. There are two systems of essay grades commonly used in further and higher education [in the UK]. One is the numerical percentages system of grades (from 0 up to 100) and the other is the alphabetical letter system (from A to E, F, and G).

2. Older, traditional universities sometimes employ a similar system, but using the initial letters of the Greek alphabet – Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta.

3. Those using the English and Greek letter system often employ the further refinement of a plus and minus system to provide a greater degree of discrimination. In this system, the grades Beta-plus (B+) and Alpha-minus (A-) represent incremental grades between Beta and Alpha.

4. Although these systems are in widespread use, there might be minor local variations. An example of the other common [sixteen-point] marking scheme is given below. See also the section on assessment.

5. In numerical percentages especially, there is sometimes a sense of fuzziness about the distinctions between one grade and the next. It is also quite common not to award percentages over eighty.

6. The percentage and letter grades, corresponding to the standard university degree classification, are as follows:

7. For most courses, the boundary between a pass and a fail will be forty percent. Below this there can be different levels of failure. A tutor might award thirty-five to record a near miss. This could permit a student to re-submit a piece of work or maybe to re-sit an examination. The band of marks between thirty and forty is sometimes called a ‘compensatory pass’.

8. A mark as low as twenty-five suggests a basic misunderstanding or a serious lack of achievement. Below this, there are further possible degrees of failure. These marks may sometimes be designated as E, F, and G in the letter grading system – though some institutions stop registering grades at D.

9. Low marks for individual pieces of work might nevertheless be significant depending on the system for calculating an overall course grade. One single low essay grade on a course might bring down an average score – or it might be disregarded as an aberration if all other grades were high.

10. Above forty percent there is a band of ten marks which designate a ‘bare pass’. The question has been considered, but that is all. The answer might be weak and hesitant, either in the arrangement of its ideas or in the quality of its arguments and evidence . The manner of expression might also be shaky. This band corresponds to the D grade in the letter system or a third (III) or pass mark in the traditional university system.

11. Work which scrapes through the pass mark will usually suffer from a number of weaknesses. The answers might have been very short, the focus of the argument might have wandered on and off the required subject. It might lack coherence and structure , and the expression may have been hesitant or clumsy. In work of this calibre there is often no indication that the student knows which is the more and which the less relevant part of the argument.

12. The higher the grade awarded to an essay, the greater must be the proportion of material it contains which is directly related to the question. Conversely, there should be as little as possible which is not relevant . The success of the work, in almost all cases, is directly related to the ability to focus single-mindedly on the question topic(s).

13. Next comes the band between fifty and sixty percent. Grades at this level represent a greater degree of competence, both in terms of handling the issues and the manner in which they are expressed. There may be a greater degree of fluency in the written style, and the generation of ideas. More supporting evidence may have been offered, or examples discussed. However, there will still be weak patches, and possibly mistakes or omissions which dilute the overall effect of the essay. This band corresponds to the C grade or the lower second (II.ii) in the other grading systems.

14. Grades between fifty and sixty are perfectly respectable. They represent rising degrees of competence in handling the issues raised by the question. These grades reflect an average ability in the subject at this level – yet they often seem to cause more problems than any other grades. Many students imagine that such results represent a humiliating failure to succeed, when in fact they demonstrate competence and success – albeit at a moderate level.

15. In the next band, between sixty and seventy, there will be a rise in the quality of written expression, argument and evidence . There will also be far less extraneous material and usually a greater degree of self-confidence in the writing. The essay will demonstrate an ability to focus attention on the question. This is a standard which shows a well informed and firm grasp of the issues involved, and the intellectual capability to deal with them. This band corresponds to the B grade or the upper second (II.i) in the other systems.

16. Students often want to know (quite rightly) what constitutes the difference in quality between two results, one of which might score 59 and the other 62 percent. This is a gap of only three marks, but enough to make the distinction between a lower and upper second level pass. The answer is that the better work probably has a stronger sense of focus and structure , presents more concrete evidence, or makes a closer engagement with the details of the question.

17. The regions beyond seventy or seventy-five are normally reserved for work which is clearly outstanding in its quality, intellectual breadth, and fluency of articulation. Answers pitched at this level are likely to be very confidently presented, and they will demonstrate a breadth of knowledge and reading in the subject which make it especially praiseworthy. Marks in this band are often awarded to work which not only answers the question but say something insightful or original about it as well. This band corresponds to the A grade or first class award (I) in the other systems.

18. Keep in mind however that essay questions do not require you to be dazzlingly original. Your tutors will be perfectly happy to award good grades to work which shows that you have studied the course material and answered the question .

19. Most institutions use similar standards of assessment, even though many of them do not make the criteria explicit. Here is one which does.

© Roy Johnson 2003

Buy Writing Essays — eBook in PDF format Buy Writing Essays 3.0 — eBook in HTML format

More on writing essays More on How-To More on writing skills

Get in touch

  • Advertising
  • T & C’s
  • Testimonials

what does a graded essay mean

What Is a Weighted Score?

Mina De La O/Getty Images

  • Test Prep Strategies
  • Study Skills
  • SAT Test Prep
  • ACT Test Prep
  • GRE Test Prep
  • LSAT Test Prep
  • Certifications
  • Homework Help
  • Private School
  • College Admissions
  • College Life
  • Graduate School
  • Business School
  • Distance Learning

what does a graded essay mean

  • B.A., English, University of Michigan

After you've finished taking a test, and your teacher hands back your test with a grade you're certain is going to take you from a C to a B on your final score, you probably feel elated. When you get your report card back, however, and discover that your grade is in fact still a C, you may have a weighted score or weighted grade in play.

So, what is a weighted score? A weighted score or weighted grade is merely the average of a set of grades, where each set carries a different amount of importance.

How Weighted Grades Work

Suppose at the beginning of the year, the teacher hands you the syllabus . On it, he or she explains that your final grade will be determined in this manner:

Percentage of your grade by category

  • Homework: 10%
  • Quizzes: 20%
  • Essays: 20%
  • Midterm: 25%

Your essays and quizzes are weighted more heavily than your homework , and both your midterm and final exam count for the same percentage of your grade as all of your homework, quizzes and essays combined, so each one of those tests carries more weight than the other items. Your teacher believes that those tests are the most important part of your grade! Hence, if you ace your homework, essays and quizzes, but bomb the big tests, your final score will still end up in the gutter.

Let's do the math to figure out how the grading works with a weighted score system.

Student Example: Ava

Throughout the year, Ava has been acing her homework and getting A's and B's on most of her quizzes and essays. Her midterm grade was a D because she didn't prepare very much and those multiple-choice tests freak her out. Now, Ava wants to know what score she needs to get on her final exam in order to get at least a B- (80%) for her final weighted score.

Here's what Ava's grades look like in numbers:

Category averages

  • Homework average: 98%
  • Quiz average: 84%
  • Essay average: 91%
  • Midterm: 64%

To figure out the math and determine what kind of studying efforts Ava needs to put into that final exam , we need to follow a 3-part process.

Set up an equation with Ava's goal percentage (80%) in mind:

H%*(H average) + Q%*(Q average) + E%*(E average) + M%*(M average) + F%*(F average) = 80%

Next, we multiply the percentage of Ava's grade by the average in each category:

  • Homework: 10% of grade * 98% in category = (.10)(.98) = 0.098
  • Quiz average: 20% of grade * 84% in category = (.20)(.84) = 0.168
  • Essay average: 20% of grade * 91% in category = (.20)(.91) = 0.182
  • Midterm: 25% of grade * 64% in category = (.25)(.64) = 0.16
  • Final: 25% of grade * X in category = (.25)(x) = ?

Finally we, add them up and solve for x:

  • 0.098 + 0.168 + 0.182 + 0.16 + .25x = .80
  • 0.608 + .25x = .80
  • .25x = .80 – 0.608
  • .25x = .192
  • x = .192/.25
  • x = .768
  • x = 77%

Because Ava's teacher uses weighted scores, in order for her to get an 80% or a B- for her final grade, she'll need to score a 77% or a C on her final exam.

Weighted Score Summary

Many teachers use weighted scores and keep track of them with grading programs online. If you're unsure about anything related to your grade, please go talk with your teacher. Many educators grade differently, even within the same school! Set up an appointment to go through your grades one by one if your final score doesn't seem right for some reason. Your teacher will be glad to help you out! A student who is interested in getting the highest possible score he or she can is always welcome.

  • What Is Grading on a Curve?
  • How to Change Your Habits and Improve Your Grades
  • How are College Academics Different from High School?
  • What Does a Weighted GPA Mean in the College Admissions Process?
  • Cornell College GPA, SAT and ACT Data
  • High Grades vs. Challenging Courses
  • Top 10 Healthy Homework Habits
  • Clarke University GPA, SAT and ACT Data
  • The Evergreen State College GPA, SAT and ACT Data
  • Saint Mary's College Indiana GPA, SAT and ACT Data
  • Ursinus College GPA, SAT and ACT Data
  • CUNY Lehman College GPA, SAT and ACT Data
  • Luther College GPA, SAT and ACT Data
  • North Carolina A&T GPA, SAT and ACT Data
  • Juniata College GPA, SAT and ACT Data
  • What Is a Rubric?
  • Uni Reviews
  • Student Guide
  • Student stories
  • UK Survival Service


This article about how the UK university grading system was updated by the Great British Mag content team on 5 September, 2019

The UK grading system is not terribly different to the grading systems in China , India, USA or the EU. The top grades go to the people who excel and get very high percentages and the pass grades are given to anyone who manages to achieve the minimum grade percentage required. But that is where the similarities end.

Whereas other systems use the alphabet to demonstrate the achievements of the student, the UK system uses a class grade order. This system dates all the way back to the invention of the university itself and reflects the archetype of the British class system .

The UK grading system:

First (1 st ): The best grade you can get. The student has got higher than 70% on their course or assignment. An almost perfect piece of work. You should be very happy with it. The markers definitely were…

2:1 (upper second class): Student achieved between 60%-69%. The work was at a very good level, but there was still room for improvement. Kick back, smile and relax. You’ve done a good job! You will need to get a 2:1 or higher if you’re planning on staying on for a masters or post-graduate degree.

2:2 (lower second class): If you got 50%-59% on a course or assignment, then you have this grade. Even though it is not a perfect score it is still very good. You should still be happy about getting this mark.

Third: If you get between 45%-49%, you need to start thinking about where you went wrong. It’s not the worst mark, but perhaps some tutoring might help next time.

Ordinary degree: The absolute minimum you need to pass the course. Getting between 40%-44% is not where you want to be. You should definitely seek out some extra help if you want to do more than scrape by. Or maybe cut down on the time spent in the pub…

Fail: Anything below 40% constitutes failure. Sorry, but you will need to take the course again to pass.


What is freshers week, how many hours can international students work in the uk, the innovator visa – explained, privacy overview, where can i get contraception in the uk, 10 best non-alcoholic beers.

A Teacher’s Perspective on What Grades Really Mean

what does a graded essay mean

Have you ever wanted to understand how grading should and does fit into the educational experience? As you get ready to kick off a new school year , I think I can help. I taught for 17 years, and have helped many students with “grade improvement plans.” Let’s look at what grades are, and then how a teacher views them.

The Ideal vs. the Reality

Ideally, grades are a measure of how broadly and deeply you have mastered the objectives in a course. Objectives are the things you are supposed to learn, and every reasonable course is built upon them. An example: “The student will be able to define ‘integers.’” If you earn a “B” in your physical science course, then you have mastered the objectives in the course to an above average level. A “C” grade is average. All of a student’s efforts in a class would be related to these objectives and to demonstrating a mastery of the subject by answering questions, writing essays, and performing complex tasks like labs.

The “real world” of grading is a bit different. First, I would give students the same advice that I would give my own children—and in fact did. Grades are like points scored in a game. They are a measure of how well you have “scored,” but not always a measure of your efforts and learning. Isn’t it frustrating to study hard, work hard, think you know what you are doing, and then perform poorly on a test!? So, if we think of learning as a game, your grades are points scored. In your mind, keep it that simple! Grades are not the purpose of learning—learning happens all of the time when no grades are given. However, grades are the measure used in the game of education!

Grading Differences

I am often asked about the differences between online learning and traditional schools. One answer I give is that grading is more precise—the score is kept more accurately. Why is this so? Every K12 quiz or test question is “mapped” or connected to an objective. This process was done by people who have doctorates—experts! In this way, students’ grade as a measure of their work reflects their knowledge better than some of the practices that are used by classroom teachers, and that even I used. For example, sometimes I and other teachers fall prey to volume and not quality in an essay, or are enamored with how pretty a display is, instead of looking at its contents. When humans are involved in grading, human biases are as well and unfortunately, almost all teachers fall prey to these.

Recently, I heard a disturbing story about a student in my community. He and a friend diligently worked together on a project and had it ready to submit to their teacher the next day. It was missing some large labels however. They had planned on printing the labels in school that morning, and to the surprise of all, the printers in the school had been shut down for service. While they had planned appropriately, and had all of the objectives of the English project met, the teacher deducted 10 percent of their overall grade because of the missing labels. In this student’s case, that was the difference between an “A” and a “B” grade in the course. That in turn can translate into fewer scholarship dollars, or not being accepted at a highly competitive college or university—all because a school printer that the student planned on using was not available! What did that have to do with the student’s mastery of the concepts taught in language arts!? Not a thing!

To summarize, students’ grades represent the points they score for what they know, and sometimes it is an imperfect measure. In an online system, it is more precise than in a traditional school because “human error” is reduced.

Appearances Count

I want to leave students with one more thought. Grades are a form of evaluation. Ideally you will always be evaluated based on your efforts and results. However, we live in a world where judgement and bias is part of humans evaluating things. Teachers evaluating a student’s work are no different than any other judgement call at times. In fact, even you, I am sure have sometimes misjudged something! A good strategy is to take an extra moment to think about your appearance and that of your work if it is teacher-graded. Be sure it is attractive and free of careless mistakes. Work that you have done that is packaged well will never be looked upon more poorly than poorly packaged work. In short, make your work a present—something worthy of “present-ation”—and you will most often score the most points you can!

Featured Image –  Quinn Dombrowski  / CC by 2.0

Related Articles

what does a graded essay mean

Easy Science Experiments For Kids To Do At Home This Summer

May 31 2024

A woman takes the blood pressure of a patient.

4 Ways to Get Healthcare Experience in High School 

May 29 2024

A teen male in a yellow shirt sits in front of his computer at home.

5 Strategies for Keeping Students Engaged in Online Learning 

May 21 2024

Teenage girl looking sad in the park

How Parents Can Prevent Isolation and Loneliness During Summer Break

May 14 2024

teacher appreciation gift

The Ultimate Guide to Gift Ideas for Teachers 

Child holding thank you card

How to Thank a Teacher: Heartfelt Gestures They Won’t Forget   

A girl plays in a moving box while her parents unpack in their new home.

Six Ways Online Schools Can Support Military Families

A teacher leans onto a desk next to a student and helps him understand a concept on his assignment.

7 Things Teachers Should Know About Your Child 

April 30 2024

A group of high school graduates stand together with their diplomas

Countdown to Graduation: How to Prepare for the Big Day 

April 23 2024

A college student walks on her campus holding her notebooks and class materials.

How am I Going to Pay for College?

April 16 2024

Kids lay in the grass together

5 Major Benefits of Summer School 

April 12 2024

A girl reads a poem in a green book with a slightly confused look on her face.

Inspiring an Appreciation for Poetry in Kids 

April 9 2024

A mom comforts her daughters while sitting on the couch

A Parent’s Guide to Tough Conversations

April 2 2024

A mom and two kids sit on a bed and read a story together.

The Importance of Reading to Children and Its Enhancements to Their Development

March 26 2024

A student rests behind a pile of books.

5 Steps to Master College-Level Reading

March 19 2024

A young boy sits on a tree stump with his stuffed animal, reading a book.

10 Timeless Stories to Inspire Your Reader: Elementary, Middle, and High Schoolers

March 15 2024

A boy lays down to read a book in a library

From Books to Tech: Why Libraries Are Still Important in the Digital Age

March 13 2024

A young student uses virtual reality to explore a new universe

The Evolution of Learning: How Education is Transforming for Future Generations

March 11 2024

A child discovers the magic of reading

The Ultimate Guide to Reading Month: 4 Top Reading Activities for Kids

March 1 2024

Two brothers watch fun YouTube videos together on their living room TV.

Make Learning Fun: The 10 Best Educational YouTube Channels for Kids

February 27 2024

High school students work together on a project.

The Value of Soft Skills for Students in the Age of AI

February 20 2024

A student learns to play the piano

Why Arts Education is Important in School

February 14 2024

A teacher greets parents at a parent-teacher conference

30 Questions to Ask at Your Next Parent-Teacher Conference

February 6 2024

Two students build a vehicle on an interactive white board

Smart Classrooms, Smart Kids: How AI is Changing Education

January 31 2024

A teen smiles as she inputs an order in a POS within a cafe.

Four Life Skills to Teach Teenagers for Strong Resumes

January 25 2024

Students pose on large cement blocks while on a field trip

Exploring the Social Side of Online School: Fun Activities and Social Opportunities Await

January 9 2024

A student works on equations on a chalkboard.

Is Your Child Ready for Advanced Learning? Discover Your Options.

January 8 2024

A girl wears headphones while she works at her laptop on her online school.

Online School Reviews: What People Are Saying About Online School

January 5 2024

Two children use cookie cutters and a rolling pin to make holiday cookie cutouts.

Your Ultimate Guide to Holiday Fun and Activities

December 18 2023

A child colors a printed coloring sheet with a cup of crayons next to their hand.

Free Printable Holiday Coloring Pages to Inspire Your Child’s Inner Artist

December 12 2023

A young girl hangs out of a moving box while her parents unpack at their new house.

Five Reasons to Switch Schools Midyear

December 5 2023

A parent helps their child with their online school.

A Parent’s Guide to Switching Schools Midyear

November 29 2023

A student holds her notebook and pen while standing in front of her chalkboard at home with her study schedule written on it.

Building Strong Study Habits: Back-to-School Edition

November 17 2023

Two students listen to music in their online classroom.

Turn Up the Music: The Benefits of Music in Classrooms

November 7 2023

Robotics for kids. Two children sit on the ground and play with a robot together.

A Parent’s Guide to Robotics for Kids

November 6 2023

A mom helps her daughter with online school

Six Ways Online Learning Transforms the Academic Journey

October 31 2023

Young girl leans against a fence at school while looking at her cell phone.

How to Get Ahead of Cyberbullying

October 30 2023

A mother comforts her child by gently touching his head and speaking to him.

Bullying’s Effect on Students and How to Help 

October 25 2023

A teen girl hides behind a brick wall at school out of sight from two boys.

Can You Spot the Warning Signs of Bullying?

October 16 2023

Could the Online Classroom Be the Solution to Bullying?

October 11 2023

A young girl watches as her mom smiles toward her cell phone.

Bullying Prevention Starts With Parents

October 9 2023

The modern teacher must be willing to take chances and able to figure out how not just how technology works, but how it works for each student, and where its use is most appropriate.

Extraordinary Teachers Are Using Technology to Transform Education

February 25 2014

students learning online

Join Us in Celebrating National Online Learning Day

August 22 2016

Brick and mortar schools are known to inhibit children's right to freedom of speech during class time and in the halls. Is it helping or hurting them?

Supporting Freedom of Speech in School

June 4 2014

Join our community

Sign up to participate in America’s premier community focused on helping students reach their full potential.

Welcome! Join Learning Liftoff to participate in America’s premier community focused on helping students reach their full potential.

what does a graded essay mean

The Meaning and Origins of the Illuminati

This essay about the Illuminati explores its origins, meaning, and evolution into a symbol of conspiracy theories. It begins with the historical Bavarian Illuminati, founded in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt to promote enlightenment ideals. Despite being disbanded in the late 1780s, the Illuminati’s legacy endured through literature and media, transforming into the notion of a secretive group controlling world events. Modern conspiracy theories often depict the Illuminati as a powerful cabal manipulating global affairs, though these theories lack concrete evidence. The essay emphasizes the importance of a critical approach to understanding the Illuminati’s historical and cultural significance.

How it works

The term “Illuminati” often evokes imagery of clandestine societies and grand machinations. But what does it truly signify? The Illuminati encompasses various factions, spanning historical and contemporary realms, tangible and fictitious. Its etymology, derived from the Latin “illuminatus,” denotes “enlightened.” It has been linked to a covert association established in the late 18th century, reputed for its purported sway over global affairs and governance.

Historically, the preeminent faction of the Illuminati was the Bavarian Illuminati, inaugurated on May 1, 1776, by Adam Weishaupt, a professor of ecclesiastical law at the University of Ingolstadt in Bavaria, Germany.

Weishaupt’s ambition was to champion Enlightenment principles, such as rationality and empirical inquiry, and to counteract the dominance of religious and governmental authority over public discourse. The assembly attracted influential adherents, including savants and statesmen, captivated by its ethos of erudition and enlightenment.

The Bavarian Illuminati aspired to infiltrate and exert influence within existing institutions rather than overtly seize control. They espoused the creation of a cadre of enlightened individuals capable of subtly steering society towards rationalism and secular governance. Despite its lofty aspirations, the Illuminati’s existence was fleeting. By the tardy 1780s, apprehensive of any clandestine factions that might challenge its dominion, the Bavarian regime proscribed the association. Officially dissolved, the Illuminati’s legacy endured, fueling diverse conjectures and speculations regarding its persistent existence and sway.

In the epochs following its dissolution, the Illuminati metamorphosed into a symbol within popular lore, emblematic of an omnipotent, shadowy elite orchestrating global affairs. This transition from a historical entity to a subject of conspiracy conjecture commenced in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Anti-Masonic literature, perceiving clandestine fraternities as a menace to societal order, frequently conflated the Illuminati with Freemasonry, another covert assembly. This conflation propagated the notion that the Illuminati endured clandestinely, clandestinely influencing events.

The contemporary conception of the Illuminati has been profoundly shaped by literary and media depictions. In the 20th century, literary works, cinematic productions, and musical compositions frequently alluded to the Illuminati, often portraying them as a malevolent cabal orchestrating global machinations from the shadows. Creations such as Robert Anton Wilson’s “The Illuminatus! Trilogy” and Dan Brown’s “Angels & Demons” played a pivotal role in ingraining the notion of the Illuminati within popular culture. While fictional in nature, these works contributed to the belief that the Illuminati clandestinely influence significant political, economic, and social upheavals.

Conspiracy conjectures involving the Illuminati often insinuate that this cadre engineers major global events, exerts dominion over governments and economies, and seeks to institute a New World Order. These conjectures typically amalgamate misinterpreted historical facts, fictional narratives, and speculation. Symbols such as the All-Seeing Eye and the pyramid adorning the US dollar bill are frequently cited as manifestations of the Illuminati’s enduring influence, notwithstanding the disparate historical and cultural provenance of these symbols.

It is imperative to approach the concept of the Illuminati with discernment. While the historical Bavarian Illuminati indeed existed, substantive evidence substantiating the notion of an enduring, all-pervasive Illuminati orchestrating global affairs from the shadows is scant. The allure of such conspiracy theories often resides in their simplicity, proffering a facile explanation for intricate global phenomena and occurrences. Nonetheless, these theories can obfuscate genuine political and societal analyses and engender mistrust and discord.

Despite the dearth of empirical corroboration, the myth of the Illuminati persists. This persistence is partly attributable to humanity’s proclivity for discerning patterns and elucidating rationales for significant occurrences. In a swiftly evolving and frequently turbulent world, the notion of a clandestine hand guiding events furnishes a semblance of order and predictability, albeit fictitious.

In synopsis, the Illuminati initially denoted a consortium of enlightened individuals in the late 18th century endeavoring to champion rationality and counteract religious and governmental oppression. Across time, the term has evolved, largely under the sway of cultural references and conspiracy conjectures, to symbolize a shadowy, formidable elite purportedly manipulating global affairs. Although the historical Illuminati disbanded, their legacy endures in the guise of contemporary myths and speculations. A discerning comprehension of the origins and evolution of the Illuminati concept serves to demystify these conjectures and encourages a more nuanced appraisal of historical and contemporary power dynamics.

This treatise serves as a springboard for contemplation and further inquiry. For bespoke guidance and assurance that your discourse adheres to all academic standards, consider enlisting the assistance of professionals at EduBirdie.


Cite this page

The Meaning and Origins of the Illuminati. (2024, Jun 01). Retrieved from

"The Meaning and Origins of the Illuminati." , 1 Jun 2024, (2024). The Meaning and Origins of the Illuminati . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 4 Jun. 2024]

"The Meaning and Origins of the Illuminati.", Jun 01, 2024. Accessed June 4, 2024.

"The Meaning and Origins of the Illuminati," , 01-Jun-2024. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 4-Jun-2024] (2024). The Meaning and Origins of the Illuminati . [Online]. Available at: [Accessed: 4-Jun-2024]

Don't let plagiarism ruin your grade

Hire a writer to get a unique paper crafted to your needs.


Our writers will help you fix any mistakes and get an A+!

Please check your inbox.

You can order an original essay written according to your instructions.

Trusted by over 1 million students worldwide

1. Tell Us Your Requirements

2. Pick your perfect writer

3. Get Your Paper and Pay

Hi! I'm Amy, your personal assistant!

Don't know where to start? Give me your paper requirements and I connect you to an academic expert.

short deadlines

100% Plagiarism-Free

Certified writers

  • Share full article


Supported by

Guest Essay

What Matters Most About Trump’s Guilty Verdict, According to 7 Opinion Writers

A crowd of Trump supporters wearing various items of Trump-themed clothing: a shirt with many images of the former president’s face, baseball jerseys with Trump 45 on the back, and so on.

By New York Times Opinion

Welcome to Opinion’s coverage of the guilty verdict in the Manhattan trial of Donald Trump. In this special feature, Times Opinion writers reflect on this extraordinary development in American political history, on the moments and the dynamics that mattered most in the trial — and tease out its potential impact on the presidential election.

What mattered

Jamelle Bouie I am no lawyer and did not follow every in and out of the trial, but if there was a single thing that doomed Donald Trump — or at least, if there was a single thing that harmed his effort to escape a guilty verdict — it was his total contempt for the process and the proceedings. It is hard to imagine that he was helped, in any way, by his constant attacks on judge, jury and the trial itself. The jury, obviously, is asked only to evaluate the evidence before it, and yet, it is asking a lot of anyone to sit and ignore the fact that the defendant has, publicly, turned you into an enemy.

Matthew Continetti What mattered was that this case was brought at all. When Alvin Bragg, the Manhattan district attorney, indicted Trump in April 2023, he not only established the dangerous precedent that local officials can bring criminal charges against former presidents, he annexed the 2024 presidential campaign to the legal system, with unknown and potentially hazardous consequences. Bragg’s actions undermined confidence in the rule of law and rallied G.O.P. voters to Trump, helping him win a third consecutive Republican nomination. Bragg didn’t defeat Trumpism. He revived it.

David French The prosecution had a compelling story to tell. Trump did not want Stormy Daniels to go public right after the “Access Hollywood” tape with evidence that would demonstrate that he does, in fact, believe that his celebrity entitled him to do what he wanted with women. And when Trump concealed the nature of the payments, the prosecution could easily make the case — at least to a jury — that he must have known that the payments were legally problematic. Trial outcomes are often dictated by the side that can create the most coherent narrative, and the prosecution’s theory of the case was easy for the jury to grasp.

Michelle Goldberg The mountain of evidence! Though the discourse around the trial was all about the wisdom of Bragg bringing charges in the first place, the question in court was more straightforward — did Trump do what he was accused of? The prosecution showed that he did. Trump’s defense, meanwhile, made the ludicrous argument that he never had sex with Stormy Daniels, and that the $420,000 paid to Trump’s former fixer Michael Cohen — which was part of the reason he went to prison — was a legitimate legal fee. It would have been shocking if the jury had bought it.

Quinta Jurecic There’s no way to know what led the jurors to reach the verdict they did. But throughout the trial, I was struck by the insistence of Trump’s lawyers on pursuing arguments or lines of questioning that seemed unhelpful to their case. Todd Blanche, for example, insisted repeatedly that Trump had never slept with Stormy Daniels, even though this denial boxed Trump into a weaker argument. These tactics by the defense seemed designed to placate Trump’s own vanity and sense of grievance — but even if they made the client happy, it’s hard to imagine they helped his case with the jury.

Daniel McCarthy The dizzying number of the charges and the virtual absence of any dispute about the fact at the core of the case meant the prosecution only had to get the jury to doubt Trump’s motives. Justice Juan Merchan’s instructions were broad enough that the jury had many opportunities to find Trump guilty, and they did.

Kristen Soltis Anderson Focusing on winning the political battle and the communications battle when facing legal trouble only gets you so far. The law doesn’t necessarily care about public opinion.

Will it have an impact on the 2024 election?

Bouie I do not know if the guilty verdict will matter significantly for the 2024 presidential election, although it is fair to say that no presidential candidate wants to be a felon. If anything, I suspect that Trump’s conviction will be part of a background radiation of scandal that could weaken him beyond repair. One thing I do know, however, is that the guilty verdict is yet another instance of a fundamental truth of the Trump era: It has not been the institutions or the guardrails that have restrained the former president; it’s been ordinary American citizens who, when given the opportunity, have not hesitated to hold him accountable.

Continetti By November, we will be talking about something else. If we know one thing about Trump, it is that he is an expert at changing the subject. More important, despite President Biden’s efforts to shift the focus of the campaign to Trump’s rhetoric and conduct, the 2024 election is not about the former president. It is about the incumbent’s performance in office. The electorate will decide Biden’s fate based on its perceptions of the economy, the southern border and America’s global standing. A guilty verdict won’t lower prices, reduce border crossings or make the world a safer place.

French Yes, it will have an impact. Biden’s main weakness is with disconnected voters, and if there is one single news item that can break through with even the most apathetic citizens, it’s the headline “Trump Guilty on All Counts.” MAGA will redouble its support for Trump, of course, and some disconnected voters may well believe that the prosecution was political, but Trump is now a felon, and that will matter. Don’t expect anything like a dam break in public opinion that washes Trump away, but this will erode his support, and in a close election every bit of erosion matters.

Goldberg I’d guess a small one. A recent New York Times/Siena poll of swing state voters showed that a majority didn’t expect a conviction, so some might be jarred by it. Trump loyalists will easily rationalize casting ballots for a felon, but if this election is as close as the last two, even small shifts among wavering voters could be significant.

Jurecic Trump has a firm base of supporters who may be galvanized by his conviction. But they are not enough to win him the election on their own. His fate, instead, will rest with the voters whose support for him is less passionately held — people who might otherwise vote Republican but are put off by Trump’s boorishness. This verdict emphasizes all the aspects of Trump that those voters might find off-putting: Trump’s erratic behavior, his constant scandals. If this conviction harms Trump, it will likely be because a small but significant number of people in swing states simply couldn’t bring themselves to pull the lever for a felon.

McCarthy By outraging Trump’s supporters, the verdict will strengthen him, and voters who harbor doubts about the justice system may see him as more sympathetic as a result of this. He’s all the more an outsider and rebel now. The penalties may hamper Trump’s campaigning, but I expect the race will remain competitive, and become even more intense.

Soltis Anderson It may only matter at the margins. Voters who strongly dislike Trump will be thrilled with the verdict, but it won’t change things; they were never going to vote for him anyway. Voters who like him will not be surprised by a guilty verdict, because they have generally viewed the trial as political from the start. I believe the sentencing will play a bigger role in influencing the small group of persuadable voters, as Americans are forced to choose whether to vote for someone who could be facing prison time.

Jamelle Bouie, David French and Michelle Goldberg are Times columnists.

Matthew Continetti is the author of “The Right: The Hundred Year War for American Conservatism.”

Quinta Jurecic is a contributing writer at The Atlantic, a fellow in governance studies at the Brookings Institution and a senior editor at Lawfare.

Daniel McCarthy is the editor of Modern Age: A Conservative Review.

Kristen Soltis Anderson is a contributing Opinion writer for The New York Times. She is a Republican pollster and a speaker, a commentator and the author of “The Selfie Vote: Where Millennials Are Leading America (and How Republicans Can Keep Up).”

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

Follow the New York Times Opinion section on Facebook , Instagram , TikTok , WhatsApp , X and Threads .


  1. Grading Essays: A Strategy that Reflects Writing as a Process

    what does a graded essay mean

  2. 5 Tips for Grading Essays Faster While Leaving Better Feedback

    what does a graded essay mean

  3. Student Writing Must Be Graded By The Teacher

    what does a graded essay mean

  4. Grading Essays: A Strategy that Reflects Writing as a Process

    what does a graded essay mean

  5. How To Grade An Essay

    what does a graded essay mean

  6. Essay grading

    what does a graded essay mean


  1. Pokemon Investing 2023: Modern Graded Cards!?

  2. Do longer essays get better grades?


  4. Rudy acquires PCG, what does it mean for the graded MTG Market? Will this ruin MTG Grading?

  5. Does 500-word essay mean exactly 500 words?

  6. Mean Creek Full Movie Facts And Review


  1. Princeton Graded Paper: How to Approach It

    1. Be mindful of length. Although the suggested Princeton graded paper length is 1-2 pages, some students may feel that they don't have a strong enough paper in that range. If that's the case, you can submit a longer paper. For best results, avoid submitting any sample longer than 3-5 pages. 2.

  2. (Updated) ACT Essay Scoring: Completely Explained

    What does your ACT Writing score mean and how is your ACT essay scored? This article will shed some light on both of these things. Feature image credit: eppny by woodleywonderworks, used under CC BY 2.0/Resized from original. A Quick Look Into ACT Essay Scoring. On test day, you complete the first four sections of the ACT then write your essay.

  3. How Are AP Exams Scored?

    Here are the basics of the AP English exam: it has 55 multiple-choice questions, worth 45% of your score, and three essays, worth 55% of your score. Each essay is graded between 1 and 9. Before we get into the scoring example, remember that this guide is an estimation since score conversions can vary year to year based on test difficulty. While ...

  4. Graded Written Paper

    To submit your graded written paper, choose one of the following options: Option 1: Upload the graded written paper alongside your application materials when submitting the Common Application or QuestBridge Application. Option 2: Mail, email or upload the graded written paper to your applicant portal. The grade and the teacher comments should ...

  5. SAT Essay Scoring

    Responses to the optional SAT Essay are scored using a carefully designed process. Two different people will read and score your essay. Each scorer awards 1-4 points for each dimension: reading, analysis, and writing. The two scores for each dimension are added. You'll receive three scores for the SAT Essay—one for each dimension—ranging ...

  6. How Is Writing Graded?

    How Is Writing Graded? Students often want to know how their writing assignments are graded—that is, what is an A paper, a B paper, and so on. Generally speaking, there are two basic ways to determine how your papers will be graded. Understand your assignment, which often will include a rubric. Understand general grading standards professors ...

  7. How the ACT's Graded: A Breakdown

    The graders then put your raw score up against a curve of all the other people who took the test with you in the same sitting, and assign you a "scaled score" out of 36 based on where you scored compared to the distribution of the rest of the test-taker population. So in that way, the ACT is curved. At the end of the day, you'll get four ...

  8. Grading Writing

    Grading with clear criteria in mind helps to ensure fairness and objectivity. So does another principle of grading: Grade the paper and nothing but the paper— not the person who wrote it, the effort that went into it, or the improvement it shows. This principle dramatically simplifies the task of evaluation by eliminating second guessing; it ...

  9. Grading Essays

    Grade for Learning Objectives. Know what the objective of the assignment is and grade according to a standard (a rubric) that assesses precisely that. If the purpose of the assignment is to analyze a process, focus on the analysis in the essay. If the paper is unreadable, however, consult with the professor and other GSIs about how to proceed.

  10. Academic Guides: Writing Assessment: Scoring Criteria

    Essay Scoring Rubric. Your Writing Assessment essay will be scored based on the rubric in your DRWA Doctoral Writing Assessment classroom focusing on: Central idea of essay is clear, related to the prompt, and developed. Paraphrase and analysis of reading material supports the overall argument.

  11. About AP Scores

    The free-response section (essays and open-ended questions) and through-course performance tasks are scored at the annual AP Reading held during the first two weeks in June. Specially appointed college professors and experienced AP teachers score this section of the exam. ... The mean score for the 2023 AP Exams was 2.96. More than 60% of all ...

  12. MEE Grading & Scoring

    Outlined below is the entire process of how an examinee's MEE score is calculated: Step # 1: Each essay answer is graded and given a "raw score" using relative grading . The score given is based on the quality of the answer, and the grading scale varies per jurisdiction (e.g. 0-6, 1-5). "Relative grading" means scoring and ranking the ...

  13. Grading Student Work

    Use different grading scales for different assignments. Grading scales include: letter grades with pluses and minuses (for papers, essays, essay exams, etc.) 100-point numerical scale (for exams, certain types of projects, etc.) check +, check, check- (for quizzes, homework, response papers, quick reports or presentations, etc.)

  14. How are the graded tasks scored? What does the graded essay score mean?

    The score sheet lists each point your essay should have hit and the points available for each. Comparing your graded essay and personalized feedback with the essay score sheet will help you understand how your essay was scored. There are 100 total points available, but you only need to score around 35 or 40 to be in a good position to pass the ...

  15. Understand My Scores

    The Skills Insight statements break down the scores into five score bands: 200-236. 237-249. 250-262. 263-275. 276-300. For each score band, each test's Skills Insight statement describes what a student scoring within that band is likely to know and be able to do. It's a good idea to review the Skills Insight statements with your ...

  16. Holistic grading

    Holistic grading or holistic scoring, in standards-based education, is an approach to scoring essays using a simple grading structure that bases a grade on a paper's overall quality. This type of grading, which is also described as nonreductionist grading, contrasts with analytic grading, which takes more factors into account when assigning a grade. . Holistic grading can also be used to ...

  17. Grades in essay writing and term paper results

    15. In the next band, between sixty and seventy, there will be a rise in the quality of written expression, argument and evidence. There will also be far less extraneous material and usually a greater degree of self-confidence in the writing. The essay will demonstrate an ability to focus attention on the question.

  18. Definition and Evaluation of Holistic Grading

    Holistic grading is a method of evaluating a composition based on its overall quality. Also known as global grading, single-impression scoring, and impressionistic grading . Developed by the Educational Testing Service, holistic grading is often used in large-scale assessments, such as college placement tests.

  19. Proofreaders' and Teachers' Correction Marks

    Awkward Phrase. Grace Fleming. The "awk" indicates a passage that seems clunky and awkward. If the teacher marks a passage as awkward, you know that they stumbled over your words during their review and became confused about your meaning. In the next draft of your paper, be sure to rework the phrase for clarity. 04.

  20. Marking: How we mark your essay to improve your grade

    1. The brief. The first thing a marker will likely do is examine the writer's brief. This indicates essay type, subject and content focus, word limit and any other set requirements. The brief gives us the guidelines by which to mark the essay. With these expectations in mind, critical reading of your essay begins.

  21. What Is a Weighted Score or Grade?

    Student Example: Ava . Throughout the year, Ava has been acing her homework and getting A's and B's on most of her quizzes and essays. Her midterm grade was a D because she didn't prepare very much and those multiple-choice tests freak her out. Now, Ava wants to know what score she needs to get on her final exam in order to get at least a B- (80%) for her final weighted score.

  22. The UK university grading system explained

    Whereas other systems use the alphabet to demonstrate the achievements of the student, the UK system uses a class grade order. This system dates all the way back to the invention of the university itself and reflects the archetype of the British class system. The UK grading system: First (1 st): The best grade you can get. The student has got ...

  23. A Teacher's Perspective on What Grades Really Mean

    A "C" grade is average. All of a student's efforts in a class would be related to these objectives and to demonstrating a mastery of the subject by answering questions, writing essays, and performing complex tasks like labs. The "real world" of grading is a bit different.

  24. Can I Use A.I. to Grade My Students' Papers?

    Yet many students still used A.I. Some of our staff members uploaded their grading rubric into an A.I.-assisted platform, and students uploaded their essays for assessment. The program admittedly ...

  25. The Meaning and Dimensions of Wisdom

    Wisdom is discernible in individuals' problem-solving approaches, interpersonal interactions, and aspirational living characterized by purpose and rectitude. It is a dynamic and evolving attribute, continually shaped by experiences, introspection, and a dedication to personal evolution. In contemporary society, the pursuit of wisdom retains ...

  26. The Meaning and Origins of the Illuminati

    The Meaning and Origins of the Illuminati. This essay about the Illuminati explores its origins, meaning, and evolution into a symbol of conspiracy theories. It begins with the historical Bavarian Illuminati, founded in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt to promote enlightenment ideals. Despite being disbanded in the late 1780s, the Illuminati's legacy ...

  27. Opinion

    Continetti By November, we will be talking about something else. If we know one thing about Trump, it is that he is an expert at changing the subject. More important, despite President Biden's ...