presenting a research article

Princeton Correspondents on Undergraduate Research

How to Make a Successful Research Presentation

Turning a research paper into a visual presentation is difficult; there are pitfalls, and navigating the path to a brief, informative presentation takes time and practice. As a TA for  GEO/WRI 201: Methods in Data Analysis & Scientific Writing this past fall, I saw how this process works from an instructor’s standpoint. I’ve presented my own research before, but helping others present theirs taught me a bit more about the process. Here are some tips I learned that may help you with your next research presentation:

More is more

In general, your presentation will always benefit from more practice, more feedback, and more revision. By practicing in front of friends, you can get comfortable with presenting your work while receiving feedback. It is hard to know how to revise your presentation if you never practice. If you are presenting to a general audience, getting feedback from someone outside of your discipline is crucial. Terms and ideas that seem intuitive to you may be completely foreign to someone else, and your well-crafted presentation could fall flat.

Less is more

Limit the scope of your presentation, the number of slides, and the text on each slide. In my experience, text works well for organizing slides, orienting the audience to key terms, and annotating important figures–not for explaining complex ideas. Having fewer slides is usually better as well. In general, about one slide per minute of presentation is an appropriate budget. Too many slides is usually a sign that your topic is too broad.

presenting a research article

Limit the scope of your presentation

Don’t present your paper. Presentations are usually around 10 min long. You will not have time to explain all of the research you did in a semester (or a year!) in such a short span of time. Instead, focus on the highlight(s). Identify a single compelling research question which your work addressed, and craft a succinct but complete narrative around it.

You will not have time to explain all of the research you did. Instead, focus on the highlights. Identify a single compelling research question which your work addressed, and craft a succinct but complete narrative around it.

Craft a compelling research narrative

After identifying the focused research question, walk your audience through your research as if it were a story. Presentations with strong narrative arcs are clear, captivating, and compelling.

  • Introduction (exposition — rising action)

Orient the audience and draw them in by demonstrating the relevance and importance of your research story with strong global motive. Provide them with the necessary vocabulary and background knowledge to understand the plot of your story. Introduce the key studies (characters) relevant in your story and build tension and conflict with scholarly and data motive. By the end of your introduction, your audience should clearly understand your research question and be dying to know how you resolve the tension built through motive.

presenting a research article

  • Methods (rising action)

The methods section should transition smoothly and logically from the introduction. Beware of presenting your methods in a boring, arc-killing, ‘this is what I did.’ Focus on the details that set your story apart from the stories other people have already told. Keep the audience interested by clearly motivating your decisions based on your original research question or the tension built in your introduction.

  • Results (climax)

Less is usually more here. Only present results which are clearly related to the focused research question you are presenting. Make sure you explain the results clearly so that your audience understands what your research found. This is the peak of tension in your narrative arc, so don’t undercut it by quickly clicking through to your discussion.

  • Discussion (falling action)

By now your audience should be dying for a satisfying resolution. Here is where you contextualize your results and begin resolving the tension between past research. Be thorough. If you have too many conflicts left unresolved, or you don’t have enough time to present all of the resolutions, you probably need to further narrow the scope of your presentation.

  • Conclusion (denouement)

Return back to your initial research question and motive, resolving any final conflicts and tying up loose ends. Leave the audience with a clear resolution of your focus research question, and use unresolved tension to set up potential sequels (i.e. further research).

Use your medium to enhance the narrative

Visual presentations should be dominated by clear, intentional graphics. Subtle animation in key moments (usually during the results or discussion) can add drama to the narrative arc and make conflict resolutions more satisfying. You are narrating a story written in images, videos, cartoons, and graphs. While your paper is mostly text, with graphics to highlight crucial points, your slides should be the opposite. Adapting to the new medium may require you to create or acquire far more graphics than you included in your paper, but it is necessary to create an engaging presentation.

The most important thing you can do for your presentation is to practice and revise. Bother your friends, your roommates, TAs–anybody who will sit down and listen to your work. Beyond that, think about presentations you have found compelling and try to incorporate some of those elements into your own. Remember you want your work to be comprehensible; you aren’t creating experts in 10 minutes. Above all, try to stay passionate about what you did and why. You put the time in, so show your audience that it’s worth it.

For more insight into research presentations, check out these past PCUR posts written by Emma and Ellie .

— Alec Getraer, Natural Sciences Correspondent

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How to make a scientific presentation

How to make a scientific presentation

Scientific presentation outlines

Questions to ask yourself before you write your talk, 1. how much time do you have, 2. who will you speak to, 3. what do you want the audience to learn from your talk, step 1: outline your presentation, step 2: plan your presentation slides, step 3: make the presentation slides, slide design, text elements, animations and transitions, step 4: practice your presentation, final thoughts, frequently asked questions about preparing scientific presentations, related articles.

A good scientific presentation achieves three things: you communicate the science clearly, your research leaves a lasting impression on your audience, and you enhance your reputation as a scientist.

But, what is the best way to prepare for a scientific presentation? How do you start writing a talk? What details do you include, and what do you leave out?

It’s tempting to launch into making lots of slides. But, starting with the slides can mean you neglect the narrative of your presentation, resulting in an overly detailed, boring talk.

The key to making an engaging scientific presentation is to prepare the narrative of your talk before beginning to construct your presentation slides. Planning your talk will ensure that you tell a clear, compelling scientific story that will engage the audience.

In this guide, you’ll find everything you need to know to make a good oral scientific presentation, including:

  • The different types of oral scientific presentations and how they are delivered;
  • How to outline a scientific presentation;
  • How to make slides for a scientific presentation.

Our advice results from delving into the literature on writing scientific talks and from our own experiences as scientists in giving and listening to presentations. We provide tips and best practices for giving scientific talks in a separate post.

There are two main types of scientific talks:

  • Your talk focuses on a single study . Typically, you tell the story of a single scientific paper. This format is common for short talks at contributed sessions in conferences.
  • Your talk describes multiple studies. You tell the story of multiple scientific papers. It is crucial to have a theme that unites the studies, for example, an overarching question or problem statement, with each study representing specific but different variations of the same theme. Typically, PhD defenses, invited seminars, lectures, or talks for a prospective employer (i.e., “job talks”) fall into this category.

➡️ Learn how to prepare an excellent thesis defense

The length of time you are allotted for your talk will determine whether you will discuss a single study or multiple studies, and which details to include in your story.

The background and interests of your audience will determine the narrative direction of your talk, and what devices you will use to get their attention. Will you be speaking to people specializing in your field, or will the audience also contain people from disciplines other than your own? To reach non-specialists, you will need to discuss the broader implications of your study outside your field.

The needs of the audience will also determine what technical details you will include, and the language you will use. For example, an undergraduate audience will have different needs than an audience of seasoned academics. Students will require a more comprehensive overview of background information and explanations of jargon but will need less technical methodological details.

Your goal is to speak to the majority. But, make your talk accessible to the least knowledgeable person in the room.

This is called the thesis statement, or simply the “take-home message”. Having listened to your talk, what message do you want the audience to take away from your presentation? Describe the main idea in one or two sentences. You want this theme to be present throughout your presentation. Again, the thesis statement will depend on the audience and the type of talk you are giving.

Your thesis statement will drive the narrative for your talk. By deciding the take-home message you want to convince the audience of as a result of listening to your talk, you decide how the story of your talk will flow and how you will navigate its twists and turns. The thesis statement tells you the results you need to show, which subsequently tells you the methods or studies you need to describe, which decides the angle you take in your introduction.

➡️ Learn how to write a thesis statement

The goal of your talk is that the audience leaves afterward with a clear understanding of the key take-away message of your research. To achieve that goal, you need to tell a coherent, logical story that conveys your thesis statement throughout the presentation. You can tell your story through careful preparation of your talk.

Preparation of a scientific presentation involves three separate stages: outlining the scientific narrative, preparing slides, and practicing your delivery. Making the slides of your talk without first planning what you are going to say is inefficient.

Here, we provide a 4 step guide to writing your scientific presentation:

  • Outline your presentation
  • Plan your presentation slides
  • Make the presentation slides
  • Practice your presentation

4 steps for making a scientific presentation.

Writing an outline helps you consider the key pieces of your talk and how they fit together from the beginning, preventing you from forgetting any important details. It also means you avoid changing the order of your slides multiple times, saving you time.

Plan your talk as discrete sections. In the table below, we describe the sections for a single study talk vs. a talk discussing multiple studies:

The following tips apply when writing the outline of a single study talk. You can easily adapt this framework if you are writing a talk discussing multiple studies.

Introduction: Writing the introduction can be the hardest part of writing a talk. And when giving it, it’s the point where you might be at your most nervous. But preparing a good, concise introduction will settle your nerves.

The introduction tells the audience the story of why you studied your topic. A good introduction succinctly achieves four things, in the following order.

  • It gives a broad perspective on the problem or topic for people in the audience who may be outside your discipline (i.e., it explains the big-picture problem motivating your study).
  • It describes why you did the study, and why the audience should care.
  • It gives a brief indication of how your study addressed the problem and provides the necessary background information that the audience needs to understand your work.
  • It indicates what the audience will learn from the talk, and prepares them for what will come next.

A good introduction not only gives the big picture and motivations behind your study but also concisely sets the stage for what the audience will learn from the talk (e.g., the questions your work answers, and/or the hypotheses that your work tests). The end of the introduction will lead to a natural transition to the methods.

Give a broad perspective on the problem. The easiest way to start with the big picture is to think of a hook for the first slide of your presentation. A hook is an opening that gets the audience’s attention and gets them interested in your story. In science, this might take the form of a why, or a how question, or it could be a statement about a major problem or open question in your field. Other examples of hooks include quotes, short anecdotes, or interesting statistics.

Why should the audience care? Next, decide on the angle you are going to take on your hook that links to the thesis of your talk. In other words, you need to set the context, i.e., explain why the audience should care. For example, you may introduce an observation from nature, a pattern in experimental data, or a theory that you want to test. The audience must understand your motivations for the study.

Supplementary details. Once you have established the hook and angle, you need to include supplementary details to support them. For example, you might state your hypothesis. Then go into previous work and the current state of knowledge. Include citations of these studies. If you need to introduce some technical methodological details, theory, or jargon, do it here.

Conclude your introduction. The motivation for the work and background information should set the stage for the conclusion of the introduction, where you describe the goals of your study, and any hypotheses or predictions. Let the audience know what they are going to learn.

Methods: The audience will use your description of the methods to assess the approach you took in your study and to decide whether your findings are credible. Tell the story of your methods in chronological order. Use visuals to describe your methods as much as possible. If you have equations, make sure to take the time to explain them. Decide what methods to include and how you will show them. You need enough detail so that your audience will understand what you did and therefore can evaluate your approach, but avoid including superfluous details that do not support your main idea. You want to avoid the common mistake of including too much data, as the audience can read the paper(s) later.

Results: This is the evidence you present for your thesis. The audience will use the results to evaluate the support for your main idea. Choose the most important and interesting results—those that support your thesis. You don’t need to present all the results from your study (indeed, you most likely won’t have time to present them all). Break down complex results into digestible pieces, e.g., comparisons over multiple slides (more tips in the next section).

Summary: Summarize your main findings. Displaying your main findings through visuals can be effective. Emphasize the new contributions to scientific knowledge that your work makes.

Conclusion: Complete the circle by relating your conclusions to the big picture topic in your introduction—and your hook, if possible. It’s important to describe any alternative explanations for your findings. You might also speculate on future directions arising from your research. The slides that comprise your conclusion do not need to state “conclusion”. Rather, the concluding slide title should be a declarative sentence linking back to the big picture problem and your main idea.

It’s important to end well by planning a strong closure to your talk, after which you will thank the audience. Your closing statement should relate to your thesis, perhaps by stating it differently or memorably. Avoid ending awkwardly by memorizing your closing sentence.

By now, you have an outline of the story of your talk, which you can use to plan your slides. Your slides should complement and enhance what you will say. Use the following steps to prepare your slides.

  • Write the slide titles to match your talk outline. These should be clear and informative declarative sentences that succinctly give the main idea of the slide (e.g., don’t use “Methods” as a slide title). Have one major idea per slide. In a YouTube talk on designing effective slides , researcher Michael Alley shows examples of instructive slide titles.
  • Decide how you will convey the main idea of the slide (e.g., what figures, photographs, equations, statistics, references, or other elements you will need). The body of the slide should support the slide’s main idea.
  • Under each slide title, outline what you want to say, in bullet points.

In sum, for each slide, prepare a title that summarizes its major idea, a list of visual elements, and a summary of the points you will make. Ensure each slide connects to your thesis. If it doesn’t, then you don’t need the slide.

Slides for scientific presentations have three major components: text (including labels and legends), graphics, and equations. Here, we give tips on how to present each of these components.

  • Have an informative title slide. Include the names of all coauthors and their affiliations. Include an attractive image relating to your study.
  • Make the foreground content of your slides “pop” by using an appropriate background. Slides that have white backgrounds with black text work well for small rooms, whereas slides with black backgrounds and white text are suitable for large rooms.
  • The layout of your slides should be simple. Pay attention to how and where you lay the visual and text elements on each slide. It’s tempting to cram information, but you need lots of empty space. Retain space at the sides and bottom of your slides.
  • Use sans serif fonts with a font size of at least 20 for text, and up to 40 for slide titles. Citations can be in 14 font and should be included at the bottom of the slide.
  • Use bold or italics to emphasize words, not underlines or caps. Keep these effects to a minimum.
  • Use concise text . You don’t need full sentences. Convey the essence of your message in as few words as possible. Write down what you’d like to say, and then shorten it for the slide. Remove unnecessary filler words.
  • Text blocks should be limited to two lines. This will prevent you from crowding too much information on the slide.
  • Include names of technical terms in your talk slides, especially if they are not familiar to everyone in the audience.
  • Proofread your slides. Typos and grammatical errors are distracting for your audience.
  • Include citations for the hypotheses or observations of other scientists.
  • Good figures and graphics are essential to sustain audience interest. Use graphics and photographs to show the experiment or study system in action and to explain abstract concepts.
  • Don’t use figures straight from your paper as they may be too detailed for your talk, and details like axes may be too small. Make new versions if necessary. Make them large enough to be visible from the back of the room.
  • Use graphs to show your results, not tables. Tables are difficult for your audience to digest! If you must present a table, keep it simple.
  • Label the axes of graphs and indicate the units. Label important components of graphics and photographs and include captions. Include sources for graphics that are not your own.
  • Explain all the elements of a graph. This includes the axes, what the colors and markers mean, and patterns in the data.
  • Use colors in figures and text in a meaningful, not random, way. For example, contrasting colors can be effective for pointing out comparisons and/or differences. Don’t use neon colors or pastels.
  • Use thick lines in figures, and use color to create contrasts in the figures you present. Don’t use red/green or red/blue combinations, as color-blind audience members can’t distinguish between them.
  • Arrows or circles can be effective for drawing attention to key details in graphs and equations. Add some text annotations along with them.
  • Write your summary and conclusion slides using graphics, rather than showing a slide with a list of bullet points. Showing some of your results again can be helpful to remind the audience of your message.
  • If your talk has equations, take time to explain them. Include text boxes to explain variables and mathematical terms, and put them under each term in the equation.
  • Combine equations with a graphic that shows the scientific principle, or include a diagram of the mathematical model.
  • Use animations judiciously. They are helpful to reveal complex ideas gradually, for example, if you need to make a comparison or contrast or to build a complicated argument or figure. For lists, reveal one bullet point at a time. New ideas appearing sequentially will help your audience follow your logic.
  • Slide transitions should be simple. Silly ones distract from your message.
  • Decide how you will make the transition as you move from one section of your talk to the next. For example, if you spend time talking through details, provide a summary afterward, especially in a long talk. Another common tactic is to have a “home slide” that you return to multiple times during the talk that reinforces your main idea or message. In her YouTube talk on designing effective scientific presentations , Stanford biologist Susan McConnell suggests using the approach of home slides to build a cohesive narrative.

To deliver a polished presentation, it is essential to practice it. Here are some tips.

  • For your first run-through, practice alone. Pay attention to your narrative. Does your story flow naturally? Do you know how you will start and end? Are there any awkward transitions? Do animations help you tell your story? Do your slides help to convey what you are saying or are they missing components?
  • Next, practice in front of your advisor, and/or your peers (e.g., your lab group). Ask someone to time your talk. Take note of their feedback and the questions that they ask you (you might be asked similar questions during your real talk).
  • Edit your talk, taking into account the feedback you’ve received. Eliminate superfluous slides that don’t contribute to your takeaway message.
  • Practice as many times as needed to memorize the order of your slides and the key transition points of your talk. However, don’t try to learn your talk word for word. Instead, memorize opening and closing statements, and sentences at key junctures in the presentation. Your presentation should resemble a serious but spontaneous conversation with the audience.
  • Practicing multiple times also helps you hone the delivery of your talk. While rehearsing, pay attention to your vocal intonations and speed. Make sure to take pauses while you speak, and make eye contact with your imaginary audience.
  • Make sure your talk finishes within the allotted time, and remember to leave time for questions. Conferences are particularly strict on run time.
  • Anticipate questions and challenges from the audience, and clarify ambiguities within your slides and/or speech in response.
  • If you anticipate that you could be asked questions about details but you don’t have time to include them, or they detract from the main message of your talk, you can prepare slides that address these questions and place them after the final slide of your talk.

➡️ More tips for giving scientific presentations

An organized presentation with a clear narrative will help you communicate your ideas effectively, which is essential for engaging your audience and conveying the importance of your work. Taking time to plan and outline your scientific presentation before writing the slides will help you manage your nerves and feel more confident during the presentation, which will improve your overall performance.

A good scientific presentation has an engaging scientific narrative with a memorable take-home message. It has clear, informative slides that enhance what the speaker says. You need to practice your talk many times to ensure you deliver a polished presentation.

First, consider who will attend your presentation, and what you want the audience to learn about your research. Tailor your content to their level of knowledge and interests. Second, create an outline for your presentation, including the key points you want to make and the evidence you will use to support those points. Finally, practice your presentation several times to ensure that it flows smoothly and that you are comfortable with the material.

Prepare an opening that immediately gets the audience’s attention. A common device is a why or a how question, or a statement of a major open problem in your field, but you could also start with a quote, interesting statistic, or case study from your field.

Scientific presentations typically either focus on a single study (e.g., a 15-minute conference presentation) or tell the story of multiple studies (e.g., a PhD defense or 50-minute conference keynote talk). For a single study talk, the structure follows the scientific paper format: Introduction, Methods, Results, Summary, and Conclusion, whereas the format of a talk discussing multiple studies is more complex, but a theme unifies the studies.

Ensure you have one major idea per slide, and convey that idea clearly (through images, equations, statistics, citations, video, etc.). The slide should include a title that summarizes the major point of the slide, should not contain too much text or too many graphics, and color should be used meaningfully.

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Writing an Abstract

Oral presentation, compiling a powerpoint.

Abstract : a short statement that describes a longer work.

  • Indicate the subject.
  • Describe the purpose of the investigation.
  • Briefly discuss the method used.
  • Make a statement about the result.

Oral presentations usually introduce a discussion of a topic or research paper. A good oral presentation is focused, concise, and interesting in order to trigger a discussion.

  • Be well prepared; write a detailed outline.
  • Introduce the subject.
  • Talk about the sources and the method.
  • Indicate if there are conflicting views about the subject (conflicting views trigger discussion).
  • Make a statement about your new results (if this is your research paper).
  • Use visual aids or handouts if appropriate.

An effective PowerPoint presentation is just an aid to the presentation, not the presentation itself .

  • Be brief and concise.
  • Focus on the subject.
  • Attract attention; indicate interesting details.
  • If possible, use relevant visual illustrations (pictures, maps, charts graphs, etc.).
  • Use bullet points or numbers to structure the text.
  • Make clear statements about the essence/results of the topic/research.
  • Don't write down the whole outline of your paper and nothing else.
  • Don't write long full sentences on the slides.
  • Don't use distracting colors, patterns, pictures, decorations on the slides.
  • Don't use too complicated charts, graphs; only those that are relatively easy to understand.
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Reading for Research: Social Sciences

Structure of a research article.

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Guide Acknowledgements

How to Read a Scholarly Article from the Howard Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University

Strategic Reading for Research   from the Howard Tilton Memorial Library at Tulane University

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Academic writing has features that vary only slightly across the different disciplines. Knowing these elements and the purpose of each serves help you to read and understand academic texts efficiently and effectively, and then apply what you read to your paper or project.

Social Science (and Science) original research articles generally follow IMRD: Introduction- Methods-Results-Discussion


  • Introduces topic of article
  • Presents the "Research Gap"/Statement of Problem article will address
  • How research presented in the article will solve the problem presented in research gap.
  • Literature Review. presenting and evaluating previous scholarship on a topic.  Sometimes, this is separate section of the article. 

​Method & Results

  • How research was done, including analysis and measurements.  
  • Sometimes labeled as "Research Design"
  • What answers were found
  • Interpretation of Results (What Does It Mean? Why is it important?)
  • Implications for the Field, how the study contributes to the existing field of knowledge
  • Suggestions for further research
  • Sometimes called Conclusion

You might also see IBC: Introduction - Body - Conclusion

  • Identify the subject
  • State the thesis 
  • Describe why thesis is important to the field (this may be in the form of a literature review or general prose)


  • Presents Evidence/Counter Evidence
  • Integrate other writings (i.e. evidence) to support argument 
  • Discuss why others may disagree (counter-evidence) and why argument is still valid
  • Summary of argument
  • Evaluation of argument by pointing out its implications and/or limitations 
  • Anticipate and address possible counter-claims
  • Suggest future directions of research
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How to Present Your Research (Guidelines and Tips)

Matthieu Chartier, PhD.

Published on 01 Feb 2023

Audience at a conference

Presenting at a conference can be stressful, but can lead to many opportunities, which is why coming prepared is super beneficial.

The internet is full to the brim with tips for making a good presentation. From what you wear to how you stand to good slide design, there’s no shortage of advice to make any old presentation come to life. 

But, not all presentations are created equal. Research presentations, in particular, are unique. 

Communicating complex concepts to an audience with a varied range of awareness about your research topic can be tricky. A lack of guidance and preparation can ruin your chance to share important information with a conference community. This could mean lost opportunities in collaboration or funding or lost confidence in yourself and your work.

So, we’ve put together a list of tips with research presentations in mind. Here’s our top to-do’s when preparing to present your research.

Take every research presentation opportunity

The worst thing you could do for your research is to not present it at all. As intimidating as it can be to get up in front of an audience, you shouldn’t let that stop you from seizing a good opportunity to share your work with a wider community.

These contestants from the Vitae Three Minute Thesis Competition have some great advice to share on taking every possible chance to talk about your research. 

Double-check your research presentation guidelines

Before you get started on your presentation, double-check if you’ve been given guidelines for it. 

If you don’t have specific guidelines for the context of your presentation, we’ve put together a general outline to help you get started. It’s made with the assumption of a 10-15 minute presentation time. So, if you have longer to present, you can always extend important sections or talk longer on certain slides:

  • Title Slide (1 slide) - This is a placeholder to give some visual interest and display the topic until your presentation begins.
  • Short Introduction (2-3 slides) - This is where you pique the interest of your audience and establish the key questions your presentation covers. Give context to your study with a brief review of the literature (focus on key points, not a full review). If your study relates to any particularly relevant issues, mention it here to increase the audience's interest in the topic.
  • Hypothesis (1 slide) - Clearly state your hypothesis.
  • Description of Methods (2-3 slides) - Clearly, but briefly, summarize your study design including a clear description of the study population, the sample size and any instruments or manipulations to gather the data.
  • Results and Data Interpretation (2-4 slides) - Illustrate your results through simple tables, graphs, and images. Remind the audience of your hypothesis and discuss your interpretation of the data/results.
  • Conclusion (2-3 slides) - Further interpret your results. If you had any sources of error or difficulties with your methods, discuss them here and address how they could be (or were) improved. Discuss your findings as part of the bigger picture and connect them to potential further outcomes or areas of study.
  • Closing (1 slide) - If anyone supported your research with guidance, awards, or funding, be sure to recognize their contribution. If your presentation includes a Q&A session, open the floor to questions.

Plan for about one minute for each slide of information that you have. Be sure that you don’t cram your slides with text (stick to bullet points and images to emphasize key points).

And, if you’re looking for more inspiration to help you in scripting an oral research presentation. University of Virginia has a helpful oral presentation outline script .

PhD Student working on a presentation

A PhD Student working on an upcoming oral presentation.

Put yourself in your listeners shoes

As mentioned in the intro, research presentations are unique because they deal with specialized topics and complicated concepts. There’s a good chance that a large section of your audience won’t have the same understanding of your topic area as you do. So, do your best to understand where your listeners are at and adapt your language/definitions to that.

There’s an increasing awareness around the importance of scientific communication. Comms experts have even started giving TED Talks on how to bridge the gap between science and the public (check out Talk Nerdy to Me ). A general communication tip is to find out what sort of audience will listen to your talk. Then, beware of using jargon and acronyms unless you're 100% certain that your audience knows what they mean. 

On the other end of the spectrum, you don’t want to underestimate your audience. Giving too much background or spending ages summarizing old work to a group of experts in the field would be a waste of valuable presentation time (and would put you at risk of losing your audience's interest). 

Finally, if you can, practice your presentation on someone with a similar level of topic knowledge to the audience you’ll be presenting to.

Use scientific storytelling in your presentation

In scenarios where it’s appropriate, crafting a story allows you to break free from the often rigid tone of scientific communications. It helps your brain hit the refresh button and observe your findings from a new perspective. Plus, it can be a lot of fun to do!

If you have a chance to use scientific storytelling in your presentation, take full advantage of it. The best way to weave a story for your audience into a presentation is by setting the scene during your introduction. As you set the context of your research, set the context of your story/example at the same time. Continue drawing those parallels as you present. Then, deliver the main message of the story (or the “Aha!”) moment during your presentation’s conclusion.

If delivered well, a good story will keep your audience on the edge of their seats and glued to your entire presentation.

Emphasize the “Why” (not the “How”) of your research

Along the same lines as using storytelling, it’s important to think of WHY your audience should care about your work. Find ways to connect your research to valuable outcomes in society. Take your individual points on each slide and bring things back to the bigger picture. Constantly remind your listeners how it’s all connected and why that’s important.

One helpful way to get in this mindset is to look back to the moment before you became an expert on your topic. What got you interested? What was the reason for asking your research question? And, what motivated you to power through all the hard work to come? Then, looking forward, think about what key takeaways were most interesting or surprised you the most. How can these be applied to impact positive change in your research field or the wider community?

Be picky about what you include

It’s tempting to discuss all the small details of your methods or findings. Instead, focus on the most important information and takeaways that you think your audience will connect with. Decide on these takeaways before you script your presentation so that you can set the scene properly and provide only the information that has an added value.

When it comes to choosing data to display in your presentation slides, keep it simple. Wherever possible, use visuals to communicate your findings as opposed to large tables filled with numbers. This article by Richard Chambers has some great tips on using visuals in your slides and graphs.

Hide your complex tables and data in additional slides

With the above tip in mind: Just because you don’t include data and tables in your main presentation slides, doesn’t mean you can’t keep them handy for reference. If there’s a Q&A session after your presentation (or if you’ll be sharing your slides to view on-demand after) one great trick is to include additional slides/materials after your closing slide. You can keep these in your metaphorical “back pocket” to refer to if a specific question is asked about a data set or method. They’re also handy for people viewing your presentation slides later that might want to do a deeper dive into your methods/results.

However, just because you have these extra slides doesn’t mean you shouldn’t make the effort to make that information more accessible. A research conference platform like Fourwaves allows presenters to attach supplementary materials (figures, posters, slides, videos and more) that conference participants can access anytime.

Leave your audience with (a few) questions

Curiosity is a good thing. Whether you have a Q&A session or not, you should want to leave your audience with a few key questions. The most important one:

“Where can I find out more?”

Obviously, it’s important to answer basic questions about your research context, hypothesis, methods, results, and interpretation. If you answer these while focusing on the “Why?” and weaving a good story, you’ll be setting the stage for an engaging Q&A session and/or some great discussions in the halls after your presentation. Just be sure that you have further links or materials ready to provide to those who are curious. 

Conclusion: The true expert in your research presentation

Throughout the entire process of scripting, creating your slides, and presenting, it’s important to remember that no one knows your research better than you do. If you’re nervous, remind yourself that the people who come to listen to your presentation are most likely there due to a genuine interest in your work. The pressure isn’t to connect with an uninterested audience - it’s to make your research more accessible and relevant for an already curious audience.

Finally, to practice what we preached in our last tip: If you’re looking to learn more about preparing for a research presentation, check out our articles on how to dress for a scientific conference and general conference presentation tips .

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How to Make a PowerPoint Presentation of Your Research Paper

  • 4 minute read

Table of Contents

A research paper presentation is often used at conferences and in other settings where you have an opportunity to share your research, and get feedback from your colleagues. Although it may seem as simple as summarizing your research and sharing your knowledge, successful research paper PowerPoint presentation examples show us that there’s a little bit more than that involved.

In this article, we’ll highlight how to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper, and what to include (as well as what NOT to include). We’ll also touch on how to present a research paper at a conference.

Purpose of a Research Paper Presentation

The purpose of presenting your paper at a conference or forum is different from the purpose of conducting your research and writing up your paper. In this setting, you want to highlight your work instead of including every detail of your research. Likewise, a presentation is an excellent opportunity to get direct feedback from your colleagues in the field. But, perhaps the main reason for presenting your research is to spark interest in your work, and entice the audience to read your research paper.

So, yes, your presentation should summarize your work, but it needs to do so in a way that encourages your audience to seek out your work, and share their interest in your work with others. It’s not enough just to present your research dryly, to get information out there. More important is to encourage engagement with you, your research, and your work.

Tips for Creating Your Research Paper Presentation

In addition to basic PowerPoint presentation recommendations, which we’ll cover later in this article, think about the following when you’re putting together your research paper presentation:

  • Know your audience : First and foremost, who are you presenting to? Students? Experts in your field? Potential funders? Non-experts? The truth is that your audience will probably have a bit of a mix of all of the above. So, make sure you keep that in mind as you prepare your presentation.

Know more about: Discover the Target Audience .

  • Your audience is human : In other words, they may be tired, they might be wondering why they’re there, and they will, at some point, be tuning out. So, take steps to help them stay interested in your presentation. You can do that by utilizing effective visuals, summarize your conclusions early, and keep your research easy to understand.
  • Running outline : It’s not IF your audience will drift off, or get lost…it’s WHEN. Keep a running outline, either within the presentation or via a handout. Use visual and verbal clues to highlight where you are in the presentation.
  • Where does your research fit in? You should know of work related to your research, but you don’t have to cite every example. In addition, keep references in your presentation to the end, or in the handout. Your audience is there to hear about your work.
  • Plan B : Anticipate possible questions for your presentation, and prepare slides that answer those specific questions in more detail, but have them at the END of your presentation. You can then jump to them, IF needed.

What Makes a PowerPoint Presentation Effective?

You’ve probably attended a presentation where the presenter reads off of their PowerPoint outline, word for word. Or where the presentation is busy, disorganized, or includes too much information. Here are some simple tips for creating an effective PowerPoint Presentation.

  • Less is more: You want to give enough information to make your audience want to read your paper. So include details, but not too many, and avoid too many formulas and technical jargon.
  • Clean and professional : Avoid excessive colors, distracting backgrounds, font changes, animations, and too many words. Instead of whole paragraphs, bullet points with just a few words to summarize and highlight are best.
  • Know your real-estate : Each slide has a limited amount of space. Use it wisely. Typically one, no more than two points per slide. Balance each slide visually. Utilize illustrations when needed; not extraneously.
  • Keep things visual : Remember, a PowerPoint presentation is a powerful tool to present things visually. Use visual graphs over tables and scientific illustrations over long text. Keep your visuals clean and professional, just like any text you include in your presentation.

Know more about our Scientific Illustrations Services .

Another key to an effective presentation is to practice, practice, and then practice some more. When you’re done with your PowerPoint, go through it with friends and colleagues to see if you need to add (or delete excessive) information. Double and triple check for typos and errors. Know the presentation inside and out, so when you’re in front of your audience, you’ll feel confident and comfortable.

How to Present a Research Paper

If your PowerPoint presentation is solid, and you’ve practiced your presentation, that’s half the battle. Follow the basic advice to keep your audience engaged and interested by making eye contact, encouraging questions, and presenting your information with enthusiasm.

We encourage you to read our articles on how to present a scientific journal article and tips on giving good scientific presentations .

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Home Blog Presentation Ideas How to Create and Deliver a Research Presentation

How to Create and Deliver a Research Presentation

Cover for Research Presentation Guide

Every research endeavor ends up with the communication of its findings. Graduate-level research culminates in a thesis defense , while many academic and scientific disciplines are published in peer-reviewed journals. In a business context, PowerPoint research presentation is the default format for reporting the findings to stakeholders.

Condensing months of work into a few slides can prove to be challenging. It requires particular skills to create and deliver a research presentation that promotes informed decisions and drives long-term projects forward.

Table of Contents

What is a Research Presentation

Key slides for creating a research presentation, tips when delivering a research presentation, how to present sources in a research presentation, recommended templates to create a research presentation.

A research presentation is the communication of research findings, typically delivered to an audience of peers, colleagues, students, or professionals. In the academe, it is meant to showcase the importance of the research paper , state the findings and the analysis of those findings, and seek feedback that could further the research.

The presentation of research becomes even more critical in the business world as the insights derived from it are the basis of strategic decisions of organizations. Information from this type of report can aid companies in maximizing the sales and profit of their business. Major projects such as research and development (R&D) in a new field, the launch of a new product or service, or even corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives will require the presentation of research findings to prove their feasibility.

Market research and technical research are examples of business-type research presentations you will commonly encounter.

In this article, we’ve compiled all the essential tips, including some examples and templates, to get you started with creating and delivering a stellar research presentation tailored specifically for the business context.

Various research suggests that the average attention span of adults during presentations is around 20 minutes, with a notable drop in an engagement at the 10-minute mark . Beyond that, you might see your audience doing other things.

How can you avoid such a mistake? The answer lies in the adage “keep it simple, stupid” or KISS. We don’t mean dumbing down your content but rather presenting it in a way that is easily digestible and accessible to your audience. One way you can do this is by organizing your research presentation using a clear structure.

Here are the slides you should prioritize when creating your research presentation PowerPoint.

1.  Title Page

The title page is the first thing your audience will see during your presentation, so put extra effort into it to make an impression. Of course, writing presentation titles and title pages will vary depending on the type of presentation you are to deliver. In the case of a research presentation, you want a formal and academic-sounding one. It should include:

  • The full title of the report
  • The date of the report
  • The name of the researchers or department in charge of the report
  • The name of the organization for which the presentation is intended

When writing the title of your research presentation, it should reflect the topic and objective of the report. Focus only on the subject and avoid adding redundant phrases like “A research on” or “A study on.” However, you may use phrases like “Market Analysis” or “Feasibility Study” because they help identify the purpose of the presentation. Doing so also serves a long-term purpose for the filing and later retrieving of the document.

Here’s a sample title page for a hypothetical market research presentation from Gillette .

Title slide in a Research Presentation

2. Executive Summary Slide

The executive summary marks the beginning of the body of the presentation, briefly summarizing the key discussion points of the research. Specifically, the summary may state the following:

  • The purpose of the investigation and its significance within the organization’s goals
  • The methods used for the investigation
  • The major findings of the investigation
  • The conclusions and recommendations after the investigation

Although the executive summary encompasses the entry of the research presentation, it should not dive into all the details of the work on which the findings, conclusions, and recommendations were based. Creating the executive summary requires a focus on clarity and brevity, especially when translating it to a PowerPoint document where space is limited.

Each point should be presented in a clear and visually engaging manner to capture the audience’s attention and set the stage for the rest of the presentation. Use visuals, bullet points, and minimal text to convey information efficiently.

Executive Summary slide in a Research Presentation

3. Introduction/ Project Description Slides

In this section, your goal is to provide your audience with the information that will help them understand the details of the presentation. Provide a detailed description of the project, including its goals, objectives, scope, and methods for gathering and analyzing data.

You want to answer these fundamental questions:

  • What specific questions are you trying to answer, problems you aim to solve, or opportunities you seek to explore?
  • Why is this project important, and what prompted it?
  • What are the boundaries of your research or initiative? 
  • How were the data gathered?

Important: The introduction should exclude specific findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

Action Evaluation Matrix in a Research Presentation

4. Data Presentation and Analyses Slides

This is the longest section of a research presentation, as you’ll present the data you’ve gathered and provide a thorough analysis of that data to draw meaningful conclusions. The format and components of this section can vary widely, tailored to the specific nature of your research.

For example, if you are doing market research, you may include the market potential estimate, competitor analysis, and pricing analysis. These elements will help your organization determine the actual viability of a market opportunity.

Visual aids like charts, graphs, tables, and diagrams are potent tools to convey your key findings effectively. These materials may be numbered and sequenced (Figure 1, Figure 2, and so forth), accompanied by text to make sense of the insights.

Data and Analysis slide in a Research Presentation

5. Conclusions

The conclusion of a research presentation is where you pull together the ideas derived from your data presentation and analyses in light of the purpose of the research. For example, if the objective is to assess the market of a new product, the conclusion should determine the requirements of the market in question and tell whether there is a product-market fit.

Designing your conclusion slide should be straightforward and focused on conveying the key takeaways from your research. Keep the text concise and to the point. Present it in bullet points or numbered lists to make the content easily scannable.

Conclusion Slide in a Research Presentation

6. Recommendations

The findings of your research might reveal elements that may not align with your initial vision or expectations. These deviations are addressed in the recommendations section of your presentation, which outlines the best course of action based on the result of the research.

What emerging markets should we target next? Do we need to rethink our pricing strategies? Which professionals should we hire for this special project? — these are some of the questions that may arise when coming up with this part of the research.

Recommendations may be combined with the conclusion, but presenting them separately to reinforce their urgency. In the end, the decision-makers in the organization or your clients will make the final call on whether to accept or decline the recommendations.

Recommendations slide in Research Presentation

7. Questions Slide

Members of your audience are not involved in carrying out your research activity, which means there’s a lot they don’t know about its details. By offering an opportunity for questions, you can invite them to bridge that gap, seek clarification, and engage in a dialogue that enhances their understanding.

If your research is more business-oriented, facilitating a question and answer after your presentation becomes imperative as it’s your final appeal to encourage buy-in for your recommendations.

A simple “Ask us anything” slide can indicate that you are ready to accept questions.

1. Focus on the Most Important Findings

The truth about presenting research findings is that your audience doesn’t need to know everything. Instead, they should receive a distilled, clear, and meaningful overview that focuses on the most critical aspects.

You will likely have to squeeze in the oral presentation of your research into a 10 to 20-minute presentation, so you have to make the most out of the time given to you. In the presentation, don’t soak in the less important elements like historical backgrounds. Decision-makers might even ask you to skip these portions and focus on sharing the findings.

2. Do Not Read Word-per-word

Reading word-for-word from your presentation slides intensifies the danger of losing your audience’s interest. Its effect can be detrimental, especially if the purpose of your research presentation is to gain approval from the audience. So, how can you avoid this mistake?

  • Make a conscious design decision to keep the text on your slides minimal. Your slides should serve as visual cues to guide your presentation.
  • Structure your presentation as a narrative or story. Stories are more engaging and memorable than dry, factual information.
  • Prepare speaker notes with the key points of your research. Glance at it when needed.
  • Engage with the audience by maintaining eye contact and asking rhetorical questions.

3. Don’t Go Without Handouts

Handouts are paper copies of your presentation slides that you distribute to your audience. They typically contain the summary of your key points, but they may also provide supplementary information supporting data presented through tables and graphs.

The purpose of distributing presentation handouts is to easily retain the key points you presented as they become good references in the future. Distributing handouts in advance allows your audience to review the material and come prepared with questions or points for discussion during the presentation.

4. Actively Listen

An equally important skill that a presenter must possess aside from speaking is the ability to listen. We are not just talking about listening to what the audience is saying but also considering their reactions and nonverbal cues. If you sense disinterest or confusion, you can adapt your approach on the fly to re-engage them.

For example, if some members of your audience are exchanging glances, they may be skeptical of the research findings you are presenting. This is the best time to reassure them of the validity of your data and provide a concise overview of how it came to be. You may also encourage them to seek clarification.

5. Be Confident

Anxiety can strike before a presentation – it’s a common reaction whenever someone has to speak in front of others. If you can’t eliminate your stress, try to manage it.

People hate public speaking not because they simply hate it. Most of the time, it arises from one’s belief in themselves. You don’t have to take our word for it. Take Maslow’s theory that says a threat to one’s self-esteem is a source of distress among an individual.

Now, how can you master this feeling? You’ve spent a lot of time on your research, so there is no question about your topic knowledge. Perhaps you just need to rehearse your research presentation. If you know what you will say and how to say it, you will gain confidence in presenting your work.

All sources you use in creating your research presentation should be given proper credit. The APA Style is the most widely used citation style in formal research.

In-text citation

Add references within the text of your presentation slide by giving the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number (if applicable) in parentheses after direct quotations or paraphrased materials. As in:

The alarming rate at which global temperatures rise directly impacts biodiversity (Smith, 2020, p. 27).

If the author’s name and year of publication are mentioned in the text, add only the page number in parentheses after the quotations or paraphrased materials. As in:

According to Smith (2020), the alarming rate at which global temperatures rise directly impacts biodiversity (p. 27).

Image citation

All images from the web, including photos, graphs, and tables, used in your slides should be credited using the format below.

Creator’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Image.” Website Name, Day Mo. Year, URL. Accessed Day Mo. Year.

Work cited page

A work cited page or reference list should follow after the last slide of your presentation. The list should be alphabetized by the author’s last name and initials followed by the year of publication, the title of the book or article, the place of publication, and the publisher. As in:

Smith, J. A. (2020). Climate Change and Biodiversity: A Comprehensive Study. New York, NY: ABC Publications.

When citing a document from a website, add the source URL after the title of the book or article instead of the place of publication and the publisher. As in:

Smith, J. A. (2020). Climate Change and Biodiversity: A Comprehensive Study. Retrieved from

1. Research Project Presentation PowerPoint Template

presenting a research article

A slide deck containing 18 different slides intended to take off the weight of how to make a research presentation. With tons of visual aids, presenters can reference existing research on similar projects to this one – or link another research presentation example – provide an accurate data analysis, disclose the methodology used, and much more.

Use This Template

2. Research Presentation Scientific Method Diagram PowerPoint Template

presenting a research article

Whenever you intend to raise questions, expose the methodology you used for your research, or even suggest a scientific method approach for future analysis, this circular wheel diagram is a perfect fit for any presentation study.

Customize all of its elements to suit the demands of your presentation in just minutes.

3. Thesis Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

Layout of Results in Charts

If your research presentation project belongs to academia, then this is the slide deck to pair that presentation. With a formal aesthetic and minimalistic style, this research presentation template focuses only on exposing your information as clearly as possible.

Use its included bar charts and graphs to introduce data, change the background of each slide to suit the topic of your presentation, and customize each of its elements to meet the requirements of your project with ease.

4. Animated Research Cards PowerPoint Template

presenting a research article

Visualize ideas and their connection points with the help of this research card template for PowerPoint. This slide deck, for example, can help speakers talk about alternative concepts to what they are currently managing and its possible outcomes, among different other usages this versatile PPT template has. Zoom Animation effects make a smooth transition between cards (or ideas).

5. Research Presentation Slide Deck for PowerPoint

presenting a research article

With a distinctive professional style, this research presentation PPT template helps business professionals and academics alike to introduce the findings of their work to team members or investors.

By accessing this template, you get the following slides:

  • Introduction
  • Problem Statement
  • Research Questions
  • Conceptual Research Framework (Concepts, Theories, Actors, & Constructs)
  • Study design and methods
  • Population & Sampling
  • Data Collection
  • Data Analysis

Check it out today and craft a powerful research presentation out of it!

A successful research presentation in business is not just about presenting data; it’s about persuasion to take meaningful action. It’s the bridge that connects your research efforts to the strategic initiatives of your organization. To embark on this journey successfully, planning your presentation thoroughly is paramount, from designing your PowerPoint to the delivery.

Take a look and get inspiration from the sample research presentation slides above, put our tips to heart, and transform your research findings into a compelling call to action.

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Enago Academy

How to Make an Effective Research Presentation

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Presentation software programs have advanced to the point where you no longer need to be an experienced designer to put together a compelling piece of collateral that conveys your findings about academic research in exactly the right way. With the right materials, the right presentation software, and a little bit of time, you can visualize any data that you have in the form of a terrific presentation that sells your research better than numbers alone ever could. However, this does not mean that you shouldn’t keep in mind a few things. As both a marketing tool and a means to convey information, presentations are helpful because they are malleable—the format can essentially be anything you need it to be at any given time. The other side of this, however, is that there are certain traps that are all too easy for even experts to fall into that will harm your ultimate message, not help it. If you wish to learn how to make a professional research presentation as an author, or a researcher, then you should avoid some mistakes at all costs.

Mistakes to Avoid

As a researcher or a student, your number one goal isn’t just to provide insight into a topic—it’s to do so in a compelling way. It is important to communicate ideas in a way that is both easy to understand for people who haven’t completed the work you have and to do so in a compelling and engaging way. In many ways, it’s a lot like telling a story—albeit one that is heavily research-oriented. Every story has a beginning, middle, and end and you need to ensure that the content in the presentation has a proper narrative flow.

In many ways, your presentation will operate exactly along the same lines. To that end, always remember to make sure that the information is presented not only in the right manner but also in the right order to complement intent and maximize impact. If you have three subtopics within a presentation, all of which are related but are still different ideas, don’t mix and match the content. Don’t jump from one topic to the other and back again—you’re only going to lose focus and eventually, the attention of your reader.

If you start preparing your presentation and realize that you’re actually kind of covering two distinct and different topics, don’t be afraid to break one presentation into two. You’ll be able to devote more attention to promoting each idea and you’ll walk away with two great pieces of research presentations instead of one “okay” one.

Length of Your Presentation

Another element of your presentation that you need to pay extremely close attention to is the length. This goes back to another one of the old rules of storytelling: “Whatever you do, don’t overstay your welcome.” While it is true that presentations are naturally designed to be a longer form than something like an Infographic, it’s important to recognize when you’re asking too much of your reader/viewer. A presentation isn’t just a visualized form of something like a white paper. It’s a unique medium all unto itself.

When you start preparing your presentation for the first time, feel free to include as many slides or as much information as you want. Also, don’t forget that there are three versions of your presentation that will exist—the initial outline, the “first draft” of the presentation and the final edited version that you release. Make an effort to only include information that A) is needed to understand your research topic, and B) is necessary to contextualize your findings or the points you’re trying to make. Go through your presentation from start to finish and really try to experience it with fresh eyes—the same way your audience will.

Does it feel like the end of your presentation is getting a little sluggish? You feel that it should be over but there are ten slides to go still. Be precise in your editing process —rest assured that you’ll thank yourself when the end result is much more powerful than it would be if it had remained bloated.

The Power of Presentations

In many ways, presentations provide a unified experience where you can have text, images, video, and more. Remember that human beings are visual learners— visuals are processed up to 60,000 times faster than text and people have a much easier time understanding complex information when it is paired with relevant images as opposed to just text. As an author, researcher, or student, your job is to take complicated ideas and present them in a way that is appealing to a larger audience. Presentations are one of the most essential ways for you to do exactly that. The central message you are trying to convey—the thesis, if you will—needs to be strong enough to justify the creation of a presentation in the first place.

It needs to be a big enough topic to warrant a lengthy experience and a compelling enough story that demands to be told in this particular format above all others. If you start from that simple foundation and build outward, you’ll be left with the best type of marketing tool—one that promotes your research for you and one that people can’t wait to share with their friends and colleagues.

About the Author

Payman Taei is the founder of Visme , an easy-to-use online tool to create engaging presentations, infographics, and other forms of visual content. He is also the founder of HindSite Interactive , an award-winning Maryland based digital agency specializing in website design, user experience, and web app development.

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As discovery of cellular diversity in the brain accelerates, so does the need for tools that target cells based on multiple features. Here we developed Conditional Viral Expression by Ribozyme Guided Degradation (ConVERGD), an adeno-associated virus-based, single-construct, intersectional targeting strategy that combines a self-cleaving ribozyme with traditional FLEx switches to deliver molecular cargo to specific neuronal subtypes. ConVERGD offers benefits over existing intersectional expression platforms, such as expanded intersectional targeting with up to five recombinase-based features, accommodation of larger and more complex payloads and a vector that is easy to modify for rapid toolkit expansion. In the present report we employed ConVERGD to characterize an unexplored subpopulation of norepinephrine (NE)-producing neurons within the rodent locus coeruleus that co-express the endogenous opioid gene prodynorphin ( Pdyn ). These studies showcase ConVERGD as a versatile tool for targeting diverse cell types and reveal Pdyn -expressing NE + locus coeruleus neurons as a small neuronal subpopulation capable of driving anxiogenic behavioral responses in rodents.

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RNA-seq data are deposited in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus database with accession no. GSE224285 . Source data are provided with this paper.

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We thank H. Sanders and K. Lowe for technical support, the St. Jude Vector Core Lab for generating ConVERGD AAVs, G. Neale and S. Olsen in the St. Jude Hartwell Center for Biotechnology for guidance with sequencing and members of the L.A.S. laboratory for helpful feedback. We also thank H. Zeng, A. Cetin, S. Yao, T. Zhou and M. T. Mortrud of the Allen Institute for sharing the N2c ΔG -H2B-eGFP virus for trans-synaptic tracing experiments and G. Zhong of Scripps Research, Florida for providing the initial sequence information for the T3H48 ribozyme. This work was supported by a NARSAD Young Investigator Grant from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (to L.A.S.), the NIH (grant no. 1DP2NS115764 to L.A.S.), institutional funds from St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital (to B.G.P., B.X., J.W.G. and L.A.S.) and funding from the St. Jude Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences (to A.C.H.). Single-cell sequencing was performed at the Hartwell Center at St. Jude, which is supported in part by the National Cancer Institute of the NIH under award no. P30 CA021765.

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Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA

Alex C. Hughes, Brittany G. Pittman, Jesse W. Gammons, Charis M. Webb, Hunter G. Nolen, Phillip Chapman, Jay B. Bikoff & Lindsay A. Schwarz

Human Cell Types, Allen Institute for Brain Science, Seattle, WA, USA

Alex C. Hughes

Center for Applied Bioinformatics, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA

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A.C.H. and L.A.S. conceived the project. A.C.H. designed ConVERGD, generated and tested viral constructs in vitro and in vivo and performed rabies tracing and behavioral studies. B.G.P. assisted with the cloning of viral constructs and in vitro testing. B.X. performed sequencing analysis. J.W.G. piloted manual sequencing methods and collected cells for sequencing. C.M.W. assisted with in vitro testing. H.G.N. assisted with behavioral testing. P.C. and J.B.B. provided the protocol and starter virus for generating N2c-rabies. L.A.S. generated viruses, performed in situ hybridization experiments, in vitro assessment of leak expression and in vivo testing and rabies-tracing experiments, and supervised the project. A.C.H. and L.A.S. wrote and edited the paper with feedback from the other authors.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lindsay A. Schwarz .

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Nature Neuroscience thanks Ryoji Amamoto, Els Henckaerts, Bernardo Sabatini and the other, anonymous, reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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Extended data

Extended data fig. 1 comparison of convergd-based constructs with varying promoter and posttranscriptional elements..

a , FACS quantification of N2a cells co-transfected with an EYFP- or eGFP-expressing plasmid alone (Control, grey bars) or with recombinase plasmids expressing Cre (yellow bars), Flp (blue bars), or Cre and Flp (pDIRE, green bars). ConVERGD was tested in pAAV backbones containing different promoters and 3′ posttranscriptional regulatory elements. b , FACS quantification as in a but represented as percent of live, single cells that were counted positive for fluorescence. Bars represent the mean of all experiments. Error bars are SEM. CV - ConVERGD. Data points represent independent transfections with the following constructs: 56 (FLEx(FRT)eGFP alone or +pDIRE), 6 (CV-eGFP-W3SL +Flp, +pDIRE; CV-eGFP-WPRE, +Flp, +pDire; Ef1a-CV-eGFP-WPRE, +pDIRE) 5 (INTRSECT-EYFP, +Cre, +Flp, +pDIRE; CV-eGFP-W3SL, +Cre; CV-eGFP-WPRE+Cre; nEF-CV-eGFP-WPRE, +pDIRE) 4 (CV-EYFP, +Flp; CAG-CV-eGFP-W3SL, +Cre, +Flp, +pDIRE; CAG-CV-eGFP-WPRE; Ef1a-CV-eGFP-W3SL, +Cre, +Flp, +pDIRE; Ef1a-CV-eGFP-WPRE+Cre, +Flp; nEF-CV-eGFP-W3SL, +Cre, +Flp, +pDIRE; nEF-CV-eGFP-WPRE+Cre, +Flp) 3 (CV-EYFP+Cre, +pDIRE; CAG-CV-eGFP-WPRE+Cre, +Flp, +pDIRE).

Extended Data Fig. 2 Assessment of leaky expression from ConVERGD and INTRSECT constructs.

a , Schematics for ConVERGD and INTRSECT constructs where no recombination has occurred, or upon Cre, Flp, or Cre and Flp-mediated recombination. Expected band sizes via PCR with specified primers are listed below. b , PCR of pAAV-hSyn-ConVERGD-eGFP-W3SL and pAAV-hSyn-INTRSECT-eYFP plasmids using the primer pairs described in a . c , Schematics for ConVERGD vectors where no recombination has occurred, or upon Cre, Flp, or Cre and Flp-mediated recombination. Schematics for vectors undergoing partial Flp-mediated recombination are also included. Expected band sizes via PCR with specified primers are listed below. d , Amplified PCR product from N2a cells transfected with hSyn-ConVERGD-eGFP-W3SL alone or with Cre, Flp, or Cre and Flp (pDIRE) expressing plasmids. mRNA extracted from these samples underwent a reverse transcriptase (RT) reaction to generate cDNA, or a no reverse transcriptase (no RT) reaction as a control. Each gel displays PCR products from template arising from the RT and no RT reactions. The gels are representative of results obtained across four independent sets of transfections. CV - ConVERGD; INTR – INTRSECT.

Source data

Extended data fig. 3 different recombination sites did not improve convergd performance..

a , FACS quantification of N2a cells co-transfected with ConVERGD-eGFP construct variants containing different recombinase recognition sites alone (Control, grey bars) or with recombinase plasmids expressing Cre (yellow bars), Flp (blue bars), or Cre and Flp (pDIRE, green bars). Data represented as the fold change of median fluorescence intensity (MFI) of transfection condition compared to the average control MFI for each construct. b , The same FACS quantification as in a but represented as percent of live, single cells that were counted positive for eGFP fluorescence. Data points represent individual transfection experiments. In a and b , results represent data from 7 (FRT5/FRT;loxP), 3 (FRT5/FRT;lox43/44), 6 (FRT5/FRT(min);loxP), 6 (FRT5/FRT(min);lox43/44) separate transfection experiments. Bars represent the mean of all experiments. Error bars are SEM.

Extended Data Fig. 4 Assessment of ConVERGD expression as percent of live N2a cells.

a , FACS quantification of N2a cells co-transfected with ConVERGD-ConFoff-eGFP (left) or ConVERGD-CoffFon-eGFP (right) either alone or with recombinase-expressing plasmid. b , FACS quantification of N2a cells co-transfected with ConVERGD-ConFonvCon-eGFP either alone or with recombinase-expressing plasmid. c , FACS quantification of N2a cells co-transfected with ConVERGD-ConFonvConNon-eGFP either alone or with recombinase-expressing plasmid. Data points in all panels represent the percent of live cells that contain eGFP from individual transfections. Data points represent independent transfections with the following constructs: 3 (CV-ConFoff-eGFP control; CV-ConFonvConNon-eGFP +Flp/Nigri, +vCre/Nigri, +vCre/Flp/Nigri, +Cre/Flp/vCre/Nigri), 4 (CV-ConFoff-eGFP +Cre, +Flp, +pDire; all conditions for ConFonvCon; CV-ConFonvConNon-eGFP +Cre/Flp/Nigri), 5 (CV-CoffFon-eGFP all conditions; CV-ConFonvConNon-eGFP +Cre/vCre, +Cre/Nigri, +Cre/Flp/vCre), 6 (CV-ConFonvConNon-eGFP, +Cre, +Flp, +vCre, +Cre/vCre/Nigri), 7 (CV-ConFonvConNon-eGFP +Nigri, +Flp/vCre), and 9 CV-ConFonvConNon-eGFP +Cre/Flp. Bars represent the mean of all experiments. Error bars are SEM.

Extended Data Fig. 5 ConVERGD-based constructs are easily amenable and allow specific expression of diverse transgenes.

a , ConVERGD-based toolkit for modulating neuronal activity. b , ConVERGD-based toolkit for trans-synaptic rabies tracing. c , ConVERGD-based construct for in vivo calcium imaging (GCaMP8m; GC8m). d , ConVERGD-based construct for a dual-expressing transgene that labels pre-synaptic sites and axons (synaptophysin-GreenLantern and GAP43-mScarlet). All images show transfected N2a cells counterstained with DAPI (blue) and are representative of results observed across at least two separate transfections. FR - FusionRed; mChr - mCherry; GL - GreenLantern; mSc - mScarlet. Scale bar in a is 100μm and applies to all images.

Extended Data Fig. 6 ConVERGD shows specific, intersectional expression in the hippocampus of Calb1 Cre ; Slc17a7 Flp mice.

a , Representative images of labeled cells in the hippocampus upon injection of Cre-dependent eGFP AAV in Calb1 Cre mice (left) or Flp-dependent mCherry AAV in Slc17a7 Flp mice (right). b , Representative images of AAV-hSyn-ConVERGD-eGFP or AAV-hSyn-INTRSECT-Con/Fon-EYFP injected into the hippocampus of Calb1 Cre , Slc17a7 Flp , and Calb1 Cre ; Slc17a7 Flp mice. Tissue sections in the top two rows reflect endogenous fluorescence while tissue sections in the bottom two rows were immunostained with GFP antibody. c , Representative images of AAV-hSyn-ConVERGD-ConFonvCon-eGFP injected into the hippocampus of Calb1 Cre ; Slc17a7 Flp mice in the absence (left) or presence (right) of vCre-expressing AAV. Tissue sections were immunostained with GFP antibody. d , Representative images of AAV-hSyn-ConVERGD-ConFoff-eGFP injected into the hippocampus of Calb1 Cre (left) or Calb1 Cre ; Slc17a7 Flp (right) mice. Tissue sections were immunostained with GFP antibody. e , Representative images of AAV-hSyn-ConVERGD-CoffFon-eGFP injected into the hippocampus of Slc17a7 Flp (left) or Calb1 Cre ; Slc17a7 Flp (right) mice. Tissue sections were immunostained with GFP antibody. Images in a , c, d , and e are representative of results across 2 mice for each genotype; images in b are representative of results across 3 mice for each genotype. Scale bars are 100μm. WT - wild-type; Calb1 - calbindin 1; Slc17a7 - solute carrier family 17 member 7; INTR - INTRSECT; CV - ConVERGD.

Extended Data Fig. 7 Top 100 most frequently detected genes in LC neurons using a Smart-seq2-based sequencing platform.

a , Heatmap of scaled (by cell) transcript abundance (transcripts per million, TPM) for the top 100 genes most frequently detected in 201 LC neurons by single-cell transcriptomic sequencing.

Extended Data Fig. 8 Increased single-recombinase induced expression observed with INTRSECT.

a , Representative images showing the LC (TH, white) of mice injected with AAV-hSyn-INTRSECT-Con/Fon-EYFP. All genotypes showed some level of YFP (green) expression. b , Quantification of INTRSECT-EYFP labeled cells in and around (~200μm radius) the LC across different genotypes. Points represent cell counts across 6 50μm LC brain sections. Bars represent the mean of the data. Error bars are SEM. All sections were immunostained against GFP. Images in a are representative of results observed across 4 ( Pdyn Cre ), 4 ( Dbh Flp ), and 5 ( Pdyn Cre ;Dbh Flp ) animals. Scale bars are 100μm. TH - tyrosine hydroxylase; LC - locus coeruleus; Pdyn - prodynorphin; Dbh - dopamine-β-hydroxylase.

Supplementary information

Supplementary information.

Supplementary Fig. 1.

Reporting Summary

Supplementary table 1.

Genetic space needed for intersectional machinery.

Supplementary Table 2

Key resource table.

Supplementary Code 1

Customized code used to analyze EZM experiments.

Supplemenatry Code 2

Source data fig. 7.

Source data for rabies-tracing experiments.

Source Data Fig. 8

Source data for behavior experiments.

Source Data Extended Data Fig. 2

Source gels for Extended Data Fig. 2.

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Hughes, A.C., Pittman, B.G., Xu, B. et al. A single-vector intersectional AAV strategy for interrogating cellular diversity and brain function. Nat Neurosci (2024).

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Scientific Presenting: Using Evidence-Based Classroom Practices to Deliver Effective Conference Presentations

Lisa a. corwin.

† Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309

Amy Prunuske

‡ Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Wisconsin–Central Wisconsin, Wausau, WI 54401

Shannon B. Seidel

§ Biology Department, Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA 98447

Scientific presenting is the use of scientific teaching principles—active learning, equity, and assessment—in conference presentations to improve learning, engagement, and inclusiveness. This essay presents challenges presenters face and suggestions for how presenters can incorporate active learning strategies into their scientific presentations.

Scientists and educators travel great distances, spend significant time, and dedicate substantial financial resources to present at conferences. This highlights the value placed on conference interactions. Despite the importance of conferences, very little has been studied about what is learned from the presentations and how presenters can effectively achieve their goals. This essay identifies several challenges presenters face when giving conference presentations and discusses how presenters can use the tenets of scientific teaching to meet these challenges. We ask presenters the following questions: How do you engage the audience and promote learning during a presentation? How do you create an environment that is inclusive for all in attendance? How do you gather feedback from the professional community that will help to further advance your research? These questions target three broad goals that stem from the scientific teaching framework and that we propose are of great importance at conferences: learning, equity, and improvement. Using a backward design approach, we discuss how the lens of scientific teaching and the use of specific active-learning strategies can enhance presentations, improve their utility, and ensure that a presentation is broadly accessible to all audience members.

Attending a conference provides opportunities to share new discoveries, cutting-edge techniques, and inspiring research within a field of study. Yet after presenting at some conferences, you might leave feeling as though you did not connect with the audience, did not receive useful feedback, or are unsure of where you fit within the professional community. Deciding what to cover in a presentation may be daunting, and you may worry that the audience did not engage in your talk. Likewise, for audience members, the content of back-to-back talks may blur together, and they may get lost in acronyms or other unfamiliar jargon. Audience members who are introverted or new to the field may feel intimidated about asking a question in front of a large group containing well-known, outspoken experts. After attending a conference, one may leave feeling curious and excited or exhausted and overwhelmed, wondering what was gained from presenting or attending.

Conferences vary widely in purpose and location, ranging from small conferences hosted within home institutions to large international conferences featuring experts from around the world. The time and money spent to host, attend, and present at conferences speaks to the value placed on engaging in these professional interactions. Despite the importance of conferences to professional life, there is rarely time to reflect on what presenters and other conference attendees learn from participating in conferences or how conferences promote engagement and equity in the field as a whole. A significant portion of most conference time is devoted to the delivery of oral presentations, which traditionally are delivered in a lecture style, with questions being initiated by a predictable few during question-and-answer sessions.

In this essay, we discuss how you can use a backward design approach and scientific presenting strategies to overcome three key challenges to effectively presenting to diverse conference audiences. The challenges we consider here include the following:

  • Engagement in learning: ensuring that your audience is engaged and retains what is important from a talk
  • Promoting equity: creating an environment that is inclusive of all members of the research field
  • Receiving feedback: gathering input from the professional community to improve as a researcher and presenter

At conferences, learning and advancement of a field is paramount, similar to more formal educational settings. Thus, we wrote these presenting challenges to align with the central themes presented in the scientific teaching framework developed by Handelsman and colleagues (2007) . “Learning” aligns with “active learning,” “equity” with “diversity,” and “feedback” with “assessment.” Using the scientific teaching framework and a backward design approach, we propose using evidence-based teaching strategies for scientific presenting in order to increase learning, equity, and quality feedback. We challenge you , the presenter, to consider how these strategies might benefit your future presentations.


How will you define the central goals of your presentation and frame your presentation based on these goals? Begin with the end in mind by clearly defining your presentation goals before developing content and activities. This is not unlike the process of backward design used to plan effective learning experiences for students ( McTighe and Thomas, 2003 ). Consider what you, as a presenter, want to accomplish. You may want to share results supporting a novel hypothesis that may impact the work of colleagues in your field or disseminate new techniques or methodologies that could be applied more broadly. You may seek feedback about an ongoing project. Also consider your audience and what you hope they will gain from attending. You may want to encourage your colleagues to think in new and different ways or to create an environment of collegiality. It is good to understand your audience’s likely goals, interests, and professional identities before designing your presentation.

How can you get to know these important factors about your audience? Although it may not be possible to predict or know all aspects of your audience, identify sources of information you can access to learn more about them. Conference organizers, the website for the conference, and previous attendees may be good sources of information about who might be in attendance. Conference organizers may have demographic information about the institution types and career stages of the audience. The website for a conference or affiliated society often describes the mission of the organization or conference. Finally, speaking with individuals who have previously attended the conference may help you understand the culture and expectations of your audience. This information may enable you to tailor your talk and select strategies that will engage and resonate with audience members of diverse backgrounds. Most importantly, reflecting on the information you gather will allow you to evaluate and better define your presentation goals.

Before designing your presentation, write between two and five goals you have for yourself or your audience (see Vignettes 1 and 2 for sample goals). Prioritize your goals and evaluate which can be accomplished with the time, space, and audience constraints you face. Once you have established both your goals and knowledge of who might attend your talk, it is time to design your talk. The Scientific Presenting section that follows offers specific design suggestions to engage the audience in learning, promote equity, and receive high-quality feedback.

Situation: Mona Harrib has been asked to give the keynote presentation at a regional biology education research conference. As a leader in the field, Mona is well known and respected, and she has a good grasp on where the field has been and where it is going now.

Presentation Goals: She has three goals she wants to accomplish with her presentation: 1) to introduce her colleagues to the self-efficacy framework, 2) to provide new members of her field opportunities to learn about where the field has been, and 3) to connect these new individuals with others in the field.

Scientific Presenting Strategy: Mona has 50 minutes for her presentation, with 10 minutes for questions. Her opening slide, displayed as people enter the room, encourages audience members to “sit next to someone you have not yet spoken to.” Because her talk will discuss self-efficacy theory and the various origins of students’ confidence in their ability to do science, she begins by asking the audience members to introduce themselves to their neighbors and to describe an experience in which they felt efficacious or confident in their ability to do something and why they felt confident.  She circulates around the room, and asks five groups to share their responses. This provides an audience-generated foundation that she uses to explain the framework in more detail. For historical perspective, she relates each framework component back to prior research in the field. She ends with some recent work from her research group and asks participants to discuss with their partners how the framework could be used to explain the results of her recent study. She again gathers and reports several examples to the whole group that illustrate ways in which the data might be interpreted. She then asks the audience to write a question that they still have about this research on note cards, which she collects and reviews after the presentation. After reviewing the cards, she decides to incorporate a little more explanation about a few graphs in her work to help future audiences digest the information.

Situation: Antonio Villarreal is a postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley, who has recently been selected for a 15-minute presentation in the Endocytic Trafficking Minisymposium at the American Society for Cell Biology Annual Meeting. He has attended this conference twice, so he has a sense of the audience, space, and culture of the meeting. In his past experiences, he has found that the talks often blur together, and it is especially difficult to remember key ideas from the later talks in each session.

Presentation Goals: With a manuscript in preparation and his upcoming search for a faculty position, Antonio has the following three goals for his presentation: 1) to highlight the significance of his research in a memorable way; 2) to keep the audience engaged, because his presentation is the ninth out of 10 talks; and 3) to receive feedback that will prepare him to give professional job talks.

Scientific Presenting Strategy: Antonio took a class as a postdoctoral fellow about evidence-based practices in teaching and decides he would like to incorporate some active learning into his talk to help his audience learn. He worries that with only 15 minutes he does not have a lot of time to spare. So he sets up the background and experimental design for the audience and then projects only the two axes of his most impactful graph on the screen with a question mark in the middle where the data would be. Rather than simply showing the result, he asks the audience to turn to a neighbor and make a prediction about the results they expect to see. He cues the audience to talk to one another by encouraging them to make a bold prediction! After 30 seconds, he quells the chatter and highlights two different predictions he heard from audience members before sharing the results. At the end of his presentation, he asks the audience to turn to a neighbor once again and discuss what the results mean and what experiment they would try next. He also invites them to talk further with him after the session. The questions Antonio receives after his talk are very interesting and help him consider alternative angles he could pursue or discuss during future talks. He also asks his colleague Jenna to record his talk on his iPhone, and he reviews this recording after the session to prepare him for the job market.


Presenters, like teachers, often try to help their audiences connect new information with what they already know ( National Research Council, 2000 ). While a conference audience differs from a student audience, evidence and strategies collected from the learning sciences can assist in designing presentations to maximize learning and engagement. We propose that the scientific teaching framework, developed by Handelsman and colleagues (2007) to aid in instructional design, can be used as a tool in developing presentations that promote learning, are inclusive, and allow for the collection of useful feedback. In this section, we discuss the three pillars of scientific teaching: active learning, diversity, and assessment. We outline how they can be used to address the central challenges outlined earlier and provide specific tips and strategies for applying scientific teaching in a conference setting.

Challenge: Engagement in Learning

Consider the last conference you attended: How engaged were you in the presentations? How many times did you check your phone or email? How much did you learn from the talks you attended? Professional communities are calling for more compelling presentations that convey information successfully to a broad audience (e.g., Carlson and Burdsall, 2014 ; Langin, 2017 ). Active-learning strategies, when combined with constructivist approaches, are one way to increase engagement, learning, and retention ( Prince, 2004 ; Freeman et al. , 2014 ). While active-learning strategies are not mutually exclusive with the use of PowerPoint presentations in the dissemination of information, they do require thoughtful design, time for reflection, and interaction to achieve deeper levels of learning ( Chi and Wylie, 2014 ). This may be as simple as allowing 30–60 seconds for prediction or discussion in a 15-minute talk. On the basis of calls for change from conference goers and organizers and research on active-learning techniques, we have identified several potential benefits of active learning likely to enhance engagement in conference presentations:

  • Active learning increases engagement and enthusiasm. Active learning allows learners to maintain focus and enthusiasm throughout a learning experience (e.g., Michael, 2006 ). Use of active learning may particularly benefit audience members attending long presentations or sessions with back-to-back presenters.
  • Active learning improves retention of information. Active reflection and discussion with peers supports incorporation of information into one’s own mental models and creates the connections required for long-term retention of information (reviewed in Prince, 2004 ).
  • Active learning allows for increased idea exchange among participants. Collaborative discourse among individuals with differing views enhances learning, promotes argumentation, and allows construction of new knowledge ( Osborne, 2010 ). Active-learning approaches foster idea exchange and encourage interaction, allowing audience members to hear various perspectives from more individuals.
  • Active learning increases opportunities to build relationships and expand networks. Professional networking is important for expansion of professional communities, enhancing collaborations, and fostering idea exchange. Short collaborative activities during presentations can be leveraged to build social networks and foster community in a professional setting, similar to how they are used in instruction ( Kember and Leung, 2005 ; Kuh et al ., 2006 ).

While a multitude of ways to execute active learning exist, we offer a few specific suggestions to quickly engage the audience during a conference presentation ( Table 1 ). In the spirit of backward design, we encourage you to identify learning activities that support attainment of your presentation goals. Some examples can be found in Vignettes 1 and 2 (section 1), which illustrate hypothetical scenarios in which active learning is incorporated into presentations at professional conferences to help meet specific goals.

Active-learning strategies for conference presentations

Similar to giving a practice talk before the conference, we encourage you to test out active-learning strategies in advance, particularly if you plan to incorporate technology, because technological problems can result in disengagement ( Hatch et al ., 2005 ). Practicing presentation activities within a research group or local community will provide guidance on prompts, timing, instructions, and audience interpretation to identify problems and solutions before they occur during a presentation. This will help to avoid activities that are overly complex or not purpose driven ( Andrew et al ., 2011 ).

Challenge: Equity and Participation

Consider the last conference you attended: Did you hear differing opinions about your work or did the dominant paradigms prevail? Who asked questions; was it only high-status experts in the field? Did you hear from multiple voices? Did newer members, like graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, engage with established members of the community? In classroom settings, equity and diversity strategies improve learning among all students and particularly support students from underrepresented groups in science by decreasing feelings of exclusion, alleviating anxiety, and counteracting stereotype threat ( Haak et al ., 2011 ; Walton et al ., 2012 ; Eddy and Hogan, 2014 ). Likewise, in a conference setting, strategies that promote equitable participation and recognize the positive impact of diversity in the field may help increase equity more broadly and promote a sense of belonging among participants. Conference audiences are oftentimes even more diverse than the typical classroom environment, being composed of individuals from different disciplines, career stages, and cultures. Incorporating strategies that increase the audience’s understanding and feelings of inclusion in the professional community may impact whether or not an individual continues to engage in the field. We have identified three central benefits of equity strategies for presenters and their professional communities:

  • Equity strategies increase accessibility and learning. As a presenter, you should ensure that presentations and presentation materials 1) allow information to be accessed in various forms, so that differently abled individuals may participate fully, and 2) use straightforward language and representations. You can incorporate accessible versions of conference materials (e.g., captioned videos) or additional resources, such as definitions of commonly used jargon necessary to the presentation (e.g., Miller and Tanner, 2015 ). You may consider defining jargon or acronyms in your talk to increase accessibility for individuals who might struggle to understand the full meaning (e.g., new language learners or individuals who are new to the field).

Equity strategies for conference presentations (as presented in Tanner, 2013 )

  • Equity strategies promote a sense of belonging among all individuals. Creating a welcoming, inclusive environment will make the community attractive to new members and help to increase community members’ sense of belonging. Sense of belonging helps individuals in a community to view themselves as valued and important, which serves to motivate these individuals toward productive action. This increases positive affect, boosts overall community morale, and supports community development ( Winter-Collins and McDaniel, 2000 ). Belonging can increase if it is specifically emphasized as important and if individuals make personal connections to others, such as during small-group work (see Table 2 ).

Many strategies discussed in prior sections, such as using active learning and having clear goals, help to promote equity, belonging, and access. In Table 2 , we expand on previously mentioned strategies and discuss how specific active-learning and equity strategies promote inclusiveness. These tips for facilitation are primarily drawn from Tanner’s 2013 feature on classroom structure, though they apply to the conference presentation setting as well.

An overarching goal of conferences is to help build a thriving, creative, inclusive, and accessible community. Being transparent about which equity strategies you are using and why you are using them may help to promote buy-in and encourage others to use similar strategies. By taking the above actions as presenters and being deliberate in our incorporation of equity and diversity strategies, we can help our professional communities to thrive, innovate, and grow.

Challenge: Receiving Feedback

Consider your last conference presentation: What did you take away from the presentation? Did you gather good ideas during the session? Were the questions and comments you received useful for advancing your work? If you were to present this work again, what changes might you make? In the classroom, assessment drives learning of content, concepts, and skills. At conferences, we, as presenters, take the role of instructor in teaching our peers (including members of our research field) about new findings and innovations. However, assessment at conferences differs from classroom assessment in important ways. First, at conferences, you are unlikely to present to the same audience multiple times; therefore, the focus of the assessment is purely formative—to determine whether the presentation accomplished its goals. This feedback can aid in your professional development toward being an effective communicator. Second, at conferences, you are speaking to a diverse group of colleagues who have varied expertise, and feedback from the audience will provide information that may improve your research. Indeed, conferences are a prime environment to draw on a diversity of expertise to identify relevant information, resources, and alternative interpretations of data. These characteristics of conferences give rise to three possible types of presentation assessments ( Hattie and Timperley, 2007 ):

  • Feed-up: assessment of the achievement of presentation goals: Did I achieve my goals as a presenter?
  • Feed-back: assessment of whether progress toward project goals is being achieved: Is my disciplinary work or research progressing effectively?
  • Feed-forward: input on which activities should be undertaken next: What are the most important next steps in this work for myself and my professional community?

Though a lot of feedback at conferences occurs in informal settings, you can take the initiative to incorporate assessment strategies into your presentation. Many of the simple classroom techniques described in the preceding sections, like polling the audience and hearing from multiple voices, support quick assessment of presentation outcomes ( Angelo and Cross, 1993 ). In Table 3 , we elaborate on possible assessment strategies and provide tips for gathering effective feedback during presentations.

Assessment and feedback strategies for conference presentations

a We suggest these questions for a simple, yet informative postpresentation feed-up survey about your presentation: What did you find most interesting about this presentation? What, if anything, was unclear or were you confused about (a.k.a. muddiest point)? What is one thing that would improve this presentation? Similarly, to gather information for a feedback/feed-forward assessment, we recommend: What did you find most interesting about this work? What about this project needs improvement or clarification? What do you consider an important next step that this work might take?

Technology can assist in implementing assessment, and we predict that there will be many future technological innovations applicable to the conference setting. Live tweeting or backchanneling is occurring more frequently alongside presentations, with specific hashtags that allow audience members to initiate discussions and generate responses from people who are not even in the room ( Wilkinson et al ., 2015 ). After the presentation, you and your audience members can continue to share feedback and materials through email list servers and QR codes. Self-assessment by reviewing a video from the session can support both a better understanding of audience engagement and self-reflection ( van Ginkel et al ., 2015 ). There are benefits from gathering data from multiple assessment strategies, but as we will discuss in the next section, there are barriers that impact the number of recommended learning, equity, and assessment strategies you might chose to implement.


Though we are strong advocates for a scientific presenting approach, there are several important barriers to consider. These challenges are similar to what is faced in the classroom, including time, space, professional culture, and audience/student expectations.

One of the most important barriers to consider is culture, as reflected in the following quote:

Ironically, the oral presentations are almost always presented as lectures, even when the topic of the talk is about how lecturing is not very effective! This illustrates how prevalent and influential the assumptions are about the expected norms of behavior and interaction at a scientific conference. Even biologists who have strong teaching identities and are well aware of more effective ways to present findings choose, for whatever reason (professional culture? professional identity?), not to employ evidence-based teaching and communication methods in the venue of a scientific conference. ( Brownell and Tanner, 2012 , p. 344)

As this quote suggests, professional identity and power structures exist within conference settings that may impact the use of scientific presenting strategies. Trainees early in their careers will be impacted by disciplinary conference norms and advisor expectations and should discuss incorporating new strategies with a trusted mentor. In addition, incorporating scientific presenting strategies can decrease your control as a presenter and may even invoke discomfort and threaten your or your audience’s professional identities.

Balance between content delivery and active engagement presents another potential barrier. Some may be concerned that active learning takes time away from content delivery or that using inclusive practices compromises the clarity of a central message. Indeed, there is a trade-off between content and activity, and presenters have to balance presenting more results with time spent on active learning that allows the audience to interpret the results. We suggest that many of these difficulties can be solved by focusing on your goals and audience background, which will allow you to identify which content is critical and hone your presentation messaging to offer the maximum benefit to the audience. Remember that coverage of content does not ensure learning or understanding and that you can always refer the audience to additional content or clarifying materials by providing handouts or distributing weblinks to help them engage as independent learners.

Physical space and time may limit participants’ interaction with you and one another. Try to view your presentation space in advance and consider how you will work within and possibly modify that space. For example, if you will present in a traditional lecture hall, choose active learning that can be completed by an individual or pairs instead of a group. By being aware of the timing, place in the conference program, and space allotted, you can identify appropriate activities and strategies that will fit your presentation and have a high impact. Available technology, support, and resources will also impact the activities and assessments you can implement and may alleviate some space and time challenges.

As novice scientific presenters dealing with the above barriers and challenges, “failures” or less than ideal attempts at scientific presenting are bound to occur. The important thing to remember is that presenting is a scientific process, and just as experiments rarely work perfectly the first time they are executed, so too does presenting in a new and exciting way. Just as in science, challenges and barriers can be overcome with time, iterations, and thoughtful reflection.


Although presenters can opt to use backward design and incorporate scientific presenting strategies, they do not control other variables like the amount of time allotted to each speaker, the size or shape of the room they present in, or the technology available. These additional constraints are still important and may impact a presenter’s ability to use audience-centered presentation methods. Conference organizers are in a powerful position to support presenters’ ability to implement the described strategies and to provide the necessary logistical support to maximize the likelihood of success. Organizers often set topics, determine the schedule, book spaces, identify presenters, and help establish conference culture.

So how can conference organizers affect change that will promote active engagement and equity in conference presentations?

  • Use backward design for the conference as a whole. Just as presenters can use backward design to set their specific learning goals, conference organizers can set goals for the meeting as a whole to support the conference community.
  • Vary conference structures and formats based on the needs of the community. Conference presentation structures vary widely, but it is worth considering why certain session structures are used. To what extent does it serve the community to have back-to-back 10-minute talks for several hours? Many people will have the chance to present, but does the audience gain anything? Are there topics that would be better presented in a workshop format or a roundtable discussion? What other structures might benefit the conference community and their goals?
  • Choose a space that is conducive to active presentations or consider creative ways to use existing spaces. The spaces available for conferences are typically designed for lecture formats. However, organizers can seek out spaces that facilitate active presenting by choosing rooms with adaptable formats in which furniture can be moved to facilitate small-group discussions. They can also provide tips on how to work within existing spaces, such as encouraging participants to sit near the front of a lecture hall or auditorium.
  • Give explicit expectations to presenters. Organizers could inform presenters that active, engaging, evidence-based sessions are encouraged or expected. This will help cultivate the use of scientific presenting within the community.
  • Provide examples or support for presenters to aid in design of active learning, equity strategies, and assessment. Videos with examples of the described techniques, a quick reference guide, or access to experts within the field who would be willing to mentor presenters could be critical for supporting a conference culture that uses scientific presenting. For example, researchers at the University of Georgia have developed a repository of active-learning videos and instructions for instructors interested in developing these skills (REALISE—Repository for Envisioning Active-Learning Instruction in Science Education, realisevideos_howto ).
  • Collect evidence about conference structure and use it to inform changes. Surveying audience members and presenters to better understand the benefits and challenges of particular session formats can help inform changes over multiple years. Organizers should coordinate these efforts with presenters so they are aware of what data will be collected and disseminated back to them.

Although scientific teaching has increasingly become standard practice for evidence-based teaching of science courses, there are potentially great benefits for transforming our oral presentations in science and science education by incorporating the rigor, critical thinking, and experimentation that are regularly employed within research. The strategies suggested in this paper can serve as a starting point for experimentation and evaluation of presentation and conference efficacy. Using scientific presentation strategies may expedite the advancement of fields by increasing engagement and learning at conference presentations. Equity strategies can increase inclusion and community building among members of our research areas, which will help research fields to grow and diversify. Finally, regularly incorporating assessment into our presentations should improve the quality and trajectory of research projects, further strengthening the field. Both individual presenters and conference organizers have a role to play in shifting conference culture to tackle the challenges presented in this paper. We urge you to consider your role in taking action.


We thank Justin Hines, Jenny Knight, and Kimberly Tanner for thoughtful suggestions on early drafts of this article.

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Ovarian cancer cells

Cancer Center experts present research at national conference

Ovarian and blood cancer trials highlight uc’s asco abstracts.

headshot of Tim Tedeschi

University of Cincinnati Cancer Center experts will present research at the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting May 31 to June 4 in Chicago.

Platform-predicted treatment leads to longer survival for patients with ovarian cancer

Thomas Herzog, MD. Photo/University of Cincinnati Cancer Center.

After an initial response to chemotherapy, many patients with ovarian cancer encounter a period of resistance to therapy that can lead to tumor regrowth. 

The Cancer Center’s Thomas Herzog, MD, said this resistance is believed to be partially caused by cancer stem cells (CSCs) that rebuild and repair tumors after chemotherapy. In a recent trial, researchers used a diagnostic tool called ChemoID that determines how sensitive CSCs and bulk tumor cells are to various cancer-killing therapies.

“The goal of the test is to find the most effective chemotherapeutic agents that would reduce CSCs in ovarian cancer, thereby limiting recurrent disease potential to help improve patients’ outcomes,” said Herzog, a University of Cincinnati Cancer Center member, the Paul and Carolyn Flory Professor in Gynecologic Oncology in the UC College of Medicine, and director of UC Health’s Gynecologic Cancer Disease Center. “ChemoID provides a prioritized list of effective and ineffective chemotherapies after taking a tissue biopsy of the tumor.”

In a multisite clinical trial, patients with recurrent platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer were randomized to have their chemotherapy regimens selected through the ChemoID platform or by their physician’s best choice. 

Patients in the physician-choice arm had an overall response rate to their chemotherapy of 5%, while those in the ChemoID arm had a 55% overall response rate. The median progression-free survival, or time after treatment when the disease does not get worse, was three months for the physician-choice group and 11 months for the ChemoID group.

Moving forward, Herzog said a larger trial will be needed to validate these results.

Herzog will present the oral abstract  Relationship of cancer stem cell functional assay and objective response rate of patients with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer in a randomized trial  June 1 from 8-9:30 a.m. Co-authors include Thomas Krivak, John Diaz, Scott Lentz, Stephen Bush, Navya Nair, Nadim Bou Zgheib, Camille Gunderson Jackson, Abhijit Barve, Seth Lirette, Candace Howard, Jagan Valluri, Krista Denning and Pier Paolo Claudio. 

Herzog will also present the poster  Endometrial cancer (EC) by ERBB2 amplification (ERBB2amp) status: Differences in molecular subtypes, ancestry, and real-world outcomes  June 3 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Co-authors include Natalie Danziger, Douglas Lin, Julia Elvin, Andrew Kelly, Ryon Graf, Robert Coleman, Bhavana Pothuri, Ramez Eskander, Julia Quintanilha and Brian Slomovitz. 

Trial tests drug’s ability to overcome resistance in lymphoma

The Cancer Center’s John Byrd, MD, will present information on a Phase 1 trial testing a new treatment for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) whose cancer has returned or stopped responding to treatment (relapsed/refractory).

On average, about a quarter of patients with NHL or CLL will relapse by 24 months. Each patient is unique, and the relapse can occur with different mutations, including a MALT mutation that promotes survival and proliferation of blood cancers.

Cancer cells can also sometimes develop resistance to currently-used drugs targeting other enzymes, creating the need for innovative new therapies. 

The trial drug, ONO-7018, targets a protein called MALT1. Preclinical data showed the drug inhibits MALT1 activity and exhibited an antitumor effect with a good safety profile, giving it therapeutic potential to be effective and overcome resistance.

Erin Hertlein, PhD, left, and John Byrd, right, look at data in the Leukemia and Drug Development Lab. Photo/UC Foundation.

In the trial, patients will be given ONO-7018 orally in 21-day treatment cycles. The first group of up to 48 patients will be enrolled to receive increasing doses until the maximum tolerated dose is identified. Once this occurs, a second group of up to 60 patients will be enrolled to receive the optimal dose identified.

“We are excited to have this exciting new agent, ONO-7018, available for our patients with NHL and CLL who have exhausted available effective therapies available for their disease,” said Byrd, Gordon and Helen Hughes Taylor Professor and Chair of the Department of Internal Medicine at the UC College of Medicine. “MALT1 is an exciting target across all B-cell malignancies and potentially for other types of cancer.” 

The trial, which is currently recruiting patients, will primarily assess the drug’s safety and tolerability.

Byrd will present the poster  A phase I, first-in-human study of ONO-7018 in patients with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia  June 3 from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Co-authors include Pierluigi Porcu, Thomas Sundermeier, Takashi Nakada, Takeyuki Iwata, Sergio Prados and Leo Gordon. 

For more information on this and other blood cancer clinical trials at the Cancer Center, contact Michelle Marcum at [email protected] or 513-584-6628.

Research examines link between sleep disturbance and cancer-related cognitive impairment

Cancer-related cognitive impairment (CRCI), often called “chemo brain,” affects approximately 75% of individuals with cancer.

The Cancer Center’s cognitive clinical registry found that more than 83% of patients report experiencing sleep disturbances, leading researchers to ask the question of how sleep disturbances and sleep apnea contribute to CRCI.

“CRCI is complex and overlaps with risk factors associated with non-cancer cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disease,” said Alique Topalian, PhD, a research scientist in Survivorship and Supportive Services at the Cancer Center. “Sleep is central to maintaining brain health. Understanding the relationship between sleep and cancer is important for mitigating CRCI and neurodegenerative disease.”  

In patients who do not have cancer, impaired sleep contributes to executive dysfunction and enlarged brain ventricles, which disrupt cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) flow and drainage of waste material from the brain, Topalian said. The team hypothesized this same process may be a contributing factor to CRCI.

“Reduced removal of toxic byproducts of normal brain metabolism and inflammation that is induced by cancer and its treatment could explain one mechanism of action for CRCI and the increased risk of neurodegenerative disease in cancer survivors,” Topalian said.

A Cancer Center team will present findings on how sleep disturbances and sleep apnea affect cancer-related cognitive impairment. Photo/iStock/FG Trade.

The research team analyzed data from 135 patients in the cognitive clinic’s clinical registry and found sleep apnea and sleep disturbances to be highly prevalent in CRCI. 

“There was a statistical trend toward a relationship between sleep disturbance severity in CRCI and enlarged ventricles,” Topalian said. “Sleep disturbances did not correlate with measures of cognitive impairment. However, ventricular size was significantly associated with impaired processing speed, sustained attention/inhibitory control and semantic fluency.”

Topalian said the novel finding of enlarged brain ventricles in these patients suggests treatment aimed at improving sleep disturbances may help regulate disrupted CSF flow, which could potentially improve CRCI cognitive symptoms.

“We are pursuing fundings for a CPAP and sleep health treatment trial for CRCI patients to investigate how treatment impacts cognitive, imaging and serum markers of CSF flow,” she said.

Additionally, the research team plans to form an ongoing translational working group to expand research on this topic.

Research assistant Sophie Kushman will present the poster “ Sleep apnea and glymphatic dysfunction as a mediator of executive dysfunction and neurodegenerative risk in cancer related cognitive impairment (CRCI) ” during the Symptom Science and Palliative Care session June 3 from 1:30 to 4:30 p.m. Abstract co-authors are Topalian and Rhonna Shatz, DO.

Unique approach aids elementary science education

As the University of Cincinnati Cancer Center is tackling how to reduce the suffering and mortality of cancer in the community today, it is also testing unique ways to encourage the next generation of cancer researchers.

William Barrett, MD, co-director of the Cancer Center, professor and chair of Radiation Oncology in UC’s College of Medicine, and medical director of the Barrett Center for Cancer Prevention, Treatment and Research, said elementary students, particularly those in socially and financially disadvantaged settings, encounter barriers to effective scientific learning. 

With an aim to overcome these barriers, which include maintaining interest, concentration and focus, Barrett and his colleagues implemented a scientific educational program for children attending an urban community center’s after-school program. 

During the program’s activities, five students at a time complete three-minute sessions at tutoring stations on human physiology, astronomy, geography, geology and cancer led by medical students or residents. Meanwhile, another group of five students goes through three-minute basketball drills with a coach on the court. 

Cancer Center volunteers developed a scientific educational program that alternated basketball drills with educational stations at a community center's after-school program. Photo/Nik Shuliahin/Unsplash.

The groups alternate between basketball and tutoring until all students have participated in all five drills and tutoring stations. Then the kids are quizzed on what they learned, and an end-of-practice scrimmage begins with a score based on the quiz results.

“Within weeks, nearly every child could list the planets of the solar system in order; calculate  their pulse and explain its importance; list the most common symptoms of the most prevalent cancers; correctly identify continents, oceans, countries and states on maps; and explain the origin of volcanoes, earthquakes, hurricanes and tsunamis,” Barrett and his coauthors wrote in the abstract.

The alternating of physical exertion with learning appears to maintain interest, focus and concentration, and the approach could be widely applied to students from diverse backgrounds.

Barrett is first author on the abstract  Defeating cancer through education, prevention, and youth athletics.  Sherwin Anderson, Andrew Frankart, Samuel Thompson and William Mackey are co-authors.

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The University of Cincinnati is leading public urban universities into a new era of innovation and impact. Our faculty, staff and students are saving lives, changing outcomes and bending the future in our city's direction.  Next Lives Here.

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I want to keep my child safe from abuse − but research tells me I’m doing it wrong

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Child sexual abuse is uncomfortable to think about, much less talk about. The idea of an adult engaging in sexual behaviors with a child feels sickening. It’s easiest to believe that it rarely happens, and when it does, that it’s only to children whose parents aren’t protecting them.

This belief stayed with me during my early days as a parent. I kept an eye out for creepy men at the playground and was skeptical of men who worked with young children, such as teachers and coaches. When my kids were old enough, I taught them what a “good touch” was, like a hug from a family member, and what a “bad touch” was, like someone touching their private parts.

But after nearly a quarter-century of conducting research – 15 years on family violence, another eight on child abuse prevention, including sexual abuse – I realized that many people, including me, were using antiquated strategies to protect our children .

As the founder of the Center for Violence Prevention Research , I work with organizations that educate their communities and provide direct services to survivors of child sexual abuse. From them, I have learned much about the everyday actions all of us can take to help keep our children safe. Some of it may surprise you.

Wrong assumptions

First, my view of what constitutes child sexual abuse was too narrow. Certainly, all sexual activities between adults and children are a form of abuse.

But child sexual abuse also includes nonconsensual sexual contact between two children. It includes noncontact offenses such as sexual harassment, exhibitionism and using children to produce imagery of sexual abuse. Technology-based child sexual abuse is rising quickly with the rapid evolution of internet-based games, social media, and content generated by artificial intelligence. Reports to the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children of online enticements increased 300% from 2021 to 2023 .

My assumption that child sexual abuse didn’t happen in my community was wrong too. The latest data shows that at least 1 in 10 children, but likely closer to 1 in 5, experience sexual abuse . Statistically, that’s at least two children in my son’s kindergarten class.

Child sexual abuse happens across all ethnoracial groups, socioeconomic statuses and all gender identities. Reports of female victims outnumber males , but male victimization is likely underreported because of stigma and cultural norms about masculinity .

I’ve learned that identifying the “creepy man” at the playground is not an effective strategy. At least 90% of child sexual abusers know their victims or the victims’ family prior to offending. Usually, the abuser is a trusted member of the community; sometimes, it’s a family member .

In other words, rather than search for a predator in the park, parents need to look at the circle of people they invite into their home.

To be clear, abuse by strangers does happen, and teaching our kids to be wary of strangers is necessary. But it’s the exception, not the norm , for child sexual abuse offenses.

Most of the time, it’s not even adults causing the harm. The latest data shows more than 70% of self-reported child sexual abuse is committed by other juveniles . Nearly 1 in 10 young people say they caused some type of sexual harm to another child . Their average age at the time of causing harm is between 14 and 16.

Now for a bit of good news: The belief that people who sexually abuse children are innately evil is an oversimplification. In reality, only about 13% of adults and approximately 5% of adolescents who sexually harm children commit another sexual offense after five years . The recidivism rate is even lower for those who receive therapeutic help .

By contrast, approximately 44% of adults who commit a felony of any kind will commit another offense within a year of prison release .

What parents can do

The latest research says uncomfortable conversations are necessary to keep kids safe. Here are some recommended strategies:

Avoid confusing language. “Good touches” and “bad touches” are no longer appropriate descriptors of abuse . Harmful touches can feel physically good, rather than painful or “bad.” Abusers can also manipulate children to believe their touches are acts of love.

The research shows that it’s better to talk to children about touches that are “OK” or “not OK,” based on who does the touching and where they touch. This dissipates the confusion of something being bad but feeling good.

These conversations require clear identification of all body parts, from head and shoulders to penis and vagina. Using accurate anatomical labels teaches children that all body parts can be discussed openly with safe adults. Also, when children use accurate labels to disclose abuse, they are more likely to be understood and believed.

Encourage bodily autonomy. Telling my children that hugs from family members were universally good touches was also wrong . If children think they have to give hugs on demand, it conveys the message they do not have authority over their body.

Instead, I watch when my child is asked for a hug at family gatherings – if he hesitates, I advocate for him. I tell family members that physical touch is not mandatory and explain why – something like: “He prefers a bit more personal space, and we’re working on teaching him that he can decide who touches him and when. He really likes to give high-fives to show affection.” A heads-up: Often, the adults are put off, at least initially.

In my family, we also don’t allow the use of guilt to encourage affection. That includes phrases like: “You’ll make me sad if you don’t give me a hug.”

Promote empowerment. Research on adult sexual offenders found the greatest deterrence to completing the act was a vocal child – one who expressed their desire to stop, or said they would tell others.

Monitor your child’s social media. Multiple studies show that monitoring guards against sexting or viewing of pornography , both of which are risk factors for child sexual abuse. Monitoring can also reveal permissive or dangerous sexual attitudes the child might have.

Talk to the adults in your circle. Ask those watching your child how they plan to keep your child safe when in their care. Admittedly, this can be an awkward conversation. I might say, “Hey, I have a few questions that might sound weird, but I think they’re important for parents to ask. I’m sure my child will be safe with you, but I’m trying to talk about these things regularly, so this is good practice for me.” You may need to educate them on what the research shows.

Ask your child’s school what they’re doing to educate students and staff about child sexual abuse. Many states require schools to provide prevention education; recent research suggests these programs help children protect themselves from sexual abuse .

Talk to your child’s sports or activity organization. Ask what procedures are in place to keep children safe . This includes their screening and hiring practices, how they train and educate staff, and their guidelines for reporting abuse. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides a guide for organizations on keeping children safe .

Rely on updated research. Finally, when searching online for information, look for research that’s relatively recent – dated within the past five years. These studies should be published in peer-reviewed journals .

And then be prepared for a jolt. You may discover the conventional wisdom you’ve clung to all these years may be based on outdated – and even harmful – information.

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Research on Design and Performance of High-Performance Porous Structure Based on 3D Printing Technology

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  • Junxin Li 1 ,
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To obtain high-performing biological fixation implants with excellent properties, it is necessary to comprehensively characterize the design method and molding process of new porous structures printed using 3D printing technology (selective laser melting). We adopted parametric modeling to design a bionic multi-level porous structure, evaluated the properties of the porous structure with finite element method, and optimized the design parameters. Finally, the properties of the 3D printed porous structure were characterized by a compression experiment and fractal theory. The results indicate that the porous structure designed by parametric modeling exhibits a good modeling effect. When a traditional porous structure is stressed, the stress mainly concentrates on the longitudinal bar, while the transverse bar is less stressed. In multi-level porous structures, the stress distributions of longitudinal and transverse bars are relatively uniform. No obvious molding defects were detected in the prepared porous structures. The interlaminar fracture mechanism of traditional porous structure is brittle fracture, and the fracture mechanism of multi-level porous structure is elastic fracture. The compressive strength and modulus increases with the increase in mean pore size and surface-to-volume ratio, and decreases with the increase in porosity. These results present a foundation for 3D printing of high-performing biological fixation implants.

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The study was funded by the Henan Provincial Science and Technology Project (242102311240) and the Open Project of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine (Guizai reopened 202202). Also, this work was supported by Analytical and Testing Center of ZKNUC for carrying out analysis.

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Conceptualization was done by Guoqing Zhang. Funding acquisition was done by Guoqing Zhang. Investigation was done by Guoqing Zhang, Junxin Li, and Xiaoyu Zhou. Formal analysis was done by Guoqing Zhang, Yongsheng Zhou, and Juanjuan Xie. Writing—original draft: Guoqing Zhang and Yongsheng Zhou. Writing—review and editing was done by Aibing Huang.

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New Australian Laureate Fellows to drive research and innovation

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28 May 2024  


New Australian Laureate Fellows to drive research and innovation   

The Australian Research Council (ARC) today announced $58.3 million in funding over 5 years for 17 Australian Laureate Fellowships, supporting ground-breaking research excellence across a broad range of areas.   

ARC Acting Chief Executive Officer, Dr Richard Johnson, said the Australian Laureate Fellowships scheme is an important part of the ARC’s Discovery Program. Cutting-edge senior researchers who can provide a supportive research environment for early-career researchers and conduct research for the benefit of national and international communities receive Australian Laureate Fellowships.  

“One 2024 Australian Laureate Fellow will work with scientific and government partners to develop mathematical modelling techniques to enhance Australia’s capability in responding to public health emergencies, while another will explore the role of the arts in effectively communicating the impact of climate change,” Dr Johnson said.   

“The Australian Laureate Fellowships scheme offers researchers the opportunity to design ambitious research programs around a team of postdoctoral fellows and postgraduate students, which is vital for ensuring high-quality mentorship of Australia’s up-and-coming researchers.”   

The Australian Laureate Fellowships include two fellowships for women researchers who undertake an ambassadorial role to promote women in research and to encourage outstanding female early-career researchers to pursue a research career in Australia.   

The Kathleen Fitzpatrick Australian Laureate Fellowship supports research in the humanities, arts and social science disciplines, which is awarded to Professor Jacqueline Peel. Professor Peel’s research aims to accelerate policy and law reform for rapidly reducing corporate emissions to net zero, transforming international law’s role in ensuring the delivery of companies' climate promises.   

The Georgina Sweet Australian Laureate Fellowship supports research in the science and technology disciplines. In 2024, this Fellowship is awarded to Professor Hongxia Wang whose research aims to make solar cells, found in solar panels, highly efficient at energy conversion and more durable, maximising their cost-effectiveness and useful life.    

For more information on the Australian Laureate Fellowships schemes and the 2024 Australian Laureate Fellows and their research project details, please visit the ARC website .   

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ARC Communications 0412 623 056 or [email protected]     

Russian disinformation sites linked to former Florida deputy sheriff, research finds

A selfie of John Mark Dougan at the beach with the ocean in the background

More than 150 fake local news websites pushing Russian propaganda to U.S. audiences are connected to John Mark Dougan, an American former law enforcement officer living in Moscow, according to a research report published Wednesday by NewsGuard, a firm that monitors misinformation.

The websites, with names like DC Weekly, New York News Daily and Boston Times, look similar to those of legitimate local news outlets and have already succeeded in spreading a number of false stories surrounding the war in Ukraine. Experts warn they could be used to launder disinformation about the 2024 election. 

In an interview over WhatsApp, Dougan denied involvement with the websites. “Never heard of them,” he said. 

Dougan, a former Marine and police officer, fled his home in Florida in 2016 to evade criminal charges related to a massive doxxing campaign he was accused of launching against public officials and was given asylum by the Russian government. Most recently, Dougan has posed as a journalist in Ukraine’s Donbas region, testifying at Russian public hearings and making frequent appearances on Russian state TV . 

He’s now part of a small club of Western expats who have become purveyors of English-language propaganda for Russia. Researchers and cybersecurity companies had previously linked Dougan to the sites. The NewsGuard report published Wednesday is the latest to implicate him in the fake news ring. 

Academic research from Clemson University linked Dougan to the network of fake news websites last year after one of them was found to share an IP address with other sites he ran, including his personal website.

In an interview, Darren Linvill, co-director of the Watt Family Innovation Center Media Forensics Hub at Clemson, called Dougan “a tool of the broader Russian disinformation machine” whose websites “are just one of several mechanisms by which these narratives are distributed.”

Linvill noted the fake news websites had lately veered away from the narrow focus of undermining support for Ukraine. Recent fake articles include the false claims that the FBI wiretapped former President Donald Trump’s office at Mar-a-Lago, his estate in Florida, and that the CIA backed a Ukrainian plot to rig the election against Trump.  

“There is no question we are beginning to see a shift in focus toward the U.S. election,” Linvill said. 

Posing as local news, the sites host articles about crime, politics and sports, most of which seem to have been generated with artificial intelligence tools and are attributed to journalists who do not exist . Interspersed within the general news are articles that disparage the U.S., exalt Russia and spread disinformation about topics from the wars in Ukraine and Gaza to Covid vaccines.

Researchers say sites attributed to Dougan are marred with telltale signs of his signature, including early website registration records, IP addresses, similar image headers and layouts, being built with WordPress software, seemingly AI-generated prompts mistakenly left in copy and error messages at the ends of articles.

The reach of the campaigns varies. Some of the sites remained active for just weeks with little to no pickup in the wider media. But some fake news stories have gained traction, including several recent posts using forged documents that falsely claimed Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy was improperly using foreign aid to enrich himself. Last month, a story on the fake news site The London Crier said Zelenskyy had spent 20 million pounds on a mansion previously owned by King Charles III. 

It followed a story posted to DC Weekly in November that falsely claimed Zelenskyy had used American aid money to buy two yachts. 

Both rumors relied, as the network often does, on videos posted to YouTube by newly created accounts. A site like DC Weekly will publish fake news stories using videos of seemingly AI-generated “leaks” or examples of whistleblowing, and Russian influencers and bot networks will then spread those articles, according to the Clemson researchers. Ultimately, the fake articles are reported as fact by pro-Kremlin media outlets and, in some of the most successful cases, by Western politicos and pundits. 

The rumor about Zelenskyy’s buying yachts was later promoted by Republican members of Congress , including Rep. Marjorie Taylor Greene of Georgia and Sen. JD Vance of Ohio. 

The author of the new report, McKenzie Sadeghi, NewsGuard’s editor, pointed to the network’s sophisticated use of AI to produce content and make narratives seem credible. 

“In the wrong hands, this technology can be used to spread disinformation at scale,” Sadeghi said. “With this network, we’re seeing that play out exactly.”

What specific support Dougan receives from Russia is unclear. In May, the cybersecurity company Recorded Future reported a “realistic possibility” that the network receives strategic guidance, support or oversight from the Russian government. In March, The New York Times reported that the fake local news ring “appears to involve remnants” of the Internet Research Agency, the troll factory created by the late Putin associate Yevgeny Prigozhin to influence the 2016 presidential election. Previous reporting on Dougan and his more dubious claims — including that he was in possession of leaked documents from murdered Democratic National Committee staffer Seth Rich and secret tapes belonging to Jeffrey Epstein — suggests Dougan may be pursuing wealth, clout or operating from some other motive in addition to a state-sanctioned political agenda.

Dougan was an early creator of fake websites. After he resigned from his job as a sheriff’s deputy in Palm Beach County, Florida, and was fired months later from a subsequent one in Windham, Maine, over sexual harassment claims , he built a network of websites that focused on what he claimed was widespread corruption in Windham, naming local police and town officials in articles. He also reportedly launched a campaign doxxing thousands of federal agents, judges and law enforcement officers, posting their home addresses and salacious allegations online. By 2015 he was operating several websites with official-sounding names like and, which hosted made-up articles. In 2016, he fled to Russia following an FBI raid of his home to evade charges linked to his doxxing efforts. 

YouTube banned Dougan last year. On Telegram, he attributed the ban to videos he uploaded alleging a Russian mission to destroy U.S.-run bioweapons labs in Ukraine, a false narrative that would take hold as a justification for Russia’s invasion. Dougan’s ban came on the heels of a report from NewsGuard that highlighted the pro-Russian propaganda on his channel. 

According to co-CEO Steven Brill, NewsGuard’s earlier report and Dougan’s subsequent ban led to a harassment campaign against him. Brill says in a coming book that Dougan impersonated an FBI officer in phone calls to him, left threatening messages and posted YouTube videos showing aerial shots of Brill’s home.

Over WhatsApp, Dougan defended his videos about Brill, citing NewsGuard’s “partnership with the US government” to have his content removed. 

There is no evidence NewsGuard acted in concert with or on behalf of the U.S. government when it investigated Dougan. Asked for proof of such a partnership, Dougan sent a link to his own video, a 31-minute monologue laden with conspiracy theories. He’d reposted it to YouTube.

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Poll: A Puzzling Jigsaw Tale of a Patient With a History of Congenital Heart Disease Presenting With Syncope

May 29, 2024   |   Nisha Giyanani, DO ; Steven Douedi, MD ; Sabaa Ahmed, DO ; Renee Bullock-Palmer, MBBS, FACC

A 26-year-old woman with a history of cardiac surgeries (unknown details) presents with syncope and palpitations. Records obtained from outside institutions show that she has history of dextrocardia with situs solitus, atrioventricular and ventricular arterial discordance with pulmonary atresia, and right ventricular hypoplasia with a large ventricular septal defect. In childhood, she underwent fenestrated lateral tunnel Fontan repair. Later, at 4 years of age, she underwent transcatheter closure of baffle leak with Fontan fenestration and no residual shunt.

She is referred for diagnostic workup ( Figure 1 ). Cardiac computed tomography findings include significant stenosis with thrombosis of the lateral tunnel Fontan with evidence of venous-venous collaterals of deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary artery circulation connecting to the pulmonary venous circulation (Figure 1, panels 1a, 1b). On the basis of these findings, she is started on anticoagulation and scheduled for cardiac catheterization for possible percutaneous intervention of the stenosed Fontan conduit. Cardiac catheterization findings include a significant gradient (4-6 mm Hg) in the lateral tunnel (Figure 1, panel 1c). She undergoes successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with a 4.5 cm covered stent (Figure 1, panels 1d, 1e). Post intervention, there is no gradient observed from pullback from high to low along the Fontan conduit.

Figure 1: Cardiac CTA and ICA Findings

Figure 1

Clinical Topics: Cardiac Surgery, Congenital Heart Disease and Pediatric Cardiology, Invasive Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention, Vascular Medicine, Cardiac Surgery and CHD and Pediatrics, Congenital Heart Disease, CHD and Pediatrics and Interventions, Interventions and Structural Heart Disease, Interventions and Vascular Medicine, Noninvasive Imaging, Pulmonary Hypertension and Venous Thromboembolism

Keywords: Fontan Procedure, Heart Defects, Congenital, Syncope, Venous Thrombosis, Computed Tomography

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  1. How to Write a Research Article

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  2. Tips For How To Write A Scientific Research Paper

    presenting a research article

  3. How to Present a Research Paper using PowerPoint [Sample + Tips]

    presenting a research article

  4. The Sections of a Research Article

    presenting a research article

  5. 💄 What is a good way to start a research paper. How to Start a Research

    presenting a research article

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    presenting a research article


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  1. How to Make a Successful Research Presentation

    But in the end, you want to be presenting with the happy penguins on top of the ice, not flailing in the water. Limit the scope of your presentation. Don't present your paper. Presentations are usually around 10 min long. You will not have time to explain all of the research you did in a semester (or a year!) in such a short span of time.

  2. Seven tips for giving an engaging and memorable presentation

    Go to: Tip 2: Tell a story. Stories connect people. A story that is personal to the speaker can evoke memories that are relatable and add concrete meaning to the presentation. 3 Consider starting your presentation with a story that shows why the topic is important to you.

  3. How to make a scientific presentation

    Related Articles. This guide provides a 4-step process for making a good scientific presentation: outlining the scientific narrative, preparing slide outlines, constructing slides, and practicing the talk. We give advice on how to make effective slides, including tips for text, graphics, and equations, and how to use rehearsals of your talk to ...

  4. Ten simple rules for effective presentation slides

    The "presentation slide" is the building block of all academic presentations, whether they are journal clubs, thesis committee meetings, short conference talks, or hour-long seminars. ... This is written for anyone who needs to prepare slides from any length scale and for most purposes of conveying research to broad audiences. The rules are ...

  5. Presentation and publication skills: How to present a paper

    The paper you present to your research-group "journal clubs" or to a plenary session of ESPEN, is the life-blood of science. It is part of the process by which science progresses. Karl Popper described this process as the "unceasing and relentless criticism of the assumptions behind hypotheses" .

  6. Presenting With Confidence

    Understanding who your audience is will enable you to engage your audience. Look excited and enthusiastic. If you are motivated about your topic, then they will be too. Show your interest in your subject and your excitement about sharing the data with your audience. Another tip is to develop your stage presence.

  7. Good presentation skills benefit careers

    An effective presentation can enhance the research and critical-thinking skills of the audience, in addition to what it does for the speaker. ... Research articles News Opinion Research Analysis ...

  8. Ways to give an effective seminar about your research project

    Research is messy, but your presentation doesn't have to be. For example, when I first began my thesis project, the proteins that I was studying had no obvious role. Because there were several ...

  9. How to Structure a Scientific Article, Conference Poster and Presentation

    The presentation of your research work can take the form of a scientific publication in a journal and/or presentation of your work in a scientific conference as a poster or as an oral presentation. ... Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion - Conclusion. This is the same format that an original research article needs to follow, with the ...

  10. Presenting the Research Paper

    A good oral presentation is focused, concise, and interesting in order to trigger a discussion. Be well prepared; write a detailed outline. Introduce the subject. Talk about the sources and the method. Indicate if there are conflicting views about the subject (conflicting views trigger discussion). Make a statement about your new results (if ...

  11. Presenting your research effectively

    Often, the background and theory for your research must be presented concisely so that you have time to present your study and findings. Ten minutes is not much time, so emphasize the main points so that your audience has a clear understanding of your take-home messages. When you start planning, writing out content on individual Post-it Notes ...

  12. Improving Qualitative Research Findings Presentations:

    The qualitative research findings presentation, as a distinct genre, conventionally shares particular facets of genre entwined and contextualized in method and scholarly discourse. Despite the commonality and centrality of these presentations, little is known of the quality of current presentations of qualitative research findings.

  13. Structure of a Research Article

    How research presented in the article will solve the problem presented in research gap. Literature Review. presenting and evaluating previous scholarship on a topic. Sometimes, this is separate section of the article. Method & Results. How research was done, including analysis and measurements.

  14. (PDF) Presenting Research Paper: Learning the steps

    Journal of The Association of Physicians of India V ol. 65 September 2017. 72. Presenting Research Paper: Learning the steps. Sandeep B Bavdekar 1, Varun Anand2, Shruti Vyas3. Professor and Head ...

  15. How to Present Your Research (Guidelines and Tips)

    Discuss your findings as part of the bigger picture and connect them to potential further outcomes or areas of study. Closing (1 slide) -If anyone supported your research with guidance, awards, or funding, be sure to recognize their contribution. If your presentation includes a Q&A session, open the floor to questions.

  16. How to Make a PowerPoint Presentation of Your Research Paper

    Here are some simple tips for creating an effective PowerPoint Presentation. Less is more: You want to give enough information to make your audience want to read your paper. So include details, but not too many, and avoid too many formulas and technical jargon. Clean and professional: Avoid excessive colors, distracting backgrounds, font ...

  17. How to Create and Deliver a Research Presentation

    In the case of a research presentation, you want a formal and academic-sounding one. It should include: The full title of the report. The date of the report. The name of the researchers or department in charge of the report. The name of the organization for which the presentation is intended.

  18. How to Make an Effective Research Presentation

    Presentation software programs have advanced to the point where you no longer need to be an experienced designer to put together a compelling piece of collateral that conveys your findings about academic research in exactly the right way. With the right materials, the right presentation software, and a little bit of time, you can visualize any data that you have in the form of a terrific ...

  19. How to Present Results in a Research Paper

    The "Results" section is arguably the most important section in a research manuscript as the findings of a study, obtained diligently and painstakingly, are presented in this section. A well-written results section reflects a well-conducted study. This chapter provides helpful pointers for writing an effective, organized results section.

  20. Interns: Master Presenting Research Findings Effectively

    7. Here's what else to consider. Be the first to add your personal experience. As an intern, presenting your research findings to your supervisors and colleagues is a crucial step in ...

  21. A single-vector intersectional AAV strategy for interrogating cellular

    Intersectional adeno-associated viruses are important for neuroscience research but can be limited by complex and bulky design parameters. Hughes et al. present a unique and space-saving approach ...

  22. Scientific Presenting: Using Evidence-Based Classroom Practices to

    Presentation Goals: With a manuscript in preparation and his upcoming search for a faculty position, Antonio has the following three goals for his presentation: 1) to highlight the significance of his research in a memorable way; 2) to keep the audience engaged, because his presentation is the ninth out of 10 talks; and 3) to receive feedback ...

  23. UC experts present at ASCO 2024

    UC Cancer Institute. University of Cincinnati Cancer Center experts will present research on ovarian and blood cancer trials, the link between poor sleep and cancer-related cognitive impairment, and an innovative youth education program at the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meeting 2024 in Chicago.

  24. The Influence of Prefermentation Skin Contact, Stabulation, and Skin

    1. Introduction. Austria has all the necessary factors to produce world-class wines. Due to the highly complex landscape and varied climatic conditions between the eastern slopes of the Alps, the Danube, Lake Neusiedl, the Carpathian Mountains, and the border regions with Hungary and Slovenia, wine from Austria is extremely diverse [].This diversity is also reflected in the varieties.

  25. I want to keep my child safe from abuse − but research tells me I'm

    Drastic changes in behavior - either positive or negative - can be an indication of potential sexual abuse. One tip: Teach children the anatomical names for their body parts, not "code" or ...

  26. Research on Design and Performance of High-Performance ...

    These results present a foundation for 3D printing of high-performing biological fixation implants. To obtain high-performing biological fixation implants with excellent properties, it is necessary to comprehensively characterize the design method and mol ... The relevant research results can provide alternative solutions for the design of high ...

  27. Bristol Myers Squibb to Present Data at ASCO & EHA from More Than 130

    PRINCETON, N.J.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Bristol Myers Squibb (NYSE: BMY) today announced the presentation of data across its oncology and hematology portfolio at the upcoming 2024 American Society of ...

  28. New Australian Laureate Fellows to drive research and innovation

    The Australian Research Council acknowledges the Traditional Owners of Country throughout Australia and their continuing connection to lands, waters and communities. We pay our respect to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures and to Elders past, present and emerging.

  29. Over 150 Russian fake news sites linked to former Florida deputy

    May 29, 2024, 7:00 AM PDT. By Brandy Zadrozny. More than 150 fake local news websites pushing Russian propaganda to U.S. audiences are connected to John Mark Dougan, an American former law ...

  30. Poll: A Puzzling Jigsaw Tale of a Patient With a History of Congenital

    A 26-year-old woman with a history of cardiac surgeries (unknown details) presents with syncope and palpitations. Records obtained from outside institutions show that she has history of dextrocardia with situs solitus, atrioventricular and ventricular arterial discordance with pulmonary atresia, and right ventricular hypoplasia with a large ventricular septal defect.