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Short Story Analysis Essay

analytical essay about short story

Almost everyone has read a couple of short stories from the time they were kids up until today. Although, depending on how old you are, you analyze the stories you read differently. As a kid, you often point out who is the good guy and the bad guy. You even express your complaints if you do not like the ending. Now, in high school or maybe in college, you pretty much do the same, but you need to incorporate your critical thinking skills and follow appropriate formatting. That said, to present the results of your literature review, compose a short story analysis essay.

3+ Short Story Analysis Essay Examples

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What Is a Short Story Analysis Essay?

A short story analysis essay is a composition that aims to examine the plot and the aspects of the story. In writing this document, the writer needs to take the necessary elements of a short story into account. In addition, one purpose of writing this type of analysis essay is to identify the theme of the story. As well as try to make connections between the different aspects. 

How to Compose a Critical Short Story Analysis Essay

Having the assignment to write a short story analysis can be overwhelming. Reading the short story is easy enough. Evaluating and writing down your essay is the challenging part. A short story analysis essay follows a different format from other literature essays . That said, to help with that, here are instructive steps and helpful tips.

1. Take Down Notes

Considering that you have read the short story a couple of times, the first step you should take before writing your essay is to summarize and write down your notes. To help you with this, you can utilize flow charts to determine the arcs the twists of the short story. Include the parts and segments that affected you the most, as well as the ones that hold significance for the whole story. 

2. Compose Your Thesis Statement

Before composing your thesis statement for the introductory paragraph of your essay, first, you need to identify the thematic statement of the story. This sentence should present the underlying message of the entire literature. It is where the story revolves around. After that, you can use it as a basis and proceed with composing your thesis statement. It should provide the readers an overview of the content of your analysis paper.

3. Analyze the Concepts

One of the essential segments of your paper is, of course, the analysis part. In the body of your essay, you should present arguments that discuss the concepts that you were able to identify. To support your point, you should provide evidence and quote sentences from the story. If you present strong supporting sentences, it will make your composition more effective. To help with the organization and the structure, you can utilize an analysis paper outline .

4. Craft Your Conclusion

The last part of the process is to craft a conclusion for your essay . Aside from restating the crucial points and the thesis statement, there is another factor that you should consider for the ending paragraph. That said, you should also present your understanding regarding why the author wrote the story that way. In addition, you can also wrap it up by expressing how the story made you feel.

How to run an in-depth analysis of a short story?

In analyzing a short story, you should individually examine the elements of a short story. That said, you need to study the characters, setting, tone, and plot. In addition, you should also consider evaluating the author’s point of view, writing style, and story-telling method. Also, it involves studying how the story affects you personally.

Why is it necessary to compose analysis essays?

Composing analysis essays tests how well a person understands a reading material. It is a good alternative for reading comprehension worksheets . Another advantage of devising this paper is it encourages people to look at a story from different angles and perspectives. In addition to this, it lets the students enhance their article writing potential.

What is critical writing?

Conducting a critical analysis requires an individual to examine the details and facts in the literature closely. It involves breaking down ideas as well as linking them to develop a point or argument. Despite that, the prime purpose of a critical essay is to give a literary criticism of the things the author did well and the things they did poorly.

People enjoy reading short stories. It is for the reason that aside from being brief, they also present meaningful messages and themes. In addition to that, it also brings you to a memorable ride with its entertaining conflicts and plot twists. That said, as a sign of respect to the well-crafted literature, you should present your thoughts about it by generating a well-founded short story analysis essay. 

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3.7–Sample Analysis of a Short Story

Travis Rozier and R. Paul Cooper

How to Read this Section

This section contains two parts. First, you will find the prompt. The prompt is a very important element in any writing assignment. Don’t be fooled by the fact it is short! Even though it is a short document, it highlights and makes clear every element you will need to complete the given assignment effectively. When writing an essay, the prompt is where you will both begin and end. Seriously. Before you begin, familiarize yourself with the prompt, and before you submit your final draft, give the prompt one final read over, making sure you have not left anything out. When you visit the University Writing Center and Libraries, they can better help if you bring along the prompt. Both the Writing Center [1] and the Libraries [2] provide indispensable tools to aid students, so take advantage of their services.

The second part of this section contains a simulated student essay—the essay is not an actual student essay, but an essay written to demonstrate a strong student essay. The essay in this section is not meant to represent a “perfect” essay; it has its faults. However, this essay is an effective response to the given prompt. The “student” essay will be represented in a wide column on the left, and the grader’s commentary will be represented in a smaller column on the right. Use the example and the comments to help you think about how you might organize your own essay, to think about whether you will make similar—or different—choices.

Sample Prompt

Assignment Description: For this essay, you will choose a short story and write an analysis that offers an interpretation of the text. You should identify some debatable aspect of the text and argue for your interpretation using your analysis of the story supported by textual evidence.

Content: The essay should have a clear argumentative thesis that makes a debatable claim about the text. When analyzing the text, you should consider the elements of the short story discussed in class (plot, narration, character, setting, tone and style, theme, symbol, etc.). However, you should only analyze those elements that are important to understanding your interpretation of the text. You should also convey the implications of your specific claim about the text for how we might interpret the text as a whole. How does your argument shape the way we read meaning into the text?

Research Expectations: As this is not a research paper, you should use no more than two or three outside, scholarly sources, and these should be confined to historical, biographical, or literary context. In other words, they should not offer any analysis of the text itself. All the interpretative work in this paper should be produced by your own readings of the text in light of relevant contexts.

Format: All citations should adhere to current MLA 8 guidelines, and a Works Cited page including entries for the primary text and any secondary sources is also required. You will also be graded on form and correctness, so make sure you edit and proofread carefully for grammar, punctuation, etc.

Scope/Page Count: Word count should fall between 900–1200 words (3–4 pages).

Short Story Student Essay

Attribution:

Bowling, Hannah Elizabeth. “Short Story: ‘Blood for Blood’: Marital Conflict in ‘A Red Girl’s Reasoning.’” In Surface and Subtext: Literature, Research, Writing . 3rd ed. Edited by Claire Carly-Miles, Sarah LeMire, Kathy Christie Anders, Nicole Hagstrom-Schmidt, R. Paul Cooper, and Matt McKinney. College Station: Texas A&M University, 2024. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License .

Rozier, Travis, and R. Paul Cooper. “Short Story: Sample Analysis of a Short Story.” In Surface and Subtext: Literature, Research, Writing . 3rd ed. Edited by Claire Carly-Miles, Sarah LeMire, Kathy Christie Anders, Nicole Hagstrom-Schmidt, R. Paul Cooper, and Matt McKinney. College Station: Texas A&M University, 2024. Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License .

  • University Writing Center, Texas A&M University, 2021, https://writingcenter.tamu.edu/. ↵
  • Texas A&M University Libraries, Texas A&M University, 2021, https://library.tamu.edu/. ↵

3.7--Sample Analysis of a Short Story Copyright © 2024 by Travis Rozier and R. Paul Cooper is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Reading and Interpreting Literary Texts

How to analyze a short story.

Old Fence

Old Fence. A short story has a structure and a message. Can you analyze this picture in much the same way as a short story?

What Is a Short Story?

A short story is a work of short, narrative prose that is usually centered around one single event. It is limited in scope and has an introduction, body and conclusion. Although a short story has much in common with a novel (See How to Analyze a Novel), it is written with much greater precision. You will often be asked to write a literary analysis. An analysis of a short story requires basic knowledge of literary elements. The following guide and questions may help you:

Setting is a description of where and when the story takes place. In a short story there are fewer settings compared to a novel. The time is more limited. Ask yourself the following questions:

  • How is the setting created? Consider geography, weather, time of day, social conditions, etc.
  • What role does setting play in the story? Is it an important part of the plot or theme? Or is it just a backdrop against which the action takes place?

Study the time period, which is also part of the setting, and ask yourself the following:

  • When was the story written?
  • Does it take place in the present, the past, or the future?
  • How does the time period affect the language, atmosphere or social circumstances of the short story?

Characterization

Characterization deals with how the characters in the story are described. In short stories there are usually fewer characters compared to a novel. They usually focus on one central character or protagonist. Ask yourself the following:

  • Who is the main character?
  • Are the main character and other characters described through dialogue – by the way they speak (dialect or slang for instance)?
  • Has the author described the characters by physical appearance, thoughts and feelings, and interaction (the way they act towards others)?
  • Are they static/flat characters who do not change?
  • Are they dynamic/round characters who DO change?
  • What type of characters are they? What qualities stand out? Are they stereotypes?
  • Are the characters believable?

Plot and structure

The plot is the main sequence of events that make up the story. In short stories the plot is usually centered around one experience or significant moment. Consider the following questions:

  • What is the most important event?
  • How is the plot structured? Is it linear, chronological or does it move around?
  • Is the plot believable?

Narrator and Point of view

The narrator is the person telling the story.  Consider this question: Are the narrator and the main character the same?

By point of view we mean from whose eyes the story is being told. Short stories tend to be told through one character’s point of view. The following are important questions to consider:

  • Who is the narrator or speaker in the story?
  • Does the author speak through the main character?
  • Is the story written in the first person “I” point of view?
  • Is the story written in a detached third person “he/she” point of view?
  • Is there an “all-knowing” third person who can reveal what all the characters are thinking and doing at all times and in all places?

Conflict or tension is usually the heart of the short story and is related to the main character. In a short story there is usually one main struggle.

  • How would you describe the main conflict?
  • Is it an internal conflict within the character?
  • Is it an external conflict caused by the surroundings or environment the main character finds himself/herself in?

The climax is the point of greatest tension or intensity in the short story. It can also be the point where events take a major turn as the story races towards its conclusion. Ask yourself:

  • Is there a turning point in the story?
  • When does the climax take place?

The theme is the main idea, lesson, or message in the short story. It may be an abstract idea about the human condition, society, or life. Ask yourself:

  • How is the theme expressed?
  • Are any elements repeated and therefore suggest a theme?
  • Is there more than one theme?

The author’s style has to do with the his or her vocabulary, use of imagery, tone, or the feeling of the story. It has to do with the author’s attitude toward the subject. In some short stories the tone can be ironic, humorous, cold, or dramatic.

  • Is the author’s language full of figurative language?
  • What images are used?
  • Does the author use a lot of symbolism? Metaphors (comparisons that do not use “as” or “like”) or similes (comparisons that use “as” or “like”)?

Your literary analysis of a short story will often be in the form of an essay where you may be asked to give your opinions of the short story at the end. Choose the elements that made the greatest impression on you. Point out which character/characters you liked best or least and always support your arguments.

  • How to Analyze a Short Story. Authored by : Carol Dwankowski. Provided by : ndla.no. Located at : http://ndla.no/en/node/9075?fag=42&meny=102113 . License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike

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4.3: How to Analyze a Short Story

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Old Fence

What Is a Short Story?

A short story is a work of short, narrative prose that is usually centered around one single event. It is limited in scope and has an introduction, body and conclusion. Although a short story has much in common with a novel (See How to Analyze a Novel), it is written with much greater precision. You will often be asked to write a literary analysis. An analysis of a short story requires basic knowledge of literary elements. The following guide and questions may help you:

Setting is a description of where and when the story takes place. In a short story there are fewer settings compared to a novel. The time is more limited. Ask yourself the following questions:

  • How is the setting created? Consider geography, weather, time of day, social conditions, etc.
  • What role does setting play in the story? Is it an important part of the plot or theme? Or is it just a backdrop against which the action takes place?

Study the time period, which is also part of the setting, and ask yourself the following:

  • When was the story written?
  • Does it take place in the present, the past, or the future?
  • How does the time period affect the language, atmosphere or social circumstances of the short story?

Characterization

Characterization deals with how the characters in the story are described. In short stories there are usually fewer characters compared to a novel. They usually focus on one central character or protagonist. Ask yourself the following:

  • Who is the main character?
  • Are the main character and other characters described through dialogue – by the way they speak (dialect or slang for instance)?
  • Has the author described the characters by physical appearance, thoughts and feelings, and interaction (the way they act towards others)?
  • Are they static/flat characters who do not change?
  • Are they dynamic/round characters who DO change?
  • What type of characters are they? What qualities stand out? Are they stereotypes?
  • Are the characters believable?

Plot and structure

The plot is the main sequence of events that make up the story. In short stories the plot is usually centered around one experience or significant moment. Consider the following questions:

  • What is the most important event?
  • How is the plot structured? Is it linear, chronological or does it move around?
  • Is the plot believable?

Narrator and Point of view

The narrator is the person telling the story.  Consider this question: Are the narrator and the main character the same?

By point of view we mean from whose eyes the story is being told. Short stories tend to be told through one character’s point of view. The following are important questions to consider:

  • Who is the narrator or speaker in the story?
  • Does the author speak through the main character?
  • Is the story written in the first person “I” point of view?
  • Is the story written in a detached third person “he/she” point of view?
  • Is there an “all-knowing” third person who can reveal what all the characters are thinking and doing at all times and in all places?

Conflict or tension is usually the heart of the short story and is related to the main character. In a short story there is usually one main struggle.

  • How would you describe the main conflict?
  • Is it an internal conflict within the character?
  • Is it an external conflict caused by the surroundings or environment the main character finds himself/herself in?

The climax is the point of greatest tension or intensity in the short story. It can also be the point where events take a major turn as the story races towards its conclusion. Ask yourself:

  • Is there a turning point in the story?
  • When does the climax take place?

The theme is the main idea, lesson, or message in the short story. It may be an abstract idea about the human condition, society, or life. Ask yourself:

  • How is the theme expressed?
  • Are any elements repeated and therefore suggest a theme?
  • Is there more than one theme?

The author’s style has to do with the his or her vocabulary, use of imagery, tone, or the feeling of the story. It has to do with the author’s attitude toward the subject. In some short stories the tone can be ironic, humorous, cold, or dramatic.

  • Is the author’s language full of figurative language?
  • What images are used?
  • Does the author use a lot of symbolism? Metaphors (comparisons that do not use “as” or “like”) or similes (comparisons that use “as” or “like”)?

Your literary analysis of a short story will often be in the form of an essay where you may be asked to give your opinions of the short story at the end. Choose the elements that made the greatest impression on you. Point out which character/characters you liked best or least and always support your arguments.

  • How to Analyze a Short Story. Authored by : Carol Dwankowski. Provided by : ndla.no. Located at : http://ndla.no/en/node/9075?fag=42&meny=102113 . License : CC BY-SA: Attribution-ShareAlike

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Story Analysis: How to Analyze a Short Story Step-by-Step

Adela B.

Table of contents

Have there been times that you have read a short story in class and tried to analyze its meaning by deep-diving into the text to understand it better? If yes, this article is for you.

Short stories are relatively much shorter and less complex than most novels or plays. But that does not mean that they don’t require an in-depth analysis of what is written in the text and what messages the author of the book intends to convey to its readers.

In this article, you will learn how to analyze a short story step-by-step, along with the essential elements of a short story.

What are the Elements of a Short Story

In order to analyze a short story step-by-step, it is important to know the basics of story analysis. Let’s take a look at the five key elements of a short story.

Characters (both major and minor) are what bring life to a story. Writers use them to transcend important messages throughout the plotline.

Every character has a purpose, a particular personality, and a developmental arc. To analyze these characters for your short story, you must have the answer to the following questions:

  • Who is the plotline’s protagonist?
  • Do you have your antagonist? If yes, who is it? What antagonistic qualities do they have?
  • Are the characters dynamic (changing) or static (unchanging)?
  • How does the author describe the character's appearance, personality, mindset, and actions?
  • What are your thoughts, feelings, or opinions about the characters?
  • What is the relationship between all the characters?

People get invested in fictional characters, relate to them, and see them as real individuals with real personalities, going through real hardships in life.

That's the key motive of the author, and that's what needs to be analyzed.

Setting or Theme

The setting of a short story depicts the theme of the plot through key metaphors. It revolves around three important points:

  • Circumstances

This also aids the flow of the plotline, distinguishes the characters, influences viewpoints, and creates an aura for your story.

Even if a story is placed in a historic time and place, from when and where it was originally written, it can influence the entire context of the narrative.

Many stories would seem different and altered if their original setting was changed completely and is thus very crucial in interpreting the concept of the story.

Thus, try to assess how the setting affects the story and how it motivates its characters. Analyze why the author has chosen this particular setting, how the readers respond to it, as well as if there’s any symbolic meaning behind it.

The plotline makes a story by giving it a pattern and a structure to the events that are about to happen. Identifying and analyzing these plotlines will help in giving insights into the explanation of the story.

In short stories, the plot is majorly centered around one important character and their actions, or around one key experience that impacts the story greatly.

Usually, a short story plot has one major storyline, unlike novels, which have multiple trajectories of storylines. Thus, short stories are easier to analyze.

Authors use symbolism to convey messages poetically or indirectly, through their stories, making them more interesting and complex pieces.

Symbolism is depicted using a physical object or even a person to be an abstract idea. For example, a dove represents love and peace and a storm represents hostility and turmoil.

Symbolism can also be used as a metaphor in the narrative, such as life is a roller coaster which portrays life to have its ups and downs.

Similarly, in short story novels, authors symbolize certain conflicts and important issues by using a metaphor or a simile in their story. For example, in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, the officials dismantled the coronations of Caesar's statues, foreshadowing their plan to topple him.

Lastly, the reason you are reading the short story is to identify what you have learned from it and what the moral of the narrative is.

Even though short story novels are crisp, interesting, and entertaining, there is always a life lesson behind each of them. This moral is implied to help the readers understand the author’s perspective, what they want to convey, and what lesson you should learn from the text.

How to Analyze a Short Story Step-by-Step

Now that we know the major elements that are involved in crafting an exceptional story analysis, let's take a look at five tips for how to analyze a short story step-by-step.

Read and summarize

As you prepare to analyze the short story assigned to you, it is recommended to read and re-read it multiple times. Since it is a short story, you’ll have plenty of time to understand all the details included within the story and the context of the plot.

To analyze the book, divide the narrative into sections. Read each of these sections and write down key points and essential details that are related to these portions of the story. As you do that, summarize your interpretation of the plot into a more understandable and easy piece.

Brainstorm and take notes

While reading the text, if you come across an interesting subplot, a challenging character arc, or even a major theme that isn't showcased through the text, make it a point of writing them down.

These notes will be your crutch as you begin analyzing your short story for your class assignment. Taking notes brings organization to your thoughts and ideas, as well as gives you proper knowledge about every detail you find in the short story.

Brainstorm multiple ideas and write down the concepts that you find fascinating while reading the book. Always pay close attention to the details to understand the purpose of the text, as well as the author’s point of view on multiple important situations or events.

Here’s an interesting video by Jesse on how to take notes while reading

Identify crucial concepts

Identifying important concepts in the short story, such as the main conflict that helps with creating the primary argument for the thesis statement, the characters’ personalities, their defining traits, the choices they make, and also the point of view of the narrator.

The point of view is an essential aspect of the storyline as it creates a lens for the reader to understand and analyze themes, details, characters, and important events in the story.

While examining these concepts, you will realize the intention of the author, how the story was significant to them, and why they made certain choices while writing the short story.

Similarly, exploring the literary devices of the short story, such as the setting, mood, tone, and style of the text, will help further in analyzing the plotline in a more notable way.

Include examples and evidence

When you state an argument in your story analysis, it is always better to back it up with credible sources and accurate evidence. For example, you can paraphrase or directly quote a sentence from your assigned story to claim your point.

However, quotations cannot become evidence unless it is explained how it proves the claims that are being made.

Having good sources for your story analysis gives you a higher level of authority over the book that you are writing about and also makes it easier for the reader to understand the author’s perspective.

Craft the thesis statement

It is important to make sure that all the points that have been made for the analysis tie together and ultimately support your thesis.

Keep in mind that the thesis for your short story should not just summarize the plot, and neither should it be a review of the book. Your thesis statement should be an interpretation of the text or an argument that is based on the storyline.

Writing a quality analysis for short stories requires a solid thought process, an organized structure , and the ability to dive deep into the literary meaning of a text.

Here, you understand and think through the author's perspective of the book and why they have chosen to write their thoughts and ideas through this narrative.

Hence, to know how to analyze a short story step-by-step for your class assignments and also score high, you need proper guidance, key steps, and other tips and tricks that put your analysis at the front of the line. This article is here just for that!

If you still find yourself to be stuck, reach out to our analytical essay writing service . Our team of professional writers are experts in analyzing stories and will help you deliver a 100% original short story analysis written from scratch.

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Short Story Analysis: How to Write It Step by Step [New]

Have you ever tried to write a story analysis but ended up being completely confused and lost? Well, the task might be challenging if you don’t know the essential rules for literary analysis creation.

But don’t get frustrated! We know how to write a short story analysis, and we are willing to share some tips with you.

Below you will find some tips that will help you:

  • to analyze the story while reading;
  • to put the findings in words;
  • to edit and polish your work.

Our team listed the essential guide for writing an analysis of a short story. Check it out to nail your paper!

  • 👣 How to Analyze a Story
  • ✒️ Methods of Story Analysis
  • ✍️ Analysis Format
  • 📜 Proofreading Tips
  • 📝 Analysis Example

👣 How to Analyze a Short Story Step by Step

Have you ever felt confused analyzing short stories for your school or college assignment? Not this time! We have prepared for you a step-by-step guide on how to analyze a short piece of writing quickly and effectively. 

Step 1: Read Smart

The key to smart reading is to be critical. Criticism can be positive or negative. In your short story analysis, you need to have confidence in your own views of the work, regardless of the author’s reputation or whatever anyone else thinks.

The bottom line with literary criticism is that there are no right or wrong answers. As long as you back everything up with evidence, you can still attain a top grade if you take the opposite view to the author, your teacher, or the best student in your class.

But your reading needs to be methodical.

Step 2: Analyze & Find Examples

After you read the short story, you need to summarize it in your own words in no more than two sentences. This way, you will ensure that you’ve grasped its main idea.

Next, read the story one more time, paying attention to its literary elements, such as allusion, figurative language, plot, symbolism , etc. Analyze how they help the author convey the intended message. In addition, find relevant examples, quotes, or important passages that you can cite in your essay afterward.

Step 3: Create an Outline

Outlining is a crucial aspect of essay writing. It will help you understand how you can link all the facts to support the thesis statement and the paper’s arguments. Your short story analysis outline should look the following way: 

  • Introduction of the work (the author and title)
  • A short summary of the story
  • Thesis statement
  • Topic sentence
  • Example from the text
  • Analysis of the example
  • Restated thesis
  • Summary of main points
  • Concluding statement

If you need help outlining your short story analysis, try our free essay outline generator .

Step 4: Write Your Short Story Analysis

Now, it’s time to start drafting your essay. Here’s how to do it:

  • At the beginning of your short story analysis, indicate the work’s title and the author’s name. Next, provide background information that may be helpful for understanding the story. End your introduction with an analytical thesis statement , clearly stating your evaluation of the text.
  • Then, create body paragraphs based on your outline, including topic sentences and supporting examples.  
  • In the concluding paragraph , restate your thesis statement and highlight the important points you have made throughout the essay, giving the reader a feeling of closure. 

Step 5: Revise and Proofread

Last but not least, proofread your short story analysis. It will help you to avoid grammatical mistakes, spelling errors, and typos.

If you have questions regarding your essay’s format or topic, it is always a good idea to ask for help from your teacher or classmate. Their experience and insights can help you adjust your analysis and improve its overall quality. 

✒️ How to Analyze a Short Story: 6 Methods

When analyzing a short story, it is essential to examine all its main elements. In the following sections, we will discuss how to analyze the plot, characters, setting, themes, point of view, and style in detail.

Analyzing the Plot

For the first sitting, focus on the sequence of events that takes place throughout the story.

A short story’s plot: Organization of the main events.

An analysis of a short story’s plot is easy because, unlike novels, which can contain multiple plotlines, short stories usually have only one.

To make the process even easier, here are some questions that you can ask yourself as you read:

  • Does the plot hold your interest from beginning to end?
  • What are the most important events, and why?
  • Is plotline realistic?
  • Are there any parts of the plotline that seem irrelevant to the main story?
  • Does the plot deal with external conflict, internal conflict, or both?
  • What is the moral of the story?

Next, you can look at the way the author portrays the characters in the story.

Short stories will not have many characters and often center around one main character, known as the protagonist.

Analyzing Characterization

Wondering how to analyze characters in a short story? The best way is to ask these questions:

  • Who is the protagonist?
  • How effectively does the author describe the characters’ actions, appearance, and thoughts?
  • What are your feelings towards the characters?
  • Does the way the characters speak give you any information about their personality?
  • Do the characters change throughout the story?
  • If the story contains minor characters, are they necessary and effective?

Alongside plot and characters, there is a third element that is a crucial part of any story:

Analyzing the Setting

Short stories are usually set in a single location and period, but some do have more than one.

These questions will help you master the setting :

  • How does the author describe the location of the events?
  • Does the story take place in the past, the present, or the future (or all three)?
  • What are the broader circumstances surrounding the story’s setting?
  • Does the setting play an essential role in the story?
  • Do the place and time in which the author lived and worked affect the location and period in which the story is set?
  • Has the author successfully given you a feeling of really being in the story’s setting?

Your next read-through might require some creative thinking and detective work as you consider the ideas, messages, or lessons behind the story.

Analyzing Themes

Analyzing a theme is your chance to stand out. While some themes are apparent and intended by the author, it is also possible to find more obscure ones. Even the author may not have been aware of them.

Answer these questions, and you’ve nailed the theme:

  • What is the central theme? Are there any others?
  • How is the theme conveyed?
  • If the author is using the story to deliver a particular message, are you convinced by it?
  • What does the theme reveal about the author?

Now you’re confident you understand the author’s message and can explore it in your short story analysis. Not so fast! You need to think about who is telling the story.

Analyzing the Point of View

Analyzing the point of view will give a more in-depth insight into all of the previous aspects you have dealt with. So ask yourself:

  • Who is narrating the story?
  • Does the author use a consistent point of view?
  • Is the narrator telling the truth?
  • Does the author have the same mindset as the narrator?
  • Would the story be different if it were narrated from another point of view?

Examining the point of view is a part of short story analysis.

Finally, you need to look at the way the author uses language to tell the story.

Analyzing the Style

Ask the following questions when analyzing style :

  • What is the author’s tone? Humorous? Serious? Sarcastic? Sentimental?
  • Does the author use any unusual words or phrases? What effect do they have?
  • Is there anything in the story – an object, for example – that has any special meaning?
  • Does the author’s use of literary devices affect your enjoyment of the story in any way?
  • What would the story be like if the author used a different style?

By now, you should be familiar with analyzing a short story and have enough great ideas to produce an A+ essay . Look again at the set question, and decide on the main direction you want your literary criticism essay to take.

Because now it’s time to wipe the dust off that keyboard:

✍️ Short Story Analysis Format

To get how to write a short story analysis step by step, you have to keep in mind the two golden rules:

  • Your essay must be focused on the set question.
  • Your opinions are only valid if you can support them with evidence.

Divide your work into three sections:

  • Introduction (about 10% of the total word count)
  • Main body (about 80% of the total word count)
  • Conclusion (about 10% of the total word count)

Start with an Introduction

Your introduction should consist of one or two paragraphs that outline your statement of intent. You do not need to provide any evidence to back up your assertions at this stage – save that for the main body.

Here are the ingredients for a perfect introduction:

  • An engaging opening line that captures the reader’s interest.
  • The title of the short story and the name of the author.
  • A brief outline of the main points and arguments that you intend to make.

Provide Arguments

Any story analysis has to list your points with proof. The main body is used to set out your case in detail and provide evidence to support it. Each paragraph should deal with a different point and follow a logical order that develops your overall argument.

Your main body is ready for the beach when it has:

  • A persuasive and articulate argument.
  • Evidence and quotes from the short story and external references, where appropriate, to support your case.
  • Acknowledgment of any competing arguments to provide balance.
  • Clear and concise language, with no repetition or irrelevant material.
  • A clear focus on the set question.

Finish with a Bang

A conclusion ties everything together and briefly sums up your response to the set question. Like the introduction, it should be only one paragraph long and should not contain any new arguments, information, or evidence. If you can’t get rid of excessive fullf in your text, we’d suggest trying to use a paragraph shortener .

To finish your essay with a bang, you will need:

  • A summary of the ideas that you have presented in the main body.
  • Acknowledgment of any issues that need to be considered in the future.
  • A powerful closing statement that encapsulates your overall position.

Once you have finished writing your literary analysis essay, the best thing you can do is take a break. When you return to review what you have done, it will be with a refreshed mind.

You’ve had fun criticizing the author. Now it’s time to look in the mirror:

📜 Short Story Analysis: Proofreading Tips

As usual, good things come in threes. Break your review down into these stages:

  • Content editing
  • Copy-editing
  • Proofreading

For the first of these, you need to look at your essay as a whole and consider:

  • Does your essay deal exclusively with the set question?
  • Does your introduction accurately preview the content of the main body?
  • Does each paragraph in the main body follow a logical order?
  • Does your essay contain any repetition, inaccuracy, or irrelevant material?
  • Does your conclusion successfully sum up your argument?
  • Are your references accurate and appropriate?
  • Will your reader find your essay to be enjoyable, easy to understand, and persuasive?

Once you are happy with your essay’s content, you can review it in more detail to deal with the text’s accuracy and consistency.

Reading carefully, line by line, ask yourself:

  • Is your language as clear and concise as possible?
  • Are your grammar and spelling correct?
  • Have you presented acronyms, abbreviations, capitalization correctly and consistently?
  • Are your quotations and references in the correct format?
  • Are there any other formatting issues with your document?

Take another break, then review your essay one last time . Use your spellchecker, then print off a copy and read slowly and carefully, line by line. Hopefully, there won’t be too many errors by this stage but think of this process as a final polish to make your work really shine.

📝 Short Story Analysis Example

We have prepared an analysis example of the short story “The Last Leaf” by O. Henry. You can use it to find inspiration and see how everything works in practice. 

In O. Henry’s “The Last Leaf,” a sick artist named Johnsy sees hope fading with each falling leaf outside her window. She is convinced that she will die when the last leaf falls. But two things stand against her despair: Behrman, an old, seemingly failed artist, and Sue, Johnsy’s loyal friend. This story shows how the actions of Johnsy’s companions become her lifelines, proving that art and friendship can blossom even in the direst circumstances. 

Behrman’s sacrifice is one of the key themes in the story. O. Henry devotes much of his story to describing Behrman, a loser who drinks too much gin and lives a mostly wasted life. He appears to have no family and has not produced any notable work despite identifying himself as an artist: “Behrman was a failure in art. Forty years he had wielded the brush without getting near enough to touch the hem of his Mistress’s robe.” Despite Behrman’s never being successful in his craft, the realistic painting of a leaf he created before his death saved Johnsy’s life. 

Friendship is another important motif in the story. Sue and Johnsy are more than just good friends; they are like sisters. Sue’s care and support have also played a key role in helping Johnsy recover. When Johnsy asks Sue to leave, Sue says, “I’d rather be here by you.” And she is actually there for Johnsy, caring for her in the worst moments of her life. 

“The Last Leaf” reminds us that even when darkness creeps in, the power of art and friendship can bring light. Through Behrman’s final masterpiece and Sue’s unwavering support, Johnsy finds her way back from the brink. This simple story leaves readers with a powerful message: even in the darkest times, hope can be a driving force that can save a human life.

📚 Short Story Analysis Topics

  • Analysis of Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily .
  • Discuss the clues that suggest the unreliability of the narrator in E. A. Poe’s The Fall of the House of Usher .
  • Describe the stylistic devices James Joyce uses in his short story Araby .
  • Irony and double denouement in O. Henry’s The Gift of the Magi .
  • Analysis of A&P by John Updike .
  • Interpret Raymond Carver’s message in his story What We Talk About When We Talk About Love .
  • Examine the theme of the short story The Yellow Wall-Paper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman .
  • Analyze the rhetoric means used in Edith Wharton’s The Other Two .
  • Literature analysis of Shirley Jackson’s short story The Lottery .
  • The impact of gender and racial stereotypes in Sweat by Hurston.
  • Discuss August Wilson’s presentation of conflicts in the short story Fences.
  • Symbolism in Ernest Hemingway’s Hills Like White Elephants .
  • Describe the rhetoric techniques Nathaniel Hawthorne uses in his short story The Birth-Mark .
  • The Minister’s Black Veil by Nathaniel Hawthorne analysis.
  • Analyze the social issues presented in Toni Bambara’s The Lesson .
  • Explore the central theme of the story Alien by Riley Brett .
  • Social problems of women and role of racial differences in Kate Chopin’s Desiree’s Baby .
  • Discuss the central ethical dilemma presented by Sarah Hall in Theatre 6 .
  • Analysis of A Clean, Well-Lighted Place by Ernest Hemingway .
  • Examine the techniques Edwidge Danticat uses to paint a picture of life in Haiti in A Wall of Fire Rising .
  • Discuss the core idea of The Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien.
  • Literary devices in The Dinner Party short story by Mona Gardner .
  • Analyze the author’s message in Lore Segal’s The Arbus Factor .
  • Interpret the meaning of symbols in Rip Van Winkle by W. Irving .
  • The meaning of setting in The Boarder by Isaac Bashevis Singer .
  • Describe the different layers of meaning presented in Joyce Carol Oates’ Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?
  • Analyze the tone of the story The Masque of the Red Death by Edgar Allan Poe .
  • Allegory in The Devil and Tom Walker short story by Washington Irving .
  • Analyze the main female character of the short story A Good Man Is Hard to Find by Flannery O’Connor.
  • Discuss the rhetoric used by Guy de Maupassant in The Necklace .
  • Examine the symbols in Mr. Green by Olen Butler.
  • Explore the main theme of James Joyce’s The Dead .
  • Interpret the meaning of the dolls in a short story Barbie-Q by Sandra Cisneros
  • Symbolism in A Jury of Her Peers by Susan Glaspell .
  • Analyze the core idea of Jack London’s To Build a Fire .
  • The conflict between the expectations and reality in Jamel Brinkley’s A Family .
  • Examine the message E. Hemingway includes in his short story The Killer .
  • Discuss the stylistic means used by Anton Chekhov in Sleepy .
  • Describe the ideas O. Henry uses to present the moral lesson in The Last Leaf .
  • Analysis of The Outcasts of Poker Flat by Bret Harte .
  • Psychologism and mystique in W. W. Jacob’s The Monkey’s Paw .
  • Analyze the symbols in the story A Worn Path by Eudora Welty .
  • Describe how William Faulkner presents a theme of revenge in Barn Burning .
  • Interpret creativity Kate Chopin’s The Storm .
  • Discuss the techniques E. A. Poe uses to create the suspense in the short story Cask of the Amontillado .
  • Cathedral by Raymond Carver analysis .
  • The issues of stereotypes and isolation in Margaret Atwood’s Lusus Naturae .
  • Magic realism in The Secret Miracle by Jorge Luis Borges .
  • Interpret the meaning of symbols used by Flannery O’Connor in Good Country People .
  • Technology development and its effect on human in Ray Bradbury’s The Veldt .

So, now you know how to analyze a short story step by step. A flawless piece of work will be a pleasure for your reader to behold! Share the page with others who may find it useful. And thanks for reading it!

Learn more on this topic:

  • How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay Step by Step
  • How to Write an Analysis Essay: Rules for a Good Analysis
  • Case Study Analysis Example + How-to Guide
  • Literary Analysis Essay Topics Ideas
  • How to Write a Film Analysis Essay
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Literary Analysis Essay

Literary Analysis Essay Writing

Last updated on: May 21, 2023

Literary Analysis Essay - Ultimate Guide By Professionals

By: Cordon J.

Reviewed By: Rylee W.

Published on: Dec 3, 2019

Literary Analysis Essay

A literary analysis essay specifically examines and evaluates a piece of literature or a literary work. It also understands and explains the links between the small parts to their whole information.

It is important for students to understand the meaning and the true essence of literature to write a literary essay.

One of the most difficult assignments for students is writing a literary analysis essay. It can be hard to come up with an original idea or find enough material to write about. You might think you need years of experience in order to create a good paper, but that's not true.

This blog post will show you how easy it can be when you follow the steps given here.Writing such an essay involves the breakdown of a book into small parts and understanding each part separately. It seems easy, right?

Trust us, it is not as hard as good book reports but it may also not be extremely easy. You will have to take into account different approaches and explain them in relation with the chosen literary work.

It is a common high school and college assignment and you can learn everything in this blog.

Continue reading for some useful tips with an example to write a literary analysis essay that will be on point. You can also explore our detailed article on writing an analytical essay .

Literary Analysis Essay

On this Page

What is a Literary Analysis Essay?

A literary analysis essay is an important kind of essay that focuses on the detailed analysis of the work of literature.

The purpose of a literary analysis essay is to explain why the author has used a specific theme for his work. Or examine the characters, themes, literary devices , figurative language, and settings in the story.

This type of essay encourages students to think about how the book or the short story has been written. And why the author has created this work.

The method used in the literary analysis essay differs from other types of essays. It primarily focuses on the type of work and literature that is being analyzed.

Mostly, you will be going to break down the work into various parts. In order to develop a better understanding of the idea being discussed, each part will be discussed separately.

The essay should explain the choices of the author and point of view along with your answers and personal analysis.

How To Write A Literary Analysis Essay

So how to start a literary analysis essay? The answer to this question is quite simple.

The following sections are required to write an effective literary analysis essay. By following the guidelines given in the following sections, you will be able to craft a winning literary analysis essay.

Introduction

The aim of the introduction is to establish a context for readers. You have to give a brief on the background of the selected topic.

It should contain the name of the author of the literary work along with its title. The introduction should be effective enough to grab the reader’s attention.

In the body section, you have to retell the story that the writer has narrated. It is a good idea to create a summary as it is one of the important tips of literary analysis.

Other than that, you are required to develop ideas and disclose the observed information related to the issue. The ideal length of the body section is around 1000 words.

To write the body section, your observation should be based on evidence and your own style of writing.

It would be great if the body of your essay is divided into three paragraphs. Make a strong argument with facts related to the thesis statement in all of the paragraphs in the body section.

Start writing each paragraph with a topic sentence and use transition words when moving to the next paragraph.

Summarize the important points of your literary analysis essay in this section. It is important to compose a short and strong conclusion to help you make a final impression of your essay.

Pay attention that this section does not contain any new information. It should provide a sense of completion by restating the main idea with a short description of your arguments. End the conclusion with your supporting details.

You have to explain why the book is important. Also, elaborate on the means that the authors used to convey her/his opinion regarding the issue.

For further understanding, here is a downloadable literary analysis essay outline. This outline will help you structure and format your essay properly and earn an A easily.

DOWNLOADABLE LITERARY ANALYSIS ESSAY OUTLINE (PDF)

Types of Literary Analysis Essay

  • Close reading - This method involves attentive reading and detailed analysis. No need for a lot of knowledge and inspiration to write an essay that shows your creative skills.
  • Theoretical - In this type, you will rely on theories related to the selected topic.
  • Historical - This type of essay concerns the discipline of history. Sometimes historical analysis is required to explain events in detail.
  • Applied - This type involves analysis of a specific issue from a practical perspective.
  • Comparative - This type of writing is based on when two or more alternatives are compared

Examples of Literary Analysis Essay

Examples are great to understand any concept, especially if it is related to writing. Below are some great literary analysis essay examples that showcase how this type of essay is written.

A ROSE FOR EMILY LITERARY ANALYSIS ESSAY

TO KILL A MOCKINGBIRD LITERARY ANALYSIS ESSAY

THE GREAT GATSBY LITERARY ANALYSIS ESSAY

THE YELLOW WALLPAPER LITERARY ANALYSIS ESSAY

If you do not have experience in writing essays, this will be a very chaotic process for you. In that case, it is very important for you to conduct good research on the topic before writing.

There are two important points that you should keep in mind when writing a literary analysis essay.

First, remember that it is very important to select a topic in which you are interested. Choose something that really inspires you. This will help you to catch the attention of a reader.

The selected topic should reflect the main idea of writing. In addition to that, it should also express your point of view as well.

Another important thing is to draft a good outline for your literary analysis essay. It will help you to define a central point and division of this into parts for further discussion.

Literary Analysis Essay Topics

Literary analysis essays are mostly based on artistic works like books, movies, paintings, and other forms of art. However, generally, students choose novels and books to write their literary essays.

Some cool, fresh, and good topics and ideas are listed below:

  • Role of the Three Witches in flaming Macbeth’s ambition.
  • Analyze the themes of the Play Antigone,
  • Discuss Ajax as a tragic hero.
  • The Judgement of Paris: Analyze the Reasons and their Consequences.
  • Oedipus Rex: A Doomed Son or a Conqueror?
  • Describe the Oedipus complex and Electra complex in relation to their respective myths.
  • Betrayal is a common theme of Shakespearean tragedies. Discuss
  • Identify and analyze the traits of history in T.S Eliot’s ‘Gerontion’.
  • Analyze the theme of identity crisis in The Great Gatsby.
  • Analyze the writing style of Emily Dickinson.

If you are still in doubt then there is nothing bad in getting professional writers’ help.

We at 5StarEssays.com can help you get a custom paper as per your specified requirements with our do essay for me service.

Our essay writers will help you write outstanding literary essays or any other type of essay. Such as compare and contrast essays, descriptive essays, rhetorical essays. We cover all of these.

So don’t waste your time browsing the internet and place your order now to get your well-written custom paper.

Frequently Asked Questions

What should a literary analysis essay include.

A good literary analysis essay must include a proper and in-depth explanation of your ideas. They must be backed with examples and evidence from the text. Textual evidence includes summaries, paraphrased text, original work details, and direct quotes.

What are the 4 components of literary analysis?

Here are the 4 essential parts of a literary analysis essay;

No literary work is explained properly without discussing and explaining these 4 things.

How do you start a literary analysis essay?

Start your literary analysis essay with the name of the work and the title. Hook your readers by introducing the main ideas that you will discuss in your essay and engage them from the start.

How do you do a literary analysis?

In a literary analysis essay, you study the text closely, understand and interpret its meanings. And try to find out the reasons behind why the author has used certain symbols, themes, and objects in the work.

Why is literary analysis important?

It encourages the students to think beyond their existing knowledge, experiences, and belief and build empathy. This helps in improving the writing skills also.

What is the fundamental characteristic of a literary analysis essay?

Interpretation is the fundamental and important feature of a literary analysis essay. The essay is based on how well the writer explains and interprets the work.

Cordon J.

Law, Finance Essay

Cordon. is a published author and writing specialist. He has worked in the publishing industry for many years, providing writing services and digital content. His own writing career began with a focus on literature and linguistics, which he continues to pursue. Cordon is an engaging and professional individual, always looking to help others achieve their goals.

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Quick Tips for Writing an Adequate Analysis Essay on a Short Story

Writing about a short story is an “exposition.” This means that you describe, explain, and clarify the short story to your reader(s). An assignment that requires you to write an essay on a short story generally requires detailed clarification of one aspect of the story. For example in about 500 words, you can adequately describe the plot, characterization, or theme of the story. You cannot write about everything unless you are writing a paper on the subject.

Literary analysis rules remain the same whether you analyze a poem, novel, or a short story. Careful application of these rules can make the essay writing process considerably easier.

Here are some quick tips to write an analysis essay on a short story:

  • Read the short story twice: Once for pleasure, the second time for intellectual reasons. A story can and should elicit emotional responses. It may make you sad, happy, thoughtful, or angry. When you move from the emotional level to the intellectual level, you look at the form of the story; find out how it is that it affects you. You notice the style of writing, the tone, and the theme and character development. This is where you ask questions and start the process of critical thinking.
  • Develop a topic and a thesis statement: list your impressions about the characters, plot, themes, and setting etc. initially these will not separate themselves into topics. You will have to pick one aspect of the short story and develop it into a thesis statement.
  • Is the plot leaning towards chances and coincidences? Why?
  • How does the plot develop and unfold?
  • Is there a dramatic change in events towards the end?
  • Write and revise continuously: Once you have a thesis statement for your essay, keep coming back to it. You do not want to start your essay with a long winding sentence. Be short and succinct. This will require revisions.
  • Make notes: Throughout your reading and rereading of the story, you should make notes. Highlight and underline wherever necessary.
  • Develop an outline: Never ever compose a piece of writing without this essential step. This is your million-dollar tip: Write an outline!

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How to Analyze a Short Story Fast: The Only Guide You Ever Need

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by  Antony W

October 19, 2022

how to analyze a short story

So your instructor has asked you to analyze a short story and deliver your analysis in three days.

For a moment, that looks like an enough time to complete the assignment, but then you take a minute to look at the assignment and then you go blank. You don’t know where to start. Not to mention how to pull the assignment off.

Don’t worry.

In this guide, we’ll teach you how to analyze a short story,   step-by-step. It doesn’t matter if you’re new to analyzing stories, you have a short deadline, or the assignment looks complicated. We’ll give you the right lead so that you can handle assignment even within a very strict deadline.

Why You Should Trust Us

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Help for Assessment is the right platform to learn   how to analyze a short story   for a number of reasons.

Frist, we’ve written hundreds of short and long story analysis in the last five years. We know what should go into this type of an assignment and what shouldn’t.

Second, we’ve helped hundreds of students come up with comprehensive story analysis, which they would have found difficult to do otherwise.

Lastly, we tell you everything you need to know about analyzing stories. In other words, we’re not holding back anything from you in this guide.

So you can read it knowing that by the time you get to the conclusion, analyzing a short story of any complexity will be very easy thereafter.

What You Will Learn in this Guide

Since this is a step-by-step guide to analyzing a short story, we’ll tell you everything you need to know so that you can:

  • Analyze a short story as you read
  • Put your findings in the right essay structure   and
  • Edit your work ready for submission

In other words, if you need a complete guide written by academic professionals, this is the only material you’ll ever need.

How to Analyze a Short Story

how to analyze a short story step by step

Step 1: Read the Story Carefully

The first step to analyzing a story is to read it carefully.

You do this not only to understand what’s going on but also to give the right criticism, which can be either positive or negative – or a mix of both.

It’s best to read the story with an open mind so that you can construct your own views regardless of what you think about the author of the story.

Step 2: Analyze the Story

The number one rule to analyzing a short story is to remember that there’s no right or wrong criticism.

Because, as long as you can back up your view with strong evidence, you can still earn good grades even if your thoughts contravene your teacher or author’s point of view.

Begin by analyzing the story’s plot to get a clear picture of the series of events that take place. Identify the most significant events in the plot and note down why you think they’re important.

Determine if the plotline is even realistic to begin with. Find out if the story features internal and external conflicts or both. And the most important lessons of the story.

Second, look at the characters in the story.

  • Based on what you’ve read in the story, can you tell who the protagonist is?
  • Does the author effectively explain the attributes of the main character?
  • Do characters change in the story?
  • If there are minor characters, what role do they play and how well do they do that?

Third, analyze the setting of the story. It should be easy for a short story because authors often set them in single locations and within a specific period.

Find out how the writer describes the settings of the events that unfold in the story. Note when the events take place; it can be in the present, past, future, or all here. Then, analyze the whole setting and determine its role in the short story.

Fourth, look for apparent as well as obscure themes from the story to get a clear picture of the message the author is trying to communicate so you know exactly what to explore in your analysis.

Fifth, don’t just look for obvious and hidden themes. Look into the point of view of the story to get even more insights to include in your analysis.

But don’t just stick to the authors mindset in this case. Remember, your analysis should be critical. So don’t hesitate to question how the story would be if narrated from a different point of view.

Lastly, look at the author’s writing style and tone in the story. If they’ve used an object in the story, then what is it? Is their writing tone humorous, sentimental, or sarcastic? And do you think the story would come out better if the author used a different writing style?

Step 3: Put Your Analysis into an A+ Essay

By now, you have all the information you need to write an A+ analysis for the short story.

From academic writers ’  point of view, there are two important rules to keep in mind if you seriously want to analyze the short story properly:

  • Pay attention to the set question and
  • Remember that your points of view can be valid only if you back them with concrete evidence

Next, divide your write up into three parts: an introduction, main body, and a conclusion. Read our college paper outline to learn more about formatting your essay.

Your introduction should be interesting to read and spike an interesting in reading the next subsequent paragraphs. Remember to include a background story and a thesis statement   a short as two sentences long.

On to the body section, you have to make a solid case for every idea in the story you’re analyzing. Like we’ve stated repeatedly, each paragraph in the body section should focus on one idea and clearly show strong, objective evidence for support or proof. Since you’re analyzing a short story, you should:

  • Use evidence and quotes from the short story and don’t hesitate to use external references where appropriate
  • Your language should be clear and concise, with no instance of repetition or inclusion of irrelevant materials
  • The essay should reflect a counterarguments  to provide a good balance
  • As you analyze the story, make sure you maintain a clear focus on the main question asked

With the introduction and main body covered, the conclusion shouldn’t be hard to put together. Simply tie everything you have written together. Then, sum up your response to the question asked in the prompt.

About the author 

Antony W is a professional writer and coach at Help for Assessment. He spends countless hours every day researching and writing great content filled with expert advice on how to write engaging essays, research papers, and assignments.

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The Hidden-Pregnancy Experiment

By Jia Tolentino

An illustration of a pregnant woman looking at her iPhone as it connects to the data points around her.

Shortly after I became pregnant with my second child, in the fall of 2022, I decided to try a modest experiment. I wanted to see whether I could hide my pregnancy from my phone. After spending my twenties eagerly surveilling and sharing the details of my life online, I had already begun trying to erect some walls of technological privacy: I’d deleted most apps on my phone and turned off camera, location, and microphone access for nearly all of the ones that I did have; I had disabled Siri—I just found it annoying—and I didn’t have any smart devices. For the experiment, I would abide by some additional restrictions. I wouldn’t Google anything about pregnancy nor shop for baby stuff either online or using a credit card, and neither would my husband, because our I.P. addresses—and thus the vast, matrixed fatbergs of personal data assembled by unseen corporations to pinpoint our consumer and political identities—were linked. I wouldn’t look at pregnancy accounts on Instagram or pregnancy forums on Reddit. I wouldn’t update my period tracker or use a pregnancy app.

Nearly every time we load new content on an app or a Web site, ad-exchange companies—Google being the largest among them—broadcast data about our interests, finances, and vulnerabilities to determine exactly what we’ll see; more than a billion of these transactions take place in the U.S. every hour. Each of us, the data-privacy expert Wolfie Christl told me, has “dozens or even hundreds” of digital identifiers attached to our person; there’s an estimated eighteen-billion-dollar industry for location data alone. In August, 2022, Mozilla reviewed twenty pregnancy and period-tracking apps and found that fifteen of them made a “buffet” of personal data available to third parties, including addresses, I.P. numbers, sexual histories, and medical details. In most cases, the apps used vague language about when and how this data could be shared with law enforcement. (A 2020 FOIA lawsuit filed by the A.C.L.U. revealed that the Department of Homeland Security had purchased access to location data for millions of people in order to track them without a warrant. ICE and C.B.P. subsequently said they would stop using such data.) The scholar Shoshana Zuboff has called this surveillance capitalism , “a new economic order that claims human experience as free raw material for hidden commercial practices of extraction, prediction, and sales.” Through our phones, we are under perpetual surveillance by companies that buy and sell data about what kind of person we are, whom we might vote for, what we might purchase, and what we might be nudged into doing.

A decade ago, the sociology professor Janet Vertesi conducted a more rigorous form of the hidden-pregnancy experiment. Using an elaborate system of code words and the anonymous browser Tor, she managed to digitally hide her pregnancy all the way up to the birth of her child. In an article about the experience, for Time , she pointed to a Financial Times report, which found that identifying a single pregnant woman is as valuable to data brokers as knowing the age, gender, and location of more than two hundred nonpregnant people, because of how much stuff new parents tend to buy. She also noted that simply attempting to evade market detection—by, for example, purchasing stacks of gift cards in order to buy a stroller—made her and her husband look as though they were trying to commit fraud.

I wasn’t going to do anything so strict or elaborate. I’d allow myself to text and send e-mails about my pregnancy, and to talk about it with my phone nearby. I assumed that, eventually, it would notice; I’d just wait and see when a diaper ad popped up on Instagram. I liked the idea of establishing a buffer zone between my psyche and the object that most closely monitors it. I found it almost shocking to remember that this was possible.

Pregnancy tends to erode both your freedom and your privacy. Past a certain point in your second trimester, strangers will begin reaching toward your stomach and telling you about the real difference between boys and girls. But I had eluded this during my first pregnancy, because COVID hit before I started showing. In the months that followed, I began to feel the difference between witnessing something and surveilling it, and to recognize that the most pleasurable moments in my life had occurred out of the reach of any oversight. I had felt then an almost psychedelic sense of autonomy; time was dilating, and the slow bloom inside me was beyond anyone’s reach. I wanted to see if I could feel anything like that again.

During pregnancy, and in the early days of parenthood, one is both the object and the conductor of intense surveillance. Last year, the artist and filmmaker Sophie Hamacher co-edited an anthology of writing on the subject, called “ Supervision ,” which was published by M.I.T. Press. “As I became absorbed with tracking and monitoring my child,” Hamacher writes in the preface, “I was increasingly aware that I was a subject of tracking and monitoring by others: advertisers, medical professionals, government entities, people on the street. I began to wonder about the relationship between the way I watched her and the ways we were being watched.” Surveillance encompasses both policing and caretaking, Hamacher notes. In practice, its polarized qualities—“beneficial and harmful, intimate and distanced”—intertwine. Baby monitors use technology developed for the military. Many contemporary models run on CCTV.

Most American households with young children use baby monitors or trackers; two recent surveys put market penetration at seventy-five and eighty-three per cent, respectively. (Both surveys were conducted by companies that make these devices.) And there are now countless other ways that technology will help you to observe and scrutinize your child: nanny-cam Teddy bears, G.P.S. stroller accessories, scales that track your baby’s weight over time, disks that can be affixed to diapers and which will notify you if your baby rolls onto his stomach while he’s asleep. Increasingly, such products use A.I. to detect signs of distress. “The need to know whether a child is safe and well is perfectly natural, which makes the nature of such surveillance appear innocent,” the writer and scholar Hannah Zeavin notes in “Family Scanning,” one of the essays in “Supervision.” But, she adds, “these technologies conceal the possibility of false positives, disrupted emergency services, and of collaboration with state forces—wittingly or unwittingly—all in the name of keeping children safe.” As a general rule, these devices don’t lead to better outcomes for the babies they monitor. More often—like social media, which promises connection as a salve for the loneliness created by social media—parenting tech exacerbates, even calls into existence, the parental anxieties that it pledges to soothe.

This has become a common pattern in contemporary life. Nearly a fifth of U.S. households are estimated to use doorbell cameras, many of them from Ring, the Amazon-owned company that has expanded its reach through police partnerships and a dedicated app that encourages users to post footage of strangers. Ring cameras haven’t made neighborhoods measurably safer, but they have made users measurably more paranoid, and placed more people, sometimes with grave outcomes, in contact with the police. Until recently, police could readily access surveillance footage from the Ring network without a warrant by posting requests on the app. It also gave its own employees and third-party contractors “ ‘ free range ’ access” to view and download videos from users’ homes.

In 2015, the company Owlet started selling a two-hundred-and-fifty-dollar Smart Sock, which monitored babies’ heart rates and oxygen levels, and alerted parents if these figures were abnormal. Although the company insists that it has made clear that the product is not intended to “treat or diagnose” sudden infant death syndrome—and there is no evidence that it reduces the risk of SIDS occurring—such devices are sometimes referred to as “ SIDS monitors.” But, in 2017, an opinion piece in the Journal of the American Medical Association cautioned physicians against recommending the product. “There are no medical indications for monitoring healthy infants at home,” the authors wrote. The device, they noted, could “stimulate unnecessary fear, uncertainty, and self-doubt in parents about their abilities to keep their infants safe.” The following year, a study in the same journal found “concerning” inaccuracies in oxygen readings. When Owlet went public, in February, 2021, the company had a valuation of more than a billion dollars; later that year, the F.D.A. issued a warning letter that the Smart Sock wasn’t an authorized medical device, and the company pulled it off the market. A million units had already been sold. The following year, Owlet launched a new version, called the Dream Sock, which would receive F.D.A. approval. Most of the reviews for the Dream Sock exude profound gratitude. Parents write about the peace of mind that comes from knowing the baby is being constantly monitored, about not knowing what they would do if the device didn’t exist.

Surveillance capitalism, Zuboff writes, “aims to impose a new collective order based on total certainty.” But little is certain when it comes to babies. The control that we feel when we’re engaged in surveillance almost always proves illusory, though the control, or at least the influence, that others exert on us through surveillance is real.

It is not a coincidence that Roe v. Wade, a ruling grounded in the right to privacy, was overturned at a time when privacy in the U.S was on its conceptual deathbed. There are other legal principles that might have served as a stronger foundation for abortion rights: the right to equal protection, or the right to bodily integrity. As Christyne Neff wrote, in 1991, the physical effects of an ordinary pregnancy and delivery resemble those of a severe beating—flesh lacerated, organs rearranged, half a quart of blood lost. Can the state, she asked, rightfully compel a person to undergo this?

Since Roe fell, two years ago, fourteen states have claimed that power in absolute terms, banning abortion almost completely. Two states have successfully passed abortion-vigilante laws, which confer the power of carceral supervision on the public. Indiana’s attorney general has argued that abortion records should be publicly available, like death records; Kansas recently passed a law that would require abortion providers to collect details about the personal lives of their patients and make that information available to the government. Birth control and sex itself may be up next for criminal surveillance: the Heritage Foundation , last year, insisted, on Twitter, that “conservatives have to lead the way in restoring sex to its true purpose, & ending recreational sex & senseless use of birth control pills.”

For many women in America, pregnancy was a conduit to state surveillance long before the end of Roe. Poor women, especially poor nonwhite women, are often drug-tested during pregnancy, and sometimes during labor and delivery, without their informed consent. Women who take drugs during pregnancy have been charged with child abuse or neglect, including in cases in which the drugs were legal; women who have miscarried after taking drugs have been charged with manslaughter, even homicide, even when no causal link was proved. Sometimes this happens because the woman in question had responded to billboards and service announcements promising to help pregnant people who are struggling with substance use. In multiple states, women have been taken into custody when the safety of the fetus was called into question. “To be pregnant and poor in the United States is to play a game of roulette with one’s privacy, presumed confidential relationship with medical providers, and basic constitutional and medical rights,” the law professor Michele Goodwin writes in “ Policing the Womb ,” from 2020.

Goodwin describes the case of a woman in Iowa named Christine Taylor, who, in 2010, as a twenty-two-year-old mother of two, was accused of attempted feticide after she fell down the stairs while pregnant. Part of the evidence cited by the police was that she reportedly told a nurse that she hadn’t wanted the baby. (Ultimately, prosecutors decided not to press charges.) The carceral surveillance of pregnancy entails the criminalization of ambivalence, the inspection of these innermost desires. But the deepest truths about motherhood seem to me to be rooted in conflicting, coexisting emotions: nightmare and rapture in the same moment during labor, the love and despair that box each other at night in the weeks that follow, the joy of cuddling my nine-month-old undergirded by the horror of knowing that other babies are starving and dying in rubble. Before I had my first child, I had badly wanted to get pregnant. I had planned for it, prepared for it, hoped for it. Still, when I saw the positive test result, I cried.

My modest experiment went surprisingly smoothly. Because I’d had my first child not long before, this time I didn’t need to buy anything, and I didn’t want to learn anything. I smooth-brained my way to three months, four months, five; no diaper ads. I called up a lawyer and data-privacy specialist named Dominique Shelton Leipzig to get her perspective. Globally, she told me, we generate 2.5 quintillion bytes—that’s eighteen zeroes—of data per day. “The short answer is, you probably haven’t hidden what you think you have,” she said. I told her about the rules I’d set for myself, that I didn’t have many apps and had bought nothing but prenatal vitamins, and that Instagram did not appear to have identified me as pregnant. She paused. “I’m amazed,” she told me. “If you didn’t see any ads, I think you might have succeeded.” I congratulated myself by instantly dropping the experiment and buying maternity pants; ads for baby carriers popped up on my Instagram within minutes.

I had felt little satisfaction hiding from the ad trackers—if anything, I’d only become more conscious of how much surveillance I was engaged in, as both subject and object, and how much more insidious the problem was becoming. We rarely have a clear understanding of what we’re doing when we engage in surveillance of ourselves or others. Life360, an app that’s used by more than sixty million people and is marketed as an easy way to track your child’s location via their smartphone, was found in 2021 to be selling raw location information to data brokers. (The company said it now sells only aggregate data.) In a Pew survey from 2023, seventy-seven per cent of Americans said they had very little to no trust in how social-media executives handle user data, and seventy-one per cent were concerned about how the government uses it. In another survey, ninety-three per cent of Americans said they wouldn’t buy a doorbell camera if it sold data about their family. People just want to be safer. I had wanted security, too, and affirmation—and I had wanted to be a writer. I had disclosed so much of my life to people I’ll never know.

My husband and I had not bought a baby monitor for our first child, a choice that satisfied his desire to not buy things and my desire to insist that certain aspects of experience are fundamentally ungovernable. But shortly after the second child was born she developed eczema, and started scratching her sweet, enormous cheeks in her sleep. One morning, my husband went to her and found that she’d clawed her face open, leaving blood smudged all over her sleep sack and smeared all over her face. “We need a video monitor!” I wailed, already Googling options. “We need to buy a video monitor today.”

We didn’t buy one, but for weeks I regretted it and second-guessed myself. And I surveilled the baby with technology in other ways all the time. In the early weeks, I relied on an app to tell me how much milk she’d drunk and how many soiled diapers she’d had that day—activities that I myself had witnessed just hours before. I felt like a Biblical angel with a thousand eyes, somehow unable to see anything. I took pictures because I knew I would have no memory of the precise contours of this exact baby in a month. When she didn’t seem hungry enough, I panicked, obsessing over every feed.

“What’s the line between pathological self-surveillance and care for a newborn? Is there one?” Sarah Blackwood, an English professor at Pace University, asks, in “Supervision.” Blackwood contrasts the “fantasy of efficiency and sterility” built into parenting tech with the “psychic state of watchfulness so many mothers find themselves in”—a state that is “metastatic, fecund, beyond.” One afternoon, my husband took the baby from me: she was sobbing, and I was incoherently frantic, trying to get her to eat. She was O.K., he told me; she’d eat when she needed to. But I know what’s good for her, and it’s my job to make her do it, I thought, furious. Around the fringes of my consciousness, I felt a flicker of understanding about how this idea that everything was controllable had become so ubiquitous, how we had confused coercion with care. ♦

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IMF Working Papers

Emde central bank interventions during covid-19 to support market functioning.

Author/Editor:

Kelly Eckhold ; Julia Faltermeier ; Darryl King ; Istvan Mak ; Dmitri Petrov

Publication Date:

May 17, 2024

Electronic Access:

Free Download . Use the free Adobe Acrobat Reader to view this PDF file

Disclaimer: IMF Working Papers describe research in progress by the author(s) and are published to elicit comments and to encourage debate. The views expressed in IMF Working Papers are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the IMF, its Executive Board, or IMF management.

This paper examines emerging market and developing economy (EMDE) central bank interventions to maintain financial stability during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through empirical analysis and case study reviews, it identifies lessons for designing future programs to address challenges faced in EMDEs, including less-developed financial markets and lower levels of institutional credibility. The focus is on the functioning of the financial markets that are key to maintaining financial stability—money, securities, and FX funding markets. Several lessons emerge, including: (i) objectives should be well-specified and communicated to facilitate eventual exit; (ii) intervention triggers should prioritize liquidity metrics over prices; (iii) actions should be sufficiently large to address market dysfunction; (iv) the risks of fiscal dominance and moral hazard should be minimized; and (v) program design should incentivize self-liquidation by appropriate pricing or through short-term operations that quickly liquidate. While interventions may increase risks to central bank balance sheets, potentially challenging policy solvency and operational independence, a well-designed framework can significantly mitigate these risks.

Working Paper No. 2024/101

9798400275845/1018-5941

WPIEA2024101

Please address any questions about this title to [email protected]

analytical essay about short story

CUET UG Exam Analysis 2024, May 17: Check Detailed Paper Review, Difficulty Level, and Good Attempts

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CUET Exam Analysis May 17, 2024: The National Testing Agency is conducting the CUET UG 2024 Exam all across India today i.e., May 17. The exam was conducted in 4 shifts for different papers, viz., Geography, Physical Education, Business Studies, and Accountancy, in pen and paper mode. The CUET exam holds significant importance for students aiming to secure admission to graduate programs in numerous central and state universities nationwide.

CUET UG Question Paper 2024, May 16

CUET Exam Analysis 2024, May 16

CUET UG Answer Key May 16, 2024

CUET UG Question Paper 2024, May 17

CUET UG Answer Key May 17, 2024

CUET UG Question Paper 2024, May 18

CUET Exam Analysis 2024, May 18

CUET UG Answer Key May 18, 2024

In this article, we will discuss the CUET May 17 exam analysis to check out the difficulty level of the exam and good attempts in the examination. Additionally, students can also check below the links to download the CUET UG 2024 question paper and CUET UG 2024 answer key. 

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CUET Exam Analysis, May 17, 2024

The CUET UG 2024 analysis will encompass evaluations of both the overall difficulty level of the exam as well as its subject-specific challenges. This analysis will draw upon candidates' feedback and insights from leading coaching institutes regarding their responses and perceptions of the exam papers for Geography, Physical Education, Business Studies, and Accountancy.

CUET Exam Analysis May 17, 2024: Subject Wise Difficulty Level

Here, the candidates will get the paper-wise analysis of the CUET 2024 Exam held on May 17, 2024, in all the shifts. The paper review is based on student reactions and expert insights will help the candidates to understand the difficulty level of the papers.

CUET Exam Analysis 2024: Geography

In the Geography examination, a candidate needs to attempt 40 questions out of 50 questions asked in the examination. As per the initial response, Some students found the paper was relatively difficult as compared to the previous year. The overall difficulty level of the paper was moderate. Check the table below for the topics and difficulty level that were asked in the CUET Geography examination

CUET Exam Analysis 2024: Physical Education

In the Physical Education examination, a candidate needs to attempt 40 questions out of 50 questions asked in the examination. Check the table below for the topics and difficulty levels that were asked in CUET Physical Education examination

CUET Exam Analysis 2024: Business Studies

In the Business Studies examination, a candidate needs to attempt 40 questions out of 50 questions asked in the examination. Check the table below for the topics and difficulty level that were asked in the CUET Business Studies examination

CUET Exam Analysis 2024: Accountancy

In the Accountancy examination, a candidate needs to attempt 40 questions out of 50 questions asked in the examination. Check the table below for the topics and difficulty level that were asked in the CUET Accountancy examination

Celtics outlast hobbled Cavaliers to take 3-1 series lead

Jayson Tatum scores a game-high 33 points for the Celtics as they win Game 5 on the road in Cleveland. (1:40)

analytical essay about short story

CLEVELAND -- Already heavy underdogs in this Eastern Conference semifinal series against the Boston Celtics , and trailing 2-1 in this best-of-seven affair, the Cleveland Cavaliers were dealt a massive blow after star guard Donovan Mitchell was officially ruled out for Monday's Game 4 with a calf strain.

But instead of a routine Boston blowout, this one was anything but, as the Cavaliers gamely hung in there for the vast majority of the 48 minutes before eventually falling 109-102 in front of a sellout crowd here at Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse.

"To be expected, right?" said Jayson Tatum , who led the Celtics Monday with 33 points, 11 rebounds and 5 assists in just under 44 minutes. "When the best player goes out, everybody has more freedom, more opportunity.

"Obviously, we knew it wasn't going to be easy. It's the playoffs, they don't want to go home. Give them credit ... they played hard from beginning to end and made big plays on both ends. They hit big shots, so it was a battle, and it was fun out there."

Mitchell hurt his calf late in the fourth quarter of Game 3, at the end of a stint that saw him play over 22 consecutive minutes in the second half. After not being present at all during the team's shootaround Monday morning at its practice facility, he was officially ruled out roughly an hour before tip Monday evening.

That Mitchell's absence came after yet another brilliant performance, in which he scored 33 points to go over 25 for a sixth straight game in these playoffs, only added to the disappointment.

But then Cleveland -- with LeBron James sitting courtside across from Boston's bench alongside his wife, Savannah, and agent, Rich Paul -- got out to an early 8-2 lead over the opening two minutes of the game behind a couple of quick triples from Max Strus , part of Cleveland's 6-for-7 start from behind the arc.

It was a start that made clear the Cavaliers weren't going to go down without a fight, even without their star guard available to help.

"I mean, they laid it all out there," Cavaliers coach J.B. Bickerstaff said. "They gave us everything that they had. They competed at a high level. They played the game properly. I'm proud of the guys, the way they went out and scrapped and competed and gave ourselves a chance."

It was a chance, though, that ultimately proved to be fleeting, as that hot shooting start gave way to the Cavaliers shooting 9-for-41 from behind the arc over the remainder of the game. In the three losses in this series for Cleveland, Mitchell has gone 11-for-23 from 3-point range.

His teammates? A combined 27-for-103 (26.2%), including a total of 15-for-48 from 3-point range in Game 4.

"The same aggressiveness, the same attitude, try to get as many 3s up as we can and then just keep being aggressive going to the rim," said Darius Garland , who had 30 points and 7 assists for Cleveland, when asked what the plan of attack will be in Game 5 whether or not Mitchell is available.

"When we're going to the rim, they're sending about three bodies so the open kick-out is there. So that's how we're getting so many quality looks at the 3-point line. And just try to buckle down defensively, try to hold Jayson and Jaylen [Brown] to some tough 2s and try to run Derrick White , Payton Pritchard off the line and just keep being us, man.

"We just have to fight through all of this. It's not going our way, but just keep fighting. That's what we always do."

The Celtics will head into Game 5 looking to close out a team at home for a second straight series after doing so in five games against Miami in the first round. They will also have a chance to overcome what has been a seasons-long issue in terms of their playoff performances at home.

Over the past three postseasons, Boston is 14-14 at home -- the most games played (28) without a winning record at home over three postseasons in NBA history, per ESPN's Stats & Information research. On the other hand, the Celtics are now 18-7 on the road over that span.

"There's nothing better than winning a playoff game on the road," Brown said. "It's like everybody against you guys, you come here with the guys in the locker room. It's a tough environment, the crowd was great, but as a competitor, it's really fun to be in an environment like that, win on the road.

"Now it's time to go back and play well in front of our fans and give them something to cheer for and try to get a win."

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Braves Get In Hole Early, Can't Dig Out Versus Cubs to Drop Series Finale

Lindsay crosby | may 15, 2024.

Chicago Cubs starting pitcher Javier Assad was masterful tonight, allowing no runs on four hits and walk in his six innings while striking out seven.

  • Atlanta Braves

The Atlanta Braves dropped the series finale versus the Chicago Cubs, 7-1, to take the series but not get the sweep. 

Here’s what you need to know about from the contest.

Charlie Morton struggled

Morton’s had a great start to the season, going 3-0 with a 3.14 ERA, but tonight’s just wasn’t his night. 

The veteran started off his night with a leadoff homer (on the first pitch!) to Mike Tauchman and allowed the Cubs to bat around in the inning, putting up three runs on four hits, a walk, and a HBP. 

He ended up only making it three innings, being charged with four runs (three earned) on five hits, walking three and striking four. He took 76 pitches (only 48 for strikes) and finished with 11 whiffs and a 24% CSW. 

Morton struggled to command his stuff and couldn’t really find something that worked, at one point throwing three straight changeups to Christopher Morel in an attempt to find something that he could reliably land.    

Ray Kerr wore this one

With Pierce Johnson set to return from the injured list as soon as this Friday when first eligible, there’s a reliever that’s going to need to be moved back to AAA Gwinnett to make a roster spot.

Based on the usage patters in this one, Kerr seems to be the choice over Jackson Stephens. 

Kerr having minor league options is a big part of that - Stephens is out, so he’d need to be DFA’d (and could elect free agency) while Kerr could also be optioned. 

But Kerr also went long in this one, going three full innings and throwing 39 pitches. While he was impressive - he allowed only one run on five hits, not issuing a walk while striking out two - he’s also probably down until Saturday and so it makes sense for multiple reasons for him to be the reliever moving to Gwinnett when Johnson’s activated.   

Is Zack Short the greatest #59 in Braves history? 

Atlanta’s newest roster addition Zack Short, who joined the team just last week via trade after being DFA’d by the Boston Red Sox, made his third consecutive start tonight in place of an ailing Austin Riley. 

Once again, he performed. Short went 2-4, with a double and a RBI. Since joining the Braves, he’s now 4-10 with two doubles, four runs scored, two RBIs, four walks, and a stolen base, all while playing a pretty decent defensive third base.

The list of players who have worn #59 in Atlanta isn’t very long - the most accomplished is either reliever Arolduz Vizcaino in 2011 or backup infielder Phil Gosselin - but Short’s had a remarkable impact for someone that was already given up on by two different teams this season alone.    

What’s next for the Atlanta Braves?

The Braves are going to enjoy their Thursday off day with some plans of hitting the links - Austin Riley’s 2nd Annual Charity Golf Tournament is tomorrow at Hawks Ridge Gold Club, benefiting Team Red, White & Blue and their mission to support military veterans’ health and wellness. 

The Braves are back in action this weekend as they kick off a four-game series with the San Diego Padres on Friday night at 7:20 PM ET. Atlanta’s sending Max Fried to the mound for the opener opposite knuckleballer Matt Waldron. 

Lindsay Crosby

LINDSAY CROSBY

Managing Editor for Braves Today and the 2023 IBWAA Prospects/Minors Writer of the Year. You can reach him at [email protected]

Follow @crosbybaseball

Trump’s lawyer charges Michael Cohen lied to jury

Angry defense lawyer shouts in confrontation with Donald Trump’s former fixer, who stayed calm in his third day of testimony.

NEW YORK — The central witness against Donald Trump withstood a withering cross-examination Thursday from the former president’s defense lawyer, who accused Michael Cohen of lying as recently as two days ago to realize his dreams of revenge against his ex-boss.

The confrontation between Cohen and Trump lawyer Todd Blanche was the most anticipated moment in the month-long trial, which is now speeding toward a conclusion. Because the trial is off Friday, the jurors will have three days to weigh Cohen’s answers. His cross-examination will continue Monday morning, setting the stage for closing arguments next week.

New York Supreme Court Justice Juan Merchan told the lawyers that he would try to make sure those arguments don’t stretch out over more than one day, but he warned that they might because of scheduling demands of the jurors and other logistics issues.

The day’s testimony was closely watched by a cadre of Trump’s political allies sitting behind him in court, including Reps. Matt Gaetz (R-Fla.) and Lauren Boebert (R-Colo.). There were so many congressional Republicans in court in New York that a House Oversight Committee hearing in Washington was delayed .

Trump, who paid close attention Thursday to Blanche’s questioning of Cohen, has still not decided whether he will take the stand, Blanche told the judge. Most defendants do not testify at their trials, believing the risks of being questioned by prosecutors under oath are simply too great.

Trump hush money trial

analytical essay about short story

In his third day on the witness stand, Cohen remained calm and quiet — speaking in a slow, sometimes raspy voice as Blanche challenged his truthfulness again and again. At one point, Blanche shouted that Cohen was a liar.

Cohen’s ability to keep his cool under pressure is an important measuring stick for the prosecutors’ chances of success.

Perhaps more importantly, the jury must decide whether they believe the only witness who directly ties Trump to an alleged scheme to falsify business records to cover up hush money payments to a porn star.

Cohen, a disbarred and convicted former lawyer , has admitted that he lied for Trump for years; it would be a far more serious threat to the prosecution case if jurors came to suspect he lied to them.

Trump is charged with 34 felony counts of falsifying business records by Manhattan District Attorney Alvin Bragg . The indictment accuses Trump of creating a false paper trail to hide the fact that adult-film star Stormy Daniels was paid $130,000 in October 2016 to stay silent about her claim to have had sex with Trump years earlier. Trump denies the two had sex.

Cohen is instrumental to the prosecution case because he paid Daniels with his own money; the following year, the lawyer was given monthly payments from Trump in what prosecutors say was a corrupt scheme to reimburse him and keep Daniels’s allegations under wraps. Cohen is the only witness who has described conversations with Trump in which he said it was clear that his boss understood they would create the false paper trail.

The angriest and potentially most consequential moment in Thursday’s testimony came when Blanche confronted Cohen over his claim that he spoke to Trump on the evening of Oct. 24, 2016, when he called the phone of Trump’s security chief, Keith Schiller.

Cohen testified Tuesday that during the phone call, he told Trump the plan to pay hush money to Daniels was moving forward.

Blanche, however, presented text messages between Schiller and Cohen that preceded that call and suggested an entirely different reason for the conversation. In those texts, Cohen complained about getting harassing phone calls and asked for Schiller’s help. “Call me,” Schiller replied.

After hours of mild-mannered and patient questioning of Cohen, Blanche erupted as he confronted Cohen over the Schiller texts. Accusing Cohen of fabricating key evidence against his client, the lawyer angrily grabbed the microphone and raised his voice.

“That was a lie! You did not talk to President Trump that night!” Blanche bellowed.

Blanche suggested the call was simply too short for it to have included Schiller handing his phone to his boss so he and Cohen could discuss a financial transaction that would ultimately be the genesis of criminal charges against Trump.

“I’m not sure that’s accurate,” Cohen said.

He tried to revise his earlier account, saying he “also spoke to Mr. Trump and told him that everything regarding the Stormy Daniels matter was being worked on and it’s going to be resolved.”

The back-and-forth was the most tense moment yet of Cohen’s cross-examination, and of the entire trial.

But a quieter exchange may prove more damaging to Cohen’s credibility. It happened when Blanche asked Cohen if he had been willing to lie under oath while pleading guilty to tax crimes “because the stakes affected you personally.”

Cohen agreed that he had been.

A few minutes later, Blanche asked Cohen whether “the outcome of this trial affects you personally.”

Again, Cohen said: “Yes.”

Throughout the day, Blanche tried to methodically rip apart the prosecution portrait of Cohen as a remorseful, reformed henchman , using elements of Cohen’s prior testimony to suggest to the jury that he is a singularly selfish person .

Wearing a pale yellow tie, dark suit and dark-rimmed glasses, Cohen met Blanche’s indignation with a calm insistence that whatever his faults, his story about Trump’s guilt was true.

Yet he also struggled to explain why he told a congressional committee in 2019 that he never sought and would never seek a pardon from Trump, when his lawyer was doing just that . (Cohen called it a “misstatement.”) Or how he could claim to have accepted responsibility for financial crimes, but also call the prosecutor and judge in that case corrupt.

On the stand, Cohen said the fault for what happened lay with his bank, his accountant and others.

“You’ve blamed a lot of people over the years for the conduct you were convicted of, yes?” Blanche asked.

“I blame people, yes,” he replied.

Cohen also admitted that he often recorded his conversations with people without their knowledge, including at one point Trump, who at the time was his legal client.

Blanche played for the jury two short recordings of a bombastic Cohen talking about how joyful he was over Trump’s indictment and the prospect of the former president possibly going to jail. Cohen has continued to rail publicly against Trump, on podcasts, social media and in news interviews, despite repeated entreaties from the prosecutors for him to stop.

“I truly f---ing hope that this man ends up in prison,” Cohen said on a podcast excerpt played for the jury Thursday. “Revenge is a dish best served cold, and you best believe I want this man to go down and rot inside for what he did to my family.”

In another podcast clip, this one from May of last year, weeks after Trump’s indictment in this case, Cohen declared: “I want to thank the Manhattan district attorney’s office and their fearless leader Alvin Bragg, with whom I spent countless hours.”

On the witness stand, Cohen conceded that he had not in fact met or spent time with Bragg.

The district attorney has attended the trial intermittently but was not in court Thursday. The trial is off Friday so that Trump can attend his son’s high school graduation.

Just before court ended for the day, Blanche asked about a 2016 conversation in which Cohen reassured a reporter that the story about a Trump-Daniels encounter was false. In the phone call, Cohen told the reporter to believe Cohen because he is “a really bad liar.”

On the stand, Cohen acknowledged that he was lying at the time.

Trump New York hush money case

Former president Donald Trump’s criminal hush money trial is underway in New York.

Key witnesses: Several key witnesses, including David Pecker and Stormy Daniels, have taken the stand. Here’s what Daniels said during her testimony . Read full transcripts from the trial .

Gag order: New York Supreme Court Justice Juan Merchan has twice ruled that Trump violated his gag order , which prohibits him from commenting on jurors and witnesses in the case, among others. Here are all of the times Trump has violated the gag order .

The case: The investigation involves a $130,000 payment made to Daniels, an adult-film actress , during the 2016 presidential campaign. It’s one of many ongoing investigations involving Trump . Here are some of the key people in the case .

The charges: Trump is charged with 34 felony counts of falsifying business records. Falsifying business records is a felony in New York when there is an “intent to defraud” that includes an intent to “commit another crime or to aid or conceal” another crime. He has pleaded not guilty . Here’s what to know about the charges — and any potential sentence .

analytical essay about short story

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  1. How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay

    Table of contents. Step 1: Reading the text and identifying literary devices. Step 2: Coming up with a thesis. Step 3: Writing a title and introduction. Step 4: Writing the body of the essay. Step 5: Writing a conclusion. Other interesting articles.

  2. Short Story Analysis Essay

    A short story analysis essay follows a different format from other literature essays. That said, to help with that, here are instructive steps and helpful tips. 1. Take Down Notes. Considering that you have read the short story a couple of times, the first step you should take before writing your essay is to summarize and write down your notes ...

  3. 3.7-Sample Analysis of a Short Story

    Assignment Description: For this essay, you will choose a short story and write an analysis that offers an interpretation of the text. You should identify some debatable aspect of the text and argue for your interpretation using your analysis of the story supported by textual evidence. Content: The essay should have a clear argumentative thesis ...

  4. 12.14: Sample Student Literary Analysis Essays

    Heather Ringo & Athena Kashyap. City College of San Francisco via ASCCC Open Educational Resources Initiative. Table of contents. Example 1: Poetry. Example 2: Fiction. Example 3: Poetry. Attribution. The following examples are essays where student writers focused on close-reading a literary work.

  5. Analyzing Novels & Short Stories

    Literary analysis looks critically at a work of fiction in order to understand how the parts contribute to the whole. When analyzing a novel or short story, you'll need to consider elements such as the context, setting, characters, plot, literary devices, and themes. Remember that a literary analysis isn't merely a summary or review, but ...

  6. 4.5: How to Analyze a Short Story

    A short story is a work of short, narrative prose that is usually centered around one single event. It is limited in scope and has an introduction, body and conclusion. Although a short story has much in common with a novel (See How to Analyze a Novel), it is written with much greater precision. You will often be asked to write a literary analysis.

  7. How to Analyze a Short Story

    A short story is a work of short, narrative prose that is usually centered around one single event. It is limited in scope and has an introduction, body and conclusion. Although a short story has much in common with a novel (See How to Analyze a Novel), it is written with much greater precision. You will often be asked to write a literary analysis.

  8. 4.3: How to Analyze a Short Story

    A short story is a work of short, narrative prose that is usually centered around one single event. It is limited in scope and has an introduction, body and conclusion. Although a short story has much in common with a novel (See How to Analyze a Novel), it is written with much greater precision. You will often be asked to write a literary analysis.

  9. How to Write a Short Story Analysis the Smart Way

    Don't just limit your note-taking to the key focus of your paper, though. Make sure that you take notes on anything you deem important, such as setting, character traits, and key plot points. 2. Brush up on literary terms. If you're taking notes on the story, it's also important that you brush up on literary terms.

  10. PDF Short Story Analysis Spring 2023 Short Story Analysis

    Short Story Analysis Blinn College - Bryan Writing Center Spring 2023 Short Story Analysis It is easy to understand the objective of an analysis essay once analysis is defined and understood as "the separation of a whole into its component parts" ("Analysis"). By analyzing a story or other text, a

  11. PDF HOW TO WRITE A LITERARY ANALYSIS ESSAY

    The term regularly used for the development of the central idea of a literary analysis essay is the body. In this section you present the paragraphs (at least 3 paragraphs for a 500-750 word essay) that support your thesis statement. Good literary analysis essays contain an explanation of your ideas and evidence from the text (short story,

  12. Story Analysis: How to Analyze a Short Story Step-by-Step

    Read and summarize. As you prepare to analyze the short story assigned to you, it is recommended to read and re-read it multiple times. Since it is a short story, you'll have plenty of time to understand all the details included within the story and the context of the plot. To analyze the book, divide the narrative into sections.

  13. Short Story Analysis: How to Write It Step by Step [New]

    Step 3: Create an Outline. Outlining is a crucial aspect of essay writing. It will help you understand how you can link all the facts to support the thesis statement and the paper's arguments. Your short story analysis outline should look the following way: Receive a plagiarism-free paper.

  14. Literary Analysis Essay

    The purpose of a literary analysis essay is to explain why the author has used a specific theme for his work. Or examine the characters, themes, literary devices, figurative language, and settings in the story. This type of essay encourages students to think about how the book or the short story has been written. And why the author has created ...

  15. How To Write A Good Analysis Essay On A Short Story

    Literary analysis rules remain the same whether you analyze a poem, novel, or a short story. Careful application of these rules can make the essay writing process considerably easier. Here are some quick tips to write an analysis essay on a short story: Read the short story twice: Once for pleasure, the second time for intellectual reasons. A ...

  16. Short Story Analysis

    Short stories are narratives typically between 1,000 and 20,000 words long. They are much shorter than novels and deal with much simpler stories. The goal of a short story analysis is to get a ...

  17. How to Analyze a Short Story: The Complete Step-by-Step Guide

    Step 3: Put Your Analysis into an A+ Essay. By now, you have all the information you need to write an A+ analysis for the short story. From academic writers' point of view, there are two important rules to keep in mind if you seriously want to analyze the short story properly: Pay attention to the set question and.

  18. Short Story Analysis Essay Examples

    Browse essays about Short Story Analysis and find inspiration. Learn by example and become a better writer with Kibin's suite of essay help services. Essay Examples

  19. Essays on Short Story

    Writing essays about short stories allows students and writers to closely analyze the elements of storytelling, character development, and thematic exploration. It helps to develop critical thinking and analytical skills, as well as the ability to express ideas and interpretations effectively.

  20. American Short Stories: Analytical Essay

    American Short Stories: Analytical Essay. This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples. 'Southern Gothic' is a literary tradition that came into existence in the early twentieth century. It has its origin in the Gothic style, which had been ...

  21. How To Write An Analytical Essay: What Is It?

    This video, part of a series on analytical essay writing, takes you through exactly what it means to analyse a text in an English essay. What does an analyti...

  22. Tips to answer multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay-type ...

    Ensure the essay is well-structured and divided into a minimum of 3-4 paragraphs. Use quotations and examples to support the information you have written. Adhere to the specified time and word limits.

  23. The Hidden-Pregnancy Experiment

    A decade ago, the sociology professor Janet Vertesi conducted a more rigorous form of the hidden-pregnancy experiment. Using an elaborate system of code words and the anonymous browser Tor, she ...

  24. EMDE Central Bank Interventions during COVID-19 to Support Market ...

    This paper examines emerging market and developing economy (EMDE) central bank interventions to maintain financial stability during the COVID-19 pandemic. Through empirical analysis and case study reviews, it identifies lessons for designing future programs to address challenges faced in EMDEs, including less-developed financial markets and lower levels of institutional credibility.

  25. CUET UG Exam Analysis 2024, May 17: Check Detailed Paper Review ...

    CUET Exam Analysis May 17, 2024: The National Testing Agency is conducting the CUET UG 2024 Exam all across India today i.e., May 17. The exam was conducted in 4 shifts for different papers, viz ...

  26. Celtics outlast hobbled Cavaliers to take 3-1 series lead

    Tickets. Jayson Tatum scored 33 points with LeBron James watching from a courtside seat, and the Celtics beat the severely short-handed Cavaliers 109-102 in Game 4 on Monday night to take a ...

  27. Braves Get In Hole Early, Can't Dig Out Versus Cubs to Drop Series Finale

    The Atlanta Braves weren't able to pull out the series sweep in Wednesday's finale. Chicago Cubs starting pitcher Javier Assad was masterful tonight, allowing no runs on four hits and walk in his ...

  28. Michael Cohen testifies during heated cross-examination in Trump hush

    Wearing a pale yellow tie, dark suit and dark-rimmed glasses, Cohen met Blanche's indignation with a calm insistence that whatever his faults, his story about Trump's guilt was true.