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117 Marketing Management Essay Topic Ideas & Examples

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Marketing management is a crucial component of any business organization, as it involves planning, implementing, and controlling various marketing activities to achieve the company's objectives. As a marketing management student, you may be required to write essays on various marketing topics to demonstrate your understanding of the subject.

To help you get started with your marketing management essays, we have compiled a list of 117 essay topic ideas and examples that you can use for inspiration:

  • The role of marketing in achieving organizational goals
  • The impact of digital marketing on consumer behavior
  • The importance of market segmentation in marketing strategy
  • The role of social media in marketing communication
  • The concept of branding and its significance in marketing management
  • The influence of celebrity endorsements on consumer purchasing decisions
  • The effectiveness of influencer marketing in reaching target audiences
  • The role of customer relationship management (CRM) in marketing strategy
  • The impact of globalization on marketing management practices
  • The importance of market research in developing marketing strategies
  • The significance of pricing strategies in marketing management
  • The role of advertising in creating brand awareness
  • The impact of e-commerce on traditional marketing channels
  • The importance of ethical marketing practices in today's business environment
  • The role of product development in marketing strategy
  • The effectiveness of guerrilla marketing tactics in reaching consumers
  • The impact of cultural differences on international marketing campaigns
  • The role of data analytics in marketing decision-making
  • The importance of customer loyalty programs in retaining customers
  • The effectiveness of content marketing in attracting and engaging audiences
  • The significance of storytelling in marketing communication
  • The impact of environmental sustainability on marketing strategies
  • The role of customer feedback in improving marketing campaigns
  • The importance of personalization in marketing communication
  • The effectiveness of mobile marketing in reaching on-the-go consumers
  • The impact of influencer marketing on brand perception
  • The role of emotional branding in creating brand loyalty
  • The importance of social responsibility in marketing campaigns
  • The significance of customer retention strategies in driving long-term growth
  • The effectiveness of experiential marketing in creating memorable brand experiences
  • The impact of online reviews on consumer purchasing decisions
  • The role of customer service in building brand reputation
  • The importance of market positioning in competitive marketing environments
  • The significance of strategic partnerships in expanding market reach
  • The effectiveness of cause marketing in building brand authenticity
  • The impact of visual branding on consumer perception
  • The role of influencer partnerships in reaching niche audiences
  • The importance of market segmentation in personalizing marketing campaigns
  • The significance of customer lifetime value in marketing strategy
  • The effectiveness of omnichannel marketing in reaching consumers across multiple touchpoints
  • The impact of artificial intelligence on marketing automation
  • The role of chatbots in enhancing customer service experiences
  • The importance of voice search optimization in digital marketing
  • The significance of user-generated content in building brand credibility
  • The effectiveness of gamification in engaging audiences
  • The impact of virtual reality on immersive brand experiences
  • The role of augmented reality in enhancing product presentations
  • The importance of influencer authenticity in building trust with audiences
  • The significance of social proof in validating brand credibility
  • The effectiveness of referral marketing in driving customer acquisition
  • The impact of search engine optimization on website visibility
  • The role of pay-per-click advertising in driving website traffic
  • The importance of email marketing in nurturing leads
  • The significance of content marketing in establishing thought leadership
  • The effectiveness of social media advertising in reaching target audiences
  • The impact of video marketing on audience engagement
  • The role of customer reviews in influencing purchasing decisions
  • The importance of influencer partnerships in reaching new markets
  • The significance of affiliate marketing in driving online sales
  • The effectiveness of retargeting campaigns in converting leads
  • The impact of mobile marketing on consumer behavior
  • The role of location-based marketing in reaching local audiences
  • The importance of personalized recommendations in driving sales
  • The significance of mobile app marketing in engaging users
  • The effectiveness of chatbot marketing in automating customer interactions
  • The impact of social media influencers on brand perception
  • The role of user-generated content in building brand loyalty
  • The importance of influencer partnerships in reaching niche audiences
  • The significance of customer testimonials in building brand credibility
  • The effectiveness of social proof in validating brand authenticity
  • The impact of influencer authenticity in driving engagement
  • The role of influencer partnerships in enhancing brand awareness
  • The importance of influencer marketing in reaching younger demographics
  • The significance of influencer partnerships in driving online sales
  • The effectiveness of influencer collaborations in creating viral campaigns
  • The impact of influencer partnerships on brand visibility
  • The role of influencer marketing in creating authentic brand experiences
  • The importance of influencer endorsements in building brand trust
  • The significance of influencer partnerships in driving social media engagement
  • The effectiveness of influencer marketing in boosting brand awareness
  • The impact of influencer partnerships on audience reach
  • The role of influencer collaborations in generating user-generated content
  • The importance of influencer endorsements in building brand credibility
  • The significance of influencer marketing in driving website traffic
  • The effectiveness of influencer partnerships in converting leads
  • The impact of influencer endorsements on consumer purchasing decisions
  • The role of influencer marketing in creating brand loyalty
  • The importance of influencer partnerships in building brand authority
  • The significance of influencer collaborations in creating buzz around new products
  • The effectiveness of influencer marketing in generating social media buzz
  • The impact of influencer endorsements on brand sentiment
  • The role of influencer partnerships in enhancing brand perception
  • The importance of influencer marketing in creating emotional connections with consumers
  • The significance of influencer collaborations in driving brand advocacy
  • The effectiveness of influencer marketing in increasing brand visibility
  • The impact of influencer partnerships on brand storytelling
  • The role of influencer endorsements in building brand authenticity
  • The importance of influencer marketing in shaping consumer perceptions
  • The significance of influencer collaborations in fostering brand loyalty
  • The effectiveness of influencer partnerships in driving word-of-mouth marketing
  • The impact of influencer marketing on brand recall
  • The role of influencer endorsements in building brand equity
  • The importance of influencer partnerships in engaging new audiences
  • The significance of influencer collaborations in building brand trust
  • The effectiveness of influencer marketing in driving customer loyalty
  • The impact of influencer endorsements on brand reputation
  • The role of influencer partnerships in enhancing customer experiences
  • The importance of influencer marketing in creating memorable brand moments
  • The effectiveness of influencer endorsements in generating brand buzz
  • The role of influencer marketing in shaping consumer perceptions
  • The importance of influencer endorsements in building brand authenticity
  • The significance of influencer partnerships in driving brand engagement
  • The effectiveness of influencer marketing in increasing brand awareness
  • The impact of influencer collaborations on brand sentiment
  • The role of influencer partnerships in enhancing brand credibility

In conclusion, marketing management essays provide an opportunity for students to explore various marketing topics and demonstrate their understanding of key concepts and theories. By selecting a relevant and engaging essay topic from the list above, you can create a compelling and well-researched essay that showcases your expertise in marketing management. Good luck with your essay writing!

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100+ Marketing Essay Topics


Crafting an outstanding marketing essay is a journey that often begins with selecting a compelling topic. At WriteOnDeadline, we understand the importance of this initial step. That’s why we’ve dedicated this post to sharing inspiring marketing essay topics that will not only ignite your passion but also appeal to your professors.

Table of Contents

What is a Marketing Essay?

A marketing essay is a unique academic document that delves into various facets of marketing analysis, strategies, concepts, and applications. It requires students to explore, critically analyze, and present arguments on marketing theories, market strategies, consumer behavior, product promotion, or other related themes. These essays not only test your knowledge of marketing principles but also your ability to research, analyze trends, and convey complex ideas succinctly.

Choosing the Right Marketing Essay Topic: A Mini Guide

Selecting a topic for your marketing essay should be a strategic process. Here’s a quick guide on how to do it:

Start by understanding the requirements for your assignment, as these will narrow down your scope. Then, brainstorm areas of interest within marketing, considering current trends, controversial issues, or gaps in research that intrigue you. Always opt for a topic that resonates with your passions but also challenges you—this balance will make your writing process enjoyable and academically rewarding. Validate your chosen topic by researching initial literature, ensuring there’s enough information available. Finally, seek feedback from peers or instructors before finalizing your topic, ensuring it’s compelling and feasible.

Exciting Marketing Essay Topics to Consider

Choosing a topic can be daunting, so we’ve compiled a diverse list of 30 engaging areas you could explore in your marketing essay.

Understanding Consumer Behavior

  • The psychological triggers behind impulsive buying
  • How cultural differences influence purchasing decisions
  • The impact of social media on consumer behavior

Digital Marketing Strategies

  • The effectiveness of influencer marketing
  • SEO tactics that dominate current digital marketing
  • Evaluating the success of email marketing

Branding and Brand Management

  • The journey of building a resilient brand image
  • Celebrity endorsements and their impact on brand perception
  • Crisis management: Reviving a tarnished brand

Ethical Considerations in Marketing

  • Exploring the effects of deceptive advertising
  • Ethical marketing: Is honesty more profitable?
  • The societal impact of marketing unhealthy food to children

Innovation in Marketing

  • How virtual reality is reshaping marketing experiences
  • The role of artificial intelligence in personalized marketing
  • Sustainable marketing: Shifting towards eco-friendly practices

Global Marketing

  • Overcoming cultural barriers in international marketing
  • Strategies for Successful Global Brand Expansion
  • Localizing products in foreign markets: Best practices

Content Marketing

  • The power of storytelling in content marketing
  • Strategies for Effective Content Marketing
  • Measuring the impact of content marketing

Challenges in Marketing

  • Combating digital ad fraud: Strategies and practices
  • Navigating marketing strategies during political unrest
  • The future of marketing in post-pandemic retail

Foundations of Marketing

  • Evolution and transformation of marketing through the ages
  • The core principles of marketing and why they matter
  • A comparative analysis of the marketing mix: 4Ps vs. 7Ps

Consumer Behavior Insights

  • Analyzing the role of emotions in buying decisions
  • Generational marketing: How baby boomers and millennials differ in their purchase behaviors
  • The increasing role of social proof in the digital age

Trends in Digital Marketing

  • The rise and implications of voice search marketing
  • Augmented reality: The next big thing in online marketing?
  • Chatbots and their effectiveness in customer engagement

Branding Dynamics

  • The science behind memorable logos and brand colors
  • Merging brands: Challenges and rewards of brand consolidation after M&As
  • The anatomy of a successful brand launch

Social Media Marketing

  • TikTok and its revolutionary impact on digital marketing strategies
  • The ongoing battle for organic reach on Facebook
  • Strategies to optimize user engagement on Instagram

Ethics and Morality in Marketing

  • The thin line between persuasion and manipulation in advertising
  • Greenwashing: Deceptive eco-friendly marketing and its consequences
  • Marketing to vulnerable populations: Ethical implications and safeguards

Marketing in the Age of Technology

  • Internet of Things (IoT) and its implications for marketers
  • Predictive analytics: Harnessing big data for targeted marketing campaigns
  • Blockchain technology and its potential uses in marketing

Relationship Marketing

  • Building brand loyalty in the era of instant gratification
  • Customer relationship management (CRM) tools and their efficacy in retaining consumers
  • The art and science of customer journey mapping

Integrated Marketing Communications

  • The role of public relations in holistic marketing strategies
  • Offline and online marketing synergy: Best practices
  • Crafting compelling brand narratives through transmedia storytelling

Niche and Guerrilla Marketing

  • The rise of pet influencers: Analyzing niche marketing strategies
  • Effective guerrilla marketing campaigns of the last decade: A case study approach
  • The balance between risk and reward in ambush marketing

Future of Marketing

  • Preparing for the metaverse: Next-generation digital marketing strategies
  • The role of biometrics in personalized marketing campaigns
  • Adapting to the post-cookie era: New strategies for online ad targeting

Retail and E-commerce Marketing

  • The resurgence of pop-up shops in the e-commerce era
  • Omnichannel marketing: Bridging the gap between offline and online retail
  • Consumer psychology behind free shipping and its impact on online sales

B2B Marketing

  • The unique challenges and rewards of B2B influencer marketing
  • Crafting compelling case studies as a B2B marketing tool
  • Account-based marketing (ABM): Tailored strategies for high-value clients

Marketing and Psychology

  • The power of color in influencing consumer choices
  • Understanding the anchoring effect in pricing strategies
  • Decoding the paradox of choice: Does more variety deter buyers?

Emerging Markets

  • Strategies for introducing a product in a newly developing market
  • Navigating marketing challenges in BRICS countries
  • The role of cultural sensitivity in marketing to emerging economies

Marketing in Healthcare

  • Ethical considerations in direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising
  • Marketing strategies for telemedicine in a post-pandemic world
  • The role of content marketing in healthcare: Educating and promoting

Non-Profit Marketing

  • Challenges and strategies for marketing without a profit motive
  • The power of storytelling in non-profit marketing campaigns
  • Mobilizing social media influencers for charitable causes

Experiential Marketing

  • Crafting unforgettable brand experiences for consumers
  • Measuring the return on investment (ROI) of experiential marketing campaigns
  • The shift from product marketing to experience marketing

Marketing Analytics

  • The promise and pitfalls of marketing attribution models
  • Utilizing machine learning for predictive marketing analytics
  • Integrating qualitative insights into a data-driven marketing strategy

Sustainability in Marketing

  • Strategies for marketing eco-friendly products to skeptical consumers
  • The long-term benefits of sustainable supply chain marketing
  • Authenticity in green marketing: Beyond the buzzwords

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Useful References

To ensure your marketing essay is grounded in credible information, consider these authoritative sources:

  • American Marketing Association – Journals and insights from leading marketing experts.
  • Google Scholar – Access a wide range of scholarly articles on various marketing topics.
  • HBR (Harvard Business Review) – Explore articles from industry leaders and academics.
  • The Journal of Consumer Research – Find in-depth studies on consumer behavior.
  • AdAge – Stay updated on the latest trends and news in advertising and marketing.

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  • Essay examples
  • Management essays


Marketing Communication (Question and Answer)

Question 1 a)Examine and review critically the four areas of marketing communication. Provide examples where necessary. (10 marks) b)Explain in detail the basic pricing strategies. Give examples to support your answers. (10 marks) Question 2 Identify and describe the most often used sources of differentiation. Give examples to support your answers. (20 marks) Question 3 Ursula is a marketing manager for a bathroom tile company. She is trying to figure out if her firm needs to utilize a push or pull strategy. What are the differences between a push and pull strategy. (20 marks) Question 4

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Jessica has just been hired as a manager for a new retail store. She is working on creating an effective retail strategy, but has forgotten some of the steps. Walk Jessica through steps of creating an effective retail strategy. (20 marks) Question 5 Discuss the seven key success factors in personal selling. Provide examples where necessary. (20 marks) Question 1 (a) The four areas of marketing communication are as follows; i)Advertising Advertising is bringing a product or service to the attention of potential and current customers. Advertising is focused on one particular product or service.

Thus, an advertising plan for one product might be very different than that for another product. Advertising is typically done with signs, brochures, commercials, direct mailings or e-mail messages, personal contact, for example New Media Advertising (Internet), TV, radio, newspaper and magazine. ii)Personal Selling Personal selling is oral communication with potential buyers of a product with the intention of making a sale. The personal selling may focus initially on developing a relationship with the potential buyer, but will always ultimately end with an attempt to “close the sale”.

Personal selling is one of the oldest forms of promotion. It involves the use of a sales force to support a push strategy (encouraging intermediaries to buy the product) or a pull strategy (where the role of the sales force may be limited to supporting retailers and providing after-sales service). iii)Public Relations Public relations include ongoing activities to ensure the overall company has a strong public image. Public relations activities include helping the public to understand the company and its products.

Often, public relations are conducted through the media that is, newspapers, television, magazines, etc. As noted above, public relation is often considered as one of the primary activities included in promotions. iv)Sales Promotion Sales promotion is any initiative undertaken by an organisation to promote an increase in sales, usage or trial of a product or service. Sales promotions are varied, and the examples are as follows; a)Buy-One-Get-One-Free (BOGOF) – which is an example of a self- liquidating promotion. This is known as a premium sales promotion tactic. )Customer Relationship Management (CRM) – incentives such as bonus points or money off coupons. There are many examples of CRM, from banks to supermarkets. c)New media – Websites and mobile phones that support a sales promotion. For example, in the United Kingdom, Nestle printed individual codes on KIT-KAT packaging, whereby a consumer would enter the code into a dynamic website to see if they had won a prize. Consumers could also text codes via their mobile phones to the same effect. d)Merchandising – additions such as dump bins, point-of-sale materials and product demonstrations. Question 1 (b)

Price plays an important economic function when it becomes a monetary exchange of value. Price is the amount that consumers are willing to pay for the value that they receive. Companies face a great challenge in determining an appropriate pricing structure for all items they have in their product line and product mix. As products progresses throughout their lifecycle, their characteristics such as customers, competitors, and costs would change. Such changes also merit an adjustment in their pricing structure. Generally, there are three basic pricing strategies: skimming, neutral, and penetration.

These pricing strategies represent the three ways in which a pricing manager or executive could look at pricing. Knowing these strategies and teaching them to your sales staff, and letting them know which one they should be using, allows for a unity within the company and a defined, company-wide pricing policy. i)Promotional Pricing The objective of promotional pricing is to stimulate short-term increase in sales. This is done by charging a price below the list price or sometimes even below cost for a specified time period. The examples are as follows; a)Special event pricing

Prices are reduced to commemorate a certain event to attract customers. For example, “ Hari Raya Sale”, “Chinese New Year Sale”, Christmas Sale” and “Back To School Sale”. b)Cash rebate Often used within a limited time period to encourage the purchase of a manufacturer’s product. Rebates are also used to move stocks without having to cut the stated list price. c)Longer payment term Financial institutions such as banks and credit corporations extend their loan periods to enable lower monthly installments to be paid by their customers.

For example, in recent years it is common for banks/finance companies to offer car financing for up to 7 years or even 9 years. ii)Geographical Pricing Variable-pricing method in which a selling price is computed according to the customer’s or market’s distance or transportation costs incurred. It is also an evident where there are variations in price in different part of the world. Form of geographical pricing includes: a)FOB-origin pricing A customer would have to pay the freight for their goods from the factory to the destination. However, the goods would be placed free on the board carrier. b)Uniform delivery pricing

This pricing strategy involves charging the same plus freight to every customer regardless of their location. Hence, whether a customer is located near or far, they will be charged the same price plus freight. c)Zone pricing A company would divide its market into a few or several zones. All customers within a specific zone would pay a fixed total price. d)Basing-point pricing A customer would pay their freight charges from the company’s base location to their location, regardless of where the goods are being shipped from. e)Freight-absorption pricing A company would absorb part or all the freight cost.

This strategy use to attract customers. iii)Price discounts Price discounts are incentives offered to customers, usually as a means of attracting repeat business from those customers. While the implementation of some type of discount on price will vary from one situation to another, the basic idea is to provide customers with a sense of receiving some type of additional value by not having to pay the standard or published price for goods and services. This type of strategy is often utilized to attract business clients and entice them to make long-term commitments to a specific vendor.

One of the more common examples of a price discount to a business or other type of organization is known as the volume price discount. With this approach, a vendor offers the client a discounted rate on each unit purchased, provided the client agrees to generate a certain level of business volume within a given period of time. Question 2 A differentiation strategy is one of creating a product or service that is perceived as being unique “throughout the industry”. The emphasis can be on brand image, proprietary technology, special features, superior service, a strong distributor network or other aspects that might be specific to your industry.

This uniqueness should also translate to profit margins that are higher than the industry average. In addition, some of the conditions that should exist to support a differentiation strategy include strong marketing abilities, effective product engineering, creative personnel, the ability to perform basic research and a good reputation. Product differentiation focuses on the price, quality and the features. Product differentiation is the process of identifying the distinctions that exist between goods and services that are intended for consumption by the same segment of the consumer market.

The idea behind this approach is usually to convince consumers that a particular product is able to fulfill all the functions associated with the competition, but to do so more efficiently and possibly at a lower cost. As part of the touting of the superior quality of the product, the advertising may also identify additional functions that the product can provide that are not offered by the competing products. It is important to note that the process of product differentiation relies heavily on creating the desired perspective among consumers.

While there may be no essential difference between the functions and quality of a given product over the products offered by the competition, the idea is to create a sense among consumers that there are compelling reasons to consider a given product more desirable than the rest. A number of different tactics can be used to create this perception, while still offering the customer some type of value added incentive. The brand differences are usually minor; they can be merely a difference in packaging or an advertising theme. The physical product need not change, but it could.

Differentiation is due to buyers perceiving a difference; hence causes of differentiation may be functional aspects of the product or service, how it is distributed and marketed, or who buys it. The major sources of product differentiation are as follows. •Differences in quality which are usually accompanied by differences in price for example, more value, cheaper price freebies – accessories, companion products, free upgrades, and coupons for future purchases, free shipping, that is, convenience sells, especially when it is free, and discounts that includes offering regular sales, coupons, etc. Differences in functional features or design •Sales promotion activities of sellers and, in particular, advertising •Differences in availability for example, timing and location Vertical differentiation is the comparing of many products in a single market and ordering them from lowest to highest, according to their perceived quality. Vertical differentiation occurs in a market where the several goods that are present can be ordered according to their objective quality from the highest to the lowest. Vertical differentiation : Decisive Feature – Vertical differentiation can be determined by comparing one key feature, such as taste, usability or color. •Wide Range – The differences in multiple goods can be ordered according to multiple values. One good may be better in one aspect and worse in another. •Identifying Traits – The goods can be ordered depending on whether or not certain traits are present – for example, the presence or absence of meat when looking for vegetarian food. •Perceived Difference – Vertical differentiation is entirely dependent upon consumers’ preferences and the differences that they perceive individually. Biased Perception – Many consumers have a biased perception about a product due to advertisement, reviews, stated opinions of friends or family and past experiences. For example, a beverage company may package its products in containers that are designed to store comfortably on the shelves built into a standard refrigerator door. If the competing products are of a size and design that require they take up more space on the interior shelves of the refrigerator, consumers who wish to make the most of the available space within the appliance may find this a good reason to purchase what they perceive is a more space efficient product.

This is particularly true if the consumer perceives that this space efficient product is of equal quality to the competition, and costs no more money. Question 3 Push and pull strategy are physical metaphors characterizing the promotional activities manufacturers undertake to encourage channel members or the trade to handle and merchandise brands and consumers to purchase them. The difference between push and pull strategy can be defined as follows; i)Push Strategy Push involves a forward thrust of effort, whereby a manufacturer directs personal selling, trade advertising, and trade-oriented promotions to wholesalers and retailers.

A push promotional strategy involves taking the product directly to the customer via whatever means to ensure the customer is aware of your brand at the point of purchase. The example of push tactics are, trade show promotions to encourage retailer demand, direct selling to customers in showrooms or face to face, negotiation with retailers to stock your product, efficient supply chain allowing retailers an efficient supply, packaging design to encourage purchase, and point of sale displays. The term ‘push strategy’ describes the work a manufacturer of a product needs to perform to get the product to the customer.

This may involve setting up distribution channels and persuading middle men and retailers to stock the product. The push technique can work particularly well for lower value items such as fast moving consumer goods, when customers are standing at the shelf ready to drop an item into their baskets and are ready to make their decision on the spot. This term now broadly encompasses most direct promotional techniques such as encouraging retailers to stock your product, designing point of sale materials or even selling face to face. ii)Pull Strategy

A pull strategy involves motivating customers to seek out your brand in an active process. Pull strategy refers to the customer actively seeking out your product and retailers placing orders for stock due to direct consumer demand. A pull strategy requires a highly visible brand which can be developed through mass media advertising or similar tactics. If customers want a product, the retailers will stock it – supply and demand in its purest form and this is the basis of a pull strategy. Create the demand, and the supply channels will almost look after themselves.

Examples of pull strategy tactics are advertising and mass media promotion, word of mouth referrals, customer relationship management and sales promotions and discounts. Diagram 1 Example differences between a push and pull promotional strategy In Ursula’s case for the bathroom tile company, it is best to take the pull strategy since it work well with highly visible brands, or where there is good brand awareness. This is usually developed through advertising to inform consumers about the product to gain customers’ attention in order to fulfill their needs and satisfactions. Question 4

The retail sector is one of the most competitive in the business world, and so effective marketing strategy is needed in order to be successful. Following are the effective retail strategy; i)Use the Internet With the Internet increasing in popularity all the time, it is extremely important to use Internet marketing as a way to improve market share. In order to improve the access to customers, create a web site where customers can view the merchandise and possibly buy products online. Selling products online is a great way of expanding the business without having to spend lots of money on new premises or retail locations.

Effective marketing strategy should use all mediums available to improve business exposure, and with online advertising a low cost and effective medium it makes sense to take advantage of the opportunity. ii)Offer a promotion Retail business is extremely competitive, and so even the smallest of promotions can give you an edge over competitors. The business strategy should be to come up with regular and innovative promotions to entice customers into to the store. These promotions can range from offering a free gift with certain products to a competition entry when certain items are purchased.

Maintaining marketing strategy fresh with new promotions will definitely remain competitive and will attract customers to the products. iii)Signage and storefront Change the display each season and alter the sign every few years to keep things looking good. Keep the signage constant so that the brand and store are easily recognizable. Make sure the sign can be seen from as far a distance as possible. Sometimes, the simplest marketing strategies are the best, and keeping the store bright and attractive is one such method.

The steps for effective retail strategy are as follows; a)Assess the long and short term goals Set the bar as for achievement. Establish both short term and long term objectives and make goals meaningful, specific, and measurable. b)Create product line and pricing strategy Setting price involves estimating the monetary value the customer will receive, and understanding the financial goals and objectives. Price the product/service at a rate higher than the fixed and variable cost. c)Create customer retention strategy To retain customer, they need to be entertained or valued.

By customer loyalty program for example, membership card can be given for customers besides giving them more discounts and gifts for every purchased items, points and rebates. d)Financial model The model is usually characterized by performing calculations, and makes recommendations based on that information. The model may also summarize particular events for the end user and provide direction regarding possible actions or alternatives. It also include inventory strategy replenish, sales forecast profit and sale. e)Review every quarterly of the sale and strategy

Conducting a quarterly review on the sales on profit and loss, followed by strategy on how to overcome each problem occurred in the sales and how to gain the business profits better. Question 5 Personal selling is a promotional method in which one party or salesperson uses skills and techniques for building personal relationships with another party that is, those involved in a purchase decision that results in both parties obtaining value. In most cases the value for the salesperson is realized through the financial rewards of the sale while the customer’s value is realized from the benefits obtained by consuming the product.

However, getting a customer to purchase a product is not always the objective of personal selling. For instance, selling may be used for the purpose of simply delivering information. Because selling involves personal contact, this promotional method often occurs through face-to-face meetings or via a telephone conversation, though newer technologies allow contact to take place over the Internet including using video conferencing or text messaging or online chat. Personal selling is oral communication with potential buyers of a product with the intention of making a sale.

The personal selling may focus initially on developing a relationship with the potential buyer, but will always ultimately end with an attempt to “close the sale”. Personal selling is one of the oldest forms of promotion. It involves the use of a sales force to support a push strategy that is, encouraging intermediaries to buy the product or a pull strategy, where the role of the sales force may be limited to supporting retailers and providing after-sales service. In comparison to other marketing communications tools such as advertising, personal selling tends to: •Use fewer resources, pricing is often negotiated. Products tend to be fairly complex (e. g. financial services or new cars). •There is some contact between buyer and seller after the sale so that an ongoing relationship is built. •Client/prospects need specific information. •The purchase tends to involve large sums of money. The seven key factors in personal selling can be described as follows; i)Prospecting: Salespeople use multiple sources to identify prospective buyers for their products and services. A potential buyer is considered a prospect when qualified in terms of need or want, ability to buy, authority to buy, and eligibility. i)Pre-approach: Information is gathered about the prospect in preparation for the sales call. This information is used to both further qualify the prospect and to develop an effective approach and presentation to the customer. This stage typically culminates in setting an appointment with the prospect. iii)Approach: This step covers the first few minutes of the sales call, a critical time for salespeople. The salesperson’s objective is to make a favorable first impression and to gain the customer’s attention and interest sufficiently to make the presentation. v) Sales Presentation This is the “core” of the sales process where salespeople present their offerings’ features and benefits to potential customers. Attempts are made to arouse customer’s desire for the product. v)Handling Objections and Overcoming Resistance Salespeople attempt to overcome the prospect’s resistance and reluctance to purchase by responding to objections and emphasizing particular product benefits to promote purchase decisions. vi)Closing Salespeople initiate purchase decisions through methods designed to solicit orders.

In the most appropriate and effective manner, customers are asked to purchase the offering. vii) Post-Sale Follow-up Salespeople continue to emphasize customer satisfaction in the post-sale period. Activities during this time include reducing post-purchase concerns of customers; ensuring timely delivery, installation, and/or training; providing periodic follow-up or maintenance service; and handling complaints and questions. In general, the goal is to build goodwill to enhance future sales chances.

For example, Mary Kay Cosmetics, unlike most other consumer product companies, relies primarily on personal selling which takes place in independent interactions or at Mary Kay parties where sellers and buyers meet. While Mary Kay products are available online for purchase, customers buy products through thousands of independent consultants nationwide because Mary Kay products are not available in retail stores. Advertisements such as this personal Mary Kay beauty consultant ad communicate the product to customers.

This example introduces customers to new beauty products and the concept of a personal seller who is in direct contact with the customers. These beauty consultants represent the company to consumers, acting as salespeople to share information with consumers about various products and also listening to their opinions to find the best fit for the consumer’s needs and wants. References 1. Baker, S. and Mitchell, H. (2000) Integrated Marketing Communications: Implications for Managers. European Society for Opinion Market Research, November.

Broedrick ang Kitchen, 2001. 2. Duncan, T. R. and Everett, S. E. (1993) Client Perceptions of Integrated Marketing Communications. Journal of Advertising Research, 33 (3), 30-39 3. Pickton, D. and Broderick, A. (2001) Integrated Marketing Communications. Pearson Education. 4. Shimp, T. A. (1997) Advertising, Promotion, and Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications, 4th ed. The Dryden Press. 5. Fill, C. (2002) Marketing Communications:Contexts, Strategies and Applications. Pearson Education. 6. Don E.

Schultz and William A. Robinson, Sales Promotion Management (Lincolnwood;III. :NTC Business Books,1986),436-445. 7. Arens, William F. Contemporary Advertising. 7th ed. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill,1998. 8. Belch, George E. , and Michael A. Belch. Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective. 4th ed. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill,1998 9. Sellars, David. Role Playing: The Principles of Personal Selling. Orlando, FL: Dryden Press, 1997. 10. www. marketing-made-simple. com 11. www. tutor2u. net/business/marketing

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78 marketing questions to ask (and how to test them)

marketing communication essay questions


marketing communication essay questions

Spectacular marketers are the ones who are always asking the right marketing questions. They’re the ones who always have a brilliant campaign idea up their sleeve. The ones who are constantly looking for new and exciting ways to create great experiences for their customers. The ones who use human insights to make sure their messaging hits the mark. So what’s their secret sauce? What separates a spectacular marketer from an average one? At UserTesting, our experience has shown that:

The most successful marketers are the ones who question and test everything.

Great marketers are the ones who ask questions and they talk to their customers to find the answers. They invest in optimization and care about the experiences they leave their customers with. According to VentureBeat , the top 20% of marketers are more likely to base their decisions on test results and data. If you’re ready to make a real impact with your marketing efforts, ask these 78 marketing questions —and then test them.

Marketing questions to ask to:

Improve your customer experience, measure overall brand impression, compare your company to a competitor, get a complete understanding of your analytics data, track performance over time, evaluate the omnichannel customer experience, improve your social media marketing, find out if your copy is effective.

  • Learn what customers think of your ads

Optimize your email marketing

  • Build high-converting landing pages

Optimize your forms

Find out how users discover your company through organic search, improve your content marketing, run better a/b tests.

  • Improve customer retention
  • How can you measure your customer experience ?
  • Are your customers aware of all of the features, products, and services that you offer?
  • How likely would they be to recommend your company to a friend?
  • What, if anything, would make them stop doing business with you?
  • If they had a magic wand, what would your customers change about their experiences with your product?
  • How can you gather human insight quickly?
  • How can you bridge the empathy gap with your customers?
  • How do users perceive your company?
  • What words would they use to describe you?
  • Do those words match the way you want to be perceived?
  • Does your brand appear trustworthy?
  • Would they recommend you?
  • What do they like and dislike about the way you present your product or service?
  • If users are already familiar with both companies, which do they prefer?
  • Why do they prefer one company over the other?
  • Who does a better job of explaining the product or offering clearly?
  • Who does a better job of convincing the customer to convert?
  • What do people like and dislike about your top competitor’s newest feature or product?
  • What would convince them to switch to your company?
  • What might convince your current customers to switch to one of your competitors?
  • Why do certain pages have high bounce and exit rates?
  • What’s really causing users to leave your site at those points?
  • Why are conversions lower on mobile than desktop (or vice versa)?
  • Why do certain demographics behave differently than other demographics on your site?
  • Why does one webpage have such a high average time on page?
  • How has your customer experience changed since your last test?
  • Are you improving compared to the competition?
  • Are the changes because of something you changed on your site, something different about your product, or something in the market?
  • How do users interact with your company on their smartphone, desktop, tablet, and in person?
  • Is the experience consistent across all channels ?
  • If they need to complete a process that spans multiple devices, can they do it smoothly?
  • What do your users consider their primary channel of choice?
  • What are your users talking about on social media?
  • What types of support requests or complaints are coming in?
  • How are you utilizing the feedback you receive on social media to shape the product?
  • What type of content performs best on each social channel?
  • How can you continue to replicate your best performing content?
  • Does your target market understand what you’re offering when they land on your homepage for the first time?
  • Is your language clear and free of jargon?
  • Do you speak like your audience speaks?
  • Are you catching their attention with your CTAs?
  • Could a first-time visitor describe your unique value proposition using their own words?

Learn what users think of your ads

  • What’s the mindset of someone who’s encountering your ads for the first time?
  • What do people notice, like, and dislike about your ads?
  • Do they seem helpful, or do they seem spammy?
  • What phrases or design elements catch users’ eyes?
  • What entices your target user to click a Google Ads (formerly AdWords) ad?
  • Why are users opening some of your emails more than others?
  • Will your target market understand and engage with your next email campaign?
  • What would users change about your emails if they could?
  • Do your users receive emails from other companies in your industry?
  • If so, which companies?
  • What do the users like and dislike about those emails?

Build higher-converting landing pages

  • Can your target customer understand what’s being offered?
  • Does it meet their expectations?
  • Can they easily sign up for it using the forms you’ve provided?
  • Do they become distracted by anything?
  • Do they think your offer has value, and are they willing to pay money or enter their contact information in exchange for it?
  • Is there any other information they would need to see before clicking on that CTA?
  • Do you have the right number of fields on your form?
  • Are all of your forms fully accessible to people who use a keyboard or switch input device rather than a mouse?
  • Do the forms work correctly and smoothly on all devices and all screen sizes?
  • If a user makes a mistake when filling out a form, do your error messages help them correct the mistake right away?
  • Is there anything about your forms that would make a user give up?
  • What do users notice first when they search for your keywords: your website, your competitors, or your ads?
  • What words stand out to them on the Google search results page?
  • If and when they click on your link, what are they expecting to find?
  • Does your landing page meet those expectations?
  • Do users find your blog/whitepapers/infographics/webinars helpful and relevant?
  • When a user lands on your blog or resource center, what do they want to read first?
  • Why did that piece of content catch their eye first?
  • Do your users enjoy reading similar content from other companies? (If so, which ones?)
  • What topics would they like to see you cover next?
  • Where do users generally go to discover content related to their interests, their job, and their industry?
  • How can you come up with an A/B test idea that will actually move the needle?
  • Why do you think your last A/B test result turned out the way it did?
  • What did users prefer about the winning version?
  • What, if anything, did they prefer about the losing version?

Now, it’s time to run tests and get your answers

To get the answers to your digital marketing questions, you’re going to need to go to the source: your customers. By gathering human insight, you can find out what’s working so you create great experiences across all your channels.

In this Article

Get started now

marketing communication essay questions

Guide: How marketers stop guessing and build better campaigns

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With UserTesting’s on-demand platform, you uncover ‘the why’ behind customer interactions. In just a few hours, you can capture the critical human insights you need to confidently deliver what your customers want and expect.

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15 Marketing Communication Interview Questions and Answers

Prepare for the types of questions you are likely to be asked when interviewing for a position where Marketing Communication skills will be used.

marketing communication essay questions

In the business world, communication is key. Marketing communications professionals are responsible for creating and delivering messages that promote a company, its products, or its services. They use a variety of channels to reach their target audience, including advertising, public relations, digital marketing, and events.

If you’re interested in a career in marketing communications, you need to be prepared to answer a range of interview questions. In this guide, we’ll give you some sample questions and answers to help you prepare for your next marketing communications job interview.

1. What is marketing communication?

This question is a great way to test your knowledge of marketing communication. It also allows you to show the interviewer that you understand how important this skill set is in the workplace. Use your answer to explain what marketing communication is and why it’s so important for businesses to have strong marketing communication skills.

Example: “Marketing communication is the process of creating messages that are relevant to customers, which can be done through different channels like social media or email. Marketing communication helps companies create effective campaigns that reach their target audience. This is an essential skill because it allows marketers to connect with customers on a personal level and build relationships with them.”

2. What are the various types of Marketing Communication?

This question is a great way to test your knowledge of the various types of marketing communication. You can list all the different types and explain what each type entails.

Example: “Marketing communication has many forms, including advertising, public relations, sales promotion, direct marketing, event marketing, experiential marketing, sponsorship, digital marketing, social media marketing, content marketing, word-of-mouth marketing, guerrilla marketing, viral marketing, affiliate marketing, mobile marketing, email marketing, search engine optimization (SEO) and more. Each form of marketing communication has its own purpose and target audience.”

3. Can you explain what a brand identity is and how it’s achieved using marketing communications?

This question is a great way to test your knowledge of the marketing process and how it relates to brand identity. It’s important that you show the interviewer that you understand the importance of brand identity in achieving business goals through effective marketing communications.

Example: “A brand identity is the personality, values and reputation of a company or product as perceived by its target audience. Achieving brand identity involves creating an image for a company or product that resonates with consumers and makes them want to buy from you. This can be achieved using marketing communication skills such as advertising, public relations, social media and more.”

4. When would you use direct mail as part of your marketing strategy?

This question can help the interviewer understand your knowledge of marketing strategies and how you apply them to different situations. Use examples from past experiences to show that you know when direct mail is an effective strategy for reaching a target audience.

Example: “Direct mail is one of my favorite marketing tools because it’s so versatile. I’ve used it in the past to reach both existing customers and new prospects, depending on what the campaign goals are. For example, at my last job, we sent out a direct mail piece to our current customer base with a special offer. This helped us increase sales by 10% over the next month. We also used direct mail to introduce a new product line to our customers. The response rate was much higher than expected.”

5. How do you define digital marketing?

This question is a great way to test your knowledge of the industry. It also allows you to show how you can define complex terms for others. When answering this question, try to be as clear and concise as possible.

Example: “Digital marketing is the process of using digital channels to promote brands or products. This includes social media, search engine optimization, email marketing and more. Digital marketing has become increasingly important because it’s where most consumers are spending their time online. I think that marketers who understand digital marketing will have an advantage in the future.”

6. What are some examples of digital marketing channels?

This question is a great way to show your interviewer that you have experience with digital marketing channels. You can list several examples of the most popular channels and explain how they work.

Example: “Some of the most common digital marketing channels are social media, search engine optimization, email marketing, content marketing and influencer marketing. Social media is one of the most effective ways to reach customers because it’s free and easy to use. SEO helps websites rank higher in search engines like Google so more people can find them. Email marketing is another highly effective channel for reaching customers because many people check their emails regularly. Content marketing involves creating valuable content that attracts an audience and encourages them to share it. Influencer marketing is when brands partner with influential bloggers or vloggers who already have large followings.”

7. What is an email newsletter?

An email newsletter is a type of marketing communication that businesses use to connect with their customers. An interviewer may ask this question to see if you know the basics of how to create an effective newsletter. In your answer, try to define what an email newsletter is and explain why it’s important for businesses to have one.

Example: “An email newsletter is a publication that companies send out to their subscribers via email. It usually contains information about new products or services, sales and other relevant news. Email newsletters are a great way for businesses to stay in touch with their customers and keep them up-to-date on company news. They’re also useful because they allow businesses to collect customer data, which can help them better understand their target audience.”

8. What does “Content is King” mean in the context of marketing communications?

This question is a great way to test your knowledge of the basics of marketing communications. It also allows you to show how you can apply this basic principle in your own work.

Example: “Content is King” means that content is the most important part of any marketing communication campaign. If you have good content, then people will want to read it and share it with others. This leads to more exposure for your brand and more opportunities to make sales. I’ve found that if you create quality content, such as blog posts or infographics, then you don’t need to spend money on advertising. People will find your content through search engines and social media.”

9. Why is content important for marketing communications?

This question is a great way to show your knowledge of the role content plays in marketing communications. It also allows you to explain how you use content for effective communication.

Example: “Content is one of the most important aspects of marketing communications because it’s what people interact with when they’re looking for information about a product or service. I think that having quality content that provides useful and relevant information can help build trust between a brand and its target audience, which leads to more sales. In my last position, I was responsible for creating blog posts and social media updates for our company’s website. My goal was to create engaging content that would encourage users to share it on their own social media accounts.”

10. Can you show me some examples of good content that can be used in marketing communications?

This question is a great way to show your interviewer that you have experience with creating content for marketing communications. Showcase your ability to create quality content by providing examples of the types of content you’ve created in the past and how they helped achieve company goals.

Example: “I recently worked on a campaign where we needed to increase brand awareness among millennials. I researched popular social media platforms like Instagram, Snapchat and YouTube and found that many millennials use these platforms to learn about new brands. So, I developed a plan to create short videos that would be shared on those platforms. We also used influencers to promote our products through their channels. The campaign was very successful because it increased brand awareness by 30%.”

11. What has been your experience with developing and promoting website content?

This question can help the interviewer understand your experience with creating content for websites and other digital platforms. Use examples from previous work to highlight your skills in researching, writing and editing content that is engaging and easy to read.

Example: “In my last role, I was responsible for managing a website’s blog section. This included finding topics to write about, conducting research on those topics and then drafting articles based on my findings. After completing the first draft, I would edit the article multiple times before publishing it online. I also created social media posts and email newsletters to promote the blog content.”

12. What kind of content should I use on social media sites like Facebook, Twitter, Google+, or LinkedIn?

Social media is a popular way to connect with customers and potential clients. Employers want to know that you understand how to use social media effectively, so they can be sure you’ll create effective marketing campaigns for their company. In your answer, explain what kind of content you would share on each platform and why it’s important to do so.

Example: “I think the most important thing to remember when using social media is that these are people, not just numbers or statistics. I would make sure to post interesting articles, videos and photos that my target audience would find engaging. For example, if I was working for an outdoor clothing store, I might post pictures of beautiful landscapes and wildlife along with inspirational quotes about nature. I’d also try to respond to comments and questions as much as possible.”

13. What is the difference between push and pull marketing strategies?

This question is a great way to test your knowledge of marketing communication strategies. You can use it to show the interviewer that you understand how to apply different methods to reach customers and clients. In your answer, try to define both push and pull marketing strategies and explain what makes them unique from one another.

Example: “Push and pull marketing are two very different approaches to reaching customers and clients. Push marketing involves using advertisements or other forms of promotion to get people’s attention. Pull marketing uses customer data to create personalized experiences for each person who visits a website or interacts with a brand online. I’ve used both types of marketing in my previous roles, and I find that they work best when used together.”

14. What are the main differences between paid search and SEO?

This question is a great way to test your knowledge of the different types of marketing communication. It also allows you to show that you understand how they work together and can apply them in real-world situations.

Example: “Paid search and SEO are two very different forms of marketing communication, but they do have some similarities. Both involve creating content for websites and social media platforms, although paid search focuses on advertising through specific keywords while SEO involves optimizing content so it’s more likely to appear higher in search results. Another difference is that with paid search, you pay for each click or impression, whereas SEO doesn’t cost anything.”

15. What’s the best way to track results when running a multichannel marketing campaign?

This question is an opportunity to show your interviewer that you can use data and analytics to measure the success of a marketing campaign. Use examples from previous experiences where you tracked results, analyzed data and used this information to make decisions about future campaigns.

Example: “I find it’s important to track all channels when running a multichannel marketing campaign because each channel has its own unique metrics. For example, I once worked on a campaign for a client who sold home goods online. We ran a social media campaign with paid ads on Facebook and Instagram. The goal was to increase brand awareness and drive traffic to the website.

We set up Google Analytics to track our KPIs, which included page views, time spent on site, bounce rate and conversion rates. After we completed the campaign, we found that the Facebook ads were more effective at driving traffic to the website than the Instagram ads. However, Instagram had higher conversion rates.”

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Questions in Marketing Communication - Essay Example

Questions in Marketing Communication

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634 Communication Essay Topics & Examples

If you’re searching for communication essay topics or examples, you’ve stumbled on the right page!

Essay on Marketing: Top 9 Essays on Marketing

marketing communication essay questions

Essay on‘Marketing’. Find paragraphs, long and short term papers on ‘Marketing’ especially written for school and college students.

Essay on Marketing

Term Paper Contents:

  • Essay on the Challenges and Opportunities of Marketing

Essay # 1. Introduction to Marketing:


Marketing is everywhere. Everything from presenting yourself for a job interview to selling your products includes marketing. Main objective of any company is to gain profits which can be achieved only through marketing of the products. Marketing enables the companies to create demand and earn profits. If these two aspects are not taken care of, then the company will not survive in the market.

“Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers, and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.” – (American Marketing Association)

“Marketing is a social process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.” – (Philip Kotler)

Thus it can be safely said that a company reaches its customer through marketing and communicates to them about the products and services offered by the company.

ADVERTISEMENTS: (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Essay # 2. Evolution of Marketing :

In earlier days, an organization was mainly concerned with production of goods. It used to believe on mass production and paid less or negligible attention on quality of the product and the customer’s demand.

After some time, the focus of organization shifted from production of the product to the sale of the product. The concept of marketing emerged gradually in 1970’s after the production and sales era. It took many years for organizations to realize that a customer is the key for making profits in the long run. The marketing concept is evolved through various stages.

These stages are explained below:

1. Production Era :

The production era began with the Industrial Revolution in the 17th century and continued till 1920s. Say’s law – Supply creates its own demand – was applicable in this era. The demand for products was more than the supply in the market; thus, it was a seller’s market. In the production era, the main aim of an organization was to manufacture products faster and at low prices. In this era, customers were concerned only about the availability of products and no importance was given to features and quality of products.

2. Sales Era :

The sales era came into existence in 1920s and continued till the mid of 1950s. This era was marked by the great depression of 1923. The depression proved that manufacturing products was not everything because the sale of the products was also important for organizations to earn profit.

Thus, the need for developing promotion and distribution strategies emerged to sell products. The organizations started advertising their products to increase their sales. Many organizations created specialized market research departments to collect and analyze the prevailing market data.

3. Marketing Era :

The sales era merely focused on selling the goods and ignored the consumers’ needs and demands. The year 1970 marked the advent of marketing era. In the marketing era, organizations realized the importance of customers and started designing the products as per customers’ needs.

Therefore, the marketing era led to the development of customer-centered activities over the production and selling activities. Organizations came up with different techniques, such as customer survey, to collect and analyze data for understanding the customer’s expectations, needs, and wants.

ADVERTISEMENTS: (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Essay # 3. Approaches to the Study of Marketing:

The meaning of marketing is different to different people. In common parlance, marketing is the process of selling something at a market place. To a salesman it means selling whereas to an advertising manager it means advertising. To some it means the study of individual commodities and their movement in the market place, to some others marketing means the study of institutions and persons who move their products or study of the economic contributions.

Thus, there are different approaches to the study of marketing:

1. Commodity Approach:

The commodity approach focuses a specific commodity and includes the sources and conditions of supply, nature and extent of demand, the distribution channels used and the functions, such as buying, selling, financing, advertising storage etc. various agencies perform. Prof. Paul Mazur defined as “the delivery of a standard of living to society. Prof. Malcolm McNair expanded the definition to “the creation and delivery of a standard of living”.

2. Institutional Approach:

The institutional approach focuses on the study of various middlemen and facilitating agencies.

3. Functional Approach:

The functional approach considers different kinds of functions recognized for their repetitive occurrences and necessarily performed to consummate market transactions. Converse, Huegy and Mitchell define marketing as the “business of buying and selling and as including those business activities involved in the flow of goods and services between producers and consumers.” American Marketing Association, perhaps, gives more factual or descriptive definition. It defined marketing as the performance of business activities that direct the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user.

4. Managerial Approach:

The managerial approach concentrates on the decision making process involved in the performance of marketing functions at the level of a firm. Howard, Phelps and Westing and Lazo and Corbin are the pioneers of the managerial approach.

5. Societal Approach:

The societal approach consider the interactions between the various environmental factors (socio-logical, cultural, political, legal) and marketing decisions and their impact on the well- being of society. Kotler, Feldman and Gist, were the main proponents of the societal approach.

6. Systems Approach:

The systems’ approach is based on Von Bartalanffy’s general systems theory. He defined system as a “set of objects together with the relationships among them and their attributes”. This approach recognizes the inter-relations and inter-connections among the components of a marketing system in which products, services, money, and equipment and information flow from marketers to consumers that largely determine the survival and growth capacities of a firm.

7. Modern Concept:

The new managerial awareness and desire reflected in the consumer orientation for all all-out commitment to the market consideration and to connect all marketing operations to the consumer needs has given birth to a new operational concept. Felton views the marketing concept as “a corporate state of mind that insists on the integration and coordination of all marketing functions that, in turn, are welded with all other corporate functions, for the basic objective of producing maximum long-range corporate profits.

According to Kotler, the marketing concept is a customer orientation backed by integrated marketing aimed at generating customer satisfaction as the key to satisfying organizational goals. According to McNamara,” marketing concept is … a philosophy of business management, based upon a company- wide acceptance of the need for customer orientation, profit orientation, and recognition of the important role of marketing in communicating the needs of the market to all major corporate departments”.

Lazo and Cobin describe marketing concept as ” the recognition on the part of management that all business decisions of a firm must be made in the light of customer needs and wants; hence, that all marketing activities must be under one supervision and that all activities of a firm must be coordinated at the top, in the light of market requirements”. King has given one of the most comprehensive descriptions of the marketing concept. He defined it as, “a managerial philosophy concerned with the mobilization, utilization and control of total corporate effort for the purpose of helping consumers solve selected problems in ways compatible with planned enhancement of the profit position of the firm”.

These definitions suggest that marketing is only concerned with the movement of goods and services from the plant to the consumer. This is thus a production-oriented definition more appropriate for a sellers’ market and dangers in case of buyers’ market. In fact, marketing is related with the sophisticated strategy of attempting to offer what the consumer may want and at a profit.

ADVERTISEMENTS: (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Essay  # 4. Objectives of Marketing:

According to Peter F. Drucker, “Marketing means such a perfect understanding of the customer that the product fits him totally and sells itself. Marketing would result in a customer who is ready to buy all that, what should be needed then is to make the product available.”

Organization’s marketing strategies are designed in tune with various marketing objectives.

The objectives of marketing aim at:

1. Creating demand for the products by identifying the needs and wants of customers. The consumers get familiar with the usage of products through different promotional programs, such as advertising and personal selling. This helps in creating demand for the products by the customers.

2. Increasing the market share of the organization. The marketing efforts, such as promotion, create the product awareness in the market. The product awareness helps in capturing the reasonable share in the market by organization.

3. Building the goodwill of the organization in the market. Every organization tries to earn reputation in the market by providing quality goods to the customers. It builds its goodwill by popularizing products supported by advertising, reasonable prices, and high quality.

4. Increasing profits and achieving long-term goals through customer satisfaction. All the marketing activities revolve around the customer. These activities fulfill the organization’s long-term goal of profitability, growth, and stability by satisfying the customer’s demands. All the departments, such as production, finance, human resource, and marketing, coordinate with each other to fulfill the customer’s expectations keeping the maximization of profit as the focus.

Essay # 5. Marketing Process:

Marketing Process —– The marketing process is one that invol­ves the following chain of business activities:

1. Identification and study of the desires, needs, and requirements of the^ consumers;

2. Testing the validity of the consumers’ reaction in respect of product features, price, distribution outlets, new product concepts, and new product introduction;

3. Matching the consumers’ needs with the firm’s offerings and capa­bilities;

4. Creating effective marketing communications and programmes with emphasis on lower price, mass distribution channels and mass advertising to reach numerous market segments so that the consumers know about the product’s availability; and

5. Establishment of resource allocation procedures among the various marketing components like sales promotion, advertisement, distribution, product design, etc. 

Outline of functions in the Marketing Process : In order to place the goods in the hands of the consumers, an integrated group of activities is involved in marketing. Marketing functions cover all those activi­ties which are required for the journey of goods from the producer to the consumer. Goods require some preparations, undergo many operations and pass several hands before they reach the final consumer.

In consideration of the above factors, Clark has divided the modem marketing process into three broad categories as under:

(i) Concentration

(ii) Dispersion

(iii) Equalisation.

These are explained below.

1. Concentration – In a marketing process, concentration is that business activity in which the goods flow from many manufacturers/producers toward a central point or market. If we think of international trade, we find that the customers of a particular corporation or firm world reputation are scattered in different countries and even located thousands of miles, away, and the products are transhipped to points accessible to than. Similar scene is found even in the case of national trade. With the development of trade and commerce, the efforts in the direction of concentration acti­vity have to place more stress on the functions like collection, storage, transportation and inventory of goods in the central markets, and processing of customer’s orders. In addition, the aspects of financing and risk-bearing are also to be taken into consideration.

In India, the concentration activity is undertaken by the Governments at the Central and State levels. Food example, The Food Corporation of India undertakes this activity in case of grains, rice, sugar, etc.

2. Dispersion – In a marketing process, dispersion is that busi­ness activity in which the goods flow from the central locations to the final consumers. The wholesalers and retailers play a great role in this activity. This activity involves many other supporting activities like classification, gradation, storage and transportation of goods. The func­tional aspects of finance and risk-bearing need important considerations.

In India, the agencies like The State Trading Corporation of India, The Minerals and Metals Trading Corporation of India, and The Food Corpora­tion of India undertake this dispersion or distribution activity in respect of certain specified goods. Sane large scale manufacturing companies have, of late, undertaken this activity as a part of their marketing activities.

3. Equalisation – In a marketing process, equalisation refers to the adjustment of supply to demand on the basis of tint, quality, and quantity. This process helps to maintain the state of equilibrium between the forces of demand and supply. The primary responsibility of a business unit towards the consumers and customers is to make available the right products of right qualities at the right tine, in right quantity, at the right place and at the right price. The equalisation activity can serve these objectives.

Essay # 6. Integrated Marketing Communication Process:

Marketers operate is a very dynamic environment characterised by changing customer needs and wants, severe competition, changing process technology, advancements in information technology, government regulations, etc. That is why, they are adopting Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC).

Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) involves integration of company’s various communication channels to deliver a clear, consistent and compelling message about the company and its products and brands. Most of the companies communicate with target customers by using promotion tools like advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing. Through each of these tools, some message is transmitted to the target customers. IMC calls for careful blending of these promotional tools to ensure effective communication.

Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC) requires developing a total marketing communication strategy that recognises that all of a firm’s marketing activities (not just promotion) communicate with its customers. Everything a marketer does sends a message to the target market.

The EMC approach is an improvement over the traditional approach of treating various promotional activities as totally separate. It helps to develop the most suitable and effective method to contact customers and other stakeholders.

Often different tools play different roles in attracting, informing and persuading target customers. These tools are carefully coordinated under IMC so that they provide the same clear and consistent information about the company and its products/brands.

IMC leads to a total marketing communication strategy aimed at building strong customer relationships by showing how the company and its products can help customers solve their problems. It ties together all of the company’s messages and images.

The company’s television and print advertisements have the same message, look, and feel as its e-mail and personal selling communications. And its public relations materials project the same image as its Website or social network presence.

Communication Process:

Definition of Communication:

The term ‘communication’ is derived from the Latin word ‘communis’ which means common. That means if a person communicates with another, he establishes a common group of understanding. According to Newman, Summer and Warren, “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.

Communication does not mean merely sending or receiving message. It involves understanding also. It is, in fact, a bridge of meaning and understanding between two or more people. Thus, communication is a two- way process.

The salient features of communication are as follows:

(i) Communication involves at least two persons—one who sends the message and the second who receives the message.

(ii) Communication is a two-way traffic. The process of communication is not completed until the message has been understood by the receiver. Understanding is an essential part of communication, but it does not imply agreement.

(iii) The basic purpose of communication is to create an understanding in the mind of the receiver of information.

(iv) Communication may take several forms, e.g., order, instruction, report, suggestion grievance, observation, etc. The message may be conveyed through words spoken or written, or gestures.

Elements of Communication:

Communication is a process involving exchange of facts, viewpoints and ideas between persons placed in different positions in the organisation to achieve mutual understanding as shown in Fig. 11.5. The communication process starts when the sender or communicator has a message communicate to some other person known as receiver. It will be completed when the receiver gets the information and sends feedback to the communicator.  

The essential elements of communication are described below:

(i) Sender or Communicator:

The person who conveys the message is known as communicator or sender. By initiating the message, the communicator attempts to achieve understanding and change in the behaviour of the receiver. In case of marketing it is the marketer (sender) who starts the communication process.

(ii) Message:

It is the subject-matter of any communication. It may involve any fact, opinion or information. It must exist in the mind of the communicator if communication process is to be initiated. In marketing, the marketer’s message relates to product, price and place.

(iii) Encoding:

The sender of information organises his idea into a series of symbols (words, signs, etc.) which, he feels, will communicate to the intended receiver or receivers. This is called encoding of message. Communication may take place through physical gestures also.

(iv) Media or Communication Channel:

The communicator has to choose the channel for sending the information. Communication channels are the media through which the message passes. It may be either formal or informal. In marketing, media may be salespersons, advertisement and publicity.

(v) Receiver:

The person who receives the message is called receiver. The communication process is incomplete without the existence of receiver of the message. It is the receiver who receives and tries to understand the message. The receiver in case of marketing is the prospective or present customer.

(vi) Decoding:

After the appropriate channel or channels are selected, the message enters the decoding stage of the communication process. Decoding is done by the receiver. Once the message is received and examined, the stimulus is sent to the brain for interpreting, in order to assign some type of meaning to it. It is this processing stage that constitutes decoding. The receiver begins to interpret the symbols sent by the sender, translating the message to his own set of experiences in order to make the symbols meaningful.

(vii) Response:

Response refers to the set of reactions that the receiver has after being exposed to the message. In case of advertising, a response may mean developing a favourable attitude towards the product as a result of an advertising campaign. However, in many cases, measuring such responses is not easy.

(viii) Feedback:

Communication is completed when the communicator receives feedback information from the receiver. The feedback may reveal that the receiver has understood the message. It may also contain information about the action taken by the receiver on the basis of message sent by the communicator. Thus, feedback is the backbone of effective communication.

(ix) Noise:

Noise is a very common thing we observe in our day-to-day interaction with others. At times it affects adversely the effectiveness of communication. For example, if a person is talking over the phone to another and there is a noise around him, he will feel great difficulty in listening to the person at the other end of the phone. Even the noise can affect the voice of the sender of the message.

Hurdles or Difficulties in Marketing Communication:

There are four factors which might create hurdles or problems in communication between the marketer and the target customer.

These hurdles include noise, selective attention, selective distortion and selective retention as discussed below:

Noise is a sort of interfering sound in the communication process anywhere along the way from the sender to the receiver and vice versa. It can be sound of running bus, two persons talking close at hand or someone shouting around. Noise of any kind has the potential of creating disruption or barrier to effective communication. The sources of noise can be both internal and external. Noise within the office can be controlled, but it is very difficult to control the external noise.

Noise is one of the biggest obstacles in marketing communication. For example, a driver’s need to provide safety to the traffic sidetracks the role of billboards, banners, etc. during disturbed weather conditions —wind, dust storm, rain, etc. Similarly, too much advertisement exposure during the day of purchase of tyre for a car, would disturb the planned purchasing.

These constitute noise in the communication process. The level of noise may not allow a customer to receive the message as intended. The effectiveness of communication depends upon the level of congruity and compatibility between different elements of the communication.

(ii) Selective Attention:

A person may be exposed to hundreds or thousands of ads or brand communications in a day. Because a person cannot possibly attend to all of these, most stimuli will be screened out. This process is called selective attention. Because of this, the marketers have to work hard to attract consumer’s notice. Generally, people are more likely to notice stimuli that relate to a current need.

Thus, a person who is motivated to buy a car is most likely to notice car ads. The process of selective attention explains why advertisers make extra efforts to grab the audience’s attention through fear, music, or bold headlines.

(iii) Selective Distortion:

Selective distortion is the tendency to interpret information in a way that fit one’s perception. Consumers often distort information to be consistent with prior brand and product beliefs. Thus, the target audience will hear what fits into their belief systems.

As a result, receivers often add things to the message that are not there and do not notice other things that are there. The advertiser’s task is to strive for simplicity, clarity, interest and repetition to get the main points across.

(iv) Selective Retention:

People retain in their long-term memory only a small fraction of the messages that reach them. If the receiver’s initial attitude towards the brand is positive and he rehearses support arguments (that is, tells himself things such as the product is in fashion or that it is reasonably priced or that it delivers good value, etc.), the message is likely to be accepted and have high recall.

If the initial attitude towards the brand is negative and the person rehearses counter arguments (that is, tells himself that the product is highly overpriced or that the competing products offer more value to customers or that the brand is not doing well in the market, etc.) the message is likely to be rejected but to stay in long-term memory.

Thus, the advertiser’s task is two-fold here. He not only has to create an initial favourable attitude towards the brands but also through his ads communicate to the audience strong points about the brands so that the customers can rehearse the same and the brand is positively placed in the long-term memory of the customers.

Essay # 7. Role of Marketing in Economic Development :

In today’s era of globalization role of marketing is increasing to fulfill different needs and requirements of people. Due to increase in scale of production and expansions of markets, producers need support of marketing tools to distribute their goods and services to the real customer.

High competition in market and product diversification has increased the marketing activities like advertising, storage, sales promotion, salesmanship etc. Now high profits can be attained by high sales volume and good quality of products and services. Marketing has acquired an important place for the economic development of the whole country. It has also become a necessity for attaining the objective of social welfare and high quality of life.

The importance of marketing can be explained as under:

(a) Importance of Marketing to a Firm:

Marketing is considered to be the prime activity among all the business activities. Success of any business depends on success of marketing. Peter F. Drucker has rightly said that, “Marketing is the business.” Objective and goals of any organization can be achieved through efficient and effective marketing polices. The success of an enterprise depends to a large extent upon the success of its marketing activities.

The importance of marketing to the firm can be explained as under:

1. Marketing in Business Planning and Decision Making:

Marketing research is helpful in searching opportunities and potential in market. It is necessary for an organization to decide what can be sold before deciding that what can be produced. Unless and until these key decisions are taken, it is not practical to take the decisions regarding production, quality of product, type of product and quantity of production etc.

Marketing is very helpful in taking all such decisions therefore its plays an important role in business planning. Marketing provides valuable information regarding production policies, pricing policies, advertisement and sales promotion policies of competitors, so that a suitable policy may be formulated by the top management.

2. Increase in the Profits:

The main objective of every firm is to increase the profitability by successful operations of its activities. Maximization of profits can be possible only through the successful operations of its activities. Marketing department need the help of other departments as well for discharging its duties successfully, marketing department coordinate with other departments like finance, production, to fulfill the needs of customers and regular supply according to market demand.

3. Flow of Marketing Communication:

Integrated marketing communication makes it possible to flow marketing information to intermediaries, publics and customers. Marketing acts as a medium of communication between the society and the firm. Various information regarding trends, needs, attitudes, fashions, taste preferences etc., are collected by marketing department.

(b) Importance of Marketing to the Society:

1. To Uplift Standard of Living:

Ultimate objective of marketing is to produce goods and services for the society according to their needs and tastes at reasonable prices. Marketing discovers the needs and wants of the society, produces the goods and services according to their needs, creates demand for these goods and services encourages consumers to consume them and thus improves the standard of living of the society. By advertising utility and importance of products and services are communicated to the people.

2. To Decreases the Total Marketing Cost:

Next important responsibility of marketing is to control the cost of marketing. Distribution cost and production cost can be decreased by creation of high demand in market. Decrease in cost of production will have two impacts, firstly the high profitability of organization and secondly to increase in the market share of the firm.

3. Increase in the Employment Opportunities:

Marketing provides direct and indirect employment in society. Employment opportunities are directly related with the development of marketing. Successful operation of marketing activities requires the services of different enterprises and organizations such logistics, warehousing, transportation, retailing finance, etc.

4. In controlling Business Fluctuations:

Business fluctuations like recession and depression causes unemployment, and deflation. Marketing helps in protecting society against all these problems. Marketing helps in innovation and discovery of new markets for the goods, modifications and alterations in the quality of the product and development of alternative uses of the product. It reduces the cost of production and protects the business enterprise against the problem of recession.

5. Increase Per Capita Income:

Marketing operations create, maintain and increase the demand for goods and service. Marketing activities flow money from one part of economic system to other. By generation of new employment opportunities it helps to increases income of people.

(c) Importance of Marketing in Economic Development:

Marketing plays an important role in the development of a country. Most of developed countries like USA, Japan, and Germany are having strong marketing system, they are moving towards global marketing. Industrial growth and development need support of marketing, large scale of production requires new markets. In these countries, the production exceeds the demand it need marketing system to be much more effective so that the produced goods and services can be sold.

Marketing has a vital role to play in the development of an underdeveloped and developing economy. In developing economies the industrialization and urbanization is increasing at a faster rate and so the importance of marketing is also increasing as it is required for selling the produced goods and services. A rapid development of underdeveloped economy is possible only if the modern techniques of marketing are used in these countries marketing activities are increasing at a fast rate in developing countries.

Essay # 8. Importance of Marketing :

Role of Marketing in a Firm :

Efficient marketing management is a pre-requisite for the successful operation of any business enterprise. A business organisation is differentiated from other organisations by the fact that it produces and sells products.

The importance of marketing in modern business is discussed below:

Marketing is the beating heart of the business organisation. The chief executive of a business cannot plan, the production manager cannot produce, the purchase manager cannot purchase, and the financial controller cannot budget until the basic marketing decisions have been taken. Many departments in a business enterprise are essential for its growth, but marketing is still the sole revenue producing activity. Marketing function is rightly considered the most important function of management.

Marketing gives top priority to the needs of customers. Quality of goods, storage, display, advertisement, packaging, etc. are all directed towards the satisfaction of customer.

Marketing helps in the creation of place, time and possession utilities. Place utility is created by transporting the goods from the place of production to consumption centres. Time utility is created by storing the goods in warehouses until they are demanded by customers. Possession or ownership utility is created through sale of goods. The significance of marketing lies in the creation of these utilities to satisfy the needs of the customers and thereby earn profit. It a firm is able to satisfy its customers, it will have better chances of survival and growth even in the fast changing environment.

Marketing generates revenue for the business firm. Marketing is an important activity these days, particularly in the competitive economies. Marketing generates revenue for the business enterprises. No firm can survive in the long-run unless it is able to market its products. In fact, marketing has become the nerve-centre of all human activities.

Role of Marketing in the Economy :

Marketing plays a significant role in the growth and development of an economy. It acts as a catalyst in the economic development of a country by ensuring better utilisation of the scarce resources of the nation. Since a business firm generates revenues and earns profits by its marketing efforts, it will engage in better utilisation of resources of the nation to earn higher profits.

Marketing determines the needs of the customers and sets out the pattern of production of goods and services necessary to satisfy their needs. Marketing also helps to explore the export markets.

Marketing helps in improving the standards of living of people. It does so by offering a wide variety of goods and services with freedom of choice. Marketing treats the customer as the king around whom all business activities revolve. Besides product development, pricing, promotion, and physical distribution of products are carried out to satisfy the customer.

Marketing generates employment for people. A large number of people are employed by modern business houses to carry out the functions of marketing. Marketing also gives an impetus to further employment facilities. In order to ensure that the finished product reaches the customer, it passes through wholesalers and retailers and in order to perform numerous jobs, many people are employed.

On the whole, marketing leads to economic development of a nation. It increases the national income by bringing about rise in consumption, production and investment. It mobilises unknown and untapped resources and also facilitates full utilisation of production capacity and other assets. It helps in the integration of industry, agriculture and other sectors of the economy. It also contributes to the development of entrepreneurial and managerial talent in the country.

Essay # 9. Challenges and Opportunities of Marketing:

A large number of changes have taken place in the recent years which have influenced the field of marketing as discussed below:

1. Globalisation :

The term ‘globalisation’ means the process of integration of the world economy into one huge market through the removal of all trade barriers or restrictions among countries. In India, restrictions on imports and exports and inflow and outflow of capital and technology have been lifted by the Central Government so that Indian business may become globally competitive.

The broad features of globalisation are as follows:

(i) Free flow of goods and services across national frontiers through removal or reduction of trade barriers.

(ii) Free flow of capital across nations.

(iii) Free flow of technology across nations.

(iv) Free movement of human resources across nations.

(v) Global mechanism for the settlement of economic disputes.

The aim of globalisation is to look upon the world as a ‘global village’ which would allow free flow of goods, capital, technology and labour between different countries. Because of globalisation, there has been a tremendous impact on marketing strategies of business firms, particularly engaged in international marketing. They have to design product, price, promotion, place or distribution strategies to meet the challenges of global marketing.

2. Information Technology (IT) :

Information technology has enabled real-time access and sharing of digital information through digital networks, information database, and computer graphics. It has brought about many changes in the business landscape.

Electronic technology has facilitated purchase and sale of goods and services electronically. E-Commerce can be used not only to market product, but also to build better customer relationships. Thus, marketers are facing new challenges as regards booking of e-orders, e-deliveries of intangible products, receiving e-payments and Customer Relation Management (CRM).

3. Increased Leisure Time :

As a result of shorter working week, vacations, and labour-saving devices available for domestic use, most wage-earners now enjoy more leisure time. So there has grown a market for articles used for recreational purposes to enjoy the leisure time. In the developing countries also, cinema shows, holiday trips, sports and games have come into importance.

4. Changing Role of Women :

Throughout the world more and more women are taking up jobs and have gained economic independence to a large extent. They accept even challenging jobs. They also exert greater influence on buying decisions of their families. It may happen that husband buys a commodity according to the decision of the wife. This has necessitated special study of the buying motives of the working women.

5. Demand for Services :

Over the years, consumers’ demand for services is on the rise as in case of tour and travel, educational, medical, repair and maintenance services, etc. Due to growing complexity, business firms also need expert services like accounting, taxation, advertising, customer care, etc.

6. Increased Competition :

Business has become more competitive these days and this has brought about many changes in the field of marketing, e.g., product differentiation, competitive pricing, competitive advertising, customer support services, etc.

7. Social Emphasis :

Marketing is now concerned with the long-term health and happiness of consumers and well-being of society. Marketers in are getting involved in improving the quality of life of consumers and preventing or minimising the evil effects of environmental pollution on the society by practising green marketing.

Emerging Concepts in Marketing :

1. Social Marketing:

It refers to the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social idea, cause, or practice among a target group. For instance, a recent publicity campaign for prohibition of smoking in Delhi explained the place where one can and can’t smoke in Delhi.

2. Relationship Marketing:

It is the process of creating, maintaining, and enhancing strong value-laden relationships with customers and other stakeholders. For example, British Airways offers special lounges with showers at many airports for frequent flyers. Thus, providing special benefits to valuable the customers to strengthen bonds will go a long way in building relationships.

To achieve relationship marketing, a marketer has to keep in touch with the regular customers, identify most loyal customers to provide additional services to them, design special recognition and reward schemes, and use them for building long-term relationships.

3. Direct Marketing:

It means marketing through various advertising media that interact directly with consumers, generally calling for the consumer to make a direct response. Direct marketing includes Catalogue Selling, Mail Order, Tele computing, Electronic Marketing, Selling, and TV Shopping.

4. Service Marketing:

It is applying the concepts, tools, and techniques, of marketing to services. Service is any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. Services may be financial, insurance, transportation, banking, savings, retailing, educational or utilities.

5. Non-Business Marketing:

Marketing is applied not only to business firms but also to non-business organisations. Voluntary institutions are adopting principles and practices of marketing to promote their ideologies, schemes and programs among the target groups.

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