user rights assignment event id

Client, service, and program issues can occur if you change security settings and user rights assignments

Security settings and user rights assignments can be changed in local policies and group policies to help tighten the security on domain controllers and member computers. However, the downside of increased security is the introduction of incompatibilities with clients, services, and programs. This article describes incompatibilities that can occur on client computers that are running Windows XP, or an earlier version of Windows, when you change specific security settings and user rights assignments in a Windows Server 2003 domain or an earlier Windows Server domain. For information about Group Policy for Windows 7, Windows Server 2008 R2, and Windows Server 2008, see the following articles:

For Windows 7, see Group Policy management for IT pros

For Windows 7, and Windows Server 2008 R2, see What's New in Group Policy

Note: The remaining content in this article is specific to Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, and earlier versions of Windows.

To increase the awareness of misconfigured security settings, use the Group Policy Object Editor tool to change security settings. When you use Group Policy Object Editor, user rights assignments are enhanced on the following operating systems:

Windows XP Professional Service Pack 2 (SP2)

Windows Server 2003 Service Pack 1 (SP1)

The enhanced feature is a dialog box that contains a link to this article. The dialog box appears when you change a security setting or a user rights assignment to a setting that offers less compatibility and is more restrictive. If you directly change the same security setting or user rights assignment by using the registry or by using security templates, the effect is the same as changing the setting in Group Policy Object Editor. However, the dialog box that contains the link to this article does not appear. This article contains examples of clients, programs, and operations that are affected by specific security settings or user rights assignments. However, the examples are not authoritative for all Microsoft operating systems, for all third-party operating systems, or for all program versions that are affected. Not all security settings and user rights assignments are included in this article. We recommend that you validate the compatibility of all security-related configuration changes in a test forest before you introduce them in a production environment. The test forest must mirror the production forest in the following ways:

Client and server operating system versions, client and server programs, service pack versions, hotfixes, schema changes, security groups, group memberships, permissions on objects in the file system, shared folders, the registry, Active Directory directory service, local and Group Policy settings, and object count type and location

Administrative tasks that are performed, administrative tools that are used, and operating systems that are used to perform administrative tasks

Operations that are performed, such as the following:

Computer and user logon authentication

Password resets by users, by computers, and by administrators

Setting permissions for the file system, for shared folders, for the registry, and for Active Directory resources by using ACL Editor in all client operating systems in all account or resource domains from all client operating systems from all account or resource domains

Printing from administrative and nonadministrative accounts

Windows Server 2003 SP1

Warnings in gpedit.msc.

To help make customers aware that they are editing a user right or security option that could have adversely affect their network, two warning mechanisms were added to gpedit.msc. When administrators edit a user right that can adversely affect the whole enterprise, they will see a new icon that resembles a yield sign. They will also receive a warning message that has a link to Microsoft Knowledge Base article 823659. The text of this message is as follows:

Modifying this setting may affect compatibility with clients, services, and applications. For more information, see <user right or security option being modified> (Q823659) If you were directed to this Knowledge Base article from a link in Gpedit.msc, make sure that you read and understand the explanation provided and the possible effect of changing this setting. The following lists User Rights that contain the warning text:

Access this computer from network

Log on locally

Bypass traverse checking

Enable computers and users for trusted delegation

The following lists Security Options that have the warning and a pop-up message:

Domain Member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (always)

Domain Member: Require strong (Windows 2000 or a later version) session key

Domain Controller: LDAP server signing requirements

Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (always)

Network Access: Allows Anonymous Sid / Name translation

Network Access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts and shares

Network security: LAN Manager Authentication level

Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits

Network Access: LDAP client signing requirements

More Information

The following sections describe incompatibilities that can occur when you change specific settings in Windows NT 4.0 domains, Windows 2000 domains, and Windows Server 2003 domains.

User rights

The following list describes a user right, identifies configuration settings that may cause issues, describes why you should apply the user right and why you may want to remove the user right, and provides examples of compatibility issues that may occur when the user right is configured.

Background The ability to interact with remote Windows-based computers requires the Access this computer from network user right. Examples of such network operations include the following:

Replication of Active Directory between domain controllers in a common domain or forest

Authentication requests to domain controllers from users and from computers

Access to shared folders, printers, and other system services that are located on remote computers on the network

Users, computers, and service accounts gain or lose the Access this computer from network user right by being explicitly or implicitly added or removed from a security group that has been granted this user right. For example, a user account or a computer account may be explicitly added to a custom security group or a built-in security group by an administrator, or may be implicitly added by the operating system to a computed security group such as Domain Users, Authenticated Users, or Enterprise Domain Controllers. By default, user accounts and computer accounts are granted the Access this computer from network user right when computed groups such as Everyone or, preferably, Authenticated Users and, for domain controllers, the Enterprise Domain Controllers group, are defined in the default domain controllers Group Policy Object (GPO).

Risky configurations The following are harmful configuration settings:

Removing the Enterprise Domain Controllers security group from this user right

Removing the Authenticated Users group or an explicit group that allows users, computers, and service accounts the user right to connect to computers over the network

Removing all users and computers from this user right

Reasons to grant this user right

Granting the Access this computer from network user right to the Enterprise Domain Controllers group satisfies authentication requirements that Active Directory replication must have for replication to occur between domain controllers in the same forest.

This user right allows users and computers to access shared files, printers, and system services, including Active Directory.

This user right is required for users to access mail by using early versions of Microsoft Outlook Web Access (OWA).

Reasons to remove this user right

Users who can connect their computers to the network can access resources on remote computers that they have permissions for. For example, this user right is required for a user to connect to shared printers and to folders. If this user right is granted to the Everyone group, and if some shared folders have both share and NTFS file system permissions configured so that the same group has read access, anyone can view files in those shared folders. However, this is an unlikely situation for fresh installations of Windows Server 2003 because the default share and the NTFS permissions in Windows Server 2003 do not include the Everyone group. For systems that are upgraded from Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 or Windows 2000, this vulnerability may have a higher level of risk because the default share and the file system permissions for these operating systems are not as restrictive as the default permissions in Windows Server 2003.

There is no valid reason for removing Enterprise Domain Controllers group from this user right.

The Everyone group is generally removed in favor of the Authenticated Users group. If the Everyone group is removed, the Authenticated Users group must be granted this user right.

Windows NT 4.0 domains that are upgraded to Windows 2000 do not explicitly grant the Access this computer from network user right to the Everyone group, the Authenticated Users group, or the Enterprise Domain Controllers group. Therefore, when you remove the Everyone group from Windows NT 4.0 domain policy, Active Directory replication will fail with an "Access Denied" error message after you upgrade to Windows 2000. Winnt32.exe in Windows Server 2003 avoids this misconfiguration by granting the Enterprise Domain Controllers group this user right when you upgrade Windows NT 4.0 primary domain controllers (PDCs). Grant the Enterprise Domain Controllers group this user right if it is not present in the Group Policy Object Editor.

Examples of compatibility problems

Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003: Replication of the following partitions will fail with "Access Denied" errors as reported by monitoring tools such as REPLMON and REPADMIN or replication events in the event log.

Active Directory Schema partition

Configuration partition

Domain partition

Global catalog partition

Application partition

All Microsoft network operating systems: User Account authentication from remote network client computers will fail unless the user or a security group that the user is a member of has been granted this user right.

All Microsoft network operating systems: Account authentication from remote network clients will fail unless the account or a security group the account is a member of has been granted this user right. This scenario applies to user accounts, to computer accounts, and to service accounts.

All Microsoft network operating systems: Removing all accounts from this user right will prevent any account from logging on to the domain or from accessing network resources. If computed groups such as Enterprise Domain Controllers, Everyone, or Authenticated Users are removed, you must explicitly grant this user right to accounts or to security groups that the account is a member of to access remote computers over the network. This scenario applies to all user accounts, to all computer accounts, and to all service accounts.

All Microsoft network operating systems: The local administrator account uses a "blank" password. Network connectivity with blank passwords is not permitted for administrator accounts in a domain environment. With this configuration, you can expect to receive an "Access Denied" error message.

Allow log on locally

Background Users who are trying to log on at the console of a Windows-based computer (by using the CTRL+ALT+DELETE keyboard shortcut) and accounts who are trying to start a service must have local logon privileges on the hosting computer. Examples of local logon operations include administrators who are logging on to the consoles of member computers, or domain controllers throughout the enterprise and domain users who are logging on to member computers to access their desktops by using non-privileged accounts. Users who use a Remote Desktop connection or Terminal Services must have the Allow log on locally user right on destination computers that are running Windows 2000 or Windows XP because these logon modes are considered local to the hosting computer. Users who are logging on to a server that has Terminal Server enabled and who do not have this user right can still start a remote interactive session in Windows Server 2003 domains if they have the Allow logon through Terminal Services user right.

Removing administrative security groups, including Account Operators, Backup Operators, Print Operators or Server Operators, and the built-in Administrators group from the default domain controller's policy.

Removing service accounts that are used by components and by programs on member computers and on domain controllers in the domain from the default domain controller's policy.

Removing users or security groups that log on to the console of member computers in the domain.

Removing service accounts that are defined in the local Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database of member computers or of workgroup computers.

Removing non-built-in administrative accounts that are authenticating over Terminal Services that is running on a domain controller.

Adding all user accounts in the domain explicitly or implicitly through the Everyone group to the Deny logon locally logon right. This configuration will prevent users from logging on to any member computer or to any domain controller in the domain.

Users must have the Allow log on locally user right to access the console or the desktop of a workgroup computer, a member computer, or a domain controller.

Users must have this user right to log on over a Terminal Services session that is running on a Window 2000-based member computer or domain controller.

Failure to restrict console access to legitimate user accounts could result in unauthorized users downloading and executing malicious code to change their user rights.

Removal of the Allow log on locally user right prevents unauthorized logons on the consoles of computers, such as domain controllers or application servers.

Removal of this logon right prevents non-domain accounts from logging on at the console of member computers in the domain.

Windows 2000 terminal servers: The Allow log on locally user right is required for users to log on to Windows 2000 terminal servers.

Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003: User accounts must be granted this user right to log on at the console of computers that are running Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003.

Windows NT 4.0 and later: On computers that are running Windows NT 4.0 and later, if you add the Allow log on locally user right, but you implicitly or explicitly also grant the Deny logon locally logon right, the accounts will not be able to log on to the console of the domain controllers.

Background The Bypass traverse checking user right allows the user to browse through folders in the NTFS file system or in the registry without checking for the Traverse Folder special access permission. The Bypass traverse checking user right does not allow the user to list the contents of a folder. It allows the user to traverse only its folders.

Removing non-administrative accounts that log on to Windows 2000-based Terminal Services computers or Windows Server 2003-based Terminal Services computers that do not have permissions to access files and folders in the file system.

Removing the Everyone group from the list of security principals who have this user right by default. Windows operating systems, and also many programs, are designed with the expectation that anyone who can legitimately access the computer will have the Bypass traverse checking user right. Therefore, removing the Everyone group from the list of security principals who have this user right by default could lead to operating system instability or to program failure. It is better that you leave this setting at its default.

Reasons to grant this user right The default setting for the Bypass traverse checking user right is to allow anyone to bypass traverse checking. For experienced Windows system administrators, this is the expected behavior, and they configure file system access control lists (SACLs) accordingly. The only scenario where the default configuration may lead to a mishap is if the administrator who configures permissions does not understand the behavior and expects that users who cannot access a parent folder will not be able to access the contents of any child folders.

Reasons to remove this user right To try to prevent access to the files or the folders in the file system, organizations that are very concerned about security may be tempted to remove the Everyone group, or even the Users group, from the list of groups that have the Bypass traverse checking user right.

Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003: If the Bypass traverse checking user right is removed or is misconfigured on computers that are running Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003, Group Policy settings in the SYVOL folder will not replicate between domain controllers in the domain.

Windows 2000, Windows XP Professional, Windows Server 2003: Computers that are running Windows 2000, Windows XP Professional, or Windows Server 2003 will log events 1000 and 1202 and will not be able to apply computer policy and user policy when the required file system permissions are removed from the SYSVOL tree if the Bypass traverse checking user right is removed or is misconfigured.  

Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003: On computers that are running Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003, the Quota tab in Windows Explorer will disappear when you view properties on a volume.

Windows 2000: Non-administrators who log on to a Windows 2000 terminal server may receive the following error message:

Userinit.exe application error. The application failed to initialize properly 0xc0000142 click OK to terminate the app.

Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003: Users whose computers are running Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003 may not be able to access shared folders or files on shared folders, and they may receive "Access Denied" error messages if they are not granted the Bypass traverse checking user right.  

Windows NT 4.0: On Windows NT 4.0-based computers, removal of the Bypass traverse checking user right will cause a file copy to drop file streams. If you remove this user right, when a file is copied from a Windows client or from a Macintosh client to a Windows NT 4.0 domain controller that is running Services for Macintosh, the destination file stream is lost, and the file appears as a text-only file.

Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows 98: On a client computer that is running Windows 95 or Windows 98, the net use * /home command will fail with an "Access Denied" error message if the Authenticated Users group is not granted the Bypass traverse checking user right.

Outlook Web Access: Non-administrators will not be able to log on to Microsoft Outlook Web Access, and they will receive an "Access Denied" error message if they are not granted the Bypass traverse checking user right.

Security Settings

The following list identifies a security setting, and the nested list provides a description about the security setting, identifies configuration settings that may cause issues, describes why you should apply the security setting, and then describes reasons why you may want to remove the security setting. The nested list then provides a symbolic name for the security setting and the registry path of the security setting. Finally, examples are provided of compatibility issues that may occur when the security setting is configured.

The Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits setting determines whether the system shuts down if you cannot log security events. This setting is required for the Trusted Computer Security Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) program's C2 evaluation and for the Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation to prevent auditable events if the audit system can't log those events. If the auditing system fails, the system is shut down, and a Stop error message appears.

If the computer cannot record events to the security log, critical evidence or important troubleshooting information may not be available for review after a security incident.

Risky configuration The following is a harmful configuration setting: The Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits setting is turned on, and the size of the security event log is constrained by the Do not overwrite events (clear log manually) option, the Overwrite Events as needed option, or the Overwrite Events older than number days option in Event Viewer. See the "Examples of Compatibility Problems" section for information about specific risks for computers that are running the original released version of Windows 2000, Windows 2000 Service Pack 1 (SP1), Windows 2000 SP2, or Windows 2000 SP3.

Reasons to enable this setting If the computer cannot record events to the security log, critical evidence or important troubleshooting information may not be available for review after a security incident.

Reasons to disable this setting

Enabling the Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits setting stops the system if a security audit cannot be logged for any reason. Typically, an event cannot be logged when the security audit log is full and when its specified retention method is either the Do not overwrite events (clear log manually) option or the Overwrite Events older than number days option.

The administrative burden of enabling the Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits setting can be very high, especially if you also turn on the Do not overwrite events (clear log manually) option for the security log. This setting provides for individual accountability of operator actions. For example, an administrator could reset permissions on all users, computers, and groups in an organizational unit (OU) where auditing was enabled by using the built-in administrator account or other shared account and then deny that they reset such permissions. However, enabling the setting does reduce the robustness of the system because a server may be forced to shut down by overwhelming it with logon events and with other security events that are written to the security log. Additionally, because the shutdown is not graceful, irreparable damage to the operating system, programs, or data may result. While NTFS guarantees that the file system’s integrity is maintained during an ungraceful system shutdown, it cannot guarantee that every data file for every program will still be in a usable form when the system restarts.

Symbolic Name: CrashOnAuditFail

Registry Path:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\CrashOnAuditFail (Reg_DWORD)

Windows 2000: Because of a bug, computers that are running the original released version of Windows 2000, Windows 2000 SP1, Windows 2000 SP2, or Windows Server SP3 may stop logging events before the size that is specified in the Maximum log size option for the security event log is reached. This bug is fixed in Windows 2000 Service Pack 4 (SP4). Make sure that your Windows 2000 domain controllers have Windows 2000 Service Pack 4 installed before you consider enabling this setting.  

Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003: Computers that are running Windows 2000 or Windows Server 2003 may stop responding and then may spontaneously restart if the Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits setting is turned on, the security log is full, and an existing event log entry cannot be overwritten. When the computer restarts, the following Stop error message appears:

STOP: C0000244 {Audit Failed} An attempt to generate a security audit failed.

To recover, an administrator must log on, archive the security log (optional), clear the security log, and then reset this option (optional and as-needed).

Microsoft Network Client for MS-DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003: Non-administrators who try to log on to a domain will receive the following error message:

Your account is configured to prevent you from using this computer. Please try another computer.

Windows 2000: On Windows 2000-based computers, non-administrators will not be able to log on to remote access servers, and they will receive an error message that is similar to the following:

Unknown user or bad password

Windows 2000: On Windows 2000 domain controllers, the Intersite Messaging service (Ismserv.exe) will stop and cannot be restarted. DCDIAG will report the error as "failed test services ISMserv," and event ID 1083 will be registered in the event log.

Windows 2000: On Windows 2000 domain controllers, Active Directory replication will fail, and an "Access Denied" message will appear if the security event log is full.

Microsoft Exchange 2000: Servers that are running Exchange 2000 will not be able to mount the information store database, and event 2102 will be registered in the event log.

Outlook, Outlook Web Access: Non-administrators will not be able to access their mail through Microsoft Outlook or through Microsoft Outlook Web Access, and they will receive a 503 error.

Domain controller: LDAP server signing requirements

Background The Domain controller: LDAP server signing requirements security setting determines whether the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server requires LDAP clients to negotiate data signing. The possible values for this policy setting are as follows:

None: Data signing is not required to bind with the server. If the client requests data signing, the server supports it.

Require signing: The LDAP data-signing option must be negotiated unless Transport Layer Security/Secure Socket Layer (TLS/SSL) is being used.

not defined: This setting is not enabled or disabled.

Enabling Require signing in environments where clients do not support LDAP signing or where client-side LDAP signing is not enabled on the client

Applying the Windows 2000 or the Windows Server 2003 Hisecdc.inf security template in environments where the clients do not support LDAP signing or where client-side LDAP signing is not enabled

Applying the Windows 2000 or the Windows Server 2003 Hisecws.inf security template in environments where the clients do not support LDAP signing or where client-side LDAP signing is not enabled

Reasons to enable this setting Unsigned network traffic is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks where an intruder captures packets between the client and the server, modifies the packets, and then forwards them to the server. When this behavior occurs on an LDAP server, an attacker could cause a server to make decisions that are based on false queries from the LDAP client. You can lower this risk in a corporate network by implementing strong physical security measures to help protect the network infrastructure. Internet Protocol security (IPSec) authentication header mode can help prevent man-in-the-middle attacks. Authentication header mode performs mutual authentication and packet integrity for IP traffic.

Clients that do not support LDAP signing will not be able to carry out LDAP queries against domain controllers and against global catalogs if NTLM authentication is negotiated and if the correct service packs are not installed on Windows 2000 domain controllers.

Network traces of LDAP traffic between clients and servers will be encrypted. This makes it difficult to examine LDAP conversations.

Windows 2000-based servers must have Windows 2000 Service Pack 3 (SP3) or installed when they are administered with programs that support LDAP signing that are run from client computers that run Windows 2000 SP4, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003.  

Symbolic Name: LDAPServerIntegrity

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NTDS\Parameters\LDAPServerIntegrity (Reg_DWORD)

Simple binds will fail, and you will receive the following error message:

Ldap_simple_bind_s() failed: Strong Authentication Required.

Windows 2000 Service Pack 4, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003: On clients that are running Windows 2000 SP4, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003, some Active Directory administration tools will not operate correctly against domain controllers that are running versions of Windows 2000 that are earlier than SP3 when NTLM authentication is negotiated.  

Windows 2000 Service Pack 4, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003: On clients that are running Windows 2000 SP4, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003, some Active Directory administration tools that target domain controllers that are running versions of Windows 2000 that are earlier than SP3 will not operate correctly if they are using IP addresses (for example, "dsa.msc /server= x.x.x.x " where x.x.x.x is an IP address).  

Windows 2000 Service Pack 4, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003: On clients that are running Windows 2000 SP4, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003, some Active Directory administration tools that target domain controllers that are running versions of Windows 2000 that are earlier than SP3 will not operate correctly.  

Domain member: Require strong (Windows 2000 or later) session key

The Domain member: Require strong (Windows 2000 or later) session key setting determines whether a secure channel can be established with a domain controller that cannot encrypt secure channel traffic with a strong, 128-bit session key. Enabling this setting prevents establishing a secure channel with any domain controller that cannot encrypt secure channel data with a strong key. Disabling this setting allows 64-bit session keys.

Before you can enable this setting on a member workstation or on a server, all domain controllers in the domain that the member belongs to must be able to encrypt secure channel data with a strong, 128-bit key. This means that all such domain controllers must be running Windows 2000 or later.

Risky configuration Enabling the Domain member: Require strong (Windows 2000 or later) session key setting is a harmful configuration setting.

Reasons to enable this setting

Session keys that are used to establish secure channel communications between member computers and domain controllers are much stronger in Windows 2000 than they are in earlier versions of Microsoft operating systems.

When it's possible, it is a good idea to take advantage of these stronger session keys to help protect secure channel communications from eavesdropping and from session hijacking network attacks. Eavesdropping is a form of malicious attack where network data is read or is altered in transit. The data can be modified to hide or to change the sender, or to redirect it.

Important A computer that is running Windows Server 2008 R2 or Windows 7 supports only strong keys when secure channels are used. This restriction prevents a trust between any Windows NT 4.0-based domain and any Windows Server 2008 R2-based domain. Additionally, this restriction blocks the Windows NT 4.0-based domain membership of computers that are running Windows 7 or Windows Server 2008 R2, and vice versa.

Reasons to disable this setting The domain contains member computers that are running operating systems other than Windows 2000, Windows XP, or Windows Server 2003.

Symbolic Name: StrongKey

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Netlogon\Parameters\RequireStrongKey (Reg_DWORD)

Examples of compatibility problems Windows NT 4.0: On Windows NT 4.0-based computers, resetting secure channels of trust relationships between Windows NT 4.0 and Windows 2000 domains with NLTEST fails. An "Access Denied" error message appears:

The trust relationship between the primary domain and the trusted domain failed. Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2: For Windows 7 and later versions and Windows Server 2008 R2 and later versions, this setting is not honored any longer and the strong key is used always. Because of that, trusts with Windows NT 4.0 domains do not work any longer.

Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (always)

Enabling Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (always) prevents establishing a secure channel with any domain controller that cannot sign or encrypt all secure channel data. To help protect authentication traffic from man-in-the-middle attacks, replay attacks, and other kinds of network attacks, Windows-based computers create a communication channel that is known as a secure channel through the Net Logon service to authenticate computer accounts. Secure channels are also used when a user in one domain connects to a network resource in a remote domain. This multidomain authentication, or pass-through authentication, allows a Windows-based computer that has joined a domain to have access to the user account database in its domain and in any trusted domains.

To enable the Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (always) setting on a member computer, all domain controllers in the domain that the member belongs to must be able to sign or encrypt all secure channel data. This means that all such domain controllers must be running Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 6a (SP6a) or later.

Enabling the Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (always) setting automatically enables the Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (when possible) setting.

Risky configuration Enabling the Domain member: Digitally encrypt or sign secure channel data (always) setting in domains where not all domain controllers can sign or encrypt secure channel data is a harmful configuration setting.

Reasons to enable this setting Unsigned network traffic is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks, where an intruder captures packets between the server and the client and then modifies them before forwarding them to the client. When this behavior occurs on an Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server, the intruder could cause a client to make decisions that are based on false records from the LDAP directory. You can lower the risk of such an attack on a corporate network by implementing strong physical security measures to help protect the network infrastructure. Additionally, implementing Internet Protocol security (IPSec) authentication header mode can help prevent man-in-the-middle attacks. This mode performs mutual authentication and packet integrity for IP traffic.

Computers in local or external domains do support encrypted secure channels.

Not all domain controllers in the domain have the appropriate service pack revision levels to support encrypted secure channels.

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Netlogon\Parameters\RequireSignOrSeal (REG_DWORD)

Windows NT 4.0: Windows 2000-based member computers will not be able to join Windows NT 4.0 domains and will receive the following error message:

The account is not authorized to log in from this station.

For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

281648 Error message: The account is not authorized to login from this station  

Windows NT 4.0: Windows NT 4.0 domains will not be able to establish a down-level trust with a Windows 2000 domain and will receive the following error message:

Existing down-level trusts may also not authenticate users from the trusted domain. Some users may have problems logging on to the domain, and they may receive an error message that states that the client cannot find the domain.

Windows XP: Windows XP clients that are joined to Windows NT 4.0 domains will not be able to authenticate logon attempts and may receive the following error message, or the following events may be registered in the event log:

Windows cannot connect to the domain either because the domain controller is down or is otherwise unavailable or because your computer account was not found

Microsoft Network: Microsoft Network clients will receive one of the following error messages:

Logon failure: unknown username or bad password.

There is no user session key for the specified logon session.

Microsoft network client: Digitally sign communications (always)

Background Server Message Block (SMB) is the resource-sharing protocol that is supported by many Microsoft operating systems. It is the basis of network basic input/output system (NetBIOS) and of many other protocols. SMB signing authenticates both the user and the server that hosts the data. If either side fails the authentication process, data transmission will not occur. Enabling SMB signing starts during SMB protocol negotiation. The SMB signing policies determine whether the computer always digitally signs client communications. The Windows 2000 SMB authentication protocol supports mutual authentication. Mutual authentication closes a "man-in-the-middle" attack. The Windows 2000 SMB authentication protocol also supports message authentication. Message authentication helps prevent active message attacks. To give you this authentication, SMB signing puts a digital signature into each SMB. The client and the server each verify the digital signature. To use SMB signing, you must enable SMB signing or require SMB signing on both the SMB client and the SMB server. If SMB signing is enabled on a server, clients that are also enabled for SMB signing use the packet signing protocol during all subsequent sessions. If SMB signing is required on a server, a client cannot establish a session unless the client is enabled or required for SMB signing. Enabling digital signing in high-security networks helps prevent the impersonation of clients and of servers. This kind of impersonation is known as session hijacking. An attacker who has access to the same network as the client or the server uses session hijacking tools to interrupt, end, or steal a session in progress. An attacker could intercept and modify unsigned SMB packets, modify the traffic, and then forward it so that the server might perform unwanted actions. Or, the attacker could pose as the server or as the client after a legitimate authentication and then gain unauthorized access to data. The SMB protocol that is used for file sharing and for print sharing in computers that are running Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Professional, Windows XP Professional, or Windows Server 2003 supports mutual authentication. Mutual authentication closes session hijacking attacks and supports message authentication. Therefore, it prevents man-in-the-middle attacks. SMB signing provides this authentication by placing a digital signature in each SMB. The client and the server then verify the signature. Notes

As an alternative countermeasure, you can enable digital signatures with IPSec to help protect all network traffic. There are hardware-based accelerators for IPSec encryption and signing that you can use to minimize the performance impact from the server's CPU. There are no such accelerators that are available for SMB signing. For more information, see the Digitally sign server communications chapter on the Microsoft MSDN website. Configure SMB signing through Group Policy Object Editor because a change to a local registry value has no effect if there is an overriding domain policy.

In Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows 98 Second Edition, the Directory Services Client uses SMB signing when it authenticates with Windows Server 2003 servers by using NTLM authentication. However, these clients do not use SMB signing when they authenticate with these servers by using NTLMv2 authentication. Additionally, Windows 2000 servers do not respond to SMB signing requests from these clients. For more information, see item 10: "Network security: Lan Manager authentication level."

Risky configuration The following is a harmful configuration setting: Leaving both the Microsoft network client: Digitally sign communications (always) setting and the Microsoft network client: Digitally sign communications (if server agrees) setting set to "Not Defined" or disabled. These settings allow the redirector to send plain text passwords to non-Microsoft SMB servers that do not support password encryption during authentication.

Reasons to enable this setting Enabling Microsoft network client: Digitally sign communications (always) requires clients to sign SMB traffic when contacting servers that do not require SMB signing. This makes clients less vulnerable to session hijacking attacks.

Enabling Microsoft network client: Digitally sign communications (always) prevents clients from communicating with target servers that do not support SMB signing.

Configuring computers to ignore all unsigned SMB communications prevents earlier programs and operating systems from connecting.

Symbolic Name: RequireSMBSignRdr

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanmanWorkstation\Parameters\RequireSecuritySignature

Windows NT 4.0: You will not be able to reset the secure channel of a trust between a Windows Server 2003 domain and a Windows NT 4.0 domain by using NLTEST or NETDOM, and you will receive an "Access Denied" error message.

Windows XP: Copying files from Windows XP clients to Windows 2000-based servers and to Windows Server 2003-based servers may take more time.

You will not be able to map a network drive from a client with this setting enabled, and you will receive the following error message:

Restart requirements Restart the computer, or restart the Workstation service. To do this, type the following commands at a command prompt. Press Enter after you type each command.

net stop workstation net start workstation

Server Messenger Block (SMB) is the resource-sharing protocol that is supported by many Microsoft operating systems. It is the basis of network basic input/output system (NetBIOS) and of many other protocols. SMB signing authenticates both the user and the server that hosts the data. If either side fails the authentication process, data transmission will not occur. Enabling SMB signing starts during SMB protocol negotiation. The SMB signing policies determine whether the computer always digitally signs client communications. The Windows 2000 SMB authentication protocol supports mutual authentication. Mutual authentication closes a "man-in-the-middle" attack. The Windows 2000 SMB authentication protocol also supports message authentication. Message authentication helps prevent active message attacks. To give you this authentication, SMB signing puts a digital signature into each SMB. The client and the server each verify the digital signature. To use SMB signing, you must enable SMB signing or require SMB signing on both the SMB client and the SMB server. If SMB signing is enabled on a server, clients that are also enabled for SMB signing use the packet signing protocol during all subsequent sessions. If SMB signing is required on a server, a client cannot establish a session unless the client is enabled or required for SMB signing. Enabling digital signing in high-security networks helps prevent the impersonation of clients and of servers. This kind of impersonation is known as session hijacking. An attacker who has access to the same network as the client or the server uses session hijacking tools to interrupt, end, or steal a session in progress. An attacker could intercept and modify unsigned Subnet Bandwidth Manager (SBM) packets, modify the traffic, and then forward it so that the server might perform unwanted actions. Or, the attacker could pose as the server or as the client after a legitimate authentication and then gain unauthorized access to data. The SMB protocol that is used for file sharing and for print sharing in computers that are running Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2000 Professional, Windows XP Professional, or Windows Server 2003 supports mutual authentication. Mutual authentication closes session hijacking attacks and supports message authentication. Therefore, it prevents man-in-the-middle attacks. SMB signing provides this authentication by placing a digital signature in each SMB. The client and the server then verify the signature.

As an alternative countermeasure, you can enable digital signatures with IPSec to help protect all network traffic. There are hardware-based accelerators for IPSec encryption and signing that you can use to minimize the performance impact from the server's CPU. There are no such accelerators that are available for SMB signing.

Risky configuration The following is a harmful configuration setting: Enabling the Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (always) setting on servers and on domain controllers that are accessed by incompatible Windows-based computers and third-party operating system-based client computers in local or external domains.

All client computers that enable this setting directly through the registry or through the Group Policy setting support SMB signing. In other words, all client computers that have this setting enabled run either Windows 95 with the DS client installed, Windows 98, Windows NT 4.0, Windows 2000, Windows XP Professional, or Windows Server 2003.

If Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (always) is disabled, SMB signing is completely disabled. Completely disabling all SMB signing leaves computers more vulnerable to session hijacking attacks.

Enabling this setting may cause slower file copy and network performance on client computers.

Enabling this setting will prevent clients that cannot negotiate SMB signing from communicating with servers and with domain controllers. This causes operations such as domain joins, user and computer authentication, or network access by programs to fail.

Symbolic Name: RequireSMBSignServer

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LanManServer\Parameters\RequireSecuritySignature (REG_DWORD)

Windows 95: Windows 95 clients that do not have the Directory Services (DS) Client installed will fail logon authentication and will receive the following error message:

The domain password you supplied is not correct, or access to your logon server has been denied.

Windows NT 4.0: Client computers that are running versions of Windows NT 4.0 that are earlier than Service Pack 3 (SP3) will fail logon authentication and will receive the following error message:

The system could not log you on. Make sure your username and your domain are correct, then type your password again.

Some non-Microsoft SMB servers support only unencrypted password exchanges during authentication. (These exchanges also known as "plain text" exchanges.) For Windows NT 4.0 SP3 and later versions, the SMB redirector does not send an unencrypted password during authentication to an SMB server unless you add a specific registry entry. To enable unencrypted passwords for the SMB client on Windows NT 4.0 SP 3 and newer systems, modify the registry as follows: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Rdr\Parameters Value Name: EnablePlainTextPassword Data Type: REG_DWORD Data: 1  

Windows Server 2003: By default, security settings on domain controllers that run Windows Server 2003 are configured to help prevent domain controller communications from being intercepted or tampered with by malicious users. For users to successfully communicate with a domain controller that runs Windows Server 2003, client computers must use both SMB signing and encryption or secure channel traffic signing. By default, clients that run Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 2 (SP2) or earlier installed and clients that run Windows 95 do not have SMB packet signing enabled. Therefore, these clients may not be able to authenticate to a Windows Server 2003-based domain controller.

Windows 2000 and Windows Server 2003 policy settings: Depending on your specific installation needs and configuration, we recommend that you set the following policy settings at the lowest entity of necessary scope in the Microsoft Management Console Group Policy Editor snap-in hierarchy:

Computer Configuration\Windows Security Settings\Security Options

Send unencrypted password to connect to third-party SMB servers (this setting is for Windows 2000)

Microsoft network client: Send unencrypted password to third-party SMB servers (this setting is for Windows Server 2003)

Note In some third-party CIFS servers, such as older Samba versions, you cannot use encrypted passwords.

The following clients are incompatible with the Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (always) setting:

Apple Computer, Inc., Mac OS X clients

Microsoft MS-DOS network clients (for example, Microsoft LAN Manager)

Microsoft Windows for Workgroups clients

Microsoft Windows 95 clients without the DS Client installed

Microsoft Windows NT 4.0-based computers without SP3 or later installed

Novell Netware 6 CIFS clients

SAMBA SMB clients that do not have support for SMB signing

Restart requirements Restart the computer, or restart the Server service. To do this, type the following commands at a command prompt. Press Enter after you type each command.

net stop server net start server

Network access: Allow anonymous SID/Name translation

Background The Network access: Allow anonymous SID/Name translation security setting determines whether an anonymous user can request Security Identification Number (SID) attributes for another user.

Risky configuration Enabling the Network access: Allow anonymous SID/Name translation setting is a harmful configuration setting.

Reasons to enable this setting If the Network access: Allow anonymous SID/Name translation setting is disabled, earlier operating systems or applications may not be able to communicate with Windows Server 2003 domains. For example, the following operating systems, services, or applications may not work:

Windows NT 4.0-based Remote Access Service servers

Microsoft SQL Server that are running on Windows NT 3.x-based computers or Windows NT 4.0-based computers

Remote Access Service that is running on Windows 2000-based computers that are located in Windows NT 3.x domains or Windows NT 4.0 domains

SQL Server that is running on Windows 2000-based computers that are located in Windows NT 3.x domains or in Windows NT 4.0 domains

Users in Windows NT 4.0 resource domain who want to grant permissions to access files, shared folders, and registry objects to user accounts from account domains that contain Windows Server 2003 domain controllers

Reasons to disable this setting If this setting is enabled, a malicious user could use the well-known Administrators SID to obtain the real name of the built-in Administrator account, even if the account has been renamed. That person could then use the account name to initiate a password-guessing attack.

Symbolic Name: N/A

Registry Path: None. The path is specified in UI code.

Examples of compatibility problems Windows NT 4.0: Computers in Windows NT 4.0 resource domains will display the "Account Unknown" error message in ACL Editor if resources, including shared folders, shared files, and registry objects, are secured with security principals that reside in account domains that contain Windows Server 2003 domain controllers.

Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts

The Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts setting determines which additional permissions will be granted for anonymous connections to the computer. Windows allows anonymous users to perform certain activities, such as enumerating the names of workstation and server Security Accounts Manager (SAM) accounts and of network shares. For example, an administrator can use this to grant access to users in a trusted domain that does not maintain a reciprocal trust. Once a session is made, an anonymous user may have the same access that is granted to the Everyone group based on the setting in the Network access: Let Everyone permissions apply to anonymous users setting or the discretionary access control list (DACL) of the object. Typically, anonymous connections are requested by earlier versions of clients (down-level clients) during SMB session setup. In these cases, a network trace shows that the SMB Process ID (PID) is the client redirector such as 0xFEFF in Windows 2000 or 0xCAFE in Windows NT. RPC may also try to make anonymous connections.

Important This setting has no impact on domain controllers. On domain controllers, this behavior is controlled by the presence of "NT AUTHORITY\ANONYMOUS LOGON" in "Pre-Windows 2000 compatible Access".

In Windows 2000, a similar setting called Additional Restrictions for Anonymous Connections manages the RestrictAnonymous registry value. The location of this value is as follows

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\LSA  

Risky configurations Enabling the Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts setting is a harmful configuration setting from a compatibility perspective. Disabling it is a harmful configuration setting from a security perspective.

Reasons to enable this setting An unauthorized user could anonymously list account names and then use the information to try to guess passwords or to perform social engineering attacks. Social engineering is jargon that means tricking people into revealing their passwords or some form of security information.

Reasons to disable this setting If this setting is enabled, it is impossible to establish trusts with Windows NT 4.0 domains. This setting also causes problems with down-level clients (such as Windows NT 3.51 clients and Windows 95 clients) that are trying to use resources on the server.

Symbolic Name: RestrictAnonymousSAM

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\RestrictAnonymousSAM (Reg_DWORD)

SMS Network Discovery will not be able to obtain operating system information and will write "Unknown" in the OperatingSystemNameandVersion property.

Windows 95, Windows 98: Windows 95 clients and Windows 98 clients will not be able to change their passwords.

Windows NT 4.0: Windows NT 4.0-based member computers will not be able to be authenticated.

Windows 95, Windows 98: Windows 95-based and Windows 98-based computers will not be able to be authenticated by Microsoft domain controllers.

Windows 95, Windows 98: Users on Windows 95-based and Windows 98-based computers will not be able to change the passwords for their user accounts.

Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts and shares

The Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts and shares setting (also known as RestrictAnonymous) determines whether anonymous enumeration of Security Accounts Manager (SAM) accounts and shares is allowed. Windows allows anonymous users to perform certain activities, such as enumerating the names of domain accounts (users, computers, and groups) and of network shares. This is convenient, for example, when an administrator wants to grant access to users in a trusted domain that does not maintain a reciprocal trust. If you do not want to allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts and of shares, enable this setting.

In Windows 2000, a similar setting called Additional Restrictions for Anonymous Connections manages the RestrictAnonymous registry value. The location of this value is as follows:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\LSA

Risky configuration Enabling the Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts and shares setting is a harmful configuration setting.

Enabling the Network access: Do not allow anonymous enumeration of SAM accounts and shares setting prevents enumeration of SAM accounts and shares by users and computers that are using anonymous accounts.

If this setting is enabled, an unauthorized user could anonymously list account names and then use the information to try to guess passwords or to perform social engineering attacks. Social engineering is jargon that means tricking people into revealing their password or some form of security information.

If this setting is enabled, it will be impossible to establish trusts with Windows NT 4.0 domains. This setting will also cause problems with down-level clients such as Windows NT 3.51 and Windows 95 clients that are trying to use resources on the server.

It will be impossible to grant access to users of resource domains because administrators in the trusting domain will not be able to enumerate lists of accounts in the other domain. Users who access file and print servers anonymously will not be able to list the shared network resources on those servers. The users must authenticate before they can view the lists of shared folders and printers.

Symbolic Name: RestrictAnonymous

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\RestrictAnonymous

Windows NT 4.0: Users will not be able to change their passwords from Windows NT 4.0 workstations when RestrictAnonymous is enabled on domain controllers in the users' domain.

Windows NT 4.0: Adding users or global groups from trusted Windows 2000 domains to Windows NT 4.0 local groups in User Manager will fail, and the following error message will appear:

There are currently no logon servers available to service the logon request.

Windows NT 4.0: Windows NT 4.0-based computers will not be able to join domains during setup or by using the domain join user interface.

Windows NT 4.0: Establishing a down-level trust with Windows NT 4.0 resource domains will fail. The following error message will appear when RestrictAnonymous is enabled on the trusted domain:

Could not find domain controller for this domain.

Windows NT 4.0: Users who log on to Windows NT 4.0-based Terminal Server computers will map to the default home directory instead of the home directory that is defined in User Manager for domains.

Windows NT 4.0: Windows NT 4.0 backup domain controllers (BDCs) will not be able to start the Net Logon service, obtain a list of backup browsers, or synchronize the SAM database from Windows 2000 or from Windows Server 2003 domain controllers in the same domain.

Windows 2000: Windows 2000-based member computers in Windows NT 4.0 domains will not be able to view printers in external domains if the No access without explicitly anonymous permissions setting is enabled in the local security policy of the client computer.

Windows 2000: Windows 2000 domain users will not be able to add network printers from Active Directory; however, they will be able to add printers after they select them from the tree view.

Windows 2000: On Windows 2000-based computers, ACL Editor will not be able to add users or global groups from trusted Windows NT 4.0 domains.

ADMT version 2: Password migration for user accounts that are migrated between forests with Active Directory Migration Tool (ADMT) version 2 will fail. For more information, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

322981 How to troubleshoot inter-forest password migration with ADMTv2

Outlook clients: The global address list will appear empty to Microsoft Exchange Outlook clients.

SMS: Microsoft Systems Management Server (SMS) Network Discovery will not be able to obtain the operating system information. Therefore, it will write "Unknown" in the OperatingSystemNameandVersion property of the SMS DDR property of the discovery data record (DDR).

SMS: When you use the SMS Administrator User Wizard to browse for users and groups, no users or groups will be listed. Additionally, Advanced clients cannot communicate with the Management Point. Anonymous access is required on the Management Point.

SMS: When you are using the Network Discovery feature in SMS 2.0 and in Remote Client Installation with the Topology, client, and client operating systems network discovery option turned on, computers may be discovered but may not be installed.

Network security: Lan Manager authentication level

Background LAN Manager (LM) authentication is the protocol that is used to authenticate Windows clients for network operations, including domain joins, accessing network resources, and user or computer authentication. The LM authentication level determines which challenge/response authentication protocol is negotiated between the client and the server computers. Specifically, the LM authentication level determines which authentication protocols that the client will try to negotiate or that the server will accept. The value that is set for LmCompatibilityLevel determines which challenge/response authentication protocol is used for network logons. This value affects the level of authentication protocol that clients use, the level of session security negotiated, and the level of authentication accepted by servers. Possible settings include the following.

Note In Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows 98 Second Edition, the Directory Services Client uses SMB signing when it authenticates with Windows Server 2003 servers by using NTLM authentication. However, these clients do not use SMB signing when they authenticate with these servers by using NTLMv2 authentication. Additionally, Windows 2000 servers do not respond to SMB signing requests from these clients. Check the LM authentication level: You must change the policy on the server to permit NTLM, or you must configure the client computer to support NTLMv2. If the policy is set to (5) Send NTLMv2 response only\refuse LM & NTLM on the target computer that you want to connect to, you must either lower the setting on that computer or set the security to the same setting that is on the source computer that you are connecting from. Find the correct location where you can change the LAN manager authentication level to set the client and the server to the same level. After you find the policy that is setting the LAN manager authentication level, if you want to connect to and from computers that are running earlier versions of Windows, lower the value to at least (1) Send LM & NTLM - use NTLM version 2 session security if negotiated. One effect of incompatible settings is that if the server requires NTLMv2 (value 5), but the client is configured to use LM and NTLMv1 only (value 0), the user who tries authentication experiences a logon failure that has a bad password and that increments the bad password count. If account lock-out is configured, the user may eventually be locked out. For example, you may have to look on the domain controller, or you may have to examine the domain controller's policies. Look on the domain controller Note You may have to repeat the following procedure on all the domain controllers.

Click Start , point to Programs , and then click Administrative Tools .

Under Local Security Settings , expand Local Policies .

Click Security Options .

Double-click Network Security: LAN manager authentication level , and then click a value in the list.

If the Effective Setting and the Local Setting are the same, the policy has been changed at this level. If the settings are different, you must check the domain controller's policy to determine whether the Network Security: LAN manager authentication level setting is defined there. If it is not defined there, examine the domain controller's policies. Examine the domain controller's policies

In the Domain Controller Security policy, expand Security Settings , and then expand Local Policies .

Double-click Network Security: LAN manager authentication level, and then click a value in the list.

You may also have to check policies that are linked at the site level, the domain level, or the organizational unit (OU) level to determine where you must configure the LAN manager authentication level.

If you implement a Group Policy setting as the default domain policy, the policy is applied to all computers in the domain.

If you implement a Group Policy setting as the default domain controller's policy, the policy applies only to the servers in the domain controller's OU.

It is a good idea to set the LAN manager authentication level in the lowest entity of necessary scope in the policy application hierarchy.

Windows Server 2003 has a new default setting to use NTLMv2 only. By default, Windows Server 2003 and Windows 2000 Server SP3-based domain controllers have enabled the "Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (always)" policy. This setting requires the SMB server to perform SMB packet signing. Changes to Windows Server 2003 were made because domain controllers, file servers, network infrastructure servers, and Web servers in any organization require different settings to maximize their security. If you want to implement NTLMv2 authentication in your network, you must make sure that all the computers in the domain are set to use this authentication level. If you apply Active Directory Client Extensions for Windows 95 or Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0, the client extensions use the improved authentication features that are available in NTLMv2. Because client computers that are running any of the following operating system are not affected by Windows 2000 Group Policy Objects, you may have to manually configure these clients:

Microsoft Windows NT 4.0

Microsoft Windows Millennium Edition

Microsoft Windows 98

Microsoft Windows 95

Note If you enable the Network security: Do not store LAN manager hash value on next password change policy or set the NoLMHash registry key, Windows 95-based and Windows 98-based clients that do not have the Directory Services Client installed cannot log on to the domain after a password change. Many third-party CIFS servers, such as Novell Netware 6, are not aware of NTLMv2 and use NTLM only. Therefore, levels greater than 2 do not permit connectivity. There also are third-party SMB clients that do not use extended session security. In these cases, the LmCompatiblityLevel of the resource server is not taken into consideration. The server then packs up this legacy request and sends it to the User Domain Controller. The settings on the Domain Controller then decide what hashes are used to verify the request and whether these are meeting the Domain Controller's security requirements.  

299656 How to prevent Windows from storing a LAN manager hash of your password in Active Directory and local SAM databases  

2701704 Audit event shows authentication package as NTLMv1 instead of NTLMv2 For more information about LM authentication levels, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

239869 How to enable NTLM 2 authentication  

Nonrestrictive settings that send passwords in cleartext and that deny NTLMv2 negotiation

Restrictive settings that prevent incompatible clients or domain controllers from negotiating a common authentication protocol

Requiring NTLMv2 authentication on member computers and domain controllers that are running versions of Windows NT 4.0 that are earlier than Service Pack 4 (SP4)

Requiring NTLMv2 authentication on Windows 95 clients or on Windows 98 clients that do not have the Windows Directory Services Client installed.

If you click to select the Require NTLMv2 session security check box in the Microsoft Management Console Group Policy Editor snap-in on a Windows Server 2003 or Windows 2000 Service Pack 3-based computer, and you lower the LAN manager authentication level to 0, the two settings conflict, and you may receive the following error message in the Secpol.msc file or the GPEdit.msc file:

Windows cannot open the local policy database. An unknown error occurred when attempting to open the database.

For more information about the Security Configuration and Analysis Tool, see the Windows 2000 or the Windows Server 2003 Help files.

Reasons to Modify This Setting

You want to increase the lowest common authentication protocol that is supported by clients and domain controllers in your organization.

Where secure authentication is a business requirement, you want to disallow negotiation of the LM and the NTLM protocols.

Reasons to disable this setting Client or server authentication requirements, or both, have been increased to the point where authentication over a common protocol cannot occur.

Symbolic Name: LmCompatibilityLevel

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\LmCompatibilityLevel

Windows Server 2003: By default, the Windows Server 2003 NTLMv2 Send NTLM responses setting is enabled. Therefore, Windows Server 2003 receives the "Access Denied" error message after the initial installation when you try to connect to a Windows NT 4.0-based cluster or to LanManager V2.1-based servers, such as OS/2 Lanserver. This issue also occurs if you try to connect from an earlier-version client to a Windows Server 2003-based server.

You install Windows 2000 Security Rollup Package 1 (SRP1).SRP1 forces NTLM version 2 (NTLMv2). This rollup package was released after the release of Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 (SP2).  

Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2: Many third-party CIFS servers, such as Novell Netware 6 or Linux-based Samba servers, are not aware of NTLMv2 and use NTLM only. Therefore, levels greater than "2" do not permit connectivity. Now in this version of the operating system, the default for LmCompatibilityLevel was changed to "3". So when you upgrade Windows, these third party filers may stop working.

Microsoft Outlook clients may be prompted for credentials even though they are already logged on to the domain. When users supply their credentials, they receive the following error message: Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2

The logon credentials supplied were incorrect. Make sure your username and domain are correct, then type your password again.

When you start Outlook, you may be prompted for your credentials even if your Logon Network Security setting is set to Passthrough or to Password Authentication. After you type your correct credentials, you may receive the following error message:

The login credentials supplied were incorrect.

A Network Monitor trace may show that the global catalog issued a remote procedure call (RPC) fault with a status of 0x5. A status of 0x5 means "Access Denied."

Windows 2000: A Network Monitor capture may show the following errors in the NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) server message block (SMB) session:

SMB R Search Directory Dos error, (5) ACCESS_DENIED (109) STATUS_LOGON_FAILURE (91) Invalid user identifier

Windows 2000: If a Windows 2000 domain with NTLMv2 Level 2 or later is trusted by a Windows NT 4.0 domain, Windows 2000-based member computers in the resource domain may experience authentication errors.

Windows 2000 and Windows XP: By default, Windows 2000 and Windows XP set the LAN Manager Authentication Level Local Security Policy option to 0. A setting of 0 means "Send LM and NTLM responses." Note Windows NT 4.0-based clusters must use LM for administration.

Windows 2000: Windows 2000 clustering does not authenticate a joining node if both nodes are part of a Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 6a (SP6a) domain.

The IIS Lockdown Tool (HiSecWeb) sets the LMCompatibilityLevel value to 5 and the RestrictAnonymous value to 2.

Services for Macintosh User Authentication Module (UAM): The Microsoft UAM (User Authentication Module) provides a method for encrypting the passwords that you use to log on to Windows AFP (AppleTalk Filing Protocol) servers. The Apple User Authentication Module (UAM) provides only minimal or no encryption. Therefore, your password could easily be intercepted on the LAN or on the Internet. Although the UAM is not required, it does provide encrypted authentication to Windows 2000 Servers that run Services For Macintosh. This version includes support for NTLMv2 128-bit encrypted authentication and a MacOS X 10.1-compatible release. By default, the Windows Server 2003 Services for Macintosh server permits only Microsoft Authentication.  

Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, and Windows 2000: If you configure the LMCompatibilityLevel value to be 0 or 1 and then configure the NoLMHash value to be 1, applications and components may be denied access through NTLM. This issue occurs because the computer is configured to enable LM but not to use LM-stored passwords. If you configure the NoLMHash value to be 1, you must configure the LMCompatibilityLevel value to be 2 or higher.

Network security: LDAP client signing requirements

Background The Network security: LDAP client signing requirements setting determines the level of data signing that is requested on behalf of clients that issue Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) BIND requests as follows:

None: The LDAP BIND request is issued with the caller-specified options.

Negotiate signing: If the Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security (SSL/TLS) has not been started, the LDAP BIND request is initiated with the LDAP data signing option set in addition to the caller-specified options. If SSL/TLS has been started, the LDAP BIND request is initiated with the caller-specified options.

Require signing: This is the same as Negotiate signing. However, if the LDAP server's intermediate saslBindInProgress response does not indicate that LDAP traffic signing is required, the caller is told that the LDAP BIND command request failed.

Risky configuration Enabling the Network security: LDAP client signing requirements setting is a harmful configuration setting. If you set the server to require LDAP signatures, you must also configure LDAP signing on the client. Not configuring the client to use LDAP signatures will prevent communication with the server. This causes user authentication, Group Policy settings, logon scripts, and other features to fail.

Reasons to Modify This Setting Unsigned network traffic is susceptible to man-in-the-middle attacks where an intruder captures packets between the client and the servers, modifies them, and then forwards them to the server. When this occurs on an LDAP server, an attacker could cause a server to respond based on false queries from the LDAP client. You can lower this risk in a corporate network by implementing strong physical security measures to help protect the network infrastructure. Additionally, you can help prevent all kinds of man-in-the-middle attacks by requiring digital signatures on all network packets by means of IPSec authentication headers.

Symbolic Name: LDAPClientIntegrity

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LDAP\LDAPClientIntegrity

Event Log: Maximum security log size

Background The Event Log: Maximum security log size security setting specifies the maximum size of the security event log. This log has a maximum size of 4 GB. To locate this setting, expand Windows Settings , and then expand Security Settings .

Restricting the security log size and the security log retention method when the Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits setting is enabled. See the "Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits" section of this article for more details.

Restricting the security log size so that security events of interest are overwritten.

Reasons to Increase This Setting Business and security requirements may dictate that you increase the security log size to handle additional security log detail or to retain security logs for a longer period of time.

Reasons to Decrease This Setting Event Viewer logs are memory mapped files. The maximum size of an event log is constrained by the amount of physical memory in the local computer and by the virtual memory that is available to the event log process. Increasing the log size beyond the amount of virtual memory that is available to Event Viewer does not increase the number of log entries that are maintained.

Examples of compatibility problems Windows 2000: Computers that are running versions of Windows 2000 that are earlier than Service Pack 4 (SP4) may stop logging events in the event log before reaching the size that is specified in the Maximum log size setting in Event Viewer if the Do not overwrite events (clear log manually) option is turned on.  

Event Log: Retain security log

Background The Event Log: Retain security log security setting determines the "wrapping" method for the security log. To locate this setting, expand Windows Settings , and then expand Security Settings .

Failing to retain all logged security events before they are overwritten

Configuring the Maximum security log size setting too small so that security events are overwritten

Restricting the security log size and retention method while the Audit: Shut down system immediately if unable to log security audits security setting is enabled

Reasons to enable this setting Enable this setting only if you select the Overwrite events by days retention method. If you use an event correlation system that polls for events, make sure that the number of days is at least three times the poll frequency. Do this to allow for failed poll cycles.

Network access: Let Everyone permissions apply to anonymous users

Background By default, the Network access: Let Everyone permissions apply to anonymous users setting is set to Not Defined on Windows Server 2003. By default, Windows Server 2003 does not include the Anonymous Access token in the Everyone group.

Example of Compatibility Problems The following value of

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\LSA\everyoneincludesanonymous [REG_DWORD]=0x0 breaks trust creation between Windows Server 2003 and Windows NT 4.0, when the Windows Server 2003 domain is the account domain and the Windows NT 4.0 domain is the resource domain. This means that the account domain is Trusted on Windows NT 4.0 and the resource domain is Trusting on the Windows Server 2003 side. This behavior occurs because the process to start the trust after the initial anonymous connection is ACL'd with the Everyone token that includes the Anonymous SID on Windows NT 4.0.

Reasons to Modify This Setting The value must be set to 0x1 or set by using a GPO on the domain controller's OU to be: Network access: Let Everyone permissions apply to anonymous users - Enabled to make the trust creations possible. Note Most other security settings go up in value instead of down to 0x0 in their most secured state. A more secure practice would be to change the registry on the primary domain controller emulator instead of on all the domain controllers. If the primary domain controller emulator role is moved for any reason, the registry must be updated on the new server. A restart is required after this value is set.

Registry Path

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\LSA\everyoneincludesanonymous

NTLMv2 authentication

Session security Session security determines the minimum security standards for client and server sessions. It is a good idea to verify the following security policy settings in the Microsoft Management Console Group Policy Editor snap-in:

Computer Settings\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\Security Options

Network Security: Minimum session security for NTLM SSP based (including secure RPC) servers

Network Security: Minimum session security for NTLM SSP based (including secure RPC) clients

The options for these settings are as follows:

Require message integrity

Require message confidentiality

Require NTLM version 2 session security

Require 128-bit encryption

The default setting prior to Windows 7 is No requirements. Starting with Windows 7, the default changed to Require 128-bit encryption for improved security. With this default, legacy devices that don’t support 128-bit encryption will be unable to connect. These policies determine the minimum security standards for an application-to-application communications session on a server for a client. Note that although described as valid settings, the flags to require message integrity and confidentiality are not used when the NTLM session security is determined. Historically, Windows NT has supported the following two variants of challenge/response authentication for network logons:

LM challenge/response

NTLM version 1 challenge/response

LM allows interoperability with the installed base of clients and servers. NTLM provides improved security for connections between clients and servers. The corresponding registry keys are as follows:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\MSV1_0\"NtlmMinServerSec" HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Lsa\MSV1_0\"NtlmMinClientSec"

Risky configurations This setting controls how network sessions secured using NTLM will be handled. This affects RPC-based sessions authenticated with NTLM, for example. There are the following risks:

Using older authentication methods than NTLMv2 makes the communication easier to attack due to the simpler hashing methods used.

Using encryption keys lower than 128-bit allows attackers to break communication using brute-force attacks.

Time synchronization

Time synchronization failed. The time is off by more than 30 minutes on an affected computer. Make sure that the client computer's clock is synchronized with the domain controller's clock.

Workaround for SMB signing

We recommend that you install Service Pack 6a (SP6a) on Windows NT 4.0 clients that interoperate in a Windows Server 2003-based domain. Windows 98 Second Edition-based clients, Windows 98-based clients, and Windows 95-based clients must run the Directory Services Client to perform NTLMv2. If Windows NT 4.0-based clients do not have Windows NT 4.0 SP6 installed or if Windows 95-based clients, Windows 98-based clients, and Windows 98SE-based clients do not have the Directory Services Client installed, disable SMB signing in the default domain controller's policy setting on the domain controller's OU, and then link this policy to all OUs that host domain controllers. The Directory Services Client for Windows 98 Second Edition, Windows 98, and Windows 95 will perform SMB Signing with Windows 2003 servers under NTLM authentication, but not under NTLMv2 authentication. Additionally, Windows 2000 servers will not respond to SMB Signing requests from these clients. Although we do not recommend it, you can prevent SMB signing from being required on all domain controllers that run Windows Server 2003 in a domain. To configure this security setting, follow these steps:

Open the default domain controller's policy.

Open the Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\Security Options folder.

Locate and then click the Microsoft network server: Digitally sign communications (always) policy setting, and then click Disabled.

Important This section, method, or task contains steps that tell you how to modify the registry. However, serious problems might occur if you modify the registry incorrectly. Therefore, make sure that you follow these steps carefully. For added protection, back up the registry before you modify it. Then, you can restore the registry if a problem occurs. For more information about how to back up and restore the registry, click the following article number to view the article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

322756 How to back up and restore the registry in Windows Alternatively, turn off SMB signing on the server by modifying the registry. To do this, follow these steps:

Click Start , click Run , type regedit, and then click OK .

Locate and then click the following subkey: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Lanmanserver\Parameters

Click the enablesecuritysignature entry.

On the Edit menu, click Modify .

In the Value data box, type 0, and then click OK .

Exit Registry Editor.

Restart the computer, or stop and then restart the Server service. To do this, type the following commands at a command prompt, and then press Enter after you type each command: net stop server net start server

Note The corresponding key on the client computer is in the following registry subkey:

HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Lanmanworkstation\Parameters The following lists the translated error code numbers to status codes and to the verbatim error messages that are mentioned earlier:

error 5 ERROR_ACCESS_DENIED Access is denied.

error 1326 ERROR_LOGON_FAILURE Logon failure: unknown user name or bad password.

error 1788 ERROR_TRUSTED_DOMAIN_FAILURE The trust relationship between the primary domain and the trusted domain failed.

error 1789 ERROR_TRUSTED_RELATIONSHIP_FAILURE The trust relationship between this workstation and the primary domain failed.

For more information, click the following article numbers to view the articles in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:

324802 How to configure Group Policies to set security for system services in Windows Server 2003

816585 How to apply predefined security templates in Windows Server 2003

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All about Microsoft Intune

Peter blogs about Microsoft Intune, Microsoft Intune Suite, Windows Autopilot, Configuration Manager and more

user rights assignment event id

Restricting the local log on to specific users

This week is about restricting the local logon on Windows devices to specific users. Not because it is something particularly new, but simply because it is been an ask every now and then. Think about further locking down a kiosk device, for example. Restricting the local logon can be achieved by either only allowing specific users to log on, or by denying specific users to log on. In other words, whitelisting versus blacklisting. The allow-option is basically a whitelist and the deny-option is basically a blacklist. When looking at restricting the local logon, a whitelist is the easiest method to get quickly really restrictive, as only the users on the list are allowed to log on locally. Luckily, nowadays there is easy method for configuring such a whitelist with users that are allowed to log on locally on a Windows device. This post will provide some more details around that configuration, followed with the configuration steps. This post will end with showing the user experience.

Note : Keep in mind that this post is focussed on the local log on on Windows devices and not the remote log on.

Configuring the allow local log on setting

When looking at configuring the allow local log on configuration, the UserRights section in the Policy CSP is the place to look. That section contains many of the different policy settings of the User Rights Assignment Local Policies , including the Allow log on locally ( AllowLocalLogOn ) policy setting. That policy setting can be used to configure the users that are allowed to locally log on to the Windows device. Besides that, it’s also good to mention that with the latest Windows 11 Insider Preview Builds, this section of the Policy CSP, is getting more and more policy settings. Nearly all of the User Rights Assignment Local Policies are now available for configuration, including Logon as a service , Logon as a batch job , and many more. Maybe even better, all of these available policy settings – including the new policy settings that are currently still in preview – are now configurable via the Settings Catalog profile (as shown below in Figure 1).

user rights assignment event id

After being familiar with the available policy settings and the configuration profile, the configuration of those policy settings is pretty straight forward. The following eight steps walk through the creation of a  Settings Catalog  profile that contains the required setting to configure the local logon, by using the Allow log on locally policy setting.

  • Open the  Microsoft Intune admin center  portal and navigate to  Devices  >  Windows  >  Configuration profiles
  • On the  Windows | Configuration profiles  blade, click  Create profile
  • On the  Create a profile  blade, provide the following information and click  Create
  • Platform : Select  Windows 10 and later  to create a profile for Windows 10 and Windows 11 devices
  • Profile : Select  Settings catalog  to select the required setting from the catalog
  • On the  Basics  page, provide the following information and click  Next
  • Name : Provide a name for the profile to distinguish it from other similar profiles
  • Description : (Optional) Provide a description for the profile to further differentiate profiles
  • Platform : (Greyed out) Windows 10 and later
  • On the  Configuration settings  page, as shown below in Figure 2, perform the following actions
  • Select  User Rights  as category
  • Select  Allow Local Log On  as setting
  • Specify the required users and local groups – all on separate lines – and click  Next

user rights assignment event id

  • On the  Scope tags  page, configure the required scope tags and click  Next
  • On the  Assignments  page, configure the assignment and click  Next
  • On the  Review + create  page, verify the configuration and click  Create

Note : As these settings are now configurable via the Settings Catalog , that also takes away the challenges with multiple entries. No need to manually specify a delimiter, as Microsoft Intune takes care of that.

Experiencing the user rights configuration

After configuring the users that are allowed to log on locally to the Windows device, it’s pretty straight forward to experience the behavior. Simply try to log on to that device with a user account that is not allowed to log on locally. That will provide an experience as shown below in Figure 3. The user will receive the notification that the sign-in method is not allowed. Besides that, it’s also important to be familiar with the side effects of this configuration. The most important side effect is the impact on the self-service capabilities, like self-service PIN reset and self-service password reset. That’s simply because those capabilities rely on the temporary account defaultuser1 and that account won’t be able to log in, as only the specified users are allowed to locally log on to the Windows device. That experience is shown below in Figure 4. The user will either receive the status message of 0xc000015b , or will simply be switched back to the logon screen.

user rights assignment event id

Note : The failed log on information is registered in the Security log in the Event Viewer with Event ID 4625 .

More information

For more information about the user rights configuration options, refer to the following docs.

  • UserRights Policy CSP – Windows Client Management | Microsoft Learn
  • Self-service password reset for Windows devices – Microsoft Entra | Microsoft Learn

23 thoughts on “Restricting the local log on to specific users”

I’d like to contribute to this.

This method does not inherently allow you to specify an EntraID group of users that you wish to deny local logon (at least it didnt use to) however i’ve found that if you use “account protection” policies populate the local group “Guests” with users from an EntraID group you can use the above stated policy to in effect acheive deny local logon for an EntraID group of users. (Via denying the local group “guests” as stated in your blog)

I use this in production, works well

Thank you for that suggestion, Temilit. Regards, Peter

I have not been able to replicate this. I followed inthecloud247’s blog post on this, but the only SID I was able to add to the Guests local group was the SID of an AAD directory role, and not one of an AAD security group.

Which version of Windows are you using? Regards, Peter

  • Pingback: Microsoft Roadmap, messagecenter en blogs updates van 21-09-2023 - KbWorks

Can you use an AAD group here?

Not at this moment, Henrik. Regards, Peter

Is there currently a way to restrict interactive log in but allow elevation log in prompts? I would like to prevent Intune Admins from logging in locally but still allow elevation for installs/CMD.

Not sure you can achieve that with this policy, but I haven’t looked really deep in that use case yet. Regards, Peter

  • Pingback: Intune Newsletter - 22nd September 2023 - Andrew Taylor
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Is there a way to specify an EntraID security group with this settings?

Hi Yoni, The last time I tried that was not possible yet. Regards, Peter

Is there a way sign in KioskUser0 automatically using User Rights?

Hi Mo, Can you provide some more details about what you’re trying to achieve? Regards, Peter

We have deployed Self-Deploy AutoPilot profile plus Kiosk Configuration Profile for single app and then assign to dynamic device group. The Self-Deploy AutoPilot process completes without any issues and Kiosk policy is applied to the device. However, the KioskUser0 should auto logging automatically after Self-Deploy AutoPilot process completes, but its not auto logging.

Any thought why KioskUser0 not auto logging automatically?

Hi Mo, That can be many things, but something I often see is the device lock configuration that is interfering. Regards, Peter

Hello Peter,

We have Azure AD Joined devices in our enviornment which are migrated from source tenant to target tenant as part of carve out project. Recently we observed that post autopilot build completition when user tried to sign in to device they were prompted error as Sign in method not allowed. However, if we tried to login to device with local admins then it allows.

Standard users not allowed to login, we do have AllowLocallyLogIn baseline policy deployed by security team but it contains Administrators and Users group both. Does on Azure AD joined devices this policy really gets validated when users trying to sign in with UPN ?

This issue is not for all users but 10% users are facing, as a workaround when we reimported hash of thier device again and reimaged device then sign in was allowed (bit strange).

Do you have any idea on this then please give some direction.

Hi Suraj, How did you migrate the devices from source tenant to the target tenant? Regards, Peter

I am seeing something similar for new devices. Again, not all, only a subset. quite often, the user can happily use the device for a period (a few days) then this occurs. LOgging onto the device locally, I am seeing the Allow Logon Locally being blank. very odd. This is using Windows 11 23H2

Hi Shaun, When that happens, do you see anything about (other) policies being applied and/or change? Regards, Peter

I tried to do the restriction as in your procedure, but I got the error 65000 in intune. Since then, it has been impossible to connect with ALL the accounts on the computer. Do you have a solution to go back?

Hi Simon, In that case, you should apply a counter policy with the default configuration. Regards, Peter

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user rights assignment event id

  • Device Configuration Guides
  • logrhythm.com

EVID 4704, 4705 : User Right Assignment (Part 1) (Security)

Event details, log fields and parsing.

This section details the log fields available in this log message type, along with values parsed for both LogRhythm Default and LogRhythm Default v2.0 policies. A value of "N/A" (not applicable) means that there is no value parsed for a specified log field.

Log Processing Settings

This section details log processing changes made from the LogRhythm Default policy to LogRhythm Default v2.0. In some cases, base rules are broken down into sub-rules to appropriately parse log message types by their event types.

LogRhythm Default

Logrhythm default v2.0.

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Built-in local security principals and groups

Center for internet security, local policies/user rights assignment.

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Leos Marek

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Security policy settings are sets of rules that control various aspects of protection. They include account policies, local policies, user rights assignment, the Windows firewall, software restrictions, and so on. There are several ways to configure security policy settings. The most common are:

  • Group policy objects (GPO) – Used in Active Directory domains to configure and regularly reapply security settings to multiple computers.
  • Local security policy (secpol.msc) – Used to configure a single (local) computer. Note that this is a one-time action. If another administrator changes these settings, you will need to manually change them back to the required state.

As most organizations use an Active Directory domain, it is preferred to apply security settings via group policies. You should have at least three security baselines created and linked in your domain, based on the following machine types:

  • Domain Controllers (DC)
  • Member Servers (MS)
  • User Workstations

Configuring user rights assignment via Goup Policy

Configuring user rights assignment via Goup Policy

If you have multiple versions of operating systems (OS) running on these machines, you should create separate baselines for each OS version, as some settings might not be available. This also enables stricter configuration for older systems, as they are usually less secure.

It is a best practice to configure security policies using only built-in local security principals and groups, and add needed members to these entities. This gives you much better visibility and flexibility, as GPO provides more options to manage local group members, than to manage security policy members. For example, it's not possible to add a group whose name is generated using system variables (e.g., LAB\LocalAdmins_%COMPUTERNAME%) to a security policy; however, the group can be added to the Administrators group itself.

Security policies do not support generated group names

Security policies do not support generated group names

  • Administrators – Members of this group have full, unrestricted access to the computer. Even if you remove some privileges from the Administrators group, a skilled administrator can still bypass those settings and gain control of the system. Only add highly trusted people to this group.
  • Authenticated Users – A special security principal that applies to any session that was authenticated using some account, such as a local or domain account.
  • Local account and member of Administrators group – A pseudogroup available since Windows Server 2012 R2. It applies to any local account in the Administrators group and is used to mitigate pass-the-hash attacks (lateral movement).
  • Remote Desktop Users – Members of this group can access the computer via Remote Desktop services (RDP).
  • Guests – By default, this group has no permissions. I don't think there is any need to use the Guest account and group today.

The Center for Internet Security (CIS) is a well-known non-profit organization that focuses on cybersecurity. To improve your knowledge of cybersecurity, you can access their free materials:

  • CIS Controls – A set of 20 basic and advanced cybersecurity actions (controls). Using these, you can stop the most common attacks.
  • CIS Benchmarks – Guidelines with specific configuration steps and detailed explanations. CIS Benchmarks are available for various products such as Windows Server, SQL Server, Apple iOS, and many more.

Both can be downloaded in exchange for your email address. There's no need to worry—there will be no further email, unless you choose to receive them.

Many companies and institutions create their security baselines based on CIS. I recommend you read CIS Controls. It really helped me to understand the importance of various security actions and settings.

CIS Benchmarks example

CIS Benchmarks example

User rights assignments are settings applied to the local device. They allow users to perform various system tasks, such as local logon, remote logon, accessing the server from network, shutting down the server, and so on. In this section, I will explain the most important settings and how they should be configured.

For each setting, the following format is used:

Name of the setting: Recommended value, or values

Access Credential Manager as a trusted caller: No one (empty value)

Access to the Credential Manager is granted during Winlogon only to the user who is logging on. Saved user credentials might be compromised if someone else has this privilege.

Access this computer from the network: Administrators, Authenticated Users

Required for users to connect to the computer and its resources, such as an SMB share, shared printers, COM+, etc. If you remove this user right on the DC, no one will be able to log on to the domain.

Note : On DCs, you should also add the “ENTERPRISE DOMAIN CONTROLLERS“ group.

Allow log on locally: Administrators

The default configuration includes the Users group, which allows a standard user to log on to the server console. Limit this privilege only to administrators.

Allow log on through Remote Desktop Services: Administrators, Remote Desktop Users

It's common practice that some applications are used via RDP sessions by standard users. This privilege is also frequently required for remote assistance offered by an organization's helpdesk. If a server is running Remote Desktop Services with the Connection Broker role, the Authenticated Users group must also be added to this privilege.

Note: On the DC, it is recommended to allow only administrators to connect via RDP.

Back up files and directories: Administrators

This is a sensitive privilege that allows a user to bypass NTFS permissions (only via an NTFS API interface, such as NTBACKUP). A malicious user could backup and restore data on a different computer, thereby gaining access to it.

Deny access to this computer from the network/Deny log on through Terminal Services: Local account and member of Administrators group, Guests

The default value is only Guests. You should add the second group to prevent pass-the-hash attacks, so if a local elevated user is compromised, it cannot be used to elevate privileges on any other network resource, or access it via RDP.

Force shutdown from a remote system/Shut down the system: Administrators

Only administrators should be able to shut down any server, to prevent denial-of-service (DoS) attacks.

Manage auditing and security log: Administrators

This is a sensitive privilege, as anyone with these rights can erase important evidence of unauthorized activity.

Note: If you are running MS Exchange, the “Exchange Servers” group must be added to DCs.

Restore files and directories: Administrators

Attackers with this privilege can overwrite data, or even executable files used by legitimate administrators, with versions that include malicious code.

Take ownership of files or other objects: Administrators

User having this privilege can take control (ownership) of any object, such as a file or folder, and expose sensitive data.

Deny log on as a batch job/Deny log on as a service/Deny log on locally: Guests

To increase security, you should include the Guests group in these three settings.

Debug programs/Profile single process/Profile system performance: Administrators

This setting allows a user to attach a debugger to a system or process, thereby accessing critical, sensitive data. It can be used by attackers to collect information about running critical processes, or which users are logged on.

Change the system time: Administrators, Local Service

Changes in system time might lead to DoS issues, such as unavailability to authenticate to the domain. The Local Service role is required for the Windows Time service, VMware Tools service, and others to synchronize system time with the DC or ESXi host.

Create a token object: No one (empty value)

Users with the ability to create or modify access tokens can elevate any currently logged on account, including their own.

Impersonate a client after authentication: Administrators, Local Service, Network Service, Service

An attacker with this privilege can create a service, trick a client into connecting to that service, and then impersonate that account.

Note: For servers running Internet Information Services (IIS), the "IIS_IUSRS" account must also be added.

Load and unload device drivers: Administrators

Malicious code can be installed that pretends to be a device driver. Administrators should only install drivers with a valid signature.

I hope this article helped you to understand why it is important to define a security baseline for your systems. Many of the settings are already configured properly following server deployment; however, if they are not controlled by a GPO, they can be manipulated by malicious users. Be careful to whom you grant administrator permissions.

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Created a domain account to use as a service account and then tried to run powershell cmdlets against the active RDS management server.

Gave that account local admin access on the broker servers and then was able to get further.

Got the error “Access is denied” when trying to run the invoke-RDUserLogoff(with correct hostserver and unifiedsessionID values) to log off a session using that account.

Need to know what permissions should be granted to the account to provide ability to run this command and where like on the broker or the session host.

I can’t run the RD cmdlets on the RD broker to remove a user session without local administrator privileges on the broker and session host.

I need to know what user permissions are necessary to run these cmdlets as giving local admin is not desired.

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Sir we are having user1 in server1. We want to collect logs of server1 from server2 using credentials of user1. Surprisingly even after entering the credentials of user1 in event viewer it is taking loggedin credentials of the user logged into server2.

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user rights assignment event id

  • Knowledge Base

Policy Change Event: 608

The Who, Where and When information is very important for an administrator to have complete knowledge of all activities that occur on their Active Directory. This helps them identify any desired / undesired activity happening. ADAudit Plus assists an administrator with this information in the form of reports. In real-time, ensure critical resources in the network like the Domain Controllers are audited, monitored and reported with the entire information on AD objects - Users, Groups, GPO, Computer, OU, DNS, AD Schema and Configuration changes with 200+ detailed event specific GUI reports and email alerts.

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Event ID 608 – User Right Assigned

When there is a change to the user rights assignments on a computer, Windows logs event ID 608. Rights that are defined in group policy objects are applied by the computer.

The "User" field, meant to indicate the person who assigned or modified the rights, tends to show the name of the system. Thus, to determine the actual user who made the rights assignment changes, the domain controller's security logs must be checked.

Note: Event 608 is not logged for events such as "Access this computer from the network" or "Logon as a service".

This log data provides the following information:

  • Assigned To

Why does event ID 608 need to be monitored?

  • To monitor actions performed by the SYSTEM account
  • To monitor the actions of high-value accounts
  • To detect anomalies or malicious actions
  • To ensure only whitelisted accounts perform certain actions
  • To ensure non-active, disabled, external, guest, or other accounts are not used
  • To monitor user rights that are restricted

ADAudit Plus helps you avoid the GPOs monitoring complexities with real-time pre-configured reports and auditing of the changes along with alerts within a Domain & OU. The advanced Group Policy settings real-time audit reports highlight the elusive change details, and also provide the old and new values of the modified attributes.

Event 608 applies to the following operating systems:

  • Windows Server 2000
  • Windows 2003 and XP

Corresponding event ID in Windows 2008 and Windows Vista is 4704

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SuperTekBoy

Practical Help for Exchange & Office 365

Exchange does not have Audit Security Privilege on the domain controller

January 6, 2018 By Gareth Gudger 8 Comments

While reviewing the event logs on your Exchange server you could encounter the following error.

We ran into this recently at a customer. This was an odd error because the description specified the name of one of our domain controllers as an “Exchange Computer”. That aside, my customer was receiving this error for two of their three domain controllers (dc02 & dc03). The error was also repeated across all their Exchange servers.

To make matters worse if the customer shut down the only domain controller not reported in these errors (dc01) Exchange would become completely unavailable. As the error stated, dc02 and dc03 were definitely not being used by the Exchange Active Directory Provider.

Further analysis of the event logs also revealed informational alert MSExchange ADAccess 2080. In this alert, we could see our three domain controllers with one striking difference.

In the eighth column (highlighted), dc01 was reporting a 1 whereas dc02 and dc03 were reporting a 0. All other column data was identical between the three servers. The words in parenthesis are actually the column headers. They don’t line up very well in event viewer but if we count to the eighth word we see the column is titled “SACL right”. What this means is that the Exchange servers are missing the SACL right on the domain controllers marked with a zero.  Or more specifically, Exchange is missing the right to manage the security and audit logs of those two domain controllers.

We actually discussed this same root cause back in September  for a different problem. In that article, the missing SACL right was preventing an Exchange schema update (and in turn a cumulative update) from completing. Needless to say, the fix in that article is the same for this error.

Fixing ‘MSExchange ADAccess Event ID 2112’

We discovered that the Default Domain Controllers Policy  (which is a group policy assigned to the domain controllers OU) had been deleted. It was uncertain when this may have happened but it was clear that the policy existed for dc01 but had been deleted prior to the existence of dc02 and dc03. The absence of this policy was not an issue. More-so it was a setting that comes predefined by that policy. The error we were receiving was due to the absence of the User Rights Assignment, Manage auditing and security logs . This right is granted to the Exchange Servers and Administrators  builtin groups.

The fix was to create a new policy with these permissions defined. Let’s explore those steps.

Note: Alternatively, you can replace the entire missing Default Domain Controller Policy by running the DCGPOFIX command: dcgpofix /ignoreschema /target:dc Special Thanks:   Michael B. Smith

From the Group Policy Management Console , expand the domain and right-click on the Domain Controllers OU. From the context menu select Create a GPO in this domain, and Link it here. Give the new policy a name and click Ok. In our case, we called it User Rights Assignment for Exchange .

Manage auditing and security logs

Right-click on the new policy and select Edit . This will launch the  Group Policy Management Editor . Expand the following nodes.

Computer Configuration > Policies > Windows Settings > Security Settings > Local Policies > User Rights Assignment

Under  User Rights Assignments  double-click Manage auditing and security log .

Exchange does not have Audit Security Privilege on the domain controller

Check the box  Define these policy settings . Click Add User or Group  and then  Browse . From the  Select Users and Computers  dialog add Exchange Servers . Repeat this process to add  Administrators . Click  Ok .

MSExchange ADAccess Event ID 2112

Allow time for Active Directory to replicate. You may also want to speed up the addition of the new policy by running GPUPDATE /FORCE from the command line on the problem domain controllers.

Once applied, this should mitigate error “MSExchange ADAccess  2112”. You should also see informational alert 2080 update the domain controller entries with a 1 in the SACL column.

We would love to hear from you. Have you seen any of these errors before? What did you do to fix it? Drop a comment below or come join the conversation on Twitter  @SuperTekBoy .

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About Gareth Gudger

Gareth is an Microsoft MVP specializing in Exchange and Office 365. Gareth also contributes to the Office 365 for IT Pros book, which is updated monthly with new content. Find Gareth on LinkedIn , Twitter , or, Facebook .

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user rights assignment event id

April 16, 2021 at 2:46 pm

Thank you! Helped me too.

user rights assignment event id

August 31, 2020 at 6:10 am

Thanks a lot!!! This really saved me today.

user rights assignment event id

July 17, 2020 at 3:09 pm

2020 checking in to say thank you.

user rights assignment event id

September 4, 2019 at 11:36 am

thank you very much. saved our ass today 😉

user rights assignment event id

July 12, 2019 at 2:23 pm

Worked on 2016 Exchange

user rights assignment event id

January 17, 2019 at 12:32 pm

Great post, I also had this same problem and solved it perfectly. Thank you!

user rights assignment event id

November 9, 2018 at 1:41 pm

Nice article Gareth! I just ran into the same issue after upgrading from 2013 CU 11 to CU 21. I had just added a new child domain and the exchange server was receiving errors about the new domain controllers not having the audit security privilege.

user rights assignment event id

October 16, 2018 at 11:45 pm

thanks a lot .its worked

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Act as part of the operating system

  • 2 contributors

Describes the best practices, location, values, policy management, and security considerations for the Act as part of the operating system security policy setting.

The Act as part of the operating system policy setting determines whether a process can assume the identity of any user and thereby gain access to the resources that the user is authorized to access. Typically, only low-level authentication services require this user right. Potential access isn't limited to what is associated with the user by default. The calling process may request that arbitrary extra privileges be added to the access token. The calling process may also build an access token that doesn't provide a primary identity for auditing in the system event logs.

Constant: SeTcbPrivilege

Possible values

  • User-defined list of accounts
  • Not defined

Best practices

  • Don't assign this right to any user accounts. Only assign this user right to trusted users.
  • If a service requires this user right, configure the service to sign in by using the local System account, which inherently includes this user right. Don't create a separate account and assign this user right to it.

Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\User Rights Assignment

Default values

The following table lists the actual and effective default policy values for the most recent supported versions of Windows. Default values are also listed on the policy’s property page.

Policy management

A restart of the device isn't required for this policy setting to be effective.

Any change to the user rights assignment for an account becomes effective the next time the owner of the account logs on.

Group Policy

Settings are applied in the following order through a Group Policy Object (GPO), which will overwrite settings on the local computer at the next Group Policy update:

  • Local policy settings
  • Site policy settings
  • Domain policy settings
  • OU policy settings

When a local setting is greyed out, it indicates that a GPO currently controls that setting.

Security considerations

This section describes how an attacker might exploit a feature or its configuration, how to implement the countermeasure, and the possible negative consequences of countermeasure implementation.

Vulnerability

The Act as part of the operating system user right is powerful. Users with this user right can take complete control of the device and erase evidence of their activities.

Countermeasure

Restrict the Act as part of the operating system user right to as few accounts as possible—it shouldn't even be assigned to the Administrators group under typical circumstances. When a service requires this user right, configure the service to sign in with the Local System account, which inherently includes this privilege. Don't create a separate account and assign this user right to it.

Potential impact

There should be little or no impact because the Act as part of the operating system user right is rarely needed by any accounts other than the Local System account.

Related topics

User Rights Assignment

Additional resources

Windows Security Log Event ID 4705

4705: A user right was removed

On this page

  • Description of this event
  • Field level details
  • Discuss this event
  • Mini-seminars on this event

This event documents a change to user right assignments on this computer including the right and user or group that lost the right. Note: "User rights" and "privileges" are synonymous terms used interchangeably in Windows. Rights, like most other security settings, are defined in group policy objects and applied by the computer. Therefore this event will normally show the Assigned By user as the system itself. To determine who actually made the rights assignment change you must search the domain controllers' security logs for changes to groupPolicyContainer objects (logged by Directory Service auditing). Logon ID allows you to link this event to the prior event  4624  logon event of the user who performed this action. Note: This event, 4705, and 4704 do not log changes to logon rights such as "Access this computer from the network" or "Logon as a service". See events 4714 and 4718 .  Subject: The ID and logon session of the user that revoked the right.  Unfortunately this is just the local system account - see above. 

  • Security ID:  The SID of the account.
  • Account Name: The account logon name.
  • Account Domain: The domain or - in the case of local accounts - computer name.
  • Logon ID is a semi-unique (unique between reboots) number that identifies the logon session.  Logon ID allows you to correlate backwards to the logon event ( 4624 ) as well as with other events logged during the same logon session.

Free Security Log Resources by Randy

  • Free Security Log Quick Reference Chart
  • Windows Event Collection: Supercharger Free Edtion
  • Free Active Directory Change Auditing Solution
  • Free Course: Security Log Secrets

Description Fields in 4705

Target Account:

The user or group that was lost the right. Account Name: name of user or group

New Right:

User Right: the name of the right revoked - See User Rights table in 4704

Supercharger Enterprise

user rights assignment event id

Load Balancing for Windows Event Collection

Examples of 4705

A user right was removed.

   Security ID:  SYSTEM    Account Name:  WIN-R9H529RIO4Y$    Account Domain:  WORKGROUP    Logon ID:  0x3e7

   Account Name:  Everyone

Removed Right:

   User Right:  SeCreateTokenPrivilege

Top 10 Windows Security Events to Monitor

Free Tool for Windows Event Collection

Go To Event ID: Must be a 1-5 digit number No such event ID

user rights assignment event id

IMAGES

  1. User rights assignment in Windows Server 2016

    user rights assignment event id

  2. Change User Rights Assignment Security Policy Settings in Windows 10

    user rights assignment event id

  3. How to move Windows 10 User Rights Assignment to Endpoint Manager

    user rights assignment event id

  4. Change User Rights Assignment Security Policy Settings in Windows 10

    user rights assignment event id

  5. group policy

    user rights assignment event id

  6. How to move Windows 10 User Rights Assignment to Endpoint Manager

    user rights assignment event id

VIDEO

  1. Illegally Detained For ID Refusal

  2. CIS27 Lab 11: Computer Forensic and User Rights Assignment

  3. RightSignature

  4. How to Change Guest Details in IDS 6.5 & 7.0 Software

  5. Register Users in User Management

  6. SHOW US YOUR ID NOPE Id refusal first amendment audit

COMMENTS

  1. Windows Security Log Event ID 4704

    Windows Security Log Event ID 4704 4704: A user right was assigned On this page Description of this event Field level details Examples Discuss this event Mini-seminars on this event This event documents a change to user right assignments on this computer including the right and user or group that received the new right.

  2. User Rights Assignment

    You can configure the user rights assignment settings in the following location within the Group Policy Management Console (GPMC) under Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\User Rights Assignment, or on the local device by using the Local Group Policy Editor (gpedit.msc).

  3. 4704(S) A user right was assigned.

    <EventRecordID>1049866</EventRecordID> <Correlation /> <Execution ProcessID="500" ThreadID="1216" /> <Channel>Security</Channel> <Computer>DC01.contoso.local</Computer> <Security /> </System> - <EventData> <Data Name="SubjectUserSid">S-1-5-18</Data> <Data Name="SubjectUserName">DC01$</Data> <Data Name="SubjectDomainName">CONTOSO</Data>

  4. Windows Security Log Event ID 608

    Domain: Logon ID: Supercharger Free Edition Centrally manage WEC subscriptions. Free. Examples of 608 User Right Assigned: User Right: SeUndockPrivilege Assigned To: MTG\rsmith

  5. Log on as a service

    Constant: SeServiceLogonRight Possible values User-defined list of accounts Not Defined Best practices Minimize the number of accounts that are granted this user right. Location Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\User Rights Assignment Default values

  6. Change User Rights Assignment Security Policy Settings in Windows 10

    1 Press the Win + R keys to open Run, type secpol.msc into Run, and click/tap on OK to open Local Security Policy. 2 Expand open Local Policies in the left pane of Local Security Policy, and click/tap on User Rights Assignment. (see screenshot below step 3) 3 In the right pane of User Rights Assignment, double click/tap on the policy (ex: "Shut down the system") you want to add users and/or ...

  7. Chapter 10 Privilege Use Events

    Event ID 4673 lists the affected process and service name. By default, the following rights are suppressed and not audited by the Privilege Use category: ChangeNotifyPrivilege AuditPrivilege CreateTokenPrivilege AssignPrimaryTokenPrivilege BackupPrivilege RestorePrivilege DebugPrivilege Bottom Line

  8. Client, service, and program issues can occur if you change security

    User rights. The following list describes a user right, identifies configuration settings that may cause issues, describes why you should apply the user right and why you may want to remove the user right, and provides examples of compatibility issues that may occur when the user right is configured. Access this computer from network. Background

  9. Understanding Group Policies: User Rights Assignment Policies

    User rights are managed in Group Policy under the User Rights Assignment item. We created the video below to explain the different User Rights Assignment policies that are available and how you can use those policies to control who is able to log onto a device and what they are able to do once they've logged on.

  10. Restricting the local log on to specific users

    Click Add settings and perform the following in Settings picker. Select User Rights as category. Select Allow Local Log On as setting. Specify the required users and local groups - all on separate lines - and click Next. Figure 2: Overview of the configuration of the required setting. On the Scope tags page, configure the required scope ...

  11. EVID 4704, 4705 : User Right Assignment (Part 1) (Security)

    Regex ID Rule Name Rule Type Common Event Classification; 1011087: V 2.0 : EVID 4704 & 4705 : User Rights Assignment: Base Rule: User Account Attribute Modified: Account Modified: V 2.0 : EVID 4704 : User Right Assigned: Sub Rule: User Account Attribute Modified: Account Modified: V 2.0 : EVID 4705 : User Right Removed:

  12. Windows Security Log Event ID 4672

    This event lets you know whenever an account assigned any "administrator equivalent" user rights logs on. For instance you will see event 4672 in close proximity to logon events ( 4624 ) for administrators since administrators have most of these admin-equivalent rights. So, this is a useful right to detecting any "super user" account logons.

  13. User rights assignment in Windows Server 2016

    Local Policies/User Rights Assignment. User rights assignments are settings applied to the local device. They allow users to perform various system tasks, such as local logon, remote logon, accessing the server from network, shutting down the server, and so on. In this section, I will explain the most important settings and how they should be ...

  14. Event ID 608

    Free Edition Download Now Process Tracking » Policy Change Event: 608 Event ID 608 - User Right Assigned When there is a change to the user rights assignments on a computer, Windows logs event ID 608. Rights that are defined in group policy objects are applied by the computer.

  15. Trust computer and user accounts for delegation

    Windows 11 Windows 10 Describes the best practices, location, values, policy management, and security considerations for the Enable computer and user accounts to be trusted for delegation security policy setting. Reference This policy setting determines which users can set the Trusted for Delegation setting on a user or computer object.

  16. User Rights Assignment

    User Rights Assignment. Access Credential Manager as a trusted caller. Access this computer from the network. Act as part of the operating system. Add workstations to a domain. Adjust memory quotas for a process. Allow log on locally. Allow log on through Remote Desktop Services. Backup files and directories.

  17. Chapter 11 Policy Change Events

    Event ID 4704 and event ID 4705 log the assignment or revocation of a user right, whereas Privilege Use events log the actual use of such rights. These two Policy Change events log the user or group that was the target of the change, as well as the system name of the right or rights that were assigned or revoked.

  18. Exchange does not have Audit Security Privilege on the DC

    Log Name: Application Source: MSExchange ADAccess Event ID: 2112 Task Category: Topology Description: Process Microsoft.Exchange.Directory.TopologyService.exe (PID=2700). The Exchange computer dc03.supertekboy.com does not have Audit Security Privilege on the domain controller dc03.supertekboy.com. This domain

  19. Windows Privilege Abuse: Auditing, Detection, and Defense

    Privileges are an important native security control in Windows. As the name suggests, privileges grant rights for accounts to perform privileged operations within the operating system: debugging, impersonation, etc. Defenders who understand privileges and how attackers may abuse them can enhance their detection and attack surface reduction ...

  20. Act as part of the operating system

    The calling process may also build an access token that doesn't provide a primary identity for auditing in the system event logs. Constant: SeTcbPrivilege. Possible values. User-defined list of accounts; Not defined; ... Any change to the user rights assignment for an account becomes effective the next time the owner of the account logs on.

  21. Windows Security Log Event ID 4674

    4674: An operation was attempted on a privileged object. Event 4674 indicates that the specified user exercised the user right specified in the Privileges field. Note: "User rights" and "privileges" are synonymous terms used interchangeably in Windows. Some user rights are logged by 4674 - others by 4673. Still other, "high-volume" rights are ...

  22. Create Failover Cluster is failing in Server 2016 TP5

    Windows Settings -> Security Settings -> Local Policies -> User Rights Assignment. Deny Access to this computer from the Network = BUILTIN\GUESTS, NT Authority\Local Account. Make this entry blank and then the Cluster would build just fine. No idea why this would break it, but it does.

  23. Windows Security Log Event ID 4705

    4705: A user right was removed. This event documents a change to user right assignments on this computer including the right and user or group that lost the right. Note: "User rights" and "privileges" are synonymous terms used interchangeably in Windows. Rights, like most other security settings, are defined in group policy objects and applied ...