• How To Write A Research Paper Appendix: A Step-by-Step Guide

Moradeke Owa

Think of appendices like bonus levels on your favorite video game. They are not a major part of the game, but they boost your points and they make the game worthwhile. 

Appendix are important facts, calculations, or data that don’t fit into the main body of your research paper. Having an appendix gives your research paper more details, making it easier for your readers to understand your main ideas.

Let’s dive into how to create an appendix and its best practices.

Understanding the Purpose of an Appendix

what is appendix in research work

If you’re looking to add some extra depth to your research, appendices are a great way to do it.  They allow you to include extremely useful information that doesn’t fit neatly into the main body of your research paper, such as huge raw data, multiple charts, or very long explanations.

Think of your appendix as a treasure chest with different compartments. You can include different information including, extra data, surveys, graphs, or even detailed explanations of your methods. You can fit anything too big or detailed for the main paper in the appendix.

Planning Your Appendix

what is appendix in research work

Before you dive into making your appendix, it’s a good idea to plan things out; think of it as drawing a map before going on an adventure. 

You want your appendix to be organized and provide more context to your research. Not planning it will make the process time-consuming and make the appendix confusing to people reading your research paper.

How to Decide What to Include in Your Research Paper

You have to sort through the content that you will include in your appendix. Think of what your readers need to know to understand your key points. Anything that’s overly detailed, off-topic, or clutters up your paper is a good candidate for your appendix.

Tips for Organizing Your Appendix

Once you’ve figured out what to put in your appendix, it’s time to organize it. Your appendix is a place to add extra information, but it shouldn’t be cluttered or confusing to your readers. Instead, it should make your research paper easier to understand.

Use clear headings, labels, and even page numbers to help your readers find the information they need in the appendix. This way, it’s not a jumbled mess, but a well-organized part of your research paper

Formatting Guidelines

typical breakdown of how to format your appendix

Yes, your appendix must be formatted. Most of the time, you’ll want to keep the font and margin sizes consistent with your main paper. 

However, some universities and journals may have specific guidelines for appendix formatting. Verify if your institution has special guidelines, if they do, follow them, if they don’t use the same format as your main text.

Here’s a typical breakdown of how to format your appendix:

(1) Labeling and Titling 

If you have different types of information in your appendix, use letters to label them, such as “Appendix A” and “Appendix B”. Then, give each appendix a title that explains the information inside it. 

For example, if the first section of your appendix contains raw survey data, you could call it “Appendix A (Survey Data of People Living with Diabetes Under 18 in Texas)”. If the second section of your appendix contains charts, you could call it “Appendix B (The Effect of Sugar Tax in Curbing Diabetes in Children and Young Adults)”.

(2) Numbering Tables, Figures, and More 

If you have tables, figures, or other things in your appendix, number them like a list. For example, “Table A1,” “Figure A1,” and more. This numbering helps your readers know what they’re looking at, sort of like chapters in a book.

Creating Tables and Figures

what is appendix in research work

Using tables and figures helps you organize your data neatly in your appendix. Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating tables and figures in your appendix:

Choose the Right Format for Your Appendix Data

Before creating tables or figures, you need to pick the right format to display the information. Think about what makes your data most clear and understandable. 

For example, a table is better for detailed numbers, while a graph is great for showing trends. The right format makes your information easy to grasp and makes your paper look organized.

How to Create Tables in Your Appendix

You can use a spreadsheet program (like Excel or Google Sheets) to create tables to arrange information neatly. Make sure to give your table a clear title so readers know what it’s about.

Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating tables with a spreadsheet program:

  • Open Google Sheets/Excel : Access Google Sheets or Excel through the web or download the app
  • Open a New Spreadsheet or Existing File : Create a new spreadsheet or open an existing one where you want to insert a table.
  • Select Data : Click and drag to select the data you want to include in the table.
  • Insert Table : Once your data is selected, go to the “Insert” menu, then select “Table.
  • Create Table : A dialog box will appear, confirming the selected data range. Make sure the “Use the first row as headers” option is checked if your data has headers. Click “Insert .”
  • Customize Your Table : After inserting the table, you can customize it by adjusting the style, format, and other table properties using the “Table” menu in Google Sheets or Excel.

You can use software like PowerPoint, Google Slides, or graphic design tools to create them. If you have a chart or graph, make sure it’s easy to understand and add a title or labels to explain it. 

You can use the editing tools for images to change the size and other aspects of the image.

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Including Raw Data

The major reasons for including raw data in your appendix are transparency and credibility. Raw data is like your research recipe; it shows exactly what you worked with to arrive at your conclusions.

Raw data also provides enough information to guide researchers in replicating your study or getting a deeper understanding of your research.

Formatting and Presenting Raw Data 

Formatting your raw data makes it easy for anyone to understand. You can use tables, charts, or even lists to display your data. For example, if you did a survey, you could put the survey responses in a table with clear headings.

When presenting your raw data, clear organization is your best friend. Use headings, labels, and consistent formatting to help your readers find and understand the data. This keeps your appendix from becoming a confusing puzzle.

Citing Your Appendix

Referencing your appendix in the main text gives readers a full picture of your research while they’re reading- They don’t have to wait until the end to figure out important details of your research.

Unlike actual references and citations, citing your appendix is a very straightforward process. You can simply say, “See Appendix A for more details.”

In-Text Citations for Appendix Content

If you would like to cite information in your appendix, you usually mention the author, year, and what exactly you’re citing. This allows you to give credit to the original creator of the content, so your readers know where it came from.

For instance, if you included a chart from a book in your appendix, you’d say something like (Author, Year, p. X). Keep in mind that there are different citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago, and others), so your appendix may look a little different.

Proofreading and Editing

what is appendix in research work

Proofreading and editing your appendix is just as important as proofreading and editing the main body of your paper. A poorly written or formatted appendix can leave a negative impression on your reader and detract from the overall quality of your work. 

Make sure that your appendix is consistent with the main text of your paper in terms of style and tone unless otherwise stated by your institution. Use the same font, font size, and line spacing in the appendix as you do in the main body of your paper. 

Your appendix should also be free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and formatting.

Tips for Checking for Errors in Formatting, Labeling, and Content

Here are some tips for checking for errors in formatting, labeling, and content in your appendix:

  • Formatting : Make sure that all of the elements in your appendix are formatted correctly, including tables, figures, and equations. Check the margins, line spacing, and font size to make sure that they are consistent with the rest of your paper.
  • Labeling : All of the tables, figures, and equations in your appendix should be labeled clearly and consistently. Use a consistent numbering system and make sure that the labels match the references in the main body of your paper.
  • Content : Proofread your appendix carefully to catch any errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and content. You can use grammar editing tools such as Grammarly to help you automatically detect errors in your context.

Appendix Checklist

Having an appendix checklist guarantees a well-organized appendix and helps you spot and correct any overlooked mistakes.

Here’s a checklist of key points to review before finalizing your appendix:

  • Is all of the information in the appendix relevant and necessary?
  • Is the appendix well-organized and easy to understand?
  • Are all the tables, numbers, and equations clearly labeled?
  • Is the appendix formatted correctly and consistently with the main body of the paper?
  • Is the appendix free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and content?

Sample Appendix

We have discussed what you should include in your appendix and how to organize it. Let’s take a look at what a well-formatted appendix looks like:

Appendix A. (Raw Data of Class Scores)

The following table shows the raw data collected for the study.

How the Sample Appendix Adheres to Best Practices

  • The appendix is labeled clearly and concisely as “Appendix A. (Raw Data of Class Score).”
  • The appendix begins on a new page.
  • The appendix is formatted consistently with the rest of the paper, using the same font, font size, and line spacing.
  • The table in the appendix is labeled clearly and concisely as “Table A1.”
  • The table is formatted correctly, with consistent column widths and alignment.
  • The table includes all of the necessary information, including the participant number, age, gender, and score.
  • The appendix is free of grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.

Having an appendix easily makes your research paper impressive to reviewers, and increases your likelihood of achieving high grades or journal publication.  It also makes it easier for other researchers to replicate your research, allowing you to make a significant contribution to your research field.

Ensure to use the best practices in this guide to create a well-structured and relevant appendix. Also, use the checklist provided in this article to help you carefully review your appendix before submitting it.

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How to Write an Appendix: Step-by-Step Guide & Examples

how to write an appendix

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While composing your work, you may stumble upon a question on how to write an appendix.

An appendix is a supplemental section of a research paper that provides additional information, data, or materials to support the main content. The appendix is usually placed at the end of the document and is numbered with letters or numbers, such as "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc. The purpose of an appendix is to provide readers with supplementary details that are not included in the main text but are relevant to the topic.

Once you decide on writing appendices, you should collect additional information and format your text as required. Here, we will talk about how you can work with appendices. We will also show some nuances of their preparation process using a real example. Is the deadline around the corner? Consider using professional research paper help from expert scholars.

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Frequently Asked Questions About Appendix Writing

1. how do you add an appendix to an essay.

The inclusion of appendix to an essay is the same as to any other paper. You need to provide references in your text of an essay itself, as well as submit attachments after a bibliography. Don't forget to specify name of an appendix for easy navigation.

2. Do I add references to the appendix?

Yes, this is not only recommended but must be done. In this case the appendix will allow your reader to check the reliability of sources you used. Moreover, if you took any information from third-party sources, this protect you from plagiarism charges.

4. How do you create an appendix in Word?

It is not difficult to prepare an appendix in Word, because this Office program contains all the necessary tools. To get started, choose the same font, font size and indentation that were used in the main text, so as not to visually break away from it. We also recommend that you apply title formatting with built-in Word tools. Place the appendix titles at the top in the center of a page. In this case it will be much easier to navigate the paper.

3. What is an appendix in a report example?

You can include a wide range of information into an appendix in a report. It is better to opt for descriptive formats, though. For example, it can be graphical or mathematical research results, statistics of a certain phenomenon, and questionnaires filled in by other people.

Joe Eckel is an expert on Dissertations writing. He makes sure that each student gets precious insights on composing A-grade academic writing.

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Experienced researchers know what an appendix in a paper is. But aspiring authors often have problems with this section of the work. First of all, you should understand that appendices are an additional section of a dissertation or any other scientific paper that includes additional information. Main points are not placed in an appendix meanwhile at the end of your work it can expand on some context or clarify author’s position on a particular issue. Also, an appendix is ​​often placed after the citation page of a work. It is indicated with the help of references in a main text.

Quite often, authors don’t understand the purpose of an appendix. This usually looks like a table and is not included in a main text. Remember that content of your dissertation should be concise and clear. It is also undesirable if you deviate from your theme so as not to confuse readers. Therefore, you can provide a reference, which will lead a reader to an appendix of a thesis. Typically, the purpose of an appendix is to extra information that is usually not included in the text's body. It expresses author's point of view, and provides additional information. It may not address the immediate topic of your dissertation or expand on current research. As a reminder, your work should be clear even without studying an appendix. So make sure you don't put important details there.

An appendix in a paper is a supplement to a main text, not a replacement. You can put different elements there. It is better if you separate appendices, highlighting one element in each of them. Don’t forget about separate references in your text. Otherwise it will be difficult for a reader to understand your information better. Thus, the following information can be added:

There are no restrictions on content added to your dissertation's appendices. Theoretically, you can attach absolutely any information that is relevant to your topic. Thus, possibilities for evidence base are almost unlimited. All you need to do is add tables or any other information.

If you already have experience working on dissertations and other scientific texts, you will not wonder how to make an appendix. However, it is still important that you get some advice on how to properly structure an appendices section. This will help add information that may be redundant in the main part of your paper. We offer 4 simple steps to create an informative and readable appendix block.

When creating an appendix, include extra data in their raw form. That is, you might not have used some details in your main paper. But you want a reader to know more information. For example, it can be calculations, some results of which are mentioned in your main text. Or maybe, you can add some statistics that clearly demonstrate your research paper conclusion . You can also include facts from other scientific sources that support your position. One thing is important — information should complement your text but not contradict it.

When you are writing an appendix, you can’t avoid visual additions that clearly demonstrate an information and save an author from lengthy descriptions in the text. Should you need to support your conclusions drawn in the scientific text, these can be used:

Don’t forget: you should quote and indicate the authorship of graphics used in your work. If you took it from any third-party sources, of course. Thus, a reader will be able to find additional data that explains the content of your text. It is good if you personally put results of your research in a graphic form. To do this, you can use Office programs, graphic editors and other programs available to PC users.

It is good if your appendix in the research paper has a section for indicating tools that were used during the preparation of your dissertation writing . This way, your reader will understand how you collected information and do it themselves. For example, it could be a dictaphone or tape recorder on which an interview with your expert was recorded. Or you might have used a video camera for recording facts and interviews. In such case, it is advisable to indicate these instruments in your appendix. Specialized equipment for measuring, calculating and making graphics should also be added at the beginning of the appendix. This way, you will demonstrate your skills and knowledge. Research units don’t require extra tools, so make sure they are listed. You can do it even in a short format.

When conducting interviews and surveys for collecting information, make an appendix with photocopies of handwritten materials or electronic copies of digital surveys. Their order is not important. The main thing is that your research text contains references. This will allow you to quickly study the sources. You should not only show that the source contains important data but also explain it. So, even additional content, including questions and answers, needs to be listed. But if you originally had a readable format, you don’t need to do this. In addition to interviews, also add screenshots or photos of correspondences used for surveys. For example, you can refer to a significant researcher with whom you exchanged letters. Or maybe you studied subject, together with this researcher, and they gave some comments on a particular issue. Do not know how to write a discussion section of a research paper ? Do not worry, we have the whole article dedicated to this topic.

Formatting of appendices is required in any case. First of all, provide correct citations. APA, MLA, and Chicago are the most commonly used standards. Although, you should clarify what formatting requirements your institution has. Correct formatting includes:

Also, review your appendix before approval. Make sure that its content is clear, error-free, and correctly quoted.

To do the job successfully, it is recommended to have an example of an appendix at hand. Without it, there are usually problems with a choice of font and mentions that appear in main text. We will show you what the appendix itself looks like at the end of the dissertation using a short interview as an example.

We have one more blog in case you wonder what is an abstract in a paper  or need some examples and writing tips.

Thus, we talked about how to write an appendix. It allows you to include additional details, while avoiding writing them in the body of your text. To do this, one can use graphics, transcriptions of conversations, tables and statistics — anything that complements your research. Be sure to clarify formatting requirements of your university. Arrange appendices in an order in which they appear in your text. Try to use your own materials and not take other people's work. In case of unique findings, they can be used in your work.

  • diagrams with illustrative figures;
  • abbreviations ;
  • interviews;
  • statistics, and much more.
  • Appendix title. Write it at the top of the content page, indicate its title, using letters or numbers for ordering.
  • Sorted by mention. Don’t add appendices randomly, it is better to do it in chronological order. That is, as information from it is given in main text.
  • Location after bibliography. This is a general requirement that cannot always be met. For example, if your professor wants the appendices to be put before the bibliography, this will have to be done.
  • Page numbers. All dissertation pages should be numbered, even if they are blank. This will make the appendix block the part of main text.

What Is an Appendix: Definition

What is the purpose of an appendix, what can you include in an appendix, how to write an appendix: full guide, step 1. make an appendix: include your data, step 2. include visual supporting documents in an appendix , step 3. describe the instruments of your research in your appendices, step 4. include an interview and transcripts in an appendix, formatting an appendix: main rules, appendix example, how to make an appendix: final thoughts.

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How to Write an APA Appendix

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

what is appendix in research work

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  • When to Use an Appendix
  • What to Include
  • Basic Rules

If you are writing a psychology paper for a class or for publication, you may be required to include an appendix in APA format. An APA appendix is found at the end of a paper and contains information that supplements the text but that is too unwieldy or distracting to include in the main body of the paper. 

APA format is the official writing style used by the American Psychological Association . This format dictates how academic and professional papers should be structured and formatted. 

Does Your Paper Need an APA Appendix?

Some questions to ask about whether you should put information in the body of the paper or in an appendix:

  • Is the material necessary for the reader to understand the research? If the answer is yes, it should be in your paper and not in an appendix.
  • Would including the information interrupt the flow of the paper? If the answer is yes, then it should likely appear in the appendix.
  • Would the information supplement what already appears in your paper? If yes, then it is a good candidate for including in an appendix.

Your appendix is not meant to become an information dump. While the information in your appendices is supplementary to your paper and research, it should still be useful and relevant. Only include what will help readers gain insight and understanding, not clutter or unnecessary confusion.

What to Include in an APA Appendix

The APA official stylebook suggests that the appendix should include information that would be distracting or inappropriate in the text of the paper.

Some examples of information you might include in an appendix include:

  • Correspondence (if it pertains directly to your research)
  • Demographic details about participants or groups
  • Examples of participant responses
  • Extended or detailed descriptions
  • Lists that are too lengthy to include in the main text
  • Large amounts of raw data
  • Lists of supporting research and articles that are not directly referenced in-text
  • Materials and instruments (if your research relied on special materials or instruments, you might want to include images and further information about how these items work or were used)
  • Questionnaires that were used as part of your research
  • Raw data (presented in an organized, readable format)
  • Research surveys

While the content found in the appendix is too cumbersome to include in the main text of your paper, it should still be easily presented in print format.

The appendices should always act as a supplement to your paper. The body of your paper should be able to stand alone and fully describe your research or your arguments.

The body of your paper should not be dependent upon what is in the appendices. Instead, each appendix should act to supplement what is in the primary text, adding additional (but not essential) information that provides extra insight or information for the reader. 

Basic Rules for an APA Appendix

Here are some basic APA appendix rules to keep in mind when working on your paper:

  • Your paper may have more than one appendix.
  • Each item usually gets its own appendix section.
  • Begin each appendix on a separate page.
  • Each appendix must have a title.
  • Use title case for your title and labels (the first letter of each word should be capitalized, while remaining letters should be lowercase).
  • If your paper only has one appendix, simply title it Appendix. 
  • If you have more than one appendix, each one should be labeled Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, and so on.
  • Put the appendix label centered at the top of the page.
  • On the next line under the appendix label, place the centered title of the appendix. 
  • If you refer to a source in your appendix, include an in-text citation just as you would in the main body of your paper and then include the source in your main reference section.
  • Each appendix may contain headings, subheadings, figures, and tables. 
  • Each figure or table in your appendix should include a brief but explanatory title, which should be italicized. 
  • If you want to reference your appendix within the text of your paper, include a parenthetical note in the text. For example, you would write (See Appendix A).

Formatting an APA Appendix

How do you format an appendix in APA? An APA appendix should follow the overall rules on how to format text. Such rules specify what font and font size you should use, the size of your margins, and the spacing of the text.

Some of the APA format guidelines you need to observe:

  • Use a consistent font, such as 12-point Times New Roman or 11-point Calibri
  • Double-space your text
  • All paragraphs should be indented on the first line
  • Page numbering should be continuous with the rest of your paper

The appendix label should appear centered and bolded at the top of the page. A descriptive title should follow and should also be bolded and centered. As with other pages in your paper, your APA format appendix should be left-aligned and double-spaced. Each page should include a page number in the top right corner. You can also have more than one appendix, but each one should begin on a new page.

Data Displays in an APA Appendix

When presenting information in an appendix, use a logical layout for any data displays such as tables or figures. All tables and figures should be labeled with the words “Table” or “Figure” (sans quotation marks) and the letter of the appendix and then numbered.

For example, Table A1 would be the first table in an Appendix A. Data displays should be presented in the appendix following the same order that they first appear in the text of your paper.

In addition to following basic APA formatting rules, you should also check to see if there are additional guidelines you need to follow. Individual instructors or publications may have their own specific requirements.

Where to Include an APA Appendix

If your paper does require an appendix, it should be the very last pages of your finished paper. An APA format paper is usually structured in the following way:

Your paper may not necessarily include all of these sections. At a minimum, however, your paper may consist of a title page, abstract, main text, and reference section. Also, if your paper does not contain tables, figures, or footnotes, then the appendix would follow the references.

Never include an appendix containing information that is not referred to in your text. 

A Word From Verywell

Writing a paper for class or publication requires a great deal of research, but you should pay special attention to your APA formatting. Each section of your paper, including the appendix section, needs to follow the rules and guidelines provided in the American Psychological Association’s stylebook.

American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2020.

By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."

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An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.

Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of...

Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix or appendices is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the reader would still be able to  comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research.

It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:

  • Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
  • Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
  • Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
  • Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
  • Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
  • Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.

Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online [e.g., on a Google drive] and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page in the table of contents . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices. Note that some works list appendices in the table of contents before the first chapter while other styles list the appendices after the conclusion but before your references. Consult with your professor to confirm if there is a preferred approach.
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.

II.  Content

Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].

There are very few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:

  • Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
  • Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
  • Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
  • Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
  • Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
  • Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
  • Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.

NOTE:   Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.

ANOTHER NOTE :   Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
  • If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College;  Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix. LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.

Writing Tip

Consider Putting Your Appendices Online

Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site.

Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).

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Organizing Academic Research Papers: Appendices

  • Purpose of Guide
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An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem and/or is information which is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents .

Importance of...

Your research paper must be complete without the appendices, and it must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to address the research problem. The key point to remember when you are writing an appendix is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the paper would still be understandable.

It is appropriate to include appendices...

  • When the incorporation of material in the body of the work would make it poorly structured or it would be too long and detailed and
  • To ensure inclusion of helpful, supporting, or essential material that would otherwise clutter or break up the narrative flow of the paper, or it would be distracting to the reader.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following points:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online and note this as the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's understanding of the overall research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of elements in the paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page at the beginning of your paper . This will help the reader know before reading the paper what information is included in the appendices [always list the appendix or appendices in a table of contents].
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other non-textual elements , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, but remembering that the paper should be understandable without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly.

II.  Contents

Appendices may include some of the following, all of which should be referred to or summarized in the text of your paper:

  • Supporting evidence [e.g. raw data]
  • Contributory facts or specialized data [raw data appear in the appendix, but with summarized data appearing in the body of the text].
  • Sample calculations
  • Technical figures, graphs, tables, statistics
  • Detailed description of research instruments
  • Maps, charts, photographs, drawings
  • Letters, emails, and other copies of correspondance
  • Questionnaire/survey instruments, with the results appearing in the text
  • Complete transcripts of interviews
  • Complete field notes from observations
  • Specification or data sheets

NOTE:   Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only succeed in distracting the reader from understanding your research study.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices, but consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA] your professor wants you to use for the class, if needed:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold.
  • Appendices must be listed in the table of contents [if used].
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices . The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes . The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989.

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How to Write a Research Paper Appendix

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How to Write a Research Paper Appendix

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Writing a research paper isn’t just a work of mere writing. Writing the perfect research paper takes a lot of research, analysis, framing, formatting, and much more. Correctly writing one of the most essential and academically popular segments of a research paper, the appendix, is one such effort that goes into a dissertation.  In this blog , we will discuss with you the functions of an appendix in-depth and give you some tried and tested tips to craft the perfect appendix section of a research paper! Let’s dive in! 

What is an Appendix?

The appendix on a research paper is a supplementary segment at the end of a dissertation or the research paper. This section isn’t considered a part of the main body text of the dissertation, but it is an important part of doing research. Appendices often feature raw data in the form of tables, figures, maps, diagrams and statistics and thus contribute to the credibility of the research and make it a perfect research paper . 

Using academic resources, books, and research tools can help frame an appendix better. Appendices are essential since they provide extra support to your research and make the dissertation seem more transparent regarding data. 

However, the appendix section of a research paper should only be supplementary; thus, you cannot depend on it to help the reader understand the main text. Your dissertation text should be detailed enough to be understandable without appendices, and they should only be placed to support your arguments presented in the research report. 

How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper

Writing the perfect research paper appendix can be overwhelming if it’s your first time doing so. However, drafting the appendix section of a research paper can be quite fun if you know the basics and understand how exactly you should go about it. Here are our 5 tips on how to write the perfect appendix for your dissertation: 

Step 1: Organize the Appendix

With all the raw data, stats, and information, an appendix on a research paper can be difficult to go through and understand if they’re drafted disorganizedly. So, while writing your research paper appendix, make sure you are not just ramming all information into it but organising it well so the reader can utilise it. Structure it well, for it can very well come across as a reflection of your daily choices.

Step 2: Consider Accessibility

A research paper appendix can include non-textual information like tables, diagrams, graphs, images, illustrations, etc. If you’re adding such visual data elements to your appendices, ensure the material is clear and readable so the reader can comprehend the data. You should also ensure you are labelling these elements well and adding brief descriptions to each figure. 

Step 3: Review for Relevance

It is easy to lose track of the relevance of your data while preparing appendices since you have to work with many different types of data simultaneously. However, you have to remember that the goal is not to stuff your appendices with data. Rather, craft a precise, careful research paper appendix that can give your reader relevant and additional data that supports your research.

Step 4: Proofread and Revise

When it comes to dissertation writing, typos, grammatical errors, and spelling mistakes can cost you way more than just miscommunication. These seemingly harmless errors can make your work look casual and unprofessional, bringing in questions about the credibility of your work. It is a similar case when it comes to writing an appendix for a research paper. 

Step 5: Seek Guidance

It is important to remember that seeking guidance when you feel stuck is pretty normal, and there is nothing to be embarrassed about it. You may feel lost while writing an appendix for a research paper, and it is the perfect time to seek guidance from your peers, advisor or even dissertation committee members. 

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How to Format an Appendix

Ensuring proper formatting is crucial for the seamless integration of the research paper appendix into the main body. Follow the guidelines below for a sharp-looking appendix:

Consistency with the Main Body

Formatting elements, fonts, font sizes and margins should have uniformity. Consistent and professional appearance gives your research paper a neat look.

Organisation and Structure

Use headings and subheadings to categorise your data logically. You can also use a well-structured numbering system to facilitate easy navigation.

Descriptive Elements

Introduce each content with short descriptions and paragraphs. Giving additional context makes the information more accessible and interpretable.

Consistent Formatting Style

Use a formatting style that goes well with the rest of your dissertation, along with font styles, sizes, and other formatting guidelines instructed by your academic institution.

Visual Accessibility

Any non-textual elements, such as tables, graphs, or images, should be clear and readable. Label these visual elements and add alternative texts for inclusivity in the digital appendix.

Where does the appendix go in your dissertation? 

Although the appendix section of a research paper is an essential part of your dissertation, it is not to be included in the main body of the dissertation. As a compilation of supplementary material and raw data, your research paper appendix should go at the end of the dissertation, typically inserted after the reference lists. Some even present appendices as separate supplementary documents, mostly done in specially requested cases. 

The format of the research paper appendix should be similar to the rest of your report for consistency. It should thus be drafted and formatted in the same style as the dissertation in terms of fonts, margins, and font sizes.

What to include in your appendix 

While drafting your research paper appendix, remember that it needs to be as precise as possible. Thus, there cannot be unnecessary information in it. Typically, appendices include raw data that supports your research and is referenced in the dissertation you have prepared. Here are some of the elements that you should include in your appendix: 

  • Research results 
  • Transcribed interviews 
  • Survey/questionnaire details 
  • Table and figures 
  • Co-respondence 
  • List of abbreviations used 
  • Calculations and formulas 

Referring appendix in-text 

Only adding your appendix to the research paper at the end of the dissertation would not make sense if there are no references to them in the main text. To justify its existence and inclusion in the research report, you should reference the appendix at least once in the whole report. A neatly labelled and properly referred research paper appendix can make your dissertation look more professional and supported. 

How to refer to an appendix

Referring to the research paper appendix within the main text is important in highlighting its relevance. Use these five methods for referencing:

In-text references

Specific references embedded in your sentences contextually shape your information. For example, "In Table 2 of Appendix B, the commonality between subjects A and B is illustrated.

Parenthetical references

You can use parentheses for concise references without disrupting the main text's flow. For instance, "The result [refer to Appendix C, Fig. 2] is not consistent with the previous findings."

Referring to the entire appendix

Refer to the entire research paper appendix in your text when appropriate. For example, "The data supporting this conclusion can be found in Appendix B."

Clarity and labelling

References should be clear and well-labelled. Proper labelling ensures easy identification of referenced material within the appendix, polishing your research paper professionally.

Cross-referencing

Cross-referencing helps you establish connections between the main text and the appendix. Phrases like "As discussed in Appendix A" guide readers to supporting material.

Crafting the perfect appendix section of a research paper involves meticulous attention to detail and adherence to formatting and referencing guidelines. As an integral part of your dissertation, the appendix contributes significantly to the transparency, credibility, and overall professionalism of your research. By following the comprehensive guidelines provided in this guide, you can ensure that your appendix not only complements your main text but also serves as a valuable resource for readers seeking additional insights. 

Frequently Asked Questions

What do i write in a research paper appendix, why is an appendix important for a dissertation, where is the appendix placed in the research paper, is writing a research paper appendix difficult, what are the basic guidelines for writing an appendix.

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How to Write a Literature Review

  • Critical analysis
  • Sample Literature Reviews
  • Scaffold examples for organising Literature Reviews
  • Writing an Abstract
  • Creating Appendices
  • APA Reference Guide
  • Library Resources
  • Guide References

What is an appendix?

An appendix contains additional information and material that supports the content of the body of work. Material in an appendix assists the reader in better understanding concepts and discussion points raised in the work, and helps to provide context. There is a general rule that if you have supporting information that is going to interfere with the flow of your assignment, or cause confusion or distraction if it is left in the body of your work, then it should be added as an appendix.  

An appendix may include (among others things):

Instructions to study participants Raw data Interview transcripts Sample questionnaires Images, maps and diagrams Flow charts  Lists of equipment used Introductory script for interviews  

Note: one appendix is called An Appendix, two or more Appendix is called Appendices

Where Do You Add an Appendix to Your Assignment?

There's a few rules that need to be followed when adding an appendix to your assignment. These rules follow the APA Reference Guidelines.  

  • The heading for each appendix is titled  Appendix A, Appendix B , etc. Under this heading is a brief description of the contents of the appendix.  Example:

          Appendix A             Sample interview questions  

  • If there is only one appendix, just title it Appendix , followed by a brief description of the contents on the next line
  • Appendices should be mentioned at least once in the main text of the paper eg: " See Appendix A " Just as you can't have an in-text citation without an accompanying reference list entry, you also cannot have an appendix without it being mentioned at least once in your assignment.  
  • Each appendix should appear on its own page  
  • Appendix headings should be in bold, and in the centre of the page (just like the Reference heading for a reference list).  
  • Appendices are always placed after the reference list , on a new page. It should be the very last page of your assignment
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Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts

Footnotes & Appendices 

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This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.

Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.

APA style offers writers footnotes and appendices as spaces where additional, relevant information might be shared within a document; this resource offers a quick overview of format and content concerns for these segments of a document. Should additional clarification be necessary, it is always recommended that writers reach out to the individual overseeing their work (i.e., instructor, editor, etc.). For your convenience, a student sample paper is included below; please note the document is filled with  Lorem Ipsum  placeholder text and references to footnotes and appendices are highighlighted. Additional marginal notes also further explain specific portions of the example. 

Footnotes 

Footnotes are supplementary details printed at the bottom of the page pertaining to a paper’s content or copyright information. This supporting text can be utilized in any type of APA paper to support the body paragraphs.

Content-Based Footnotes

Utilizing footnotes to provide supplementary detail can enrich the body text and reinforce the main argument of the paper. Footnotes may also direct readers to an alternate source for more detail on a topic. Though content footnotes can be useful in providing additional context, it is detrimental to include tangential or convoluted information. Footnotes should detail a focused subject; lengthier sections of text are better suited for the body paragraphs.

Acknowledging Copyright

When citing long quotations, images, tables, data, or commercially published questionnaires in-text, it is important to credit the copyright information in a footnote. Functioning much like an in-text citation, a footnote copyright attribution provides credit to the original source and must also be included in a reference list. A copyright citation is needed for both direct reprinting as well as adaptations of content, and these may require express permission from the copyright owner.

Formatting Footnotes

Each footnote and its corresponding in-text callout should be formatted in numerical order of appearance utilizing superscript. As demonstrated in the example below, the superscripted numerals should follow all punctuation with the exception of dashes and parentheses.

For example: 

Footnote callouts should not be placed in headings and do not require a space between the callout and superscripted number. When reintroducing a footnote that has previously been called out, refrain from replicating the callout or footnote itself; rather, format such reference as “see Footnote 4”, for example. Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the page on which the corresponding callout is referenced. Alternatively, a footnotes page could be created to follow the reference page. When formatting footnotes in the latter manner, center and bold the label “Footnotes” then record each footnote as a double-spaced and indented paragraph. Place the corresponding superscripted number in front of each footnote and separate the numeral from the following text with a single space.

Formatting Copyright Information

To provide credit for images, tables, or figures pulled from an outside source, include the accreditation statement at the end of the note for the visual. Copyright acknowledgements for long quotations or questionnaires should simply be placed in a footnote at the bottom of the page.

When formatting a copyright accreditation, utilize the following format:

  • Establish if the content was reprinted or adapted by using language such as “from” for directly copied material or “adapted from” for material that has been modified
  • Include the content’s title, author, year of publication, and source
  • Cite the copyright holder and year of copyright or indicate that the source is public domain or licensed under Creative Commons
  • If express permission was required to reprint the material, include a statement indicating that permission was acquired

Appendices 

When introducing supplementary content that may not fit within the body of a paper, an appendix can be included to help readers better understand the material without distracting from the text itself. Primarily used to introduce research materials, specific details of a study, or participant demographics, appendices are generally concise and only incorporate relevant content. Much like with footnotes, appendices may require an acknowledgement of copyright and, if data is cited, an adherence to the privacy policies that protect participant identities.

Formatting Appendices

An appendix should be created on its own individual page labelled “Appendix” and followed by a title on the next line that describes the subject of the appendix. These headings should be centered and bolded at the top of the page and written in title case. If there are multiple appendices, each should be labelled with a capital letter and referenced in-text by its specific title (for example, “see Appendix B”). All appendices should follow references, footnotes, and any tables or figures included at the end of the document.

Text Appendices 

Appendices should be formatted in traditional paragraph style and may incorporate text, figures, tables, equations, or footnotes. In an appendix, all figures, tables, and other visuals should be labelled with the letter of the corresponding appendix followed by a number indicating the order in which each appears. For example, a table labelled “Table B1” would be the first table in Appendix B. If there is only one appendix in the document, the visuals should still be labelled with the letter A and a number to differentiate them from those contained in the paper itself (for example, “Figure A3” is the third figure in the singular appendix, which is not labelled with a letter in the heading). 

Table or Figure Appendices 

When an appendix solely contains a table or figure, the title of the figure or table should be substituted with the title of the appendix. For example, if Appendix B only includes a figure, the figure should be labelled “Appendix B” rather than “Figure B1”, as it would be named if there were multiple figures included.

If an appendix does not contain text but includes numerous figures or table, the appendix should be formatted like a text appendix. The appendix would receive a name and label, and each figure or table would be given a corresponding letter and number. For example, if Appendix C contains two tables and one figure, these visuals would be labelled “Table C1”, “Table C2”, and “Figure C1” respectively.

Sample Paper    

Media File: APA 7 - Student Sample Paper (Footnotes & Appendices)

what is appendix in research work

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General Research Paper Guidelines: Appendices

If you have some information you would like to include in your research but it could potentially be distracting to readers or inappropriate within the body of your research paper, you can always include supplemental information as an appendix to your work. An appendix or appendices should always be inserted after your Reference List; however, the appropriateness of appendix content really depends on the nature and scope of your research paper.

For a more in-depth review of what supplemental materials might be included in a social science appendix, be sure to review Section 2.14 “Appendices” (pp. 41-42) of your 7 th edition APA manual.

Appendices Formatting

APA 7 addresses appendices and supplemental materials in Section 2.14 and on page 41:

  • The appendices follow the reference list.
  • They are lettered "Appendix A," "Appendix B," "Appendix C," and so forth. If you have only one appendix, however, simply label it Appendix.
  • Put figures and tables in separate appendices. The appendix title serves as the title for a table if it is the only table in the appendix.
  • If you decide that certain figures and tables should appear in the same appendix, number them A1, A2, A3, and so forth, according to the appendix in which they appear.
  • The materials in the appendix must not extend beyond the margins of the rest of the paper: Reduce the appendix materials as needed.

As a general guide, appendices are appropriate for any material that, if presented in the main body of the document, would unnecessarily interrupt the flow of the writing. Note that it is unlikely that you will use appendices in Walden course papers. For doctoral capstone studies, you might include some appendices with supplementary information.

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Appendices – Writing Guide, Types and Examples

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Appendices

Definition:

Appendices refer to supplementary materials or documents that are attached to the end of a Book, Report , Research Paper , Thesis or other written work. These materials can include charts, graphs, tables, images, or other data that support the main content of the work.

Types of Appendices

Types of appendices that can be used depending on the content and purpose of the document. These types of Appendices are as follows:

Statistical Appendices

Statistical appendices are used to present raw data or statistical analysis that is relevant to the main text but would be too bulky to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include tables, graphs, charts, or other types of visual aids that help to illustrate the data.

Technical Appendices

Technical appendices are used to provide detailed technical information that is relevant to the main text but would be too complex or lengthy to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include equations, formulas, diagrams, or other technical details that are important for understanding the subject matter.

Bibliographical Appendices

Bibliographical appendices are used to provide additional references or sources that are relevant to the main text but were not cited in the main body of the document. These appendices may include lists of books, articles, or other resources that the author consulted in the course of their research.

Historical Appendices

Historical appendices are used to provide background information or historical context that is relevant to the main text but would be too lengthy or distracting to include in the main body of the document. These appendices may include timelines, maps, biographical sketches, or other historical details that help to contextualize the subject matter.

Supplemental Appendices

Supplemental appendices are used to provide additional material that is relevant to the main text but does not fit into any of the other categories. These appendices may include interviews, surveys, case studies, or other types of supplemental material that help to further illustrate the subject matter.

Applications of Appendices

Some applications of appendices are:

  • Providing detailed data and statistics: Appendices are often used to include detailed data and statistics that support the findings presented in the main body of the document. For example, in a research paper, an appendix might include raw data tables or graphs that were used to support the study’s conclusions.
  • Including technical details: Appendices can be used to include technical details that may be of interest to a specialized audience. For example, in a technical report, an appendix might include detailed calculations or equations that were used to develop the report’s recommendations.
  • Presenting supplementary information: Appendices can be used to present supplementary information that is related to the main content but doesn’t fit well within the main body of the document. For example, in a business proposal, an appendix might include a list of references or a glossary of terms.
  • Providing supporting documentation: Appendices can be used to provide supporting documentation that is required by the document’s audience. For example, in a legal document, an appendix might include copies of contracts or agreements that were referenced in the main body of the document.
  • Including multimedia materials : Appendices can be used to include multimedia materials that supplement the main content. For example, in a book, an appendix might include photographs, maps, or illustrations that help to clarify the text.

Importance of Appendices

Appendices are important components of research papers, reports, Thesis, and other academic papers. They are supplementary materials that provide additional information and data that support the main text. Here are some reasons why appendices are important:

  • Additional Information : Appendices provide additional information that is too detailed or too lengthy to include in the main text. This information includes raw data, graphs, tables, and charts that support the research findings.
  • Clarity and Conciseness : Appendices help to maintain the clarity and conciseness of the main text. By placing detailed information and data in appendices, writers can avoid cluttering the main text with lengthy descriptions and technical details.
  • Transparency : Appendices increase the transparency of research by providing readers with access to the data and information used in the research process. This transparency increases the credibility of the research and allows readers to verify the findings.
  • Accessibility : Appendices make it easier for readers to access the data and information that supports the research. This is particularly important in cases where readers want to replicate the research or use the data for their own research.
  • Compliance : Appendices can be used to comply with specific requirements of the research project or institution. For example, some institutions may require researchers to include certain types of data or information in the appendices.

Appendices Structure

Here is an outline of a typical structure for an appendix:

I. Introduction

  • A. Explanation of the purpose of the appendix
  • B. Brief overview of the contents

II. Main Body

  • A. Section headings or subheadings for different types of content
  • B. Detailed descriptions, tables, charts, graphs, or images that support the main content
  • C. Labels and captions for each item to help readers navigate and understand the content

III. Conclusion

  • A. Summary of the key points covered in the appendix
  • B. Suggestions for further reading or resources

IV. Appendices

  • A. List of all the appendices included in the document
  • B. Table of contents for the appendices

V. References

  • A. List of all the sources cited in the appendix
  • B. Proper citation format for each source

Example of Appendices

here’s an example of what appendices might look like for a survey:

Appendix A:

Survey Questionnaire

This section contains a copy of the survey questionnaire used for the study.

  • What is your age?
  • What is your gender?
  • What is your highest level of education?
  • How often do you use social media?
  • Which social media platforms do you use most frequently?
  • How much time do you typically spend on social media each day?
  • Do you feel that social media has had a positive or negative impact on your life?
  • Have you ever experienced cyberbullying or harassment on social media?
  • Have you ever been influenced by social media to make a purchase or try a new product?
  • In your opinion, what are the biggest advantages and disadvantages of social media?

Appendix B:

Participant Demographics

This section includes a table with demographic information about the survey participants, such as age, gender, and education level.

Age Gender Education Level

  • 20 Female Bachelor’s Degree
  • 32 Male Master’s Degree
  • 45 Female High School Diploma
  • 28 Non-binary Associate’s Degree

Appendix C:

Statistical Analysis

This section provides details about the statistical analysis performed on the survey data, including tables or graphs that illustrate the results of the analysis.

Table 1: Frequency of Social Media Platforms

Use Platform Frequency

  • Facebook 35%
  • Instagram 28%
  • Twitter 15%
  • Snapchat 12%

Figure 1: Impact of Social Media on Life Satisfaction

Appendix D:

Survey Results

This section presents the raw data collected from the survey, such as participant responses to each question.

Question 1: What is your age?

Question 2: What is your gender?

And so on for each question in the survey.

How to Write Appendices

Here are the steps to follow to write appendices:

  • Determine what information to include: Before you start writing your appendices, decide what information you want to include. This may include tables, figures, graphs, charts, photographs, or other types of data that support the main content of your paper.
  • Organize the material: Once you have decided what to include, organize the material in a logical manner that follows the sequence of the main content. Use clear headings and subheadings to make it easy for readers to navigate through the appendices.
  • Label the appendices: Label each appendix with a capital letter (e.g., “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” etc.) and provide a brief descriptive title that summarizes the content.
  • F ormat the appendices: Follow the same formatting style as the rest of your paper or report. Use the same font, margins, and spacing to maintain consistency.
  • Provide detailed explanations: Make sure to provide detailed explanations of any data, charts, graphs, or other information included in the appendices so that readers can understand the significance of the material.
  • Cross-reference the appendices: In the main text, cross-reference the appendices where appropriate by referring to the appendix letter and title (e.g., “see Appendix A for more information”).
  • Review and revise: Review and revise the appendices just as you would any other part of your paper or report to ensure that the information is accurate, clear, and relevant.

When to Write Appendices

Appendices are typically included in a document when additional information needs to be provided that is not essential to the main text, but still useful for readers who want to delve deeper into a topic. Here are some common situations where you might want to include appendices:

  • Supporting data: If you have a lot of data that you want to include in your document, but it would make the main text too lengthy or confusing, you can include it in an appendix. This is especially useful for academic papers or reports.
  • Additional examples: I f you want to include additional examples or case studies to support your argument or research, but they are not essential to the main text, you can include them in an appendix.
  • Technical details: I f your document contains technical information that may be difficult for some readers to understand, you can include detailed explanations or diagrams in an appendix.
  • Background information : If you want to provide background information on a topic that is not directly related to the main text, but may be helpful for readers, you can include it in an appendix.

Purpose of Appendices

The purposes of appendices include:

  • Providing additional details: Appendices can be used to provide additional information that is too detailed or bulky to include in the main body of the document. For example, technical specifications, data tables, or lengthy survey results.
  • Supporting evidence: Appendices can be used to provide supporting evidence for the arguments or claims made in the main body of the document. This can include supplementary graphs, charts, or other visual aids that help to clarify or support the text.
  • Including legal documents: Appendices can be used to include legal documents that are referred to in the main body of the document, such as contracts, leases, or patent applications.
  • Providing additional context: Appendices can be used to provide additional context or background information that is relevant to the main body of the document. For example, historical or cultural information, or a glossary of technical terms.
  • Facilitating replication: In research papers, appendices are used to provide detailed information about the research methodology, raw data, or analysis procedures to facilitate replication of the study.

Advantages of Appendices

Some Advantages of Appendices are as follows:

  • Saving Space: Including lengthy or detailed information in the main text of a document can make it appear cluttered and overwhelming. By placing this information in an appendix, it can be included without taking up valuable space in the main text.
  • Convenience: Appendices can be used to provide supplementary information that is not essential to the main argument or discussion but may be of interest to some readers. By including this information in an appendix, readers can choose to read it or skip it, depending on their needs and interests.
  • Organization: Appendices can be used to organize and present complex information in a clear and logical manner. This can make it easier for readers to understand and follow the main argument or discussion of the document.
  • Compliance : In some cases, appendices may be required to comply with specific document formatting or regulatory requirements. For example, research papers may require appendices to provide detailed information on research methodology, data analysis, or technical procedures.

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Beyond the Main Text: The value of a Research Paper Appendix

This article is a complete guide on how to utilize a research paper appendix to complement your work and add value to it.

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Researchers frequently face the difficulty of balancing the quantity of information offered in the main text with the desire to incorporate useful additional material while writing a research paper. 

Here is when the appendix comes into play. While being an optional section, the appendix may help improve the clarity and completeness of a research paper. 

In this article, we will look at the purpose and benefits of utilizing an appendix in a research paper, as well as some recommendations for incorporating this section into your writing successfully.

What is a research paper appendix?

A research paper appendix is a section that can be included at the end of a research paper. It is used to give additional material that is important to the paper but is not entirely required for the primary argument or conclusions provided in the paper. 

Tables, charts, graphs, raw data, interview transcripts, survey questionnaires, images, and other supporting evidence can all be included in the appendix. The appendix’s aim is to provide extra details and support for the research findings presented in the paper without diverting the reader’s attention away from the primary argument.

Is an appendix necessary in a research paper?

A research paper appendix is usually included when the amount of additional material is too extensive or complex to include in the primary text, or when the material would interrupt the flow of the argument if included in the primary text. 

The researcher normally chooses whether to add an appendix or not. An appendix can also be added if the publisher or the academic institution requires it. 

Nevertheless, the appendix section of a research paper may be a beneficial addition, allowing researchers to give more material and support for their study results without detracting from the primary argument.

what is appendix in research work

What to include in a research paper appendix?

The resources that can be included in a research paper appendix vary based on the nature of the research and the specific paper requirements. But, here are some standard examples of what to add in the appendix of a research paper:

  • Figures and tables: The appendix may contain extra tables, figures, graphs, or charts that give more thorough information or different data presentations;
  • Big datasets or raw data: The appendix might include large datasets or raw data that were utilized to achieve the conclusions and findings stated in the publication. This enables interested readers to evaluate the data or apply it in future studies; 
  • Questionnaires and surveys: If the research included data gathering via surveys or questionnaires, the appendix might provide a sample of the survey or questionnaire used in the research;
  • Transcripts of interviews: If the research included conducting interviews, the appendix might provide transcripts of such interviews;
  • Additional methodology details: The appendix might feature extra methodology details from the study that could not be included in the main text of the paper;
  • Additional documents: Any permission forms, consent forms, or ethical approval documentation. 

Steps to writing a research paper appendix

  • Decide what items will be included: Before starting to write the appendix section, it is critical to identify what items will be included. This might vary depending on the nature of the study and the unique needs of the paper; 
  • Label the appendix section: Label the appendix section and give it an accurate title that represents the item provided. “Appendix A: Survey Questions,” for instance, or “Appendix B: Raw Data.” This will make it apparent to readers what is in the appendix;
  • Organize: The items in the appendix should be organized logically and clearly. They can be sorted by type (for example, tables, figures, or transcripts), source (for example, survey data, interview transcripts), or any other relevant factor;
  • Give context: The appendix items should be supported by a brief description that offers context and explains how they relate to the research provided in the paper;
  • Cross-reference : If items in the appendix are referred to in the primary text of the paper, they should be cross-referenced correctly so that the reader can easily locate them. 

It ought to be emphasized that the appendix should only contain material that is directly related to the study and supports the conclusions given in the paper. Make sure not to include any information that is not directly related to the research.

Formatting a research paper appendix

The citation format, title, location, and page numbers of a research paper appendix must be formatted with precision. Here are some guidelines for you to follow:

  • Citation: First and foremost, offer accurate citations. The most generally used standards are APA, MLA, and Chicago. Therefore, you should clarify the required formatting standards.
  • Title: The title should be descriptive and represent the nature of the items included. The title should be placed at the top of the appendix’s first page.
  • Location: The appendix should be inserted at the end of the paper, following the bibliography. Unless it is required otherwise.
  • Page number: Starting with page 1, each page should be numbered sequentially. If the appendix is more than one page long, add the label and title on each succeeding page.

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Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Appendices

  • Purpose of Guide
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Design Flaws to Avoid
  • Independent and Dependent Variables
  • Narrowing a Topic Idea
  • Broadening a Topic Idea
  • The Research Problem/Question
  • Academic Writing Style
  • Choosing a Title
  • Making an Outline
  • Paragraph Development
  • The C.A.R.S. Model
  • Background Information
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Citation Tracking
  • Evaluating Sources
  • Reading Research Effectively
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • What Is Scholarly vs. Popular?
  • Is it Peer-Reviewed?
  • Qualitative Methods
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Common Grammar Mistakes
  • Writing Concisely
  • Avoiding Plagiarism [linked guide]
  • Annotated Bibliography
  • Grading Someone Else's Paper

An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.

Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes . The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of...

Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the reader would still be able to  comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research.

It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:

  • Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
  • Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
  • Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
  • Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
  • Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
  • Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.

Appendices . Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes . The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Structure and Writing Style

I.  General Points to Consider

When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:

  • It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
  • Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
  • If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page at the beginning of your paper . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices [always list the appendix or appendices in a table of contents].
  • The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
  • An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.

II.  Content

Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].

There are very few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:

  • Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
  • Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
  • Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
  • Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
  • Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
  • Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
  • Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.

NOTE:   Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.

ANOTHER NOTE :  Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.

III.  Format

Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail:

  • Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
  • Each appendix begins on a new page.
  • The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
  • The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
  • If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
  • The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

Appendices . The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College;  Appendices . Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices . Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes . The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix . LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.

Writing Tip

Consider Putting Your Appendices Online

Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site.

Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).

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what is appendix in research work

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Thesis and Dissertation Appendicies – What to Include

DiscoverPhDs

  • By DiscoverPhDs
  • August 12, 2020

What is an Appendix Dissertation explained

An appendix is a section at the end of a dissertation that contains supplementary information. An appendix may contain figures, tables, raw data, and other additional information that supports the arguments of your dissertation but do not belong in the main body.

It can be either a long appendix or split into several smaller appendices. Each appendix should have its own title and identification letters, and the numbering for any tables or figures in them should be reset at the beginning of each new appendix.

Purpose of an Appendix

When writing the main body of your dissertation, it is important to keep it short and concise in order to convey your arguments effectively.

Given the amount of research you would have done, you will probably have a lot of additional information that you would like to share with your audience.

This is where appendices come in. Any information that doesn’t support your main arguments or isn’t directly relevant to the topic of your dissertation should be placed in an appendix.

This will help you organise your paper, as only information that adds weight to your arguments will be included; it will also help improve your flow by minimising unnecessary interruptions.

Note, however, that your main body must be detailed enough that it can be understood without your appendices. If a reader has to flip between pages to make sense of what they are reading, they are unlikely to understand it.

For this reason, appendices should only be used for supporting background material and not for any content that doesn’t fit into your word count, such as the second half of your literature review .

What to Include in a Dissertation Appendix

A dissertation appendix can be used for the following supplementary information:

Research Results

There are various ways in which research results can be presented, such as in tables or diagrams.

Although all of your results will be useful to some extent, you won’t be able to include them all in the main body of your dissertation. Consequently, only those that are crucial to answering your research question should be included.

Your other less significant findings should be placed in your appendix, including raw data, proof of control measures, and other supplemental material.

Details of Questionnaires and Interviews

You can choose to include the details of any surveys and interviews you have conducted. This can include:

  • An interview transcript,
  • A copy of any survey questions,
  • Questionnaire results.

Although the results of your surveys, questionnaires or interviews should be presented and discussed in your main text, it is useful to include their full form in the appendix of a dissertation to give credibility to your study.

Tables, Figures and Illustrations

If your dissertation contains a large number of tables, figures and illustrative material, it may be helpful to insert the less important ones in your appendix. For example, if you have four related datasets, you could present all the data and trend lines (made identifiable by different colours) on a single chart with a further breakdown for each dataset in your appendix.

Letters and Correspondence

If you have letters or correspondence, either between yourself and other researchers or places where you sought permission to reuse copyrighted material, they should be included here. This will help ensure that your dissertation doesn’t become suspected of plagiarism.

List of Abbreviations

Most researchers will provide a list of abbreviations at the beginning of their dissertation, but if not, it would be wise to add them as an appendix.

This is because not all of your readers will have the same background as you and therefore may have difficulty understanding the abbreviations and technical terms you use.

Note: Some researchers refer to this as a ‘glossary’, especially if it is provided as an appendix section. For all intended purposes, this is the same as a list of abbreviations.

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How to Format a Dissertation Appendix

In regards to format, you can include one lengthy appendix or structure it into several smaller appendices.

Although the choice is yours, it is usually better to opt for several different appendices as it allows you to organise your supplementary information into different categories based on what they are.

The following guidelines should be observed when preparing your dissertation appendices section:

  • Each appendix should start on a new page and be given a unique title and identifying letter, such as “Appendix A – Raw Data”. This allows you to more easily refer to appendix headings in the text of your main body should you need to.
  • Each appendix should have its own page numbering system, comprising the appendix identification letter and the corresponding page number. The appendix identification letter should be reset for each appendix, but the page number should remain continuous. For example, if ‘Appendix A’ has three pages and ‘Appendix B’ two pages, the page numbers should be A-1, A-2, A-3, B-4, B-5.
  • The numbering of tables and figures should be reset at the beginning of each new appendix. For example, if ‘Appendix A’ contains two tables and ‘Appendix B’ one table, the table number within Appendix B should be ‘Table 1’ and not ‘Table 3’.
  • If you have multiple appendices instead of a single longer one, insert a ‘List of Appendices’ in the same way as your contents page.
  • Use the same formatting (font size, font type, spacing, margins, etc.) as the rest of your report.

Example of Appendices

Below is an example of what a thesis or dissertation appendix could look like.

Thesis and Dissertation Appendices Example

Referring to an Appendix In-Text

You must refer to each appendix in the main body of your dissertation at least once to justify its inclusion; otherwise, the question arises as to whether they are really needed.

You can refer to an appendix in one of three ways:

1. Refer to a specific figure or table within a sentence, for example: “As shown in Table 2 of Appendix A, there is little correlation between X and Y”.

2. Refer to a specific figure or table in parentheses, for example: “The results (refer to Table 2 of Appendix A) show that there is little correlation between X and Y”.

3. Refer to an entire appendix, for example: “The output data can be found in Appendix A”.

Appendices vs Appendixes

Both terms are correct, so it is up to you which one you prefer. However, it is worth noting that ‘appendices’ are used more frequently in the science and research community, so we recommend using the former in academic writing if you have no preferences.

Where Does an Appendix Go?

For a dissertation, your appendices should be inserted after your reference list.

Some people like to put their appendices in a standalone document to separate it from the rest of their report, but we only recommend this at the request of your dissertation supervisor, as this isn’t common practice.

Note : Your university may have its own requirements or formatting suggestions for writing your dissertation or thesis appendix. As such, make sure you check with your supervisor or department before you work on your appendices. This will especially be the case for any students working on a thesis.

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Easy Guide on How to Write an Appendix

what is appendix in research work

Understanding What Is an Appendix

Many students ask, 'What is an appendix in writing?'. Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work.

Incorporating an appendix in your written piece can aid readers in comprehending the information presented. It is important to note that different professors may have varying guidelines on how to write an appendix. To learn more about how to write an appendix for a research paper according to APA, Chicago, and MLA styles, check out the following paragraphs prepared by our PRO nursing essay writing service !

Meanwhile, note that an appendix comprises all the information utilized in a paper, including references and statistics from several authors and sources (the number varies according to the type of academic paper). The purpose of the appendix is to prevent vague or irrelevant information and improve the reader's understanding of the paper.

The Purpose of an Appendix

To understand what an appendix tries to accomplish and how to write an appendix example, after all, we must first answer the key question, 'What is the purpose of an appendix?'. In short, an appendix is crucial for further explaining complex information that may be difficult to fully convey within the main text of an essay. It is intended to offer readers additional information about the topic addressed in the paper.

The material presented in an appendix has the potential to bolster the argument and sway the reader's opinion. Nonetheless, you should try to incorporate supporting material and examples toward the end of the paper to avoid disrupting the flow of the main text. Furthermore, the likelihood of including an appendix increases as a paper becomes more advanced. The use of an appendix is especially prevalent in the academic writing of a research document and journal-style scientific paper, in which extra information is usually needed to support a main point of view.

How to Structure an Appendix

While there are variations between formats, each one follows a basic structure. Thus, understanding the general structure is an essential first step in learning about this topic. No matter if you're tasked with 'how to write an appendix MLA or APA style?' - remember that both adhere to this structure, despite their differences:

How to Structure an Appendix

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Every Appendix Should Contain:

  • A clear title: The title of the appendix should be concise and descriptive, clearly indicating what information is contained within it. For example, 'Appendix A: Data Tables for Study Results or 'Appendix B: Images of Experimental Setup.'
  • A list of contents: Including a table of contents in the appendix can be helpful for readers to navigate the information provided. For example:

Table of Contents:

A. Data Tables for Study Results

B. Images of Experimental Setup

C. Survey Questions and Responses

D. Sample Interview Transcripts

  • Page numbers: The appendix should be a separate page, independently numbered from the main body of the paper, and specified uniformly (e.g., 'Appendix A,' 'Appendix B,' etc.). For example:

Page 1 of 5

  • Relevant information: The appendix should contain all the relevant information supporting the main arguments of the document, including tables of data, raw statistical data, charts, or other documents. For example:

Figure 1: Experimental Results

[insert graph or chart here]

  • Proper formatting: The appendix should be formatted in accordance with the specific requirements of the chosen citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago). For example:

Appendix B: Survey Questions and Responses

[insert survey questions and responses here, formatted following APA style guidelines]

  • Clear labeling: Each element should have a clear appendix label so readers can easily understand its relevance to the paper. For example:

Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Survey Respondents

  • Concise explanation: It is important to provide short detailed descriptions of each element in the Appendix so that readers can understand its importance. For example:

Appendix C: Sample Interview Transcripts

Transcripts of the three interviews with the study participants shall be included for reference. These interviews provide further insights into the experiences of participants and their views on the subject addressed in this document.

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General Appendix Format

To ensure proper formatting, it is important to understand the basics of how to structure an appendix. Although it may seem overwhelming, the basic format is relatively easy to comprehend and serves as a foundation for understanding the APA and MLA formats. Additionally, mastering the basic format can be helpful when writing an appendix for a book or dissertation.

General Appendix Format

  • Heading “Appendix #” . Contains a number or letter, that could be 1 or A.
  • Reference List.
  • Index Table followed a list of appendices.
  • Page Number.

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How to Write an Appendix in Different Styles

There are two distinct styles for creating an appendix, and it's important to familiarize yourself with both since a professor may request one or the other. Our expert writers have compiled guidelines and rules for both formats - the Appendix APA format and the Appendix MLA format. Although they share some similarities, they also have unique features and regulations that must be strictly followed.

Appendix APA

Many professors require students to write an appendix in a paper of this format. To master how to write an appendix APA format and get the structure correct, it's a good idea to follow these guidelines and rules:

The guidelines for Appendix APA:

  • The appendix begins with the heading 'Appendix' followed by ABC.
  • It should also be written on top of the appendix title.
  • Every appendix follows the order of the stated information in the paper.
  • Include the appendix after the reference list.
  • Include page numbers for each appendix.
  • Appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Include Footnotes.

The general rules for Appendix APA are to be followed when writing. This is what professors look for when a paper is required when apprentices are to be written in this format. Learn the general rules to master how to write an appendix APA style and get you onto the right path to success. You may find it useful to memorize this information or keep a note of it.

Rules for APA:

  • All appendices should include their own point.
  • Include a title for each appendix.
  • For multiple appendices, use ABC for tilting them.
  • For reference within the body, include (see appendix a) after the text.
  • The title should be centered.
  • All appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
  • Paragraph One should be written without indents.
  • The rest of the paragraphs should have the intended formatting.
  • Include double spacing.

Whether you're tackling how to write an interview paper in APA appendix or any other type of academic work, the following example can serve as a valuable blueprint to guide you through the process.

Appendix Chicago Style

Writing an appendix Chicago style is rather similar to APA. Though, there are some minor differences. Take a look at these guidelines for this form of an appendix.

Guidelines for an Appendix Chicago Style

  • More than one appendix is described as appendices.
  • The font required for the appendix Chicago style is Times New Roman.
  • The text size should be 12 points.
  • The page numbers should be displayed on the top right of each page.
  • The page numbers should also be labeled as 'Page 1,2,3'.
  • Avoid including a page number on the front cover.
  • The bibliography should be the final new page. It should not share a page with any other content.
  • It is possible to include footnotes in the bibliography.

To better comprehend how to write an appendix in Chicago style, glance through the example below:

Appendix MLA Format

The guidelines and regulations for creating an appendix in MLA format are largely similar to those in APA format. However, there are some differences between the two, the most notable being that the MLA appendix is placed before the reference list.

The guidelines for MLA Format:

  • The appendix is included before the list of references.

It may be useful to follow the example of an appendix to better understand how to write an appendix in MLA style. Doing so can increase the chances of getting a grasp of the MLA rules to fulfill the requirements of your professor on your academic paper.

Rules for MLA

  • The title is to be centered.
  • The list should be double-spaced.
  • The first line should include each reference in the left margin. Every subsequent line is to be formatted so it's invented. This can be referred to as 'hanging indent' to make things easier.
  • The reference list must be in alphabetical order. This can be done with the first letter of the title of the reference. Though, this is usually done if the writer is unknown. If the writer is known, you can also use the first letter of the surname.
  • If you include the name of the known writer, use this order. SURNAME, FIRST NAME, YEAR.
  • Italic fonts are required for the titles of complete writings, internet sites, books, and recordings.
  • It is important not to use an italic font on reference titles that only refer to the part of a source. This includes poetry, short papers, tabloids, sections of a PDF, and scholarly entries.

Before we conclude, let's dive deeper into the world of appendix writing by exploring an example of how to write an appendix MLA style.

Let's wrap this up! It's safe to say that following the APA, Chicago, and MLA formats is crucial when crafting an appendix. As we've seen, starting with an APA appendix example can help ease you in mastering how to write an appendix of paper. Once you have a handle on the precise formats and guidelines, creating an appendix becomes a piece of cake. Also, memorizing the format can help you whip up accurate appendices for any type of paper, whether an essay or a dissertation. Trust us, mastering this topic is a must if you want to excel in knowing how to write an appendix in a report or any other academic work.

Moreover, if you ever find yourself in need of additional academic assistance, be sure to check out our resources on how to write an article review . Or, better yet, why not let us handle your most challenging tasks with ease by simply sending us a ' write my paper request? We are here to support you every step of the way.

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What Is An Appendix In Writing?

What is the purpose of an appendix, how to format an appendix.

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How to Write an Appendix

Last Updated: October 4, 2023

This article was co-authored by Stephanie Wong Ken, MFA . Stephanie Wong Ken is a writer based in Canada. Stephanie's writing has appeared in Joyland, Catapult, Pithead Chapel, Cosmonaut's Avenue, and other publications. She holds an MFA in Fiction and Creative Writing from Portland State University. This article has been viewed 1,717,164 times.

Like the appendix in a human body, an appendix contains information that is supplementary and not strictly necessary to the main body of the writing. An appendix may include a reference section for the reader, a summary of the raw data or extra details on the method behind the work. You may be required to write an appendix for school or you may decide to write an appendix for a personal project you are working on. You should start by collecting content for the appendix and by formatting the appendix properly. You should then polish the appendix so it is accessible, useful, and engaging for your reader.

Collecting Content for the Appendix

Step 1 Include raw data.

  • Raw data may include sample calculations that you refer to in the body of the paper as well as specialized data that expands on data or information you discuss in the paper. Raw statistical data can also be included in the appendix.
  • You may also include contributory facts from other sources that will help to support your findings in the paper. Make sure you properly cite any information you are pulling from other sources.

Step 2 Put in supporting...

  • You may include graphs or charts you have created yourself or graphs or charts from another source. Make sure you properly cite any visuals that are not your own in the appendix.

Step 3 Note your research instruments in the appendix.

  • For example, you may note in the appendix: “All interviews and surveys were conducted in person in a private setting and were recorded with a tape recorder.”

Step 4 Add in interview...

  • You should also include any correspondences you had with subjects in your research, such as copies of emails, letters, or notes written to or from your research subjects.

Formatting the Appendix

Step 1 Title the appendix.

  • If you have more than one appendix, order them by letter or number and be consistent about the ordering. For example, if you are using letters, make sure the appendices are titled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” etc. If you are using numbers, make sure the appendices are titled “Appendix 1,” “Appendix 2,” etc.
  • If you have more than one appendix, make sure each appendix begins on a new page. This will ensure the reader is not confused as to where one appendix ends and another begins.

Step 2 Order the content in the appendix.

  • For example, if raw data is mentioned in the first line of your paper, place that raw data first in your appendix. Or if you mention interview questions at the very end of your paper, make sure the interview questions appear as the last point in your appendix.

Step 3 Place the appendix after your reference list.

  • You should also make sure you list the appendix in your table of contents for the paper, if you have one. You can list it based on title, for example, “Appendix”, or “Appendix A” if you have more than one appendix.

Step 4 Add page numbers.

  • For example, if the text ends on page 17, continue numbering from page 17 when you put in the page numbers for the appendix.

Polishing the Appendix

Step 1 Revise the appendix for clarity and cohesion.

  • You may find it helpful to have someone else read through the appendix, such as a peer or a mentor. Ask them if they feel all the included information is relevant to the paper and remove any information they deem unnecessary.

Step 2 Check for spelling or grammar errors.

  • Read through the appendix backwards so you can make sure there are no spelling errors. You want the appendix to appear as professional as possible.

Step 3 Refer to the appendix in the text of the paper.

  • For example, you may note an appendix in the text with: “My research produced the same results in both cases (see Appendix for raw data)” or “I feel my research was conclusive (see Appendix A for interview notes).”

Sample Appendices

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  • ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/appendices
  • ↑ http://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/appendices
  • ↑ https://askus.library.wwu.edu/faq/116707

About This Article

Stephanie Wong Ken, MFA

Medical Disclaimer

The content of this article is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, examination, diagnosis, or treatment. You should always contact your doctor or other qualified healthcare professional before starting, changing, or stopping any kind of health treatment.

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To write an appendix, start by writing “Appendix” at the top of the document, using the same font you used for your chapter headings. Then, order the contents, such as graphs, surveys, or interview transcripts, based on the order in which they appear in your paper. Next, number the pages so they follow sequentially, coming after your paper and your reference list or list of sources. Finally, make sure to check for spelling and grammar errors, so everything will look polished and professional. For more tips from our English co-author, including how to refer to the appendix in your paper, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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  1. Research Paper Appendix

    Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates. Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023. An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader's understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper ...

  2. Appendix in Research Paper

    Appendix in Research Paper. Appendix in a research paper is a section located at the end of the document that contains supplementary material that is not essential to the main body of the research paper but is helpful to the reader in understanding the research study.. This supplementary material can include raw data, statistical analyses, graphs, charts, questionnaires, maps, and other ...

  3. How to Create an APA Style Appendix

    Appendix format example. The appendix label appears at the top of the page, bold and centered. On the next line, include a descriptive title, also bold and centered. The text is presented in general APA format: left-aligned, double-spaced, and with page numbers in the top right corner. Start a new page for each new appendix.

  4. How To Write A Research Paper Appendix: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Insert Table: Once your data is selected, go to the "Insert" menu, then select "Table. Create Table: A dialog box will appear, confirming the selected data range. Make sure the "Use the first row as headers" option is checked if your data has headers. Click "Insert.".

  5. How to Write an Appendix for a Research Paper & Examples

    Step 1. Make an Appendix: Include Your Data. When creating an appendix, include extra data in their raw form. That is, you might not have used some details in your main paper. But you want a reader to know more information. For example, it can be calculations, some results of which are mentioned in your main text.

  6. APA Appendix: How to Write an Appendix in APA Format

    Put the appendix label centered at the top of the page. On the next line under the appendix label, place the centered title of the appendix. If you refer to a source in your appendix, include an in-text citation just as you would in the main body of your paper and then include the source in your main reference section.

  7. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper

    The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type. If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed. The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

  8. Organizing Academic Research Papers: Appendices

    Appendices may precede or follow your list of references. Each appendix begins on a new page. The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper. The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold.

  9. How to Write a Research Paper Appendix

    Step 1: Organize the Appendix. With all the raw data, stats, and information, an appendix on a research paper can be difficult to go through and understand if they're drafted disorganizedly. So, while writing your research paper appendix, make sure you are not just ramming all information into it but organising it well so the reader can ...

  10. LibGuides: How to Write a Literature Review: Creating Appendices

    An appendix contains additional information and material that supports the content of the body of work. Material in an appendix assists the reader in better understanding concepts and discussion points raised in the work, and helps to provide context. There is a general rule that if you have supporting information that is going to interfere ...

  11. Footnotes & Appendices

    Text Appendices. Appendices should be formatted in traditional paragraph style and may incorporate text, figures, tables, equations, or footnotes. In an appendix, all figures, tables, and other visuals should be labelled with the letter of the corresponding appendix followed by a number indicating the order in which each appears.

  12. What is an Appendix in a Research Paper: Structure & Format

    An appendix is an academic work section that contains additional information (statistics, references, tables, figures, etc.) that cannot be included in the main text. This component is usually placed after the reference list at the end of a research paper or dissertation.

  13. General Research Paper Guidelines:

    Appendices Formatting. APA 7 addresses appendices and supplemental materials in Section 2.14 and on page 41: The appendices follow the reference list. They are lettered "Appendix A," "Appendix B," "Appendix C," and so forth. If you have only one appendix, however, simply label it Appendix. Put figures and tables in separate appendices.

  14. Appendices

    Label the appendices: Label each appendix with a capital letter (e.g., "Appendix A," "Appendix B," etc.) and provide a brief descriptive title that summarizes the content. F ormat the appendices: Follow the same formatting style as the rest of your paper or report. Use the same font, margins, and spacing to maintain consistency.

  15. Beyond the Main Text: The value of a Research Paper Appendix

    A research paper appendix is a section that can be included at the end of a research paper. It is used to give additional material that is important to the paper but is not entirely required for the primary argument or conclusions provided in the paper. Tables, charts, graphs, raw data, interview transcripts, survey questionnaires, images, and ...

  16. How to Properly Use an Appendix

    3. Put your appendices either before or after your references page. It's most common to put the appendices after your references since they're an add-on to your paper. However, you can choose to put the references last if that's how you want your paper to appear. Do what works best for your paper.

  17. Organizing Your Social Sciences Research Paper: Appendices

    The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type. If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed. The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.

  18. How to Write an Appendix in 6 Steps and When You Need To

    An appendix is a section of a published work that contains information not required in the primary text, but supports the writer's research and analysis and validates the conclusion. The text of an appendix is used to offer evidence and documentation for further study, and it can help a reader gain clarity on the writer's position.

  19. Thesis and Dissertation Appendices (What to Include)

    Summary. An appendix is a section at the end of a dissertation that contains supplementary information. An appendix may contain figures, tables, raw data, and other additional information that supports the arguments of your dissertation but do not belong in the main body. It can be either a long appendix or split into several smaller appendices.

  20. What Is an Appendix? Structure, Format & Examples

    Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work. Incorporating an appendix in your written piece can aid readers in ...

  21. How to Write an Appendix: 11 Steps (with Pictures)

    4. Add page numbers. You should make sure the appendix has page numbers at the bottom right corner or the center of the page. Use the same page number formatting for the appendix that you used for the rest of the paper. Continue the numbering from the text into the appendix so it feels like part of the whole.

  22. Tables, Images, & Appendices

    Tables, Images, & Appendices. For some papers and reports, you may choose to add a table, graph, chart, or image within the body of the draft. Or you may choose to include an appendix at the end of your paper. These can help to provide a visual representation of data or other information that you wish to relay to your reader.