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Harvard referencing sample paper

Published March 8, 2021. Updated August 15, 2021.

Formatting notes for the entire paper

Make sure that the same line spacing, margins, font type, and font size are applied to all pages in your paper. This helps keep your paper’s appearance consistent and professional.

Since Harvard referencing is a style that varies across institutions, make sure that you always check with your instructor about their formatting preferences. If no guidance is provided, here are some basic directions to follow:

  • Page margins: 5 cm margins on the left, right, top, and bottom.
  • Font type and size: Use a clear and readable font, like Times New Roman or Arial, in 12 pt. font.
  • Line spacing:  Double-spaced.
  • Running head: In the top right corner of every page, include a shortened version of your title and the page number. Use the “header” area of your document to create your running head.

For help writing your essay, research paper , or other project, check out these writing tips .

Cover page formatting

If you’re required to include a cover page, you will include the following information in this order:

  • Running head: Place this in the top right corner. It includes a shortened version of your paper title. The page number is to the right of it.
  • Full title of the paper: This goes about halfway down the page. The title should be in all caps.
  • Your full name: Place on the line after your title.
  • Class name: Place this about 4-5 lines after your full name. Include the class number, if available.
  • Your instructor’s name: Place this after the class name. Look at your syllabus to see how they prefer to be presented. It could or could not include their title (“professor”) or degree (e.g., Ph.D., M.A., etc.).
  • Institution name : Place this after the instructor’s name.
  • Paper due date : Write your date out in full.

Body of the paper formatting

As you begin writing the introduction, body paragraphs, and conclusion of your Harvard referencing paper, these are formatting tips to keep in mind.

  • Page headings : Center a page title. Do not bold, italicize, or underline it.
  • Body: Left-aligned.
  • Paragraphs: Indent the first line using the tab key.
  • In-text citations:  Include these citations immediately after the quoted or paraphrased material. For more information, visit this page on Harvard in-text citations .

Reference list

The reference list includes detailed information about every source you cited in your paper (via an in-text citation). A  reference list appears at the end of your paper on its own page. If you’re citing sources, the Chegg Writing Harvard referencing generator is a helpful resource.

Reference list entries

Your citations will appear in alphabetical order, based on the first letter included in each entry. Each of your sources will be cited differently, depending on many factors. Here are a few guides to help you learn more:

  • How to cite a book
  • How to cite a website
  • How to cite an article
  • How to cite an image
  • How to cite a PDF
  • How to cite a YouTube video
  • How to cite a film or movie
  • How to cite items with no author
  • How to cite items with more than one author

Reference list page formatting

When formatting your reference list, first make sure to check with your particular institution’s style guide. Here are some general formatting guidelines:

  • Start your reference list at the very end of your paper and on a new page.
  • The page’s title, “Reference list,” will appear centered at the top of the page.
  • Organize your references in alphabetical order, using the first letters of each reference.
  • If you have more than one source by the same author, they should be listed chronologically by year of publication.
  • Each reference is single-spaced and is flush with the left margin (no hanging indents).
  • There should be a line between each reference.
  • All authors should be listed in the reference.

Sample Harvard referencing style paper

Below are images of a Harvard referencing sample paper. Click here to see the full paper .

harvard term paper format

Harvard Referencing Style Guides

Harvard Referencing : Citing Sources | Direct Quotes | Et al. | In-text citations | Multiple authors | No authors | Page numbers

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Format Your Paper & Cite Your Sources

  • Harvard Style
  • Citing Sources
  • Avoid Plagiarism
  • MLA Style (8th/9th ed.)
  • APA Style, 7th Edition
  • Chicago Style

What is Harvard Style?

What you need to know, harvard style tutorial.

  • Other Styles
  • Annotated Bibliographies
  • How to Create an Attribution

Harvard Style

The Harvard referencing system is known as the Author-Date style . It emphasizes the name of the creator of a piece of information and the date of publication, with the list of references in alphabetical order at the end of your paper.

Unlike other citation styles, there is no single, definitive version of Harvard Style. Therefore, you may see a variation in features such as punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations, and the use of italics. 

Always check with your instructor and follow the rules he or she gives you.

  • Harvard Style Guidelines Your class handout
  • Harvard Referencing Quick Guide From Staffordshire University

Harvard Style will affect your paper in two places:

  • In-text citations in the body of your paper, and
  • The reference list at the end of your paper
  • All in-text citations should be listed in the reference list at the end of your paper.
  • Reference list entries need to contain all the information that someone reading your paper would need in order to find your source.
  • Reference lists in Harvard Style are arranged alphabetically by first author.
  • Begin your Reference list on a new page after your text and number it consecutively.

Sample References List:

Example of Harvard References List

Click on the Links Below to See Additional Examples:

  • Sample Paper Paper provided by Kurt Olson
  • Harvard Citation Examples Document created by The University of Western Australia

Click on the image below to launch this tutorial that was created by the University of Leeds. The section on Citing in Text is especially useful.

harvard term paper format

  • << Previous: Chicago Style
  • Next: Other Styles >>
  • Last Updated: May 1, 2024 2:04 PM
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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 and CC BY-NC 4.0 Licenses .

Home / Guides / Citation Guides / Harvard Referencing

Harvard Referencing Style Guide

What is referencing.

Whenever you write, the writings of others will influence your work. Although it is difficult to gauge all the influences, many of your ideas can be traced back to the resources and materials that you have consulted. These might be books, images , articles, reports, or, of course, the internet. These sources help enrich your writing by giving you ideas to build on. It is important always to give credit to the original thinkers and authors.

Referencing is the method that gives credit to the sources you have used in your work. You should provide references whenever you use a direct quote, paraphrase someone else’s idea, or borrow conceptual words and phrases.

Referencing not only allows credit to be given where credit is due, but it also helps track the various influences on any original piece of writing. If you do not cite the sources of the ideas that you have used in your work, you run the risk of plagiarism. Plagiarism is not only unethical but is also an actual crime in some of its forms. But how do you reference?

Elements of Harvard referencing style

Harvard referencing is a popular method of adding citations to your work. Its appeal lies in the simplicity of the basic system it uses – the author-date structure. Along with this, in Harvard style, you only need to mention the source in two locations: in the in-text reference(s) and in the reference list. Both elements together incorporate all the necessary details about a source in the most efficient way.

So, while reading something, when you come across a citation that looks something like this:

Furley (1999) or (Furley, 1999)

it is an in-text reference that follows the author-date system.

This is an entry in the reference list for the same in-text reference.

Furley, D. (1999) Routledge history of philosophy volume II: from Aristotle to Augustine . 1st edn. London: Routledge.

These Harvard referencing examples provide details about the citation formats for different types of sources.

In-text reference/citation

As is obvious from the name, Harvard in-text citations are references included within the text, that is, inside the sentences that make up its content. These can either be direct statements or quotes, or a paraphrasing of the original work. This type of reference helps in precisely pointing out which portions of the text are borrowed from or influenced by which particular source.

In his work, Furley (1999) wrote about… OR …from Aristotle’s works (Furley, 1999).

As you can see, in-text references provide the author’s surname and the year of publication. The year is provided because sometimes two or more works by the same author are referenced. In this case, the year helps in distinguishing between these works. Note that if you are citing a direct quotation, the in-text citation should also include the page number of that quote, for example (Furley, 1999, p. 2).

However, in-text citations don’t provide other important details about these resources. Rather, they are short enough that you don’t get interrupted while reading the text. Other details are presented in the reference list that you include at the end of your paper.

Reference list

A reference list presents the details of all the resources cited throughout the text in the form of a list at the end of your paper. It includes detailed entries about each of the referenced sources.

Citation structure:

Surname, Initial. (Publication year) Name of the document . Place of publication: Publisher.

Every in-text citation corresponds to an entry in the reference list. So, the reference list entry for the in-text citations discussed above would be:

Einstein, M. (2004) Media diversity: economics, ownership, and the FCC. New Jersey: Routledge.

This entry can also include other details like page numbers, editor’s name, edition, URL, access date, etc., depending upon the type of resource. A reference list allows you to provide all the necessary information without crowding your paper. With this list, you can keep track of how many materials you have consulted and even see if you need to include any more or any other kind of references in your text.

The difference between a bibliography and the Harvard referencing system

Typically, you’ll refer to multiple sources and materials for writing a text, and just using a bibliography can be confusing. You can use the Harvard referencing system to point out the exact location of all your references.

By marking the in-text reference, you can easily locate which idea or quote corresponds to which author. This makes your work easy to read and understand. This way, you and your reader can easily trace the specific portions of the work back to the original texts.

You can also show how much of your text uses source material (whether directly or indirectly) and how much of it is your own ideas and thoughts.

Format for Harvard Referencing

Typically, a paper that uses Harvard referencing has the following format:

  • 2.5 cm OR 1-inch margins on all sides
  • Recommended fonts: Arial 12 pt or Times New Roman, with double-spacing
  • Title is in the center of the page just above the text
  • Left-aligned text, with the first sentence of every paragraph indented by 0.5 inch
  • Last name is at the top-right corner of the header, followed by page number
  • Title page is centre-aligned
  • Subheadings are in sentence case and left-aligned

Key takeaways

  • Referencing is a way of crediting the various resources consulted while writing a text. Harvard referencing is a system that allows you to include information about the source materials. It is based on the author-date system.
  • It includes references: 1) as in-text citations and 2) in a reference list (which is different from a bibliography).
  • In-text citations: (Author Surname, Year Published).
  • Reference list entry: Author Surname, Initial. (Year Published) Title . Place of Publication: Name of Publisher.

For more help creating citations in Harvard style, try the EasyBib Harvard referencing generator !

Published October 25, 2020.

Harvard Formatting Guide

Harvard Formatting

  • et al Usage
  • Direct Quotes
  • In-text Citations
  • Multiple Authors
  • Page Numbers
  • Writing an Outline
  • View Harvard Guide

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  • View all Harvard Examples

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Writing Guides  /  Harvard Referencing and Citing Guide

Harvard Referencing and Citing Guide

Is Harvard Citation a Myth?

Contrary to popular belief, Harvard citation style is not actually that common at Harvard University. According to Harvard University, the Harvard citation style is “something of a misnomer,” because it has no official connection with the esteemed institution in Cambridge, Massachusetts. This article published in the British Medical Journal offers a more detailed history of the Harvard citation style of referencing material .

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What About Harvard Bluebook?

Harvard Bluebook is different from Harvard style or Harvard citation rules. Whereas Harvard citation rules are relevant to multiple fields of scholastic inquiry, the Harvard Bluebook refers specifically to The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation . The Harvard Bluebook, commonly called just “The Bluebook,” is a citation style used only for legal citations: such as when referring to case law, statutes, or legislation.

The Harvard Bluebook is jointly produced by several of America’s top law schools including the Columbia Law Review, the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, the Yale Law Journal, and of course, the Harvard Law Review.

Harvard Citation vs. Harvard Bluebook

If you are a legal student pursuing a J.D. or similar degree, you do need to familiarize yourself with Harvard Bluebook.

All other students can ignore the tenets and principles of Harvard Bluebook, instead focusing on Harvard citation, which applies to most other fields of study.

Why Harvard Citation is Important

It is true that scholars at Harvard University during the 19 th century started to standardize their method of citing research material, developing what would become later known as the Harvard citation system. However, the Harvard citation style is currently used more in British Commonwealth countries such as the UK and Australia. At Harvard University in the USA, you are more likely to be asked to use MLA and APA. If you are a student in the UK or Australia or are attending a British university, you will, however, need to learn the Harvard citation style for formatting your references.

Even in the United States, some professors may prefer that you use Harvard citation style. The Harvard citation became the underpinning of almost all other citation styles used today in academia including MLA [SK1]  and APA [SK2] .

Harvard citation style is important to learn – showing that you have carried out relevant research and giving credit to others for their ideas and words.  Referencing or citing your sources is an important part of academic writing.   Harvard is a classic citation style that can be used when no citation style has been specified.

Harvard Referencing

Harvard citation uses the ‘author-date’ approach for in-text citations (LikeThis 2009).  If you are quoting directly, you will also include a page number, (LikeThis, 2009, p. 1). All references listed in the References list will emphasize the author, publication and year of a work.   We will talk about how to do that in detail later in this article.

By focusing on the most important elements of any reference, including author, date, and place of publication, the Harvard citation style is simple and straightforward. Using the Harvard citation style can make your work easier, reducing the amount of time you spent agonizing over what method of referencing to use.

Preventing Plagiarism with Harvard Citations

One of the benefits and functions of all academic citation styles is that it helps researchers and scholars avoid plagiarism. You cannot be accused of plagiarism when you cite your sources properly. Using Harvard citations means that you give credit where credit was due. You can quote from any source you like, as long as you indicate where the quote came from. Likewise, you can paraphrase or summarize someone else’s work, as long as you give the other person credit.

When you prepare an essay, term paper, or dissertation, you will frequently be integrating other people’s ideas with your own. Being aware of where your thoughts end and another person’s begin is not that hard. When in doubt, cite it! Someone else’s opinion, someone’s unique research, or someone’s research results all examples of when you would include a Harvard citation. Just because you cite something does not mean that you do not have original ideas. It is up to you to synthesize what you have read about and researched to prepare your own work.

How This Article Will Help You

This article will help you understand why Harvard citation is important. It will also help you to understand Harvard citation rules, and when to apply them. This guide will also give you detailed examples of how to cite your references in the References page and within the body of your paper.

Also, this guide to Harvard citations will be divided into different sections that will show you how to prepare Harvard style in-text citations, as well as Harvard style References page. As with APA formatting, the Harvard style references page is entitled “References,” and appears at the end of your document. In-text references use parenthetical (Author Date) format, but without the comma that is present in APA formatting (LikeThis 2017).

Harvard Style References Page

This section provides an overview of how to format references for your Harvard style References page. You will learn how to format references in Harvard style for different types of publications, including printed and digital materials.

Harvard Citations are Alphabetical

Always arrange your Harvard style References page in alphabetical order, by author’s last name.

Works that have no author will be alphabetized according to the first main word of the title.

More than one work by the same author will be listed chronologically as well as alphabetically, with the earliest work first:

Oates, J.C. 2012, Nonsense talk. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Oates, J.C. 2013. How to read books. The Journal of Literacy. 35(5), 43-49.

Same Author, Same Date

What if you are referring to three articles written by the same person? You use the letters a,b,c to differentiate between them:

Oates, J.C. 2013a, Nonsense talk. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Oates, J.C. 2013b. How to read books. The Journal of Literacy. 35(5), 43-49.

Harvard Citations: Which References to Include?

When using Harvard style citations, keep in mind the importance of synchronizing the references you cite in the body of your paper with the References list.

  • Your Harvard style References page should include all the sources cited in the body of your paper.
  • Your Harvard style References page should include only sources cited in the body of your paper. If you did not include an in-text citation, do not list that source in the References page.

Harvard Citation Style: Are There Inconsistencies?

Unlike MLA or APA style formatting, which are tied to their formal organizations (Modern Language Association and American Psychological Association, respectively), the Harvard style is often interpreted differently depending on the university. Remember, this is not true for Harvard Bluebook , which is a more formal citation style used in law school only.

Depending on the preferences of your university or professor, the precise formatting details of a Harvard style reference may vary, such as where to put commas, periods, or parentheses. In fact, the most common discrepancy is whether to use parentheses for the date of publication.

The Imperial College of London , for example, recommends the use of parentheses in the References list for all publications, as follows:

Example of using parentheses with the publication date in a Harvard citation:

Khyber, P. K. & Maunder, S. K. (2003) Proprietary owners and profitability: Property rights, control, and the performance of firms. Journal of Law & Economics , 42 (1), 209-238.

On the other hand, the University of Leeds recommends not using parentheses when listing the date of publication:

Example of not using parentheses with the publication date in a Harvard citation:

Khyber, P. K. & Maunder, S. K. 2003. Proprietary owners and profitability: Property rights, control, and the performance of firms. Journal of Law & Economics , 42 (1), 209-238.

If you are unsure of whether or not to use parentheses for the date in your Harvard style citation, check with your instructor.

This guide will alternate using both parentheses and no parentheses for the dates.

To Capitalize or Not?

One of the things you may notice about the Harvard citation style is that you only capitalize the first word of the article or book. Thus, you would not write War and Peace, but rather War and peace. This is one of the unique features of the Harvard citation style. Most other citation styles like APA and MLA capitalize each letter of the title of a book, but not so with Harvard style.

How to Cite


You will frequently be citing material that appears in printed magazines, periodicals, or peer-reviewed journals. The general Harvard citation style for printed material that appears in any periodical is as follows:

General Format for Printed Journals : Author. (Year of publication) Title of journal article. Title of journal (this should be in italics), Volume number (Issue number), Page numbers of the article.

Hint: In Harvard style citations, we do not use the abbreviation ‘p’ before the page numbers. See the examples below.

Online Journals:

Most academic journals are available in a digital format, usually acquired through an academic database. When you cite peer-reviewed journals in Harvard style, the method is similar to that used for a printed academic journal.

Hint: If an electronic journal article has a doi (digital object identifier), you can use this instead of the URL.

Aramid, M. & Garner, H. (2012) A tale of two citations. Nature . [Online] 451 (71), 397-399. Available from:    [Accessed 20th July 2013].

Susiana, F., Maiden, G., Morley, J. & Taser, R. (2007) The evolution of new media. Part 1: Experimental investigation. Applied Communications . [Online] 27 (17-18), 2893-2901. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2005.06.011 [Accessed 15th July 2012].

Reports are often put out by organizations or governments. Occasionally those reports are authored, but sometimes they are not. When an individual author is not mentioned, it is appropriate to credit the organization with the reference.

Example of an Authored Report:

Gilbert, S. (2012) Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the western North Atlantic . U.S. Dept. of Commerce. Report number: 43.

Example of an Un-Authored Report.

United States Department of Commerce (2012) Whales, dolphins, and porpoises of the western North Atlantic . Report number: 43

Books, Printed Materials

General Format:   Printed books are relatively easy to cite using a Harvard citation. You will list the author’s Last Name, First Name, followed by the date, and then the title of the book in italics. Remember, only the first word of the title of the book is capitalized!

After the title of the book, you will list the place of publication, which can be found towards the beginning of the book, and the name of the publishing house.

If your book has an editor instead of an author, that fact will be clearly indicated on the book jacket. For example, the book will say “Edited by Jim Polansky,” or “By Jim Polansky, Ed.” Likewise, when referencing a book with an editor using a Harvard citation, you will simply write the abbreviation “ed.” after the name. The following examples will help you.


Oakes, J. (2016). How to write a book. London: Best Publishing House Ever.


Oakes, J. (ed) 2016. How to write a book. London: Best Publishing House Ever.


Hint: List authors in the order in which they appear on the source, as they are displayed on the book cover or title page .

Schneider, Z., Whitehead, D. & Elliott, D. 2012, 3rd edn, Elsevier Australia Mauriceville, NSW.

McGregor, N. E., Menes, B. & Reynolds, M. (2011) . London, Thomas Telford Publishing.

Book in electronic format (e-book):

Electronic or digital books are becoming increasingly commonplace, requiring you to cite them properly using Harvard format. The method of citation is similar to printed material, with the inclusion of the digital location of the text and the date of access.

Tylor, N. E., Menes, B. & Matthews, M. (2009) A short course in wetland delineation and engineering . [Online] London, Thomas Telford Publishing. Available from:   [Accessed 18th June 2013].

Chapter in an edited book:

Some books are compiled of essays or short stories written by different authors. When citing a chapter in a book like this, list the actual author of the essay or chapter in the References page. You will mention the name of the text and its editor later in the citation, as well as the page range in which it appears, as follows:

Partridge, H. & Halim, G. (2013). Evidence-based practice and information literacy. In: Lippi, S., Williamson, K. & Lloyd, A. (eds.) Exploring methods in information literacy research . Sydney, Australia, Centre for Information Studies, pp. 149-170.

Book without Author (includes encyclopedias and dictionary).

Scholarly writing usually does not include references to dictionaries or encyclopedias, but occasionally you might need to refer to them in your paper. When you do, you will find that many articles appearing in reference books do not have an author.

According to the rules of Harvard citation styles, when referencing from a dictionary or an encyclopedia with no author there is no requirement to include the source in the reference list. You may only want cite the title and year of the source in the text, an exception to the general rule of thumb that all in-text references must have a corresponding entry in the list of References.

However, some encyclopedias do have authored article entries. For an authored dictionary/encyclopedia, treat the source as a chapter in an edited book.

2009, 2nd edn, Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, Geneva.

Harvard Citation for Website and other Digital Materials

Although some web-based materials may not be considered credible sources, you may need to cite and refer to online articles, websites, or multimedia for your research. Depending on the source or type of media, you can rely on the following Harvard citation guide:

Web page/website:

It is important to differentiate between articles on Web pages, and material that is on a more general website or web page. When you are citing an organization or company’s main page, you would use the following citation.

European Space Agency. (2011) ESA: Missions, Earth Observation: ENVISAT . [Online] Available from:  [Accessed 13th July 2013].

Email: (personal):

Personal emails should always be referenced as personal communication, unless you have permission from the sender and receiver to include their details in your reference list .

McMullen, J.T. (2012) Email sent to Tabatha Lowry, 8 th June.

Online Newspaper Article:

Wentworth, WC 1999, Possibility of Time Travel , Sydney Morning Herald, 24 January, p. 11, viewed 30 April 2013, Sydney Morning Herald Archives database.

Wagner, G. (2013) Structural and functional studies of protein pairs in gene expression. [Lecture] Imperial College London, 12th April.

Harvard In-Text Citations

Basics for In-Text Harvard Citations

Harvard in-text citations follow the (Author Date) format.

Whenever you are quoting from or paraphrasing one of your sources, uou will include the author and the date of publication in parentheses.

You can use the in-text citation anywhere in your sentence.

When you do not quote directly from the source, you do not need a page number. When you do quote directly, include the page number. Some examples of proper Harvard in-text citations follow.

When you omit the author's name in your sentence:

Sometimes you will write an entire sentence, and need to cite the source at the end.

Example with a paraphrase:

It is necessary to use empirical evidence to support an argument (Andreessen 2001).

Example with a quote:

It is “necessary to use empirical evidence to support an argument,” (Andreessen 2001, p. 1).

When you include the author's name in your sentence:

Sometimes you will integrate the name of the author(s) into the sentence, to create a nice flow to your writing.

Andreessen (2001) notes that it is important to use empirical evidence to inform public policy.

Andreesen (2001) points out, “It is important to use empirical evidence to inform public policy,” (p. 1).

Occasionally, you may need to indicate the page number in the middle of the sentence for clarity:

Researchers like Andreesen (2001, p. 3) used the term “terrible” to describe the situation, whereas Johnson (2003, p. 9) simply indicated that there were “challenges.”

Two or three authors:

The rules for Harvard in-text citations do not vary when there are two or three authors. Each author’s last name is listed, separated by commas and/or an ampersand (&) symbol.

Example with two authors:

Smog is caused by a combination of factors, including pollution from automobiles (Schneider & Elliot 2013).

Schneider & Elliot (2013) found that smog is caused in part by automobiles.

Example with three authors:

Smog is caused by a combination of factors, including pollution from automobiles (Schneider, Whitehead, & Elliot, 2013).

Schneider, Whitehead, & Elliot (2013) found that smog is caused in part by automobiles.

More than three authors:

Works by more than three authors will require the use of the Latin abbreviation et al., which means “and others.”

This is what they were used to (Belen et al. 2006).

Occasionally you will cite material that does not have any author credits. In these cases, simply use the title, or an abbreviated version thereof.

Experts agree that there are many ways to approach green energy ( Guide to Wind Energy 2009).

Harvard citations and Harvard style is a common method of formatting in the UK, Australia, and British Commonwealth countries. Occasionally it is used in the United States, too.

Not to be confused with Harvard Bluebook, Harvard style is a straightforward and flexible notation style that does have some variations in formatting and punctuation. Therefore, it is always best to check with your professor or school’s writing guidelines before formatting your document.

Using Harvard citation style means avoiding plagiarism and creating papers that are easy to read and reference.

Take the first step to becoming a better academic writer.

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Harvard Citation Guide: Getting Started

  • Getting Started
  • How do I Cite?
  • In-Text Citations
  • Reference List
  • Additional Resources

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What is Harvard Style?

Harvard style is a set of rules for research papers and publications. It is one of the most widely used styles in the world.

In Harvard, you must cite sources that you have paraphrased, quoted, or consulted to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places:

  • In the body of your paper (in-text citation).
  • In the Reference list at the end of your paper (full bibliographic reference).

Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)

Also known as a permalink, a DOI, or  digital object identifier , is an article's permanent online location. DOIs are used for a variety of academic and non-academic sources that are located online. 

Include a DOI for all works that have a DOI. If an online work has both a DOI and a URL, include only the DOI; if the source only has a URL, include the URL.

Cite Them Right 11th edition

Many of the disciplines and institutions that favor Harvard style use  Cite Them Right 11th edition  as their primary manual.

Cite Them Right   This is the official website for Cite Them Right.

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Harvard Style & Format: A 5-Minute Guide + Samples

Harvard referencing style

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The Harvard referencing style is a widely used system for citing and referencing sources in academic writing. It provides a consistent and standardized format for acknowledging the works of others that you have used in your research.

Struggling to remember tricky peculiarities of Harvard style referencing and formatting? Don’t worry, you have come across a helpful material. In this article, you will find the basics of Harvard style formatting which would be useful for your academic progress. This easy but detailed Harvard style guide contains all format requirements for a paper and some structural tips. Besides, it covers general rules on how to cite your sources properly in your text. Feel free to use these guidelines for your academic endeavors. Let us go through details of Harvard style referencing and formatting together!  

Reference Harvard Style: Basics

Harvard style is an author-date system of referencing. It’s similar to an  APA paper format  in terms of general formatting of pages and text. But this style follows its own rules for bibliography and in-text citations formatting. Harvard style is typically used for essays in such academic disciplines:  

  • Behavioral Sciences
  • Philosophy.

But this doesn’t mean you can’t use this paper format in other areas of study. The general rule is to put references to your sources in round brackets. Specify author’s name and publication year. These references should come after your quotes (direct or indirect) in the end of a respective sentence or paragraph. Full details about all sources you have used should be provided at the end of your work. This section should be named ‘Reference List’. Buy coursework or any other type of research paper that will be referenced for you by our experts. 

Harvard Format: General Requirements

Let us explore some general rules for Harvard formatting:

  • Font: Times New Roman or Arial
  • Size: 12 pt
  • Text: double-spaced and left-aligned
  • Indent: first line of a paragraph has indent of 0.5 inch
  • Margins: 1 inch from each side

A Harvard style citation  must have a Title page, header (or running head), headings and Reference list. We will take a closer look at formatting each section down below.  

Harvard Style Title Page

What are the requirements for a Harvard style cover page? Title page is otherwise known as front page. This is the first page of your paper to be observed by your reader, i.e. your teacher first of all. Therefore, it is highly important to format it properly. Formatting rules for Harvard Title page:  

  • Paper title is fully capitalised and centered. Should be placed at approximately 33% of your page counting from its top.
  • Your name as an author, centered and placed at the middle of your page.
  • Course name at approximately 66% of the page.
  • Instructor’s name on a new line.
  • University’s name.
  • Submission date.

See the sample of a Harvard title page down below.

Formatting a Header in Harvard

An important detail: you are required to use a header in  Harvard referencing  format. This section is repeatedly shown on all pages of your paper except the title page. You have to configure it once. Then, headers will get automatically added on each new page. Headers in Harvard referencing format contains such information:  

  • Page number, right aligned
  • Shortened title of your paper, not capitalized, right-aligned, to the left of page number.

It is important to use shortened title because there is not too much space in any header. Also, another requirement is putting exactly 5 spaces between your title and a page number in headers.

Harvard Style Heading

Now let us explore some rules of using subheadings in Harvard style, in detail. Typically there are 2 levels of section headings recommended for use in such papers. They have different formatting. This helps to tell one from another, without using different font sizes for them.

  • Level-1 subheadings for a bigger section. They must be centered, capitalized, but at the same time not indented, not bold, not underscored, not italicized.
  • Level-2 subheading for any subsection, typically 1-2 paragraphs. They must be capitalized, left-aligned, not indented. Besides, they should be italicized.

The plain text of any paragraph should go on a new line after subheadings in Harvard style, be it Level-1 or Level-2 subheading.

Harvard Reference List

Listing all sources you have used for your research in a proper order is a core element of Harvard style. Reference list should be the last part of your paper but absolutely not the least. Now let us explore some critical rules for a reference list formatting. The Harvard-style reference list section has its own subtitle, namely ‘Reference List’. Similarly to a Level-1 subheading, it should be capitalized and centered. The rest of your content in this section goes from a new line after your title. No extra empty lines are to be added. Your references in this list are numbered and sorted alphabetically. No lines are indented. Each item in this list starts from a new line. Below we will describe a format for referencing in detail.  

Harvard Style Bibliography

Sometimes your professor or instructor might ask you to create a Bibliography section instead of a common Reference list. So what is the Harvard Bibliography format? Harvard style bibliography includes not only those sources you have cited in your text but also. It also includes materials which you have read to get ideas for your research and to better understand the context of a selected problem. So, such section would contain more items than a Reference list. Apart of that, the general Harvard Bibliography format is the same:  

  • Heading, ‘Bibliography’ is formatted the same way as a Level-1 subheading
  • Sources are put into alphabetical order
  • List is double-spaced
  • Lines do not have any indent
  • Each item of this list starts from a new line.

Harvard Style Citations: General Rules

Another crucial element of Harvard style is referring to your sources inside your essay. That’s why you should know how to cite in Harvard style. Keep in mind that the main purpose of a proper format is to ensure your paper is plagiarizm-free. Sometimes, you should cite ideas from books, magazines or newspapers. But you can only refer to such ideas, otherwise it will be considered a form of plagiarism. Below we will show you how to cite in Harvard style, providing general information about published sources. So let us proceed and learn more about shortened quotes and full references.  

How to Quote in Harvard Style

Here are the rules of Harvard format in-text citation:

  • Add them in parentheses, usually at the end of quotes.
  • Put an author’s last name and a publication year into round brackets, add page number if needed.
  • When quoting a web page, give a paragraph number instead of a page since many websites don’t divide text into pages.
  • Direct citation requires quotation marks and a page number is mandatory in parenthesis
  • If you have mentioned an author’s name in your quote, do not include it into brackets, just leave a year and a page numbers there.
  • Sometimes you might need to quote two different sources at once. In such case include both into the same parenthesis and divide them by a semicolon.

Creating References in Harvard Style

And this is how you should be referencing in Harvard style, providing full descriptions of the sources you have used. Let us start with the general book format:

  • Last name of the author followed by comma and initials
  • If there are multiple authors, their names are separated with comma, except the last one which must be separated by ‘&’
  • Year of publication follows, without a comma
  • A full title of the book is given, italicized
  • Publisher name
  • City and country where this book was published are the last to be provided.

Here are several Harvarvard referencing rules for other source types:

  • Refer to an edited book by putting ‘(ed.)’ or ‘(eds)’ after the editor name(s)
  • If a book was translated, add ‘trans. I Lastname’
  • Refer to an article in any book or journal by adding an article name in quotation marks but not italicized
  • Refer to a website by adding ‘viewed’ and the date when you’ve opened it, followed by the URL in angle brackets.

Bottom Line

In this article we have explored the Harvard referencing guide, one of the most popular ones for students in the UK. Feel free to use these tips and proceed to writing a winning essay with flawless formatting! Just keep in mind the following key concepts of the Harvard style:

  • Title or cover page
  • Headers and their contents
  • Subheadings of two levels with different formatting
  • Reference list with full-detailed description of sources
  • In-text citations with lots of different forms for various quote types.

In conclusion, consider our  custom term paper writing solution if you lack the time or got into writer's block.


If you have questions, please visit our FAQ section or contact our expert writers. They will gladly help you create references in line with all requirements. On top of that, our writers are highly experienced in academic writing and can assist you with any type of formatting.  

FAQ About Harvard Format

1. is harvard reference style used in colleges.

The Harvard style can be used in colleges as well as in other educational institutions and even by professional researchers. While it is relatively popular in many countries for research paper referencing, Harvard style is most widespread in universities of the UK nowadays. Other styles (APA, MLA and Chicago) dominate the US educational institutions.

2. What is the difference between Harvard and Oxford referencing styles?

The Harvard style format is a typical example of an author-date system as it requires using author’s names and publication dates for in-text referencing. You should create a complete reference list as a separate section in the end of your research paper. The Oxford style on the contrary uses numbered footnotes for citing sources used on your page. In-text citations on this page consist just from numbers of respective notes.  


Emma Flores knows all about formatting standards. She shares with StudyCrumb readers tips on creating academic papers that will meet high-quality standards.


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  • Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples

Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples

Published on 20 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.

In Harvard style, to reference a journal article, you need the author name(s), the year, the article title, the journal name, the volume and issue numbers, and the page range on which the article appears.

If you accessed the article online, add a DOI (digital object identifier) if available.

In-text citation example (Poggiolesi, 2016)
Reference template Author surname, initial. (Year) ‘Article title’, , Volume(Issue), pp. page range. doi:DOI.
Reference example Poggiolesi, F. (2016) ‘On defining the notion of complete and immediate formal grounding’, , 193(10), pp. 3147–3167. doi:10.1007/s11229-015-0923-x.

Scribbr’s free Harvard reference generator can instantly create accurate references for a wide variety of source types:

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Table of contents

Online-only journal articles, articles with multiple authors, referencing a whole issue of a journal, referencing a preprint journal article, frequently asked questions about referencing journal articles in harvard style.

To reference an online journal article with no print version, always include the DOI if available. No access date is necessary with a DOI. Note that a page range may not be available for online-only articles; in this case, simply leave it out, as in this example.

Harvard referencing: Online-only journal article
Template Author surname, initial. (Year) ‘Article title’, , Volume(Issue), pp. page range. doi:DOI.
Example Happ-Kurz, C. (2020) ‘Object-oriented software for functional data’, , 93(5). doi:10.18637/jss.v093.i05.

Online-only article with no DOI

When you need to reference an online-only article which doesn’t have a DOI, use a URL instead – preferably the stable URL often listed with the article. In this case, you do need to include an access date.

Harvard referencing: Online-only article with no DOI
Template Author surname, initial. (Year) ‘Article title’, , Volume(Issue), pp. page range. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).
Example Horowitz, E. (2006) ‘George Eliot: The conservative’, , 49(1), pp. 7–32. Available at: (Accessed: 14 May 2020).

Note that if an online article has no DOI but does have a print equivalent, you don’t need to include a URL. The details of the print journal should be enough for the reader to locate the article.

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Journal articles often have multiple authors. In both your in-text citations and reference list, list up to three authors in full. Use the first author’s name followed by ‘ et al. ’ when there are four or more.

In-text citation Reference list
1 author (Smith, 2014) Smith, T. (2014) …
2 authors (Smith and Jones, 2014) Smith, T. and Jones, F. (2014) …
3 authors (Smith, Jones and Davies, 2014) Smith, T., Jones, F. and Davies, S. (2014) …
4+ authors (Smith , 2014) Smith, T. (2014) …

When you want to reference an entire issue of a journal instead of an individual article, you list the issue editor(s) in the author position and give the title of the issue (if available) rather than of an individual article.

Harvard referencing: Whole issue of a journal
Template Editor surname, initial. (ed.) (Year) ‘Issue title’, , Volume(Issue). doi:DOI.
Example Goldstein, D. M. and Drybread, K. (eds.) (2018) ‘The social life of corruption in Latin America’, , 59(4).

When you reference an article that’s been accepted for publication but not yet published, the format changes to acknowledge this.

Harvard referencing: Preprint issue of a journal
Template Author surname, initial. (Year) ‘Article title’. To be published in [Preprint]. doi:DOI or Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).
Example Jeon, I., Lee, K. and Park, J.-H. (2018) ‘Ramond-Ramond cohomology and O(D,D) T-duality’. To be published in [Preprint]. Available at: (Accessed: 14 May 2020).

If it’s unknown where or whether the article will be published, omit this information:

Harvard referencing: Unknown publishing status
Example Le Bras, P. (2020) ‘Visualising COVID-19 research’ [Preprint]. Available at: (Accessed: 14 May 2020).

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

In-text citation Reference list
1 author (Smith, 2014) Smith, T. (2014) …
2 authors (Smith and Jones, 2014) Smith, T. and Jones, F. (2014) …
3 authors (Smith, Jones and Davies, 2014) Smith, T., Jones, F. and Davies, S. (2014) …
4+ authors (Smith , 2014) Smith, T. (2014) …

In Harvard style , when you quote directly from a source that includes page numbers, your in-text citation must include a page number. For example: (Smith, 2014, p. 33).

You can also include page numbers to point the reader towards a passage that you paraphrased . If you refer to the general ideas or findings of the source as a whole, you don’t need to include a page number.

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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles | Templates & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 11 June 2024, from

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Home » Term Paper – Format, Examples and Writing Guide

Term Paper – Format, Examples and Writing Guide

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Term paper is a type of academic writing assignment that is typically assigned to students at the end of a semester or term. It is usually a research-based paper that is meant to demonstrate the student’s understanding of a particular topic, as well as their ability to analyze and synthesize information from various sources.

Term papers are usually longer than other types of academic writing assignments and can range anywhere from 5 to 20 pages or more, depending on the level of study and the specific requirements of the assignment. They often require extensive research and the use of a variety of sources, including books, articles, and other academic publications.

Term Paper Format

The format of a term paper may vary depending on the specific requirements of your professor or institution. However, a typical term paper usually consists of the following sections:

  • Title page: This should include the title of your paper, your name, the course name and number, your instructor’s name, and the date.
  • Abstract : This is a brief summary of your paper, usually no more than 250 words. It should provide an overview of your topic, the research question or hypothesis, your methodology, and your main findings or conclusions.
  • Introduction : This section should introduce your topic and provide background information on the subject. You should also state your research question or hypothesis and explain the importance of your research.
  • Literature review : This section should review the existing literature on your topic. You should summarize the key findings and arguments made by other scholars and identify any gaps in the literature that your research aims to address.
  • Methodology: This section should describe the methods you used to collect and analyze your data. You should explain your research design, sampling strategy, data collection methods, and data analysis techniques.
  • Results : This section should present your findings. You can use tables, graphs, and charts to illustrate your data.
  • Discussion : This section should interpret your findings and explain what they mean in relation to your research question or hypothesis. You should also discuss any limitations of your study and suggest areas for future research.
  • Conclusion : This section should summarize your main findings and conclusions. You should also restate the importance of your research and its implications for the field.
  • References : This section should list all the sources you cited in your paper using a specific citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago).
  • Appendices : This section should include any additional materials that are relevant to your study but not essential to your main argument (e.g., survey questions, interview transcripts).

Structure of Term Paper

Here’s an example structure for a term paper:

I. Introduction

A. Background information on the topic

B. Thesis statement

II. Literature Review

A. Overview of current literature on the topic

B. Discussion of key themes and findings from literature

C. Identification of gaps in current literature

III. Methodology

A. Description of research design

B. Discussion of data collection methods

C. Explanation of data analysis techniques

IV. Results

A. Presentation of findings

B. Analysis and interpretation of results

C. Comparison of results with previous studies

V. Discussion

A. Summary of key findings

B. Explanation of how results address the research questions

C. Implications of results for the field

VI. Conclusion

A. Recap of key points

B. Significance of findings

C. Future directions for research

VII. References

A. List of sources cited in the paper

How to Write Term Paper

Here are some steps to help you write a term paper:

  • Choose a topic: Choose a topic that interests you and is relevant to your course. If your professor has assigned a topic, make sure you understand it and clarify any doubts before you start.
  • Research : Conduct research on your topic by gathering information from various sources such as books, academic journals, and online resources. Take notes and organize your information systematically.
  • Create an outline : Create an outline of your term paper by arranging your ideas and information in a logical sequence. Your outline should include an introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.
  • Write a thesis statement: Write a clear and concise thesis statement that states the main idea of your paper. Your thesis statement should be included in your introduction.
  • Write the introduction: The introduction should grab the reader’s attention, provide background information on your topic, and introduce your thesis statement.
  • Write the body : The body of your paper should provide supporting evidence for your thesis statement. Use your research to provide details and examples to support your argument. Make sure to organize your ideas logically and use transition words to connect paragraphs.
  • Write the conclusion : The conclusion should summarize your main points and restate your thesis statement. Avoid introducing new information in the conclusion.
  • Edit and proofread: Edit and proofread your term paper carefully to ensure that it is free of errors and flows smoothly. Check for grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.
  • Format and cite your sources: Follow the formatting guidelines provided by your professor and cite your sources properly using the appropriate citation style.
  • Submit your paper : Submit your paper on time and according to the instructions provided by your professor.

Term Paper Example

Here’s an example of a term paper:

Title : The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Cybersecurity

As the world becomes more digitally interconnected, cybersecurity threats are increasing in frequency and sophistication. Traditional security measures are no longer enough to protect against these threats. This paper explores the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in cybersecurity, including how AI can be used to detect and respond to threats in real-time, the challenges of implementing AI in cybersecurity, and the potential ethical implications of AI-powered security systems. The paper concludes with recommendations for organizations looking to integrate AI into their cybersecurity strategies.

Introduction :

The increasing number of cybersecurity threats in recent years has led to a growing interest in the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve cybersecurity. AI has the ability to analyze vast amounts of data and identify patterns and anomalies that may indicate a security breach. Additionally, AI can automate responses to threats, allowing for faster and more effective mitigation of security incidents. However, there are also challenges associated with implementing AI in cybersecurity, such as the need for large amounts of high-quality data, the potential for AI systems to make mistakes, and the ethical considerations surrounding the use of AI in security.

Literature Review:

This section of the paper reviews existing research on the use of AI in cybersecurity. It begins by discussing the types of AI techniques used in cybersecurity, including machine learning, natural language processing, and neural networks. The literature review then explores the advantages of using AI in cybersecurity, such as its ability to detect previously unknown threats and its potential to reduce the workload of security analysts. However, the review also highlights some of the challenges associated with implementing AI in cybersecurity, such as the need for high-quality training data and the potential for AI systems to be fooled by sophisticated attacks.

Methodology :

To better understand the challenges and opportunities associated with using AI in cybersecurity, this paper conducted a survey of cybersecurity professionals working in a variety of industries. The survey included questions about the types of AI techniques used in their organizations, the challenges they faced when implementing AI in cybersecurity, and their perceptions of the ethical implications of using AI in security.

The results of the survey showed that while many organizations are interested in using AI in cybersecurity, they face several challenges when implementing these systems. These challenges include the need for high-quality training data, the potential for AI systems to be fooled by sophisticated attacks, and the difficulty of integrating AI with existing security systems. Additionally, many respondents expressed concerns about the ethical implications of using AI in security, such as the potential for AI to be biased or to make decisions that are harmful to individuals or society as a whole.

Discussion :

Based on the results of the survey and the existing literature, this paper discusses the potential benefits and risks of using AI in cybersecurity. It also provides recommendations for organizations looking to integrate AI into their security strategies, such as the need to prioritize data quality and to ensure that AI systems are transparent and accountable.

Conclusion :

While there are challenges associated with implementing AI in cybersecurity, the potential benefits of using these systems are significant. AI can help organizations detect and respond to threats more quickly and effectively, reducing the risk of security breaches. However, it is important for organizations to be aware of the potential ethical implications of using AI in security and to take steps to ensure that these systems are transparent and accountable.


  • Alkhaldi, S., Al-Daraiseh, A., & Lutfiyya, H. (2019). A Survey on Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Cyber Security. Journal of Information Security, 10(03), 191-207.
  • Gartner. (2019). Gartner Top 10 Strategic Technology Trends for 2020. Retrieved from
  • Kshetri, N. (2018). Blockchain’s roles in meeting key supply chain management objectives. International Journal of Information Management, 39, 80-89.
  • Lipton, Z. C. (2018). The mythos of model interpretability. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.03490.
  • Schneier, B. (2019). Click Here to Kill Everybody: Security and Survival in a Hyper-Connected World. WW Norton & Company.
  • Wahab, M. A., Rahman, M. S., & Islam, M. R. (2020). A Survey on AI Techniques in Cybersecurity. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 11(2), 22-27.

When to Write Term Paper

A term paper is usually a lengthy research paper that is assigned to students at the end of a term or semester. There are several situations when writing a term paper may be required, including:

  • As a course requirement: In most cases, a term paper is required as part of the coursework for a particular course. It may be assigned by the instructor as a way of assessing the student’s understanding of the course material.
  • To explore a specific topic : A term paper can be an excellent opportunity for students to explore a specific topic of interest in-depth. It allows them to conduct extensive research on the topic and develop their understanding of it.
  • To develop critical thinking skills : Writing a term paper requires students to engage in critical thinking and analysis. It helps them to develop their ability to evaluate and interpret information, as well as to present their ideas in a clear and coherent manner.
  • To prepare for future academic or professional pursuits: Writing a term paper can be an excellent way for students to prepare for future academic or professional pursuits. It can help them to develop the research and writing skills necessary for success in higher education or in a professional career.

Purpose of Term Paper

The main purposes of a term paper are:

  • Demonstrate mastery of a subject: A term paper provides an opportunity for students to showcase their knowledge and understanding of a particular subject. It requires students to research and analyze the topic, and then present their findings in a clear and organized manner.
  • Develop critical thinking skills: Writing a term paper requires students to think critically about their subject matter, analyzing various sources and viewpoints, and evaluating evidence to support their arguments.
  • Improve writing skills : Writing a term paper helps students improve their writing skills, including organization, clarity, and coherence. It also requires them to follow specific formatting and citation guidelines, which can be valuable skills for future academic and professional endeavors.
  • Contribute to academic discourse : A well-written term paper can contribute to academic discourse by presenting new insights, ideas, and arguments that add to the existing body of knowledge on a particular topic.
  • Prepare for future research : Writing a term paper can help prepare students for future research, by teaching them how to conduct a literature review, evaluate sources, and formulate research questions and hypotheses. It can also help them develop research skills that they can apply in future academic or professional endeavors.

Advantages of Term Paper

There are several advantages of writing a term paper, including:

  • In-depth exploration: Writing a term paper allows you to delve deeper into a specific topic, allowing you to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject matter.
  • Improved writing skills: Writing a term paper involves extensive research, critical thinking, and the organization of ideas into a cohesive written document. As a result, writing a term paper can improve your writing skills significantly.
  • Demonstration of knowledge: A well-written term paper demonstrates your knowledge and understanding of the subject matter, which can be beneficial for academic or professional purposes.
  • Development of research skills : Writing a term paper requires conducting thorough research, analyzing data, and synthesizing information from various sources. This process can help you develop essential research skills that can be applied in many other areas.
  • Enhancement of critical thinking : Writing a term paper encourages you to think critically, evaluate information, and develop well-supported arguments. These skills can be useful in many areas of life, including personal and professional decision-making.
  • Preparation for further academic work : Writing a term paper is excellent preparation for more extensive academic projects, such as a thesis or dissertation.

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Harvard Format (With Example)

Harvard style paper guidelines, harvard style cover page.

Harvard essay format is very specific and organized unlike argumentative essay . It requires a very particular title page with the following instructions:

  • The title of the paper is placed halfway down the page and written in capital letters.
  • After the title, three lines down write the name of the author in small letters.
  • Move four lines down and place the name of the class.
  • Move one line down put the name of the professor.
  • The next line entails the name of the school.
  • Then move to the next and write the city and state located and the final line should have the date.
  • The cover page of the Harvard essay format gives you all the information one needs to know about the author in question.

There are several key components to note when using the Harvard format. The title in a Harvard essay format is right justified. A partial title expresses the main idea in the essay between it, and the page number is exactly five spaces. The Harvard essay format cover sheet would like roughly like this:

The Harvard Essay Template

  • by (Name of the author)
  • Name of the Class (Course)
  • Name of University
  • City and State where university is located

Here are other essay formatting styles:

Paragraphs in a Harvard Format Essay

The Harvard essay format paragraphs are highly structured. The first section of the article is supposed to be captivating and entertaining. The article may begin with a lively quotation or an interesting fact and information that sheds light on the essay in question.

As in the  definition essay , introduction should smoothly lead to the thesis statement. The thesis statement refers to the main idea of the sentence and a summary of what the article body entails.

The first sentence in the body paragraph should tell the reader what the paragraph is discussing. The topic sentence is followed by supporting facts that relate to it. The details in the supporting sentences can be facts, quotations or analysis.

The paragraph then concludes with a sentence that summarizes what the paragraph is about and leads into the next section smoothly. Subheadings can also be used to introduce new subtopics and are italicized.

Transition between the Paragraphs

Writing an article using the Harvard format one should show the transition from one paragraph to the next and these paragraphs should be interconnected.

The topic should gradually grow from one point to the next. A paragraph in Harvard format has three parts:

– The topic sentence

– Supporting details 

– Closing sentence form

Citations in a Harvard Style Paper

One can use in-text citations. With the Harvard style, a quote uses the author’s name and first initial, year of publication and page number where the information appears. Citation for each fact is provided, if not it is considered plagiarism which is a serious offense. In-text citations for example from J. K. Rowling book published in 2004 page 45 would look like (Rowling J.K,2004,45).These quotes make the Harvard format essay easy to understand and comprehend as one read.

Harvard style uses a standard font such as Times New Roman or Arial at size 12. Fancy fonts are not allowed because the Harvard format is used in writing outstanding academic and research essays. The essay should be double-spaced with smooth left margins. In the Harvard format titles of journals, newspapers or books or websites are italicized in in-text citations while that of poems and short stories is written in “quotation marks”. This helps readers know what they are referring to read quickly through an essay written in the Harvard format.

The conclusion of a Harvard format essay is vital and should be written with high accuracy understanding and mastery. The first sentence of the conclusion is used to put emphasis on the thesis statement and remind the reader what the essay has proved showed or theorized. After the first sentence provides brief information of the main points that were discussed throughout the whole piece to encourage remembrance of the most important points that were discussed. It mainly involves a summary of the main points of the article in other words. The essay should then finish with an outstanding powerful message that leaves the reader still thinking minutes or hours after they have finished reading the article.

The conclusion is followed by the reference page which consists of the reference list and is placed in its page known as the reference page.

Harvard essay

Read more! Looke at the argumentative essay example about nutrition

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We advance principles for the construction of a stable and broadly beneficial world order that does not require significant commonality in interests and values among states. In particular, we propose a ‘meta-regime’ as a device for structuring a conversation around the relevant issues, and facilitating either agreement or accommodation. Participating in this meta-regime would impose few constraints on states, yet in favourable circumstances could facilitate significant cooperation. It could also encourage increased cooperation over time even among adversaries, as participation in the meta-regime builds trust. We apply these ideas to several issue areas, including US–China competition.

We discuss the considerable literature that has developed in recent years providing rigorous evidence on how industrial policies work. This literature is a significant improvement over the earlier generation of empirical work, which was largely correlational and marred by interpretational problems. On the whole, the recent crop of papers offers a more positive take on industrial policy. We review the standard rationales and critiques of industrial policy and provide a broad overview of new empirical approaches to measurement. We discuss how the recent literature, paying close attention to measurement, causal inference, and economic structure, is offering a nuanced and contextual understanding of the effects of industrial policy. We re-evaluate the East Asian experience with industrial policy in light of recent results. Finally, we conclude by reviewing how industrial policy is being reshaped by a new understanding of governance, a richer set of policy instruments beyond subsidies, and the reality of de-industrialization. 

We distinguish between ideational and interest-based appeals to voters on the supply side of politics, integrating the Keynes-Hayek perspective on the importance of ideas with the Stigler-Becker approach emphasizing vested interests. In our model, political entrepreneurs discover identity and worldview “memes” (narratives, cues, frames) that invoke voters’ identity concerns or shift their views of how the world works. We identify a complementarity between worldview politics and identity politics and illustrate how they may reinforce each other. Furthermore, we show how adverse economic shocks (increasing inequality) lead to greater incidence of ideational politics. We use these results to analyze data on 60,000 televised political ads in U.S. localities over the years 2000 through 2018. Our empirical work quantifies ideational politics and provides support for key model implications, including the impact of higher inequality on the supply of both identity and worldview politics.

Using Fontana et al.’s (2019) database, we analyze levels and trends in the global distribution of authorship in economics journals, disaggregating by country/region, quality of journal, and fields of specialization. We document striking imbalances. While Western and Northern European authors have made substantial gains, the representation of authors based in low-income countries remains extremely low -- an order of magnitude lower than the weight of their countries or regions in the global economy. Developing country representation has risen fastest at journals rated 100 th or lower, while it has barely increased in journals rated 25 th or higher. Fields such as international or development where global diversification may have been expected have not experienced much increase in developing country authorship. These results are consistent with a general increase in the relative supply of research in the rest of the world. But they also indicate authors from developing countries remain excluded from the profession’s top-rated journals.

Conventional welfare state policies that center on education, training, progressive taxation, and social insurance are inadequate to address labor market polarization, which is capitalism’s most pressing inclusion challenge at present. We propose a strategy aimed directly at the productive sphere of the economy and targeting an increase in the supply of ‘good jobs. The main elements of this strategy are: (i) active labour market policies linked to employers; (ii) industrial and regional policies directly targeting the creation of good jobs; (iii) innovation policies that incentivize labour-friendly technologies; (iv) international economic policies that facilitate the maintenance of high domestic labour/social standards. These elements are connected both by their objective—expanding the number of good jobs—and by a new approach to regulation that is collaborative and iterative rather than top-down and prescriptive. We emphasize the importance of new institutional arrangements that enable strategic long-term information exchange and cooperation between governments and firms.

Dani Rodrik Ford Foundation Professor of International Political Economy John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University 79 J.F. Kennedy Street Cambridge, MA 02138 [email protected]

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Sample paper written in Harvard style (Referencing Guide)

Last updated on: January 12, 2021 by Kenyayote Reporter Leave a Comment

Below is a Sample paper written in Harvard style  of writing for Universities and Harvard referencing style guide.

What is Harvard Referencing style?

This is a type of referencing  style that puts more emphasis on the author of the work being cited.

Harvard Text Citation

When you are quoting any work using the Harvard Style you must include the author’s name, year of publication and page number (if there is one) at the end of the sentence or paragraph being paraphrased. For example (Mark, 2020, p.32).

Harvard Reference List

All References used in the text should be listed at the end of the paper and arranged in alphabetical order. The name of the author (s) comes first followed by year, title, page number or url. Below are examples;

  • Book Harvard Referencing

Mark, J., (2020). Research Methods. 9th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Journal Article Harvard Referencing

Mark, J., (2020). Political antagonism: Modern world. Journal of political table. 33(3), 380–384.

  • Web Page Harvard Referencing

Mark, J., (2020). Harvard Stye [online]. Kenyayote. [Viewed 14 May 2020]. Available from:

Harvard Referencing Format Rules

Some of the rules to observe when Referencing in Harvard style include;

  • Author’s name should start with last name
  • Names with abbreviation like Jone Mark Jr should be cited as Mark J, Jr (2020)
  • First Word in a new paragraph should be indented

Sample Paper Written in Harvard Style

Download (doc): Sample Paper written in Harvard style   or Download:  Sample Guide of writing in Harvard  style

Let us know  in the comment section below if you notice any error in our work.

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The Online Writing Lab (the Purdue OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in-class and out-of-class instruction.

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CRediT author statement

CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) was introduced with the intention of recognizing individual author contributions, reducing authorship disputes and facilitating collaboration. The idea came about following a 2012 collaborative workshop led by Harvard University and the Wellcome Trust, with input from researchers, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and publishers, including Elsevier, represented by Cell Press.

CRediT offers authors the opportunity to share an accurate and detailed description of their diverse contributions to the published work.

The corresponding author is responsible for ensuring that the descriptions are accurate and agreed by all authors

The role(s) of all authors should be listed, using the relevant above categories

Authors may have contributed in multiple roles

CRediT in no way changes the journal’s criteria to qualify for authorship

CRediT statements should be provided during the submission process and will appear above the acknowledgment section of the published paper as shown further below.




Ideas; formulation or evolution of overarching research goals and aims


Development or design of methodology; creation of models


Programming, software development; designing computer programs; implementation of the computer code and supporting algorithms; testing of existing code components


Verification, whether as a part of the activity or separate, of the overall replication/ reproducibility of results/experiments and other research outputs

Formal analysis

Application of statistical, mathematical, computational, or other formal techniques to analyze or synthesize study data


Conducting a research and investigation process, specifically performing the experiments, or data/evidence collection


Provision of study materials, reagents, materials, patients, laboratory samples, animals, instrumentation, computing resources, or other analysis tools

Data Curation

Management activities to annotate (produce metadata), scrub data and maintain research data (including software code, where it is necessary for interpreting the data itself) for initial use and later reuse

Writing - Original Draft

Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically writing the initial draft (including substantive translation)

Writing - Review & Editing

Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work by those from the original research group, specifically critical review, commentary or revision – including pre-or postpublication stages


Preparation, creation and/or presentation of the published work, specifically visualization/ data presentation


Oversight and leadership responsibility for the research activity planning and execution, including mentorship external to the core team

Project administration

Management and coordination responsibility for the research activity planning and execution

Funding acquisition

Acquisition of the financial support for the project leading to this publication

*Reproduced from Brand et al. (2015), Learned Publishing 28(2), with permission of the authors.

Sample CRediT author statement

Zhang San:  Conceptualization, Methodology, Software  Priya Singh. : Data curation, Writing- Original draft preparation.  Wang Wu : Visualization, Investigation.  Jan Jansen :  Supervision. : Ajay Kumar : Software, Validation.:  Sun Qi:  Writing- Reviewing and Editing,

Read more about CRediT  here opens in new tab/window  or check out this  article from  Authors' Updat e:  CRediT where credit's due .

Harvard researchers suggest aliens may live among us, underground or on moon

by: Cameron Kiszla

Posted: Jun 13, 2024 / 11:59 AM PDT

Updated: Jun 13, 2024 / 11:59 AM PDT

A recent legitimization of reports of Unidentified Anomalous Phenomena — commonly called UAPs and formerly referred to as UFOs — has brought more eyeballs to the possibility of extraterrestrial life.

While a long-awaited government report issued earlier this year “found no evidence of aliens or extraterrestrial intelligence,” as reported by the Associated Press , two professors from Harvard University and a colleague at Montana Technological University suggested humanity may just be looking in the wrong places.

Instead, reality could be something similar to science fiction movies like 1988’s “They Live,” in which special glasses allow a man to see the aliens who’ve disguised themselves as humans and live in plain sight.

“UAP may reflect activities of intelligent beings concealed in stealth here on Earth (e.g., underground), and/or its near environs (e.g., the moon), and/or even ‘walking among us’ (e.g., passing as humans),” wrote Tim Lomas and Brendan Case of Harvard’s Human Flourishing Program and biological anthropology professor Michael P. Masters of MTU in a report this month . “Although this idea is likely to be regarded [skeptically] by most scientists, such are the nature of some UAP that we argue this possibility should not be summarily dismissed, and instead deserves genuine consideration in a spirit of epistemic humility and openness.”

Their writing makes “a case for scientific openness to a concealed earthly explanation” for UAPs, argues that too often, scientists and others try to put UAPs into two categories: human-made technology and “extraterrestrial explanation,” something akin to ancient alien civilizations elsewhere in the universe.

While those explanations are probably more likely to be true than a lunar alien civilization, the researchers said, but that’s no reason to discount it entirely.

Such theories “are far-fetched on their face; we entertain them here because some aspects of UAP are strange enough that they seem to call for unconventional explanations,” they said.

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  1. Harvard Referencing Sample Paper

    It includes a shortened version of your paper title. The page number is to the right of it. Full title of the paper: This goes about halfway down the page. The title should be in all caps. Your full name: Place on the line after your title. Class name: Place this about 4-5 lines after your full name.

  2. PDF The Structure of an Academic Paper | 2 Writing the introduction As we've discussed, all introductions begin broadly. The audience, format, and purpose of your paper influence how broad it should be. You can expect more background knowledge from readers of a technical journal than you can from readers of a popular magazine.

  3. PDF Harvard Formatting and Style Guide

    Harvard Formatting and Style Guide Cover Page Harvard formatting requires a very specific title page. About halfway down the page is the title of the paper, in all capital letters. Following this (about three lines down) is the name of the author. This is not in capital letters. Move four lines down and then put the name of the

  4. Harvard Style

    The Harvard referencing system is known as the Author-Date style. It emphasizes the name of the creator of a piece of information and the date of publication, with the list of references in alphabetical order at the end of your paper. Unlike other citation styles, there is no single, definitive version of Harvard Style.

  5. PDF Writing Economics

    assignments including a term paper, an empirical exercise, short essays, response papers, and possibly a rewrite. Below is a description of these types: • Term Paper (10-15pp.). In all tutorials, you will be required to write a term paper that addresses a topic in depth and combines skills developed throughout the semester.

  6. Harvard Referencing Style Guide

    Format for Harvard Referencing. Typically, a paper that uses Harvard referencing has the following format: 2.5 cm OR 1-inch margins on all sides. Recommended fonts: Arial 12 pt or Times New Roman, with double-spacing. Title is in the center of the page just above the text.

  7. A Quick Guide to Harvard Referencing

    When you cite a source with up to three authors, cite all authors' names. For four or more authors, list only the first name, followed by ' et al. ': Number of authors. In-text citation example. 1 author. (Davis, 2019) 2 authors. (Davis and Barrett, 2019) 3 authors.

  8. Harvard Referencing and Citing Guide

    Harvard Referencing. Harvard citation uses the 'author-date' approach for in-text citations (LikeThis 2009). If you are quoting directly, you will also include a page number, (LikeThis, 2009, p. 1). All references listed in the References list will emphasize the author, publication and year of a work.

  9. How to Cite Sources in Harvard Citation Format

    Citing a Secondary Source: In this case, state the reference you used first followed by 'cited in' and the original author: Smith 2000 (cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189) or (Smith, 2000, cited in Mitchell, 2017, p. 189) 3. How to Cite Different Source Types. Reference list references vary quite a lot between sources.

  10. Getting Started

    It is one of the most widely used styles in the world. In Harvard, you must cite sources that you have paraphrased, quoted, or consulted to write your research paper. Cite your sources in two places: In the body of your paper (in-text citation). In the Reference list at the end of your paper (full bibliographic reference).

  11. Harvard Style Bibliography

    A Harvard reference list or bibliography is an alphabetised list of all your sources. ... Compare your paper to billions of pages and articles with Scribbr's Turnitin-powered plagiarism checker. ... Start referencing. Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples. Published on 1 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield. Revised on 7 November 2022. In ...

  12. PDF A Brief Guide to Writing the History Paper

    Despite this scholarly neglect, my paper explains the significance of my research topic and offers a provisional interpretation of this new material. sScenario #2: A few scholars have written about my topic, but gaps and deficiencies in the literature still exist. My paper examines new or different evidence to correct these shortcomings.

  13. Harvard Referencing Style & Format: Easy Guide + Examples

    Text: double-spaced and left-aligned. Indent: first line of a paragraph has indent of 0.5 inch. Margins: 1 inch from each side. A Harvard style citation must have a Title page, header (or running head), headings and Reference list. We will take a closer look at formatting each section down below.

  14. PDF Writing for Psychology

    lines to help you read critically. In Writing a Conceptually Coherent Paper, we will go through, step by step, the process of writing an essay or term paper in psychology. The section on Academic Honesty in Writing reinforces information you have previously received about using sources responsibly (and avoiding plagiarism). The Do's and Don'ts

  15. Harvard Referencing for Journal Articles

    Revised on 7 November 2022. In Harvard style, to reference a journal article, you need the author name (s), the year, the article title, the journal name, the volume and issue numbers, and the page range on which the article appears. If you accessed the article online, add a DOI (digital object identifier) if available. In-text citation example.

  16. PDF Introductions

    Harvard College Writing Center 2 For some assignments, you'll be able to assume that your audience has also read the sources you are analyzing. But even in those cases, you should still offer enough information for readers to know which parts of a source you are talking about. When you're writing a paper based on your own research, you will ...

  17. PDF Writing Tips For Economics Research Papers

    Plamen Nikolov, Harvard University y June 10, 2013 1 General Tips about Writing Style When I read your term papers, I look for your ability to motivate your question using economic ... journalistic writing in his or her term paper. Do not do this. eacThing good economics writing is one of the goals of the departmental writing requirement

  18. Term Paper

    However, a typical term paper usually consists of the following sections: Title page: This should include the title of your paper, your name, the course name and number, your instructor's name, and the date. Abstract: This is a brief summary of your paper, usually no more than 250 words. It should provide an overview of your topic, the ...

  19. Harvard Format (With Example)

    It requires a very particular title page with the following instructions: The title of the paper is placed halfway down the page and written in capital letters. After the title, three lines down write the name of the author in small letters. Move four lines down and place the name of the class. Move one line down put the name of the professor.

  20. PDF Harvard Library Bulletin Submission Guidelines

    Use one space after a period. TYPE FACE: Use 12 pt Times New Roman. JUSTIFICATION: Text and extracts should be aligned left (justified left, or ragged right). ITALIC and BOLD: Use italic and bold in the manuscript only where required for proper usage or sense. Do not format manuscript for design style.

  21. PDF Term paper

    Your paper should be single-spaced, typed, and with reasonable margins. It should be between 2 and 4 pages in length. Please also submit the source code for the programs you wrote, and sample output if appropriate. You can email them to [email protected] by 5pm, Wednesday, April 28. 5 Presentation

  22. Research papers

    Frieden J, Pettis M, Rodrik D, Zedillo E. After the Fall: The Future of Global Cooperation. Geneva Reports on the World Economy. 2012;14. Abstract. PDF. Don't count on global governance. Why We Learn Nothing from Regressing Economic Growth on Policies. Seoul Journal of Economics. 2012. Abstract.

  23. Sample paper written in Harvard style (Referencing Guide)

    Harvard Referencing Format Rules. Some of the rules to observe when Referencing in Harvard style include; Author's name should start with last name. Names with abbreviation like Jone Mark Jr should be cited as Mark J, Jr (2020) First Word in a new paragraph should be indented.

  24. Prepare for the MCAT® Exam

    Learn about the free AAMC MCAT ® Official Prep resources that the AAMC offers to help you study. Learning through practice is key when it comes to the MCAT ® exam. Prepare for the exam with AAMC MCAT Official Prep products written by the test developers. Get answers to your questions about MCAT ® registration, scores, and more.

  25. Welcome to the Purdue Online Writing Lab

    The Online Writing Lab (the Purdue OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in-class and out ...

  26. CRediT author statement

    CRediT author statement. CRediT (Contributor Roles Taxonomy) was introduced with the intention of recognizing individual author contributions, reducing authorship disputes and facilitating collaboration. The idea came about following a 2012 collaborative workshop led by Harvard University and the Wellcome Trust, with input from researchers, the ...

  27. Harvard researchers suggest aliens may live among us ...

    Local News. Harvard researchers suggest aliens may live among us, underground or on moon. by: Cameron Kiszla. Posted: Jun 13, 2024 / 11:59 AM PDT. Updated: Jun 13, 2024 / 11:59 AM PDT. Roddy Piper ...

  28. 'Cryptoterrestrials' living among us? Harvard researchers suggest ...

    The paper introduces the term "cryptoterrestrials" to refer to an ancient human culture—more technologically advanced than our own—that survived the cataclysms and has lived since in hiding