How to create a helpful research paper outline

Last updated

21 December 2023

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You need to structure your research paper in an orderly way that makes it easy for readers to follow your reasoning and supporting data. That's where a research paper outline can help.

Writing a research paper outline will help you arrange your ideas logically and allow your final paper to flow. It will make the entire process more manageable and help you work out which details to include and which are better left out.

  • What is a research paper outline?

Write your research paper outline before starting your first draft. The outline provides a map of how you will structure your ideas throughout the paper. A research paper outline will help you to be more efficient when ordering the sections of your thesis, rather than trying to make structural changes after finishing an entire first draft.

An outline consists of the main topics and subtopics of your paper, listed in a logical order. The main topics will become the sections of your research paper, and the subtopics reveal the content you want to include or discuss under the main topics.

Under each subtopic, you can also jot down items you don't want to forget to include in your research paper, such as:

Topic ideas

Paragraph ideas

Direct quotes

Once you start listing these under your main topics, you can focus your thoughts as you plan and write the research paper using the evidence and data you collected and any additional information.

  • Why use an outline?

If your research paper does not have a clear, logical order, readers may not understand the ideas you're trying to share, or they may lose interest and not bother to read the whole paper. An outline helps you structure your research paper so readers can easily connect the content, ideas, and theories you're trying to prove or maintain.

  • Are there different kinds of research paper outlines?

Different kinds of research paper outlines might seem similar but have different purposes. You can select an outline type that provides a clear road map and thoroughly explores each point. 

Other types will help structure content logically or with a segmented flow and progression of ideas that align closely with the theme of your research.

  • The 3 types of outlines

The three outline formats available to research paper writers are:

Alphanumeric or topic outlines

Sentence or full-sentence outlines

Decimal outlines

Let’s look at the differences between each type and see how one may be more beneficial than another, depending on the nature of your research.

This type of research paper outline allows you to segment main headings and subheadings with an alphanumeric arrangement.

The alphanumeric characters of Roman numerals, capital letters, numbers, and lowercase letters define the hierarchy of main topic headings, subtopic headings, and third- and fourth-tier subtopic headings. (e.g., I, A, 1, a)

This method uses minimal words to describe the main and subtopic headings. You'll mostly use this type of research paper outline to focus on the organization of the content while allowing you to review it for unrelated or irrelevant information.

Full-sentence outlines

You will format this type of research paper outline as an alphanumeric outline, using the same alphanumeric characters. However, it contains complete sentences rather than a few words for each main and subtopic heading.

This formatting method allows the writer to focus on looking for inaccuracies and inconsistencies in each point before starting the first draft.

Instead of using alphanumeric characters to define main headings, subheadings, and third- and fourth-tier subheadings, the decimal outline uses a decimal numbering system.

This system shows a logical progression of the content by using 1.0 for the main section heading (and 2.0, 3.0, etc., for subsequent sections), 1.1 for the subheading, 1.1.1 for a third-tier subheading, and for the fourth-tier subheading.

The headings and subheadings will be just a few words, as in the alphanumerical research paper outline. Decimal outlines allow the writer to focus on the content's overall coherence, increasing your writing efficiency and reducing the time it takes to write your research paper.

  • How to write a research paper outline

Before you begin your research paper outline, you need to determine your topic and gather your information. Let’s look at these steps first, then dive into how to write your outline.

1. Determine your topic

You'll need to establish a topic or the main point you intend to write about.

For example, you may want to research and write about whether influencers are the most beneficial way to promote products in your industry. This topic is the main point around which your essay will revolve.

2. Gather information

You'll need evidence, data, statistics, and facts to prove or disprove that influencers are the best method of promoting products in your industry.

You'll insert any of these things you collect to substantiate your findings into the outline to support your topic.

3. Determine the type of essay you'll be writing

There are many types of essays or research papers you can write. The kinds of essays include:

Argumentative: Builds logic and support for an argument

Cause and effect: Explains relationships between specific conditions and their results

Analytical: Presents a claim on what is being analyzed

Interpretive: Informative and persuasive explanations on how something is perceived

Experimental: Reports on experimental results and the reasoning behind the results

Review: Offers an understanding and analysis of primary sources on a given topic

Definition: Defines what a term or concept means

Persuasive: Uses logic and reason to show that one idea is more justified than another

Narrative: Tells a story of personal experience from the author’s point of view

Expository: Shows an objective view of a subject by exploring various angles

Descriptive: Describes objects, people, places, experiences, emotions, situations, etc.

Once you understand the essay format you are writing, you'll know how to structure your outline. 

4. Include basic sections

You'll begin to structure your outline using basic sections. Your main topic headings for these sections may include an introduction, multiple body paragraph sections, and a conclusion.

Once you establish the sections, you can insert the subtopics under each main topic heading.

5. Organize your outline

For example, if you're writing an argumentative essay taking the position that brand influencers (e.g., social media stars on Instagram or TikTok) are the best way to promote products in your industry, you will argue for that particular position.

You'll organize your argumentative essay outline with a main topic section supporting the position. The subtopics will include the reasoning behind your arguments, and the third-tier subtopics will contain the supporting evidence and data you gathered during your research.

You'll add another main topic section to counter and respond to any opposing arguments. Once you've organized and included all the information in this way, this will provide the structure to start your argumentative essay draft.

6. Consider compare-and-contrast essays

A compare-and-contrast essay is a form of essay that analyzes the differences between two opposing theories or subjects. If you have multiple subjects that are the same or different in just one aspect, you can write a point-by-point outline exploring each subject in terms of this characteristic.

The main topic headings will list that one characteristic, and the subtopic headings will list the subjects or items that are the same or different in relation to this characteristic.

Conversely, if you have multiple items to compare, but they have many characteristics that are similar or different, you can write a block method outline. The main topic headings will contain the items to be compared, while the subtopic headings will contain the aspects in which they are similar or different.

7. Consider advanced organizers for longer essays

An advanced organizer is a sentence that introduces new topics by connecting already-known information to new information. It can also prepare the reader for what they may expect to learn from the entire essay, or each section or paragraph.

Incorporating advanced organizers makes it easier for the reader to process and understand the information you are trying to convey. If you choose to use advanced organizers, depending on how often you want to use them throughout your paper, you can add them to your outline at the end of the introduction, the beginning of a section, or the beginning of each paragraph. 

  • Do outlines need periods (full stops)?

If you're constructing alphanumerical or decimal topic outlines, they do not need periods because the entries are usually not complete sentences. However, outlines containing full sentences will need to be punctuated as any sentence is, including using periods.

  • An example research paper outline

Here is an example of an alphanumerical outline that argues brand influencers are the best method of promoting products in a particular industry:

I.  Introduction

    A.  Background information about the issue and the position being argued.

    B.  Thesis statement: Influencers are the best way to promote products in this industry.

II.  Reasons that support the thesis statement

    A.  Reason or argument #1

           1.  Supporting evidence

           2.  Supporting evidence

    B.  Reason or argument #2

    C.  Reason or argument #3

          1.  Supporting evidence

          2.  Supporting evidence

III. Counterarguments and responses

       A.  Arguments from the other point of view

       B.  Rebuttals against those arguments

IV.  Conclusion

  • How long is a thesis outline?

There is no set length for a research paper outline or thesis outline. Your outline can be as long as it needs to be to organize your thoughts constructively.

You can start with a short outline containing an introduction , background, methodology, data and analysis, and conclusion. Or you can break these sections into more specific segments according to the content you want to share.

Why make writing a research paper more complicated than it needs to be? Knowing the elements of an outline and how to insert them into a cohesive structure will make your final paper understandable and interesting to the reader.

Understanding how to outline a research paper will make the writing process more efficient and less time-consuming.

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Getting started with your research paper outline

how to make outline in research

Levels of organization for a research paper outline

First level of organization, second level of organization, third level of organization, fourth level of organization, tips for writing a research paper outline, research paper outline template, my research paper outline is complete: what are the next steps, frequently asked questions about a research paper outline, related articles.

The outline is the skeleton of your research paper. Simply start by writing down your thesis and the main ideas you wish to present. This will likely change as your research progresses; therefore, do not worry about being too specific in the early stages of writing your outline.

A research paper outline typically contains between two and four layers of organization. The first two layers are the most generalized. Each layer thereafter will contain the research you complete and presents more and more detailed information.

The levels are typically represented by a combination of Roman numerals, Arabic numerals, uppercase letters, lowercase letters but may include other symbols. Refer to the guidelines provided by your institution, as formatting is not universal and differs between universities, fields, and subjects. If you are writing the outline for yourself, you may choose any combination you prefer.

This is the most generalized level of information. Begin by numbering the introduction, each idea you will present, and the conclusion. The main ideas contain the bulk of your research paper 's information. Depending on your research, it may be chapters of a book for a literature review , a series of dates for a historical research paper, or the methods and results of a scientific paper.

I. Introduction

II. Main idea

III. Main idea

IV. Main idea

V. Conclusion

The second level consists of topics which support the introduction, main ideas, and the conclusion. Each main idea should have at least two supporting topics listed in the outline.

If your main idea does not have enough support, you should consider presenting another main idea in its place. This is where you should stop outlining if this is your first draft. Continue your research before adding to the next levels of organization.

  • A. Background information
  • B. Hypothesis or thesis
  • A. Supporting topic
  • B. Supporting topic

The third level of organization contains supporting information for the topics previously listed. By now, you should have completed enough research to add support for your ideas.

The Introduction and Main Ideas may contain information you discovered about the author, timeframe, or contents of a book for a literature review; the historical events leading up to the research topic for a historical research paper, or an explanation of the problem a scientific research paper intends to address.

  • 1. Relevant history
  • 2. Relevant history
  • 1. The hypothesis or thesis clearly stated
  • 1. A brief description of supporting information
  • 2. A brief description of supporting information

The fourth level of organization contains the most detailed information such as quotes, references, observations, or specific data needed to support the main idea. It is not typical to have further levels of organization because the information contained here is the most specific.

  • a) Quotes or references to another piece of literature
  • b) Quotes or references to another piece of literature

Tip: The key to creating a useful outline is to be consistent in your headings, organization, and levels of specificity.

  • Be Consistent : ensure every heading has a similar tone. State the topic or write short sentences for each heading but avoid doing both.
  • Organize Information : Higher levels of organization are more generally stated and each supporting level becomes more specific. The introduction and conclusion will never be lower than the first level of organization.
  • Build Support : Each main idea should have two or more supporting topics. If your research does not have enough information to support the main idea you are presenting, you should, in general, complete additional research or revise the outline.

By now, you should know the basic requirements to create an outline for your paper. With a content framework in place, you can now start writing your paper . To help you start right away, you can use one of our templates and adjust it to suit your needs.

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After completing your outline, you should:

  • Title your research paper . This is an iterative process and may change when you delve deeper into the topic.
  • Begin writing your research paper draft . Continue researching to further build your outline and provide more information to support your hypothesis or thesis.
  • Format your draft appropriately . MLA 8 and APA 7 formats have differences between their bibliography page, in-text citations, line spacing, and title.
  • Finalize your citations and bibliography . Use a reference manager like Paperpile to organize and cite your research.
  • Write the abstract, if required . An abstract will briefly state the information contained within the paper, results of the research, and the conclusion.

An outline is used to organize written ideas about a topic into a logical order. Outlines help us organize major topics, subtopics, and supporting details. Researchers benefit greatly from outlines while writing by addressing which topic to cover in what order.

The most basic outline format consists of: an introduction, a minimum of three topic paragraphs, and a conclusion.

You should make an outline before starting to write your research paper. This will help you organize the main ideas and arguments you want to present in your topic.

  • Consistency: ensure every heading has a similar tone. State the topic or write short sentences for each heading but avoid doing both.
  • Organization : Higher levels of organization are more generally stated and each supporting level becomes more specific. The introduction and conclusion will never be lower than the first level of organization.
  • Support : Each main idea should have two or more supporting topics. If your research does not have enough information to support the main idea you are presenting, you should, in general, complete additional research or revise the outline.

how to make outline in research

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How Can You Create a Well Planned Research Paper Outline

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You are staring at the blank document, meaning to start writing your research paper . After months of experiments and procuring results, your PI asked you to write the paper to publish it in a reputed journal. You spoke to your peers and a few seniors and received a few tips on writing a research paper, but you still can’t plan on how to begin!

Writing a research paper is a very common issue among researchers and is often looked upon as a time consuming hurdle. Researchers usually look up to this task as an impending threat, avoiding and procrastinating until they cannot delay it anymore. Seeking advice from internet and seniors they manage to write a paper which goes in for quite a few revisions. Making researchers lose their sense of understanding with respect to their research work and findings. In this article, we would like to discuss how to create a structured research paper outline which will assist a researcher in writing their research paper effectively!

Publication is an important component of research studies in a university for academic promotion and in obtaining funding to support research. However, the primary reason is to provide the data and hypotheses to scientific community to advance the understanding in a specific domain. A scientific paper is a formal record of a research process. It documents research protocols, methods, results, conclusion, and discussion from a research hypothesis .

Table of Contents

What Is a Research Paper Outline?

A research paper outline is a basic format for writing an academic research paper. It follows the IMRAD format (Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion). However, this format varies depending on the type of research manuscript. A research paper outline consists of following sections to simplify the paper for readers. These sections help researchers build an effective paper outline.

1. Title Page

The title page provides important information which helps the editors, reviewers, and readers identify the manuscript and the authors at a glance. It also provides an overview of the field of research the research paper belongs to. The title should strike a balance between precise and detailed. Other generic details include author’s given name, affiliation, keywords that will provide indexing, details of the corresponding author etc. are added to the title page.

2. Abstract

Abstract is the most important section of the manuscript and will help the researcher create a detailed research paper outline . To be more precise, an abstract is like an advertisement to the researcher’s work and it influences the editor in deciding whether to submit the manuscript to reviewers or not. Writing an abstract is a challenging task. Researchers can write an exemplary abstract by selecting the content carefully and being concise.

3. Introduction

An introduction is a background statement that provides the context and approach of the research. It describes the problem statement with the assistance of the literature study and elaborates the requirement to update the knowledge gap. It sets the research hypothesis and informs the readers about the big research question.

This section is usually named as “Materials and Methods”, “Experiments” or “Patients and Methods” depending upon the type of journal. This purpose provides complete information on methods used for the research. Researchers should mention clear description of materials and their use in the research work. If the methods used in research are already published, give a brief account and refer to the original publication. However, if the method used is modified from the original method, then researcher should mention the modifications done to the original protocol and validate its accuracy, precision, and repeatability.

It is best to report results as tables and figures wherever possible. Also, avoid duplication of text and ensure that the text summarizes the findings. Report the results with appropriate descriptive statistics. Furthermore, report any unexpected events that could affect the research results, and mention complete account of observations and explanations for missing data (if any).

6. Discussion

The discussion should set the research in context, strengthen its importance and support the research hypothesis. Summarize the main results of the study in one or two paragraphs and show how they logically fit in an overall scheme of studies. Compare the results with other investigations in the field of research and explain the differences.

7. Acknowledgments

Acknowledgements identify and thank the contributors to the study, who are not under the criteria of co-authors. It also includes the recognition of funding agency and universities that award scholarships or fellowships to researchers.

8. Declaration of Competing Interests

Finally, declaring the competing interests is essential to abide by ethical norms of unique research publishing. Competing interests arise when the author has more than one role that may lead to a situation where there is a conflict of interest.

Steps to Write a Research Paper Outline

  • Write down all important ideas that occur to you concerning the research paper .
  • Answer questions such as – what is the topic of my paper? Why is the topic important? How to formulate the hypothesis? What are the major findings?
  • Add context and structure. Group all your ideas into sections – Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion/Conclusion.
  • Add relevant questions to each section. It is important to note down the questions. This will help you align your thoughts.
  • Expand the ideas based on the questions created in the paper outline.
  • After creating a detailed outline, discuss it with your mentors and peers.
  • Get enough feedback and decide on the journal you will submit to.
  • The process of real writing begins.

Benefits of Creating a Research Paper Outline

As discussed, the research paper subheadings create an outline of what different aspects of research needs elaboration. This provides subtopics on which the researchers brainstorm and reach a conclusion to write. A research paper outline organizes the researcher’s thoughts and gives a clear picture of how to formulate the research protocols and results. It not only helps the researcher to understand the flow of information but also provides relation between the ideas.

A research paper outline helps researcher achieve a smooth transition between topics and ensures that no research point is forgotten. Furthermore, it allows the reader to easily navigate through the research paper and provides a better understanding of the research. The paper outline allows the readers to find relevant information and quotes from different part of the paper.

Research Paper Outline Template

A research paper outline template can help you understand the concept of creating a well planned research paper before beginning to write and walk through your journey of research publishing.

1. Research Title

A. Background i. Support with evidence ii. Support with existing literature studies

B. Thesis Statement i. Link literature with hypothesis ii. Support with evidence iii. Explain the knowledge gap and how this research will help build the gap 4. Body

A. Methods i. Mention materials and protocols used in research ii. Support with evidence

B. Results i. Support with tables and figures ii. Mention appropriate descriptive statistics

C. Discussion i. Support the research with context ii. Support the research hypothesis iii. Compare the results with other investigations in field of research

D. Conclusion i. Support the discussion and research investigation ii. Support with literature studies

E. Acknowledgements i. Identify and thank the contributors ii. Include the funding agency, if any

F. Declaration of Competing Interests

5. References

Download the Research Paper Outline Template!

Have you tried writing a research paper outline ? How did it work for you? Did it help you achieve your research paper writing goal? Do let us know about your experience in the comments below.

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Home » Research Paper Outline – Types, Example, Template

Research Paper Outline – Types, Example, Template

Table of Contents

Research Paper Outline

By creating a well-structured research paper outline, writers can easily organize their thoughts and ideas and ensure that their final paper is clear, concise, and effective. In this article, we will explore the essential components of a research paper outline and provide some tips and tricks for creating a successful one.

Research Paper Outline

Research paper outline is a plan or a structural framework that organizes the main ideas , arguments, and supporting evidence in a logical sequence. It serves as a blueprint or a roadmap for the writer to follow while drafting the actual research paper .

Typically, an outline consists of the following elements:

  • Introduction : This section presents the topic, research question , and thesis statement of the paper. It also provides a brief overview of the literature review and the methodology used.
  • Literature Review: This section provides a comprehensive review of the relevant literature, theories, and concepts related to the research topic. It analyzes the existing research and identifies the research gaps and research questions.
  • Methodology: This section explains the research design, data collection methods, data analysis, and ethical considerations of the study.
  • Results: This section presents the findings of the study, using tables, graphs, and statistics to illustrate the data.
  • Discussion : This section interprets the results of the study, and discusses their implications, significance, and limitations. It also suggests future research directions.
  • Conclusion : This section summarizes the main findings of the study and restates the thesis statement.
  • References: This section lists all the sources cited in the paper using the appropriate citation style.

Research Paper Outline Types

There are several types of outlines that can be used for research papers, including:

Alphanumeric Outline

This is a traditional outline format that uses Roman numerals, capital letters, Arabic numerals, and lowercase letters to organize the main ideas and supporting details of a research paper. It is commonly used for longer, more complex research papers.

I. Introduction

  • A. Background information
  • B. Thesis statement
  • 1 1. Supporting detail
  • 1 2. Supporting detail 2
  • 2 1. Supporting detail

III. Conclusion

  • A. Restate thesis
  • B. Summarize main points

Decimal Outline

This outline format uses numbers to organize the main ideas and supporting details of a research paper. It is similar to the alphanumeric outline, but it uses only numbers and decimals to indicate the hierarchy of the ideas.

  • 1.1 Background information
  • 1.2 Thesis statement
  • 1 2.1.1 Supporting detail
  • 1 2.1.2 Supporting detail
  • 2 2.2.1 Supporting detail
  • 1 2.2.2 Supporting detail
  • 3.1 Restate thesis
  • 3.2 Summarize main points

Full Sentence Outline

This type of outline uses complete sentences to describe the main ideas and supporting details of a research paper. It is useful for those who prefer to see the entire paper outlined in complete sentences.

  • Provide background information on the topic
  • State the thesis statement
  • Explain main idea 1 and provide supporting details
  • Discuss main idea 2 and provide supporting details
  • Restate the thesis statement
  • Summarize the main points of the paper

Topic Outline

This type of outline uses short phrases or words to describe the main ideas and supporting details of a research paper. It is useful for those who prefer to see a more concise overview of the paper.

  • Background information
  • Thesis statement
  • Supporting detail 1
  • Supporting detail 2
  • Restate thesis
  • Summarize main points

Reverse Outline

This is an outline that is created after the paper has been written. It involves going back through the paper and summarizing each paragraph or section in one sentence. This can be useful for identifying gaps in the paper or areas that need further development.

  • Introduction : Provides background information and states the thesis statement.
  • Paragraph 1: Discusses main idea 1 and provides supporting details.
  • Paragraph 2: Discusses main idea 2 and provides supporting details.
  • Paragraph 3: Addresses potential counterarguments.
  • Conclusion : Restates thesis and summarizes main points.

Mind Map Outline

This type of outline involves creating a visual representation of the main ideas and supporting details of a research paper. It can be useful for those who prefer a more creative and visual approach to outlining.

  • Supporting detail 1: Lack of funding for public schools.
  • Supporting detail 2: Decrease in government support for education.
  • Supporting detail 1: Increase in income inequality.
  • Supporting detail 2: Decrease in social mobility.

Research Paper Outline Example

Research Paper Outline Example on Cyber Security:

A. Overview of Cybersecurity

  • B. Importance of Cybersecurity
  • C. Purpose of the paper

II. Cyber Threats

A. Definition of Cyber Threats

  • B. Types of Cyber Threats
  • C. Examples of Cyber Threats

III. Cybersecurity Measures

A. Prevention measures

  • Anti-virus software
  • Encryption B. Detection measures
  • Intrusion Detection System (IDS)
  • Security Information and Event Management (SIEM)
  • Security Operations Center (SOC) C. Response measures
  • Incident Response Plan
  • Business Continuity Plan
  • Disaster Recovery Plan

IV. Cybersecurity in the Business World

A. Overview of Cybersecurity in the Business World

B. Cybersecurity Risk Assessment

C. Best Practices for Cybersecurity in Business

V. Cybersecurity in Government Organizations

A. Overview of Cybersecurity in Government Organizations

C. Best Practices for Cybersecurity in Government Organizations

VI. Cybersecurity Ethics

A. Definition of Cybersecurity Ethics

B. Importance of Cybersecurity Ethics

C. Examples of Cybersecurity Ethics

VII. Future of Cybersecurity

A. Overview of the Future of Cybersecurity

B. Emerging Cybersecurity Threats

C. Advancements in Cybersecurity Technology

VIII. Conclusion

A. Summary of the paper

B. Recommendations for Cybersecurity

  • C. Conclusion.

IX. References

A. List of sources cited in the paper

B. Bibliography of additional resources


Cybersecurity refers to the protection of computer systems, networks, and sensitive data from unauthorized access, theft, damage, or any other form of cyber attack. B. Importance of Cybersecurity The increasing reliance on technology and the growing number of cyber threats make cybersecurity an essential aspect of modern society. Cybersecurity breaches can result in financial losses, reputational damage, and legal liabilities. C. Purpose of the paper This paper aims to provide an overview of cybersecurity, cyber threats, cybersecurity measures, cybersecurity in the business and government sectors, cybersecurity ethics, and the future of cybersecurity.

A cyber threat is any malicious act or event that attempts to compromise or disrupt computer systems, networks, or sensitive data. B. Types of Cyber Threats Common types of cyber threats include malware, phishing, social engineering, ransomware, DDoS attacks, and advanced persistent threats (APTs). C. Examples of Cyber Threats Recent cyber threats include the SolarWinds supply chain attack, the Colonial Pipeline ransomware attack, and the Microsoft Exchange Server hack.

Prevention measures aim to minimize the risk of cyber attacks by implementing security controls, such as firewalls, anti-virus software, and encryption.

  • Firewalls Firewalls act as a barrier between a computer network and the internet, filtering incoming and outgoing traffic to prevent unauthorized access.
  • Anti-virus software Anti-virus software detects, prevents, and removes malware from computer systems.
  • Encryption Encryption involves the use of mathematical algorithms to transform sensitive data into a code that can only be accessed by authorized individuals. B. Detection measures Detection measures aim to identify and respond to cyber attacks as quickly as possible, such as intrusion detection systems (IDS), security information and event management (SIEM), and security operations centers (SOCs).
  • Intrusion Detection System (IDS) IDS monitors network traffic for signs of unauthorized access, such as unusual patterns or anomalies.
  • Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) SIEM combines security information management and security event management to provide real-time monitoring and analysis of security alerts.
  • Security Operations Center (SOC) SOC is a dedicated team responsible for monitoring, analyzing, and responding to cyber threats. C. Response measures Response measures aim to mitigate the impact of a cyber attack and restore normal operations, such as incident response plans (IRPs), business continuity plans (BCPs), and disaster recovery plans (DRPs).
  • Incident Response Plan IRPs outline the procedures and protocols to follow in the event of a cyber attack, including communication protocols, roles and responsibilities, and recovery processes.
  • Business Continuity Plan BCPs ensure that critical business functions can continue in the event of a cyber attack or other disruption.
  • Disaster Recovery Plan DRPs outline the procedures to recover from a catastrophic event, such as a natural disaster or cyber attack.

Cybersecurity is crucial for businesses of all sizes and industries, as they handle sensitive data, financial transactions, and intellectual property that are attractive targets for cyber criminals.

Risk assessment is a critical step in developing a cybersecurity strategy, which involves identifying potential threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences to determine the level of risk and prioritize security measures.

Best practices for cybersecurity in business include implementing strong passwords and multi-factor authentication, regularly updating software and hardware, training employees on cybersecurity awareness, and regularly backing up data.

Government organizations face unique cybersecurity challenges, as they handle sensitive information related to national security, defense, and critical infrastructure.

Risk assessment in government organizations involves identifying and assessing potential threats and vulnerabilities, conducting regular audits, and complying with relevant regulations and standards.

Best practices for cybersecurity in government organizations include implementing secure communication protocols, regularly updating and patching software, and conducting regular cybersecurity training and awareness programs for employees.

Cybersecurity ethics refers to the ethical considerations involved in cybersecurity, such as privacy, data protection, and the responsible use of technology.

Cybersecurity ethics are crucial for maintaining trust in technology, protecting privacy and data, and promoting responsible behavior in the digital world.

Examples of cybersecurity ethics include protecting the privacy of user data, ensuring data accuracy and integrity, and implementing fair and unbiased algorithms.

The future of cybersecurity will involve a shift towards more advanced technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, and quantum computing.

Emerging cybersecurity threats include AI-powered cyber attacks, the use of deepfakes and synthetic media, and the potential for quantum computing to break current encryption methods.

Advancements in cybersecurity technology include the development of AI and machine learning-based security tools, the use of blockchain for secure data storage and sharing, and the development of post-quantum encryption methods.

This paper has provided an overview of cybersecurity, cyber threats, cybersecurity measures, cybersecurity in the business and government sectors, cybersecurity ethics, and the future of cybersecurity.

To enhance cybersecurity, organizations should prioritize risk assessment and implement a comprehensive cybersecurity strategy that includes prevention, detection, and response measures. Additionally, organizations should prioritize cybersecurity ethics to promote responsible behavior in the digital world.

C. Conclusion

Cybersecurity is an essential aspect of modern society, and organizations must prioritize cybersecurity to protect sensitive data and maintain trust in technology.

for further reading

X. Appendices

A. Glossary of key terms

B. Cybersecurity checklist for organizations

C. Sample cybersecurity policy for businesses

D. Sample cybersecurity incident response plan

E. Cybersecurity training and awareness resources

Note : The content and organization of the paper may vary depending on the specific requirements of the assignment or target audience. This outline serves as a general guide for writing a research paper on cybersecurity. Do not use this in your assingmets.

Research Paper Outline Template

  • Background information and context of the research topic
  • Research problem and questions
  • Purpose and objectives of the research
  • Scope and limitations

II. Literature Review

  • Overview of existing research on the topic
  • Key concepts and theories related to the research problem
  • Identification of gaps in the literature
  • Summary of relevant studies and their findings

III. Methodology

  • Research design and approach
  • Data collection methods and procedures
  • Data analysis techniques
  • Validity and reliability considerations
  • Ethical considerations

IV. Results

  • Presentation of research findings
  • Analysis and interpretation of data
  • Explanation of significant results
  • Discussion of unexpected results

V. Discussion

  • Comparison of research findings with existing literature
  • Implications of results for theory and practice
  • Limitations and future directions for research
  • Conclusion and recommendations

VI. Conclusion

  • Summary of research problem, purpose, and objectives
  • Discussion of significant findings
  • Contribution to the field of study
  • Implications for practice
  • Suggestions for future research

VII. References

  • List of sources cited in the research paper using appropriate citation style.

Note : This is just an template, and depending on the requirements of your assignment or the specific research topic, you may need to modify or adjust the sections or headings accordingly.

Research Paper Outline Writing Guide

Here’s a guide to help you create an effective research paper outline:

  • Choose a topic : Select a topic that is interesting, relevant, and meaningful to you.
  • Conduct research: Gather information on the topic from a variety of sources, such as books, articles, journals, and websites.
  • Organize your ideas: Organize your ideas and information into logical groups and subgroups. This will help you to create a clear and concise outline.
  • Create an outline: Begin your outline with an introduction that includes your thesis statement. Then, organize your ideas into main points and subpoints. Each main point should be supported by evidence and examples.
  • Introduction: The introduction of your research paper should include the thesis statement, background information, and the purpose of the research paper.
  • Body : The body of your research paper should include the main points and subpoints. Each point should be supported by evidence and examples.
  • Conclusion : The conclusion of your research paper should summarize the main points and restate the thesis statement.
  • Reference List: Include a reference list at the end of your research paper. Make sure to properly cite all sources used in the paper.
  • Proofreading : Proofread your research paper to ensure that it is free of errors and grammatical mistakes.
  • Finalizing : Finalize your research paper by reviewing the outline and making any necessary changes.

When to Write Research Paper Outline

It’s a good idea to write a research paper outline before you begin drafting your paper. The outline will help you organize your thoughts and ideas, and it can serve as a roadmap for your writing process.

Here are a few situations when you might want to consider writing an outline:

  • When you’re starting a new research project: If you’re beginning a new research project, an outline can help you get organized from the very beginning. You can use your outline to brainstorm ideas, map out your research goals, and identify potential sources of information.
  • When you’re struggling to organize your thoughts: If you find yourself struggling to organize your thoughts or make sense of your research, an outline can be a helpful tool. It can help you see the big picture of your project and break it down into manageable parts.
  • When you’re working with a tight deadline : If you have a deadline for your research paper, an outline can help you stay on track and ensure that you cover all the necessary points. By mapping out your paper in advance, you can work more efficiently and avoid getting stuck or overwhelmed.

Purpose of Research Paper Outline

The purpose of a research paper outline is to provide a structured and organized plan for the writer to follow while conducting research and writing the paper. An outline is essentially a roadmap that guides the writer through the entire research process, from the initial research and analysis of the topic to the final writing and editing of the paper.

A well-constructed outline can help the writer to:

  • Organize their thoughts and ideas on the topic, and ensure that all relevant information is included.
  • Identify any gaps in their research or argument, and address them before starting to write the paper.
  • Ensure that the paper follows a logical and coherent structure, with clear transitions between different sections.
  • Save time and effort by providing a clear plan for the writer to follow, rather than starting from scratch and having to revise the paper multiple times.

Advantages of Research Paper Outline

Some of the key advantages of a research paper outline include:

  • Helps to organize thoughts and ideas : An outline helps to organize all the different ideas and information that you want to include in your paper. By creating an outline, you can ensure that all the points you want to make are covered and in a logical order.
  • Saves time and effort : An outline saves time and effort because it helps you to focus on the key points of your paper. It also helps you to identify any gaps or areas where more research may be needed.
  • Makes the writing process easier : With an outline, you have a clear roadmap of what you want to write, and this makes the writing process much easier. You can simply follow your outline and fill in the details as you go.
  • Improves the quality of your paper : By having a clear outline, you can ensure that all the important points are covered and in a logical order. This makes your paper more coherent and easier to read, which ultimately improves its overall quality.
  • Facilitates collaboration: If you are working on a research paper with others, an outline can help to facilitate collaboration. By sharing your outline, you can ensure that everyone is on the same page and working towards the same goals.

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An outline is a formal system used to develop a framework for thinking about what should be the organization and eventual contents of your paper. An outline helps you predict the overall structure and flow of a paper.

Why and How to Create a Useful Outline. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.

Importance of...

Writing papers in college requires you to come up with sophisticated, complex, and sometimes very creative ways of structuring your ideas . Taking the time to draft an outline can help you determine if your ideas connect to each other, what order of ideas works best, where gaps in your thinking may exist, or whether you have sufficient evidence to support each of your points. It is also an effective way to think about the time you will need to complete each part of your paper before you begin writing.

A good outline is important because :

  • You will be much less likely to get writer's block . An outline will show where you're going and how to get there. Use the outline to set goals for completing each section of your paper.
  • It will help you stay organized and focused throughout the writing process and help ensure proper coherence [flow of ideas] in your final paper. However, the outline should be viewed as a guide, not a straitjacket. As you review the literature or gather data, the organization of your paper may change; adjust your outline accordingly.
  • A clear, detailed outline ensures that you always have something to help re-calibrate your writing should you feel yourself drifting into subject areas unrelated to the research problem. Use your outline to set boundaries around what you will investigate.
  • The outline can be key to staying motivated . You can put together an outline when you're excited about the project and everything is clicking; making an outline is never as overwhelming as sitting down and beginning to write a twenty page paper without any sense of where it is going.
  • An outline helps you organize multiple ideas about a topic . Most research problems can be analyzed from a variety of perspectives; an outline can help you sort out which modes of analysis are most appropriate to ensure the most robust findings are discovered.
  • An outline not only helps you organize your thoughts, but it can also serve as a schedule for when certain aspects of your writing should be accomplished . Review the assignment and highlight the due dates of specific tasks and integrate these into your outline. If your professor has not created specific deadlines, create your own deadlines by thinking about your own writing style and the need to manage your time around other course assignments.

How to Structure and Organize Your Paper. Odegaard Writing & Research Center. University of Washington; Why and How to Create a Useful Outline. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lietzau, Kathleen. Creating Outlines. Writing Center, University of Richmond.

Structure and Writing Style

I.   General Approaches

There are two general approaches you can take when writing an outline for your paper:

The topic outline consists of short phrases. This approach is useful when you are dealing with a number of different issues that could be arranged in a variety of different ways in your paper. Due to short phrases having more content than using simple sentences, they create better content from which to build your paper.

The sentence outline is done in full sentences. This approach is useful when your paper focuses on complex issues in detail. The sentence outline is also useful because sentences themselves have many of the details in them needed to build a paper and it allows you to include those details in the sentences instead of having to create an outline of short phrases that goes on page after page.

II.   Steps to Making the Outline

A strong outline details each topic and subtopic in your paper, organizing these points so that they build your argument toward an evidence-based conclusion. Writing an outline will also help you focus on the task at hand and avoid unnecessary tangents, logical fallacies, and underdeveloped paragraphs.

  • Identify the research problem . The research problem is the focal point from which the rest of the outline flows. Try to sum up the point of your paper in one sentence or phrase. It also can be key to deciding what the title of your paper should be.
  • Identify the main categories . What main points will you analyze? The introduction describes all of your main points; the rest of  your paper can be spent developing those points.
  • Create the first category . What is the first point you want to cover? If the paper centers around a complicated term, a definition can be a good place to start. For a paper that concerns the application and testing of a particular theory, giving the general background on the theory can be a good place to begin.
  • Create subcategories . After you have followed these steps, create points under it that provide support for the main point. The number of categories that you use depends on the amount of information that you are trying to cover. There is no right or wrong number to use.

Once you have developed the basic outline of the paper, organize the contents to match the standard format of a research paper as described in this guide.

III.   Things to Consider When Writing an Outline

  • There is no rule dictating which approach is best . Choose either a topic outline or a sentence outline based on which one you believe will work best for you. However, once you begin developing an outline, it's helpful to stick to only one approach.
  • Both topic and sentence outlines use Roman and Arabic numerals along with capital and small letters of the alphabet arranged in a consistent and rigid sequence. A rigid format should be used especially if you are required to hand in your outline.
  • Although the format of an outline is rigid, it shouldn't make you inflexible about how to write your paper. Often when you start investigating a research problem [i.e., reviewing the research literature], especially if you are unfamiliar with the topic, you should anticipate the likelihood your analysis could go in different directions. If your paper changes focus, or you need to add new sections, then feel free to reorganize the outline.
  • If appropriate, organize the main points of your outline in chronological order . In papers where you need to trace the history or chronology of events or issues, it is important to arrange your outline in the same manner, knowing that it's easier to re-arrange things now than when you've almost finished your paper.
  • For a standard research paper of 15-20 pages, your outline should be no more than few pages in length . It may be helpful as you are developing your outline to also write down a tentative list of references.

Muirhead, Brent. “Using Outlines to Improve Online Student Writing Skills.” Journal on School Educational Technology 1, (2005): 17-23; Four Main Components for Effective Outlines. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; How to Make an Outline. Psychology Writing Center. University of Washington; Kartawijaya, Sukarta. “Improving Students’ Writing Skill in Writing Paragraph through an Outline Technique.” Curricula: Journal of Teaching and Learning 3 (2018); Organization: Informal Outlines. The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College; Organization: Standard Outline Form. The Reading/Writing Center. Hunter College; Outlining. Department of English Writing Guide. George Mason University; Plotnic, Jerry. Organizing an Essay. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Reverse Outline. The Writing Center. University of North Carolina; Reverse Outlines: A Writer's Technique for Examining Organization. The Writer’s Handbook. Writing Center. University of Wisconsin, Madison; Using Outlines. Writing Tutorial Services, Center for Innovative Teaching and Learning. Indiana University; Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. Institute for Writing Rhetoric. Dartmouth College.

Writing Tip

A Disorganized Outline Means a Disorganized Paper!

If, in writing your paper, it begins to diverge from your outline, this is very likely a sign that you've lost your focus. How do you know whether to change the paper to fit the outline, or, that you need to reconsider the outline so that it fits the paper? A good way to check your progress is to use what you have written to recreate the outline. This is an effective strategy for assessing the organization of your paper. If the resulting outline says what you want it to say and it is in an order that is easy to follow, then the organization of your paper has been successful. If you discover that it's difficult to create an outline from what you have written, then you likely need to revise your paper.

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How to Write a Research Paper Outline

How to Write a Research Paper Outline

4-minute read

  • 25th August 2023

Embarking on the journey of writing a research paper can be both exciting and overwhelming. However, you can navigate this process with clarity and confidence with a well-crafted research paper outline. An outline serves as a roadmap that guides you through each phase of research, organization, and writing.

In this guide, we’ll walk you through the steps to craft a stellar outline that will lay the foundation for an exceptional research paper. Let’s dive in!

The Importance of a Research Paper Outline

Before delving into the process of creating an outline, let’s first discuss a few reasons why it’s a crucial element of your research paper process:

●  Organization : An outline helps you organize your thoughts, ideas, and research findings coherently and logically, preventing your paper from becoming disjointed.

●  Focus and Direction : It provides a clear path for your research and writing, helping you stay on track and ensuring that you cover all essential aspects of your topic.

●  Efficiency : By planning and structuring your paper in advance, you save time during the actual writing process.

Steps to Create a Research Paper Outline

1. identifying the core components of your outline.

Your research paper outline consists of several key components, each serving a specific purpose. Depending on your research topic and your intended audience, your research paper may have additional sections, such as a literature review or methods section, so make sure you’re clear on what the expectations are for your project. Still, your outline should almost certainly contain the following elements:

A. Introduction

●  Provide a hook. Begin with a compelling opening that grabs your reader’s attention.

●  Include appropriate background information. Provide context about your topic, highlighting its relevance and significance , along with your research objectives .

●  State your thesis statement . Clearly state the main argument or purpose of your paper.

B. Main Body

●  Organize your major points and arguments. Itemize the primary ideas or arguments you intend to present. Each major point should have its own section.

●  Supporting evidence : Beneath each major point, list the supporting evidence, data, or examples that back your arguments.

●  Subpoints : If necessary, break down each major point into smaller subpoints to ensure a well-structured and detailed discussion.

C. Counterarguments and Rebuttals (if applicable)

●  Consider the counterarguments . Address opposing viewpoints to showcase a comprehensive understanding of the topic.

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●  Include the counter rebuttals . Refute counterarguments with strong evidence and reasoning, reinforcing your stance.

D. Conclusion

●  Restate your thesis. Summarize your thesis statement, reminding readers of your main argument.

●  Summarize your main points . Briefly recap the major points discussed in the body of your paper.

●  Provide a meaningful concluding thought. Leave readers with a thought-provoking insight, call to action, or open-ended question.

●  Remember your acknowledgements . Finally, add any acknowledgements that should be recognized.

2. Structuring Your Outline

Create a hierarchical structure by arranging your main points, subpoints, and supporting evidence in a logical order. This provides a visual representation of your paper’s flow and allows you to see how ideas connect and progress.

3. Be Concise and Clear

Your outline is a concise roadmap, so use brief phrases or sentences to capture the essence of each section. Avoid wordiness and complex language.

4. Flexibility in Your Approach

Remember, your outline is a flexible tool. As you delve deeper into your research and writing, you might discover the need to rearrange or expand certain sections. Allow your outline to evolve naturally.

5. Seek Feedback

Share your outline with peers, instructors, or your advisor to gain valuable feedback. Their insights can help you refine your outline and ensure that you’re on the right track. They can also let you know if you’ve left out anything of significance.

A well-structured research paper outline is your compass in the vast sea of information and ideas. It keeps you focused, organized, and empowered throughout the research and writing process and can help deter you from making common mistakes .

Following these steps will equip you to create a successful outline: identify your main concepts; structure your outline; check for clarity and concision; allow for flexibility; and seek feedback.

Finally, if you’re interested in having your research paper proofread , please consider our research paper editing services . You can even try a sample of our services for free . Happy outlining and researching!

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How to Write a Research Paper Outline with Examples

how to make outline in research

You sometimes have to submit an essay outline or a research proposal checklist for a research project before you do most of the actual research to show that you have understood the assignment, defined a good research question or hypothesis, and contemplated the structure of your research paper. You can find various templates and examples for such outlines, which usually begin with “put your thesis statement/research question at the top” and then ask you to decide whether to add your supporting ideas/points in “alphanumeric,” “decimal,” or “full-sentence” style. 

That is certainly one useful (if not overly formalized) way of using outlining to prepare to draft an academic text. But here we want to talk about how to make an outline after you have done a research project or thesis work and are not quite sure how to put everything together into a written thesis to hand in or a research paper manuscript to submit to a journal.

What is a research paper outline?

Creating a research project outline entails more than just listing bullet points (although you can use bullet points and lists in your outline). It includes how to organize everything you have done and thought about and want to say about your work into a clear structure you can use as the basis for your research paper. 

There are two different methods of creating an outline: let’s call these “abstract style” and “paper style.” These names reflect how briefly you summarize your work at this initial point, or show how extensive and complicated the methods and designs you used and the data you collected are. The type of outline you use also depends on how clear the story you want to tell is and how much organizing and structuring of information you still need to do before you can draft your actual paper. 

research paper outline, scaffolding image

Table of Contents:

  • Abstract-Style Outline Format
  • Paper-Style Outline Format

Additional Tips for Outlining a Research Paper in English

Abstract-style research paper outline format.

A research paper outline in abstract style consists, like the abstract of a research paper , of short answers to the essential questions that anyone trying to understand your work would ask.

  • Why did you decide to do what you did?
  • What exactly did you do?
  • How did you do it?
  • What did you find?
  • What does it mean?
  • What should you/we/someone else do now?

These questions form the structure of not only a typical research paper abstract but also a typical article manuscript. They will eventually be omitted and replaced by the usual headers, such as Introduction/Background, Aim, Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, etc. Answering these key questions for yourself first (with keywords or short sentences) and then sticking to the same structure and information when drafting your article will ensure that your story is consistent and that there are no logical gaps or contradictions between the different sections of a research paper . 

If you draft this abstract outline carefully, you can use it as the basis for every other part of your paper. You reduce it even more, down to the absolute essential elements, to create your manuscript title ; you choose your keywords on the basis of the summary presented here; and you expand it into the introduction , methods , results , and discussion sections of your paper without contradicting yourself or losing the logical thread. 

Research Paper Outline Example (Abstract style)

Let’s say you did a research project on the effect of university online classes on attendance rates and create a simple outline example using these six questions:

1. Why did you decide to do what you did?

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, many university courses around the world have been moved online, at least temporarily. Since students have been saving time on commuting, I wondered if attendance rates have increased overall.

2. What exactly did you do?

I compared attendance scores for courses that were taught both before (offline) and during (online) the COVID-19 pandemic at my university.

3. How did you do it?

I selected five popular subjects (business, law, medicine, psychology, art & design) and one general course per subject; then I contacted the professors in charge and asked them to provide me with anonymized attendance scores.

4. What did you find?

Attendance did not significantly change for medicine and law, but slightly dropped for the other three subjects. I found no difference between male and female students.  

5. What does it mean?

Even though students saved time on traveling between their homes and the campus during the COVID-19 pandemic, they did not attend classes more consistently; in some subjects, they missed more classes than before.

6. What should you/we/someone else do now?

Since I do not have any other information about the students, I can only speculate on potential explanations. Next, I will put together a questionnaire to assess how students have been coping with online classes and how the experiences from this time can benefit university teaching and learning in general.

Note that you could have made the same outline using just keywords instead of full sentences. You could also have added more methodological details or the results of your statistical analysis. However, when you can break everything down to the absolute essentials like this, you will have a good foundation upon which to develop a full paper. 

However, maybe your study just seems too complicated. So you look at these questions and then at your notes and data and have no idea how to come up with such simple answers. Or maybe things went in a completely different direction since you started writing your paper, so now you are no longer sure what the main point of your experiments was and what the main conclusion should be. If that is how you feel right now, then outlining your paper in “paper style” might be the right method for you.

Paper-Style Research Paper Outline Format 

The purpose of a paper-style outline is the same as that of an abstract-style outline: You want to organize your initial thoughts and plans, the methods and tools you used, all the experiments you conducted, the data you collected and analyzed, as well as your results, into a clear structure so that you can identify the main storyline for your paper and the main conclusions that you want the reader to take from it. 

First, take as much space as you need and simply jot down everything in your study you planned to do, everything you did, and everything you thought about based on your notes, lab book, and earlier literature you read or used. Such an outline can contain all your initial ideas, the timeline of all your pilots and all your experiments, the reasons why you changed direction or designed new experiments halfway through your study, all the analyses you ever did, all the feedback and criticism you already got from supervisors and seniors or during conference presentations, and all the ideas you have for future work. If this is your thesis or your first publication, then your first outline might look quite messy – and that is exactly why you need to structure your paper before trying to write everything up. 

So you have finally remembered all you have done in your study and have written everything down. The next step is to realize that you cannot throw all of this at the reader and expect them to put it together. You will have to create a story that is clear and consistent, contains all the essential information (and leaves out any that is not), and leads the reader the same way the abstract outline does, from why over what and how to what you found and what it all means . 

This does not mean you should suppress results that did not come out as intended or try to make your study look smoother. But the reader does not really need to know all the details about why you changed your research question after your initial literature search or some failed pilots. Instead of writing down the simple questions we used for the abstract outline, to organize your still messy notes, write down the main sections of the manuscript you are trying to put together. Additionally, include what kinds of information needs to go where in your paper’s structure.

1. Introduction Section:  

What field is your research part of?

What other papers did you read before deciding on your topic?

Who is your target audience and how much information do your readers need to understand where you are coming from? 

Can you summarize what you did in two sentences?

Did you have a clear hypothesis? If not, what were the potential outcomes of your work?

2. Methods Section: 

List all the methods, questionnaires, and tests you used.

Are your methods all standard in the field or do you need to explain them?

List everything chronologically or according to topics, whatever makes more sense. Read more about writing the Methods section if you need help with this important decision.

3. Results Section: 

Use the same timeline or topics you introduced in the method section.

Make sure you answer all the questions you raised in the introduction.

Use tables, graphs, and other visualizations to guide the reader.

Don’t present results of tests/analyses that you did not mention in the methods.

4. Discussion/Conclusion Section: 

Summarize quickly what you did and found but don’t repeat your results.

Explain whether your findings were to be expected, are new and surprising, are in line with the existing literature, or are contradicting some earlier work. 

Do you think your findings can be generalized? Can they be useful for people in certain professions or other fields?  

Does your study have limitations? What would you do differently next time? 

What future research do you think should be done based on your findings?

5. Conclusion Statement/Paragraph: 

This is your take-home message for the reader. Make sure that your conclusion is directly related to your initial research question.

Now you can simply reorganize your notes (if you use computer software) or fill in the different sections and cross out information on your original list. When you have used all your jotted notes, go through your new outline and check what is still missing. Now check once more that your conclusion is related to your initial research question. If that is the case, you are good to go. You can now either break your outline down further and shorten it into an abstract, or you can expand the different outline sections into a full article.

If you are a non-native speaker of English, then you might take notes in your mother language or maybe in different languages, read literature in your mother language, and generally not think in English while doing your research. If your goal is to write your thesis or paper in English, however, then our advice is to only use your mother language when listing keywords at the very beginning of the outlining process (if at all). As soon as you write down full sentences that you want to go into your paper eventually, you can save yourself a lot of work, avoid mistakes later in the process, and train your brain (which will help you immensely the next time you write an academic text), if you stick to English.

Another thing to keep in mind is that starting to write in full sentences too early in the process means that you might need to omit some passages (maybe even entire paragraphs) when you later decide to change the structure or storyline of your paper. Depending on how much you enjoy (or hate) writing in English and how much effort it costs you, having to throw away a perfectly fine paragraph that you invested a lot of time in can be incredibly frustrating. Our advice is therefore to not spend too much time on writing and to not get too attached to exact wording before you have a solid outline that you then only need to fill in and expand into a full paper.

Once you have finished drafting your paper, consider using professional proofreading and English editing service to revise your paper and prepare it for submission to journals. Wordvice offers a paper editing service , manuscript editing service , dissertation editing service , and thesis editing service to polish and edit your research work and correct any errors in style or formatting.

And while you draft your article, make use of Wordvice AI, a free AI Proofreader that identifies and fixes errors in punctuation, spelling, and grammar in any academic document. 

Research Paper Outline: Designing Your Research Narrative


Table of contents

  • 1.1 What is an outline in college papers?
  • 2.1 Formatting
  • 2.2 Length and detail
  • 3 How to Make an Outline for a Research Paper: 4 Essential Tips
  • 4 Example of a Research Paper Outline
  • 5 How to Make a Research Outline: Final Words

Starting work on the student research paper can be daunting, especially if you have doubts about a topic. A meticulously organized outline serves as a guide through the extensive landscape of knowledge. In this article, you will discover how to make a research paper outline quickly and effectively. These steps will streamline your research and creative process. It will ensure a cohesive and compelling final assignment.

This article delves into the essential aspects of crafting a research paper outline, a foundational tool in academic writing.

  • We will explore its primary purpose, providing structure and clarity to your research.
  • Key components of a research paper outline, such as formatting with Roman numerals, maintaining a parallel structure, and choosing the right citation style.
  • Additionally, we’ll offer insights into balancing the outline’s length and detail to meet assignment requirements and provide effective tips for refining your outline.

Keep reading and find the answers to the most complicated questions about your academic research. Following our advice will give you a high-quality and robust outline for your research paper.

Purpose of the Research Paper Outline

The purpose of an outline for a research paper is paramount to guiding a comprehensive scholarly document. It serves as a roadmap, delineating your research path and ensuring every aspect is noticed. The primary function is to provide a clear and helpful research paper layout.

What is an outline in college papers?

This type of document allows you to present thoughts in a proper order and get needed readers’ reactions. Such an approach helps you avoid confusion while presenting a persuasive case.

Moreover, a customizable research paper outline template proves invaluable for students. It offers a structured format that can be adapted to individual needs. This adaptability enables students to concentrate on the substance of their analysis. Recognizing that activity when you create a research paper outline can be challenging. However, having all the facts and results empowers you to create essays quickly and effectively. That’s why there is no basic research paper outline. This piece of paper is always unique!

Crucially, the utility of an assignment extends beyond mere structural guidance. It serves as a record-keeping tool, allowing you to track and manage the citations mentioned in your essay meticulously. A well-crafted outline of a research paper becomes an indispensable tool. In the subsequent sections, we will discuss the intricacies of constructing a good research paper outline. It will meet the main criteria and elevate the quality and impact of your academic results.


Key Components of Research Paper Outline

Writing a research paper outline is a pivotal phase in the creative process. It furnishes a guide to navigating the complexities of students’ work. The foundational framework often comprises three main elements: a draft, a list of cited works, and an abstract. The comprehensive plan encompasses various elements crucial for a well-rounded and organized academic document. Title page: This page includes the title, author’s name, educational institution, and publication date. It serves as the first impression, offering an academic snapshot. Abstract: This part shows essential discoveries and their connection to earlier research. A well-crafted abstract is concise, focusing on the primary thoughts described in the study. It provides a brief yet comprehensive overview, enticing readers to delve deeper into the text. First part: Sets the stage with background information leading to the central argument. The opening should engage the reader’s curiosity and offer a background for studying the subject. Body: Encompassing various sections such as methods, materials, discoveries, and your views and suggestions, this segment constitutes the essence of the college paper. Here, you will find an exposition of the investigation methods employed, the gathered discoveries, the obtained results, and a reflective discussion of the new information. Last part: Restates the argument, reaffirming the study’s importance and relevance. It should convey that the research has achieved its mission and summarize key takeaways. References/Bibliography: Lists all cited works, encompassing both directly quoted and paraphrased sources. Obviously, adherence to a specified formatting style (e.g., MLA format research paper outline, APA, Harvard) is crucial. Additional resources: Incorporates additional elements such as tables, charts, figures, and specialized terminology. These additions enhance the presentation of data and help a deeper discussion of the topic.

Research essay outlines can be formal or informal. Formal ones are typically submitted to professors during the early stages of writing. Informal outlines serve as drafts where students jot down their initial ideas.

Clarity and organization are paramount when you set up a research paper. A meticulously organized plan is a foundational tool for guiding the writer through the intricacies of academic inquiry. Besides, it streamlines the process of writing an outline for a research paper, it also makes your assignment emerge as a compelling and great contribution. If you need help, you can always ask for support from research paper writers .

Formatting is crucial to crafting a research paper outline and creates a framework for your thoughts. Here are key considerations for the outline format for the research paper:

  • Roman numerals, letters, and numbers: use Roman numerals (I, II, III) for main sections, capital letters (A, B, C) for subsections, and Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) for further divisions. This tiered structure visually arranges the outline, offering a guide for the reader.
  • Sustaining parallel structure:  guaranteeing grammatical structure and formatting uniformity across the outline, heightening readability and coherence. Thus, it will foster an easier comprehension of the progression of your ideas.
  • Selecting a citation style: select a specific citation style as per the requirements set by the professor. For example, the teacher tells you to use a research paper outline in Chicago style. Common styles include APA, MLA, Chicago, and others. Adhering to a particular style maintains consistency in referencing sources. It contributes to professionalism.

There are several standards you need to consider during formatting. Have you written everything according to the APA research paper outline style? Look at the research paper format numbering. For example, by employing Roman numerals, letters, and numbers, maintaining parallel structure, and adhering to a designated citation style, you not only enhance the visual appeal of your plan but also demonstrate a commitment to precision and scholarly standards. Indeed, constant style is integral to presenting your research cohesively and professionally.

Length and detail

Striking a delicate balance between consciousness and information is critical, particularly when creating an outline for a research paper. Besides, tailoring the level of detail to match assignment requirements is essential too. Some projects call for a comprehensive and detailed outline. They provide a thorough roadmap for the entire research paper. Conversely, other assignments may benefit from a more brief approach.

If you don’t have time and need help with outline specifics, you can always purchase a research paper online from well-versed professionals.

How to Make an Outline for a Research Paper: 4 Essential Tips

Creating an effective plan for a research paper is an unfast process. It requires a focus on detail and adaptability. There is no basic outline for a research paper. Yet, it must be specific. Here are some tips to enhance your outline-writing skills:

  • Frequent Revisions:

Treat your research outline as a dynamic document. Frequently review and revise it as your research advances and your comprehension deepens. This iterative method guarantees that your plan stays in sync with the evolving structure of your research paper .

  • Be Specific:

Add specificity to your topic outline for the research paper. Accordingly, begin a research paper with the main idea. Precisely express the primary concepts in each section, strengthening them with relevant particulars. Thus, understandable subpoints steer your writing process, contributing to the coherence and depth of your research paper.

  • Detail or Conciseness:

Strive for a balance between detail and conciseness. That is why adding sufficient information to guide your writing is crucial. Avoid overwhelming your detailed outline for a research paper with unnecessary information. Consequently, keep it focused on the key elements to maintain clarity and coherence.

  • Be Flexible:

Adapt if discoveries or information arise, and be flexible enough to alter the outline accordingly. Flexibility enables your outline to adjust to the nature of the research journey.

By incorporating this advice into your outline-writing strategy, you can create a dynamic and practical roadmap for your research paper. Moreover, frequent revisions and a balanced approach to detail contribute to developing a great outline, setting the stage for an impactful final paper.

Example of a Research Paper Outline

A research paper outline lists key points and sub-topics you want to cover in your writing. It will help you structure your essay and ensure you cover all the information you need to include.

To put this all into practice, here is a short research paper outline example on psychology:

Topic: The influence of anxiety disorders on an individual’s social skills.

Thesis: Anxiety disorders have become more common among young people, affecting their social skills and personalities. Understanding how to tackle diverse anxiety disorders helps improve the quality of life and avoid serious psychological issues.


One of the most important things to remember when creating an outline for a research paper is that it should be as detailed as possible. It means including all the necessary information, such as any relevant background information, references, and other facts or details.

However, don’t overdo it by making your outline too long or complicated. It should be simple enough to read and understand quickly, especially compared to your paper’s length.

If you still have hesitations or doubts regarding your writing skills, PapersOwl pros will gladly assist with research paper writing help. Get your “A” today by using this article as an example (and maybe inspiration) for future research papers!

How to Make a Research Outline: Final Words

In summary, creating a research paper outline is essential for a streamlined writing process. This guide emphasizes the importance of ongoing edits, subpoint clarity, and conciseness. Here you find an outline example for research papers and some tips. Your research’s progress ensures its continued relevance and usefulness. A well-structured outline serves not only as a roadmap but as a useful tool, facilitating the transformation of ideas into a coherent and impactful research paper. As you embark on this intellectual journey, recognize that the thoughtful construction of your outline is not just a precursor; it’s a dynamic foundation shaping the trajectory of your scholarly contribution.

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APA Research Paper Outline: Examples and Template


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how to make outline in research

How to Do Research: A Step-By-Step Guide: 4b. Outline the Paper

  • Get Started
  • 1a. Select a Topic
  • 1b. Develop Research Questions
  • 1c. Identify Keywords
  • 1d. Find Background Information
  • 1e. Refine a Topic
  • 2a. Search Strategies
  • 2d. Articles
  • 2e. Videos & Images
  • 2f. Databases
  • 2g. Websites
  • 2h. Grey Literature
  • 2i. Open Access Materials
  • 3a. Evaluate Sources
  • 3b. Primary vs. Secondary
  • 3c. Types of Periodicals
  • 4a. Take Notes
  • 4b. Outline the Paper
  • 4c. Incorporate Source Material
  • 5a. Avoid Plagiarism
  • 5b. Zotero & MyBib
  • 5c. MLA Formatting
  • 5d. MLA Citation Examples
  • 5e. APA Formatting
  • 5f. APA Citation Examples
  • 5g. Annotated Bibliographies

Why Outline?

For research papers, a formal outline can help you keep track of large amounts of information.

Sample Outline

Thesis: Federal regulations need to foster laws that will help protect wetlands, restore those that have been destroyed, and take measures to improve the damange from overdevelopment.

I. Nature's ecosystem

   A. Loss of wetlands nationally

   B. Loss of wetlands in Illinois

      1. More flooding and poorer water quality

      2. Lost ability to prevent floods, clean water and store water

II. Dramatic floods

   A, Cost in dollars and lives

      1. 13 deaths between 1988 and 1998

      2. Cost of $39 million per year

   B. Great Midwestern Flood of 1993

      1. Lost wetlands in IL

      2. Devastation in some states

   C. Flood Prevention

      1. Plants and Soils

      2. Floodplain overflow

III. Wetland laws

   A. Inadequately informed legislators

      1. Watersheds

      2. Interconnections in natural water systems

   B. Water purification

IV. Need to save wetlands

   A. New federal definition

   B. Re-education about interconnectedness

      1. Ecology at every grade level

      2. Education for politicians and developers

      3. Choices in schools and people's lives

Example taken from The Bedford Guide for College Writers (9th ed).

How to Create an Outline

To create an outline:

  • Place your thesis statement at the beginning.
  • List the major points that support your thesis. Label them in Roman numerals (I, II, III, etc.).
  • List supporting ideas or arguments for each major point. Label them in capital letters (A, B, C, etc.).
  • If applicable, continue to sub-divide each supporting idea until your outline is fully developed. Label them 1, 2, 3, etc., and then a, b, c, etc.

NOTE: EasyBib has a function that will help you create a clear and effective outline.

How to Structure an Outline

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  • Next: 4c. Incorporate Source Material >>
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How to Write an Outline for a Research Paper

Last Updated: December 18, 2020 References

This article was co-authored by Matthew Snipp, PhD . C. Matthew Snipp is the Burnet C. and Mildred Finley Wohlford Professor of Humanities and Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Stanford University. He is also the Director for the Institute for Research in the Social Science’s Secure Data Center. He has been a Research Fellow at the U.S. Bureau of the Census and a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He has published 3 books and over 70 articles and book chapters on demography, economic development, poverty and unemployment. He is also currently serving on the National Institute of Child Health and Development’s Population Science Subcommittee. He holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin—Madison. There are 7 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 297,741 times.

Writing an outline for a research paper can seem like a time consuming task, and you may not understand the value of it if you have never written one before. Outlines can help you structure your research and your final paper in much more efficient ways, though, so it is a good idea that you learn how to write one. Here are a few things to keep in mind when doing so.

Sample Outlines

how to make outline in research

Outline Type and Structure

Step 1 Choose between a topic outline and sentence outline.

  • Topic outlines are usually used when your research deals with many different issues that can be arranged in different ways.
  • Sentence outlines are usually used if your research focuses on complex issues.
  • Some instructors will insist that you must not combine these two forms. Many others, however, offer one exception to this guideline by allowing the main section headings to be short phrases while the remaining subpoints are written as full sentences.

Step 2 Most outlines use an alpha-numerical structure.

  • The first level is represented by Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, etc.), the second level is represented by capital letters (A, B, C, D, etc.), the third level is represented by numbers (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), and the fourth level is represented by lowercase letters (a, b, c, d, etc.).

Step 3 Note capitalization issues.

  • One school of thought indicates that first level headings should be written in all capital letters while all remaining headings use standard sentence capitalization rules.
  • Another school of thought suggests that the first level headings should only have the first letter of each word capitalized, rather than the entire word. The remaining headings, again, use standard sentence capitalization rules.

Step 4 Keep matters of length in mind.

  • For a four to five page paper, you only need a single page outline.
  • For a 15 to 20 page paper, your outline will usually run no longer than four pages. [2] X Research source

Outline Levels

Step 1 Familiarize yourself with a one-level outline.

  • These headings are labeled with Roman numerals.
  • Note that you would not usually use this outline for a research paper, as it is not very specific or detailed. It can still be a good idea to start with this outline level, however, since you can use it to provide yourself with a general direction for your paper and expand upon it as the information flows in.

Step 2 Move onto a two-level outline.

  • In other words, your Roman numeral and capital letter sections are both present.
  • Each second-level subheading should discuss a primary supporting argument for the main idea it falls under.

Step 3 Progress to a three-level outline.

  • You use Roman numerals, capital letters, and standard numbers for this version.
  • Next to each third-level subsection, you should address the topic of a paragraph that falls under the corresponding second-level section or main idea above it.

Step 4 Use a four-level outline, when necessary.

  • The fourth-level subheadings should address supporting statements, citations, or ideas within each paragraph listed in the third-level sections.

Components of Effective Outlines

Step 1 Use parallelism.

  • This refers most obviously to the usage of "topic" versus "sentence" outline formats, as described in the "structure and type" section of the article.
  • Parallelism also refers to parts of speech and tense. If a heading starts with a verb, then the other headings must also start with a verb. Moreover, that verb must also be in the same tense (usually present tense).

Step 2 Coordinate your information.

  • Your major headings should identify major tasks or ideas.
  • Your subheadings should elaborate on the points addressed in your major headings.

Step 3 Employ effective subordination.

  • For instance, if you were writing about memorable experiences from your childhood, "Memorable Childhood Experiences" would be the heading and the subheadings might look something like, "Vacation at 8 years old," "Favorite birthday party," and "Family trips to the park."

Step 4 Practice division.

  • There is no limit on subheadings, but once you start forming a dozen or so subheadings under a single heading, you might find your outline looking cluttered and messy.

Organizing the Outline

Step 1 Identify the research problem.

  • From this research problem, you will derive your thesis statement. A thesis statement is a single sentence that sums up the entire purpose or argument of your research paper.
  • This thesis statement will usually be written above the outline itself or within the first "Introduction" heading of the outline.
  • Your research problem can also help you figure out a title.

Step 2 Identify your main categories.

  • The main points are details that support or address your research paper. They should be very general in nature.

Step 3 Consider the order.

  • Chronological arrangements generally only work if you have a topic that has some chronological history to it. For example, if you were researching the history of modern medicine, it would make sense that your paper and outline follow a chronological order.
  • If your research topic does not have a history, though, you will probably end up using a spatial structure. For instance, if you are researching the effects of television and video games on the adolescent brain, you probably would not follow the chronology of the research. Instead, you might describe the different contemporary schools of thought on the issue or otherwise follow some other spatial arrangement of ideas.

Step 4 Establish your major headings.

  • Some instructors will insist that you do not use the terms "Introduction" and "Conclusions," however. In these instances, you can usually skip these two sections altogether, but you will need to write your thesis statement separately and above the outline.

Step 5 Know what to include in your Introduction.

  • Note that these elements will usually be listed as subpoints, not as major headings. The major heading for the section will be "Introduction."

Step 6 Understand what the body of your outline will consist of.

  • As with the actual paper itself, this portion of your outline will hold all the significant content.
  • The main headings will correspond to the main categories briefly listed under a subheading of your “Introduction” section.
  • You can include only the main ideas and supporting details of those ideas (a two-level outline, as noted in the “Outline Levels” section of the article) or you could include information about specific paragraphs and supporting details within those paragraphs (three-level and four-level outlines, respectively).

Step 7 Arrange the Conclusions section.

  • Restate and rephrase your thesis.
  • If you drew any additional conclusions based on your research, list them here. Keep in mind that none of this information should be “new,” and all of it should have been addressed elsewhere in the paper.
  • If your research demands a “call to action”—a response that a reader should have in response or an action that should be done in response—include that under this section, as well. This will usually be your final point within the outline.

Expert Q&A

  • A good outline shows you what to address next in your paper, thereby limiting writer's block.
  • Outlines help maintain a coherent, orderly flow of ideas.
  • You can use an outline to check yourself as you write if you suspect that you are straying from the main topic.
  • Having a visual outline can help encourage you as you write your paper since you can tell how much you have left.
  • Outlines help you organize different ideas about the same topic and gain an understanding of how those ideas connect.

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How to Write an Outline for a Research Paper

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Now your research paper is beginning to take shape. The next step is to turn those piles of  notes  you’ve taken into an outline for a research paper. With a good outline, you are better able to write a logical, well-organized paper. You may even start to feeling that your paper can practically write itself!

What is an Outline?

Identifying your thesis, identifying topics and arguments, form of an outline, jotted outline, working outline, rules for outlining.

  • Equal Ranking
  • Parallel Ranking
  • Topic Outline
  • Sentence Outline
  • Paragraph Outline
  • Decimal Outline

How to Choose an Outline Format

How to Write an Outline for a Research Paper

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An outline is an ordered list of the topics covered in a research paper. It is useful to both writer and reader. The writer who writes from an outline is less likely to stray from the point or to commit a structural error—overdeveloping one topic while skimping on another, for example. The reader, in turn, benefits from the outline in the form of a complete and detailed table of contents.

Why Creating an Outline?

Some instructors will require you to submit a formal outline with your research paper. These instructors understand that an outline serves as a preview tool that allows them to grasp your thesis and organization at a glance. It explains the scope and direction of your paper as well. Whether or not you’re required to submit an outline with your final paper, making an outline is a superb way to help you construct and classify your ideas. In addition, an outline serves as a final check that your paper is unified and coherent. It helps you see where you need to revise and edit your writing, too.

Moving From Notes to Outline

The way you organized your note cards gives you a good idea of how to organize your outline. While outlining is not difficult, it can be challenging to get started. The following these 10 steps can make the task easier:

  • First, arrange your notes in a logical order that you can follow as you write. If you’re having difficulty seeing an order, look for clues in the sequence of your ideas. You can make a diagram, such as a flowchart, to help you visualize the best order to use.
  • Jot down major headings.
  • Sort the material to fit under the headings. Revise the headings, order, or both, as necessary.
  • Look for relationships among ideas and group them as subtopics.
  • Try to avoid long lists of subtopics. Consider combining these into related ideas. In nearly all cases, your paper will be better for having linked related ideas.
  • If you can’t decide where to put something, put it in two or more places in the outline. As you write, you can decide which place is the most appropriate.
  • If you’re not sure that an idea fits, write yourself a reminder to see where it belongs after you’ve written your first draft.
  • If an important idea doesn’t fit, write a new outline with a place for it. If it’s important, it belongs in the paper.
  • Accept your outline as a working draft. Revise and edit as you proceed.
  • After you finish your outline, let it sit for a few days. Then look back at it and see what ideas don’t seem to fit, which points need to be expanded, and so on. No matter how carefully you construct your outline, it will inevitably change. Don’t be discouraged by these changes; they are part of the writing process.

The thesis is arguably the most important sentence in the paper, but, at this point, it is still a work in progress. You will change it to focus it and make it stronger when you write your draft. You will change it again as you revise and refine it in the editing process. The purpose of producing a working thesis for an outline is to get you started, to jumpstart your thinking.

This working thesis should be different from the subject, or topic, of your paper. It must do more than simply state “This paper is about …” A good thesis includes the most important information your reader should know. It may identify key themes or state a position, hypothesis, theory, opinion, or point of view that the paper is designed to defend, advocate, or argue. The type of paper you are writing will determine what the thesis should address:

  • A thesis for a summary, such as a book report, should highlight the most important theme, opinion, or point of the reading.
  • A thesis for a narrative, or story, should set the mood, state the theme, or identify the purpose in telling the tale.
  • A thesis for a description or process paper should state the purpose and outcome of the process or experiment that is about to be described and highlight what was surprising or significant about it.
  • A thesis for a persuasive paper should present the opinion or point of view that you want the reader to adopt.

It is always tempting to begin on a note that everyone can agree with, but this is not what you want to do when presenting research. A thesis should always be to the point. Make it as specific as possible and avoid making general statements or obvious observations. Your audience wants a thesis that will show them why they should read the paper. What will they learn? What makes it important? The thesis is usually presented in a single sentence that appears near the end of the introduction, the first paragraph of your paper. The body of the paper, the paragraphs that follow, will present the evidence that “proves” the thesis or, in the case of summaries and descriptions, completes a picture for the reader.

The thesis must also do more than simply restate or summarize the background you were given in the assignment. It should reveal the most important thing you learned from your research. You should avoid referencing yourself in the thesis (using personal pronouns such as I,me, or my). A good thesis is  not just an opinion; it states what you concluded from the research you conducted.

Tips for Writing Successful Thesis Statements

  • The thesis should make a strong point about your topic; it should not simply name a topic.
  • The thesis should express a proposition, opinion, or point of view. It should not simply repeat facts or summarize findings.
  • The thesis should be specific. It should avoid vague or universal statements and avoid absolute or all-inclusive words such as “everyone,”“everything,”“good,” or “successful.”
  • The thesis should show readers why they should care about the subject. It should catch their interest and encourage them to read to the end.

The body of a research paper contains evidence that supports the thesis and shows why it is correct. In a persuasive paper, that evidence often takes the form of “arguments” aimed at convincing a reader to accept the opinion the writer expressed in the thesis. Arguments in a persuasive paper are not like quarrels you have with another person. There is no place for name-calling and personal attacks in a research paper. The arguments must be supported by what you uncovered in your research.

Just as you identified the arguments in other writers’ work when you were doing your research, you must now identify the arguments you will use to support your thesis as you assemble your outline. Just as you looked for logical, emotional, and ethical arguments when you researched others’ work, you must now create them to make your own research paper convincing:

  • Your logical arguments should be presented in a rational order to make the thesis convincing. Logical arguments are usually based on facts, examples, and data that support the outcome that is predicted or advocated by the thesis.
  • Your emotional arguments should appeal to readers’ feelings. Emotional arguments are often based on examples or stories and anecdotes that move readers to support the thesis.They typically use vivid descriptions to help readers personally relate to the thesis.
  • Your ethical arguments should establish the authority of your research by identifying and quoting or paraphrasing experts on the subject.

Outlines are written in a specific form, observing specific rules. The following section shows this format.

Model Outline Template

Thesis statement : Write your thesis statement here.

I. Major topics or paragraphs are indicated by Roman numerals. These are made by using the capitals I,V, or X on your keyboard.

A. Subheads are indicated by capital letters.

1. Details are indicated by numbers, followed by a period.

a. More specific details are indicated with lower-case letters.

b. These are written a, b, c, and so forth.

2. Begin each entry with a capital letter.

B. You can have as many entries as you like, but there must be at least two in each category.

1. You cannot have a I without a II.

2. You cannot have an A without a B.

3. You cannot have a 1 without a 2.

4. You cannot have a lower case a without a lower case b.

II. Entries should be in parallel order.

A. Entries may be word entries.

B. Entries may be phrase entries.

C. Entries may be sentence entries.

Types of Outlines

There are several types of outlines, two of which are discussed below: jotted outlines and working outlines.

A jotted outline is a sketch of an outline, a list of the major points you want to cover. A jotted outline is a useful way to organize your thoughts because you can see what you’re including at a glance. Here’s a model of a jotted outline:

Sample Jotted Outline

Thesis: Since cigarette smoking creates many problems for the general public, it should be outlawed in all public places.

I. Harms health

A. Lung disease

B. Circulatory disease

II. Causes safety problems

A. Destroys property

B. Causes fires

III. Sanitation problems

A. Soils the possessions

B. Causes unpleasant odors

IV. Conclusion

A working outline, in contrast, is more fully fleshed out than a jotted outline. Expanded and divided into topics and subtopics, it helps you create a map as you draft your research paper. An effective working outline has the following parts:

  • Introduction
  • Major topics and subtopics
  • Major transitions

Usually, the entries are written as sentences. Here’s a model of a working outline, expanded from the previous jotted outline. Note that the entries are written as complete sentences.

Sample Working Outline

I. Cigarette smoke harms the health of the public.

A. Cigarette smoke may lead to serious diseases in nonsmokers.

1. It leads to lung disease.

a. It causes cancer.

b. It causes emphysema.

2. It leads to circulatory disease in nonsmokers.

a. It causes strokes.

b. It causes heart disease.

B. Cigarette smoke worsens other less serious health conditions.

1. It aggravates allergies in nonsmokers.

2. It causes pulmonary infections to become chronic.

3. It can lead to chronic headache.

II. Cigarette smoking causes safety problems.

A. Burning ash may destroy property.

B. Burning cigarettes may cause serious fires.

III. Cigarette smoke leads to sanitation problems.

A. Ash and tar soil the possessions of others.

B. Ash and tar cause unpleasant odors and fog the air.

IV. Conclusions

A. Cigarette smoking injures people’s health and so should be banned in all public places.

B. Cigarette smoking damages property and so should be banned in all public places.

The model outline follows certain rules. The following 5 rules can help you write an outline that leads to a well-organized paper:

  • Use Roman numerals to indicate main topics.
  • Use capital letters to indicate subtopics.
  • Use Arabic numbers to indicate details.
  • Include at least two main topics. (Our example has three.)
  • Include least two entries at each level. In other words, have at least two main topics. Under each main topic, include at least two subtopics. And under each subtopic, have at least two details.

Why do these rules matter? They matter because when you draft your research paper, the main topics become paragraphs, and the subtopics become sentences. You need more than one paragraph to make a paper, you need more than one sentence to make a paragraph, and you need more than one detail to support an idea.

In general, a standard high school or college research paper should have no more than four or five main points. This means you shouldn’t have more than four or five Roman numerals in your outline. If you have too many ideas, your paper will either be too long or more likely, vague and overly general.

Conventional Research Paper Outline Format

The conventions of formal outlining require that main ideas be designated by Roman numerals (I, II, III, IV, and so on). Sub-ideas branching off from the main ideas are designated by capital letters (A, B, C, D, and so on). Subdivisions of these sub-ideas are designated by Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, and so on). And minor ideas are designated by lowercase letters (a, b, c, d, and so on). Here is an example of the proper form of an outline:

I. Main idea

A. Sub-idea

B. Sub-idea

1. Division of a sub-idea

2. Division of a sub-idea

a. Minor idea

b. Minor idea

II. Main idea

The presumption behind this arrangement is obvious: You do not merely generalize; you support your contentions and propositions with examples and details. Indeed, that is exactly what you are expected to do—to make assertions that are supported by concrete examples and specific details. If you have not been diligent in gathering specific facts about your topic, this deficiency will now be painfully obvious. Notice that every subdivided category must have at least two sections because it is impossible to divide anything into fewer than two parts. An outline that divides the subject into three or four levels—that is, down to examples or details—generally is adequate for most college research papers. If further subdivisions are necessary, the format is as follows:

The basic principle remains the same: Larger ideas or elements are stacked to the left, with smaller ideas or elements to the right.

Equal Ranking in the Outline

The logic of an outline requires that each entry be based on the same organizing principle as another entry of equal rank. All capital-letter entries consequently must be equivalent in importance and derived from the same organizing principle. Notice the absence of equal ranking in the following example:

I. Rousseau gave the people a new government to work toward.

A. It would be a government based on the general will.

B. The new government would serve the people instead of the people serving the government.

C. The people tore down the Bastille.

Entry C is out of place because it is not of equal rank with entries A and B. A and B are sub-ideas that characterize the new government proposed by Rousseau; C is a statement that describes the revolt of the French people against the old government.

Parallel Ranking in the Outline

The clarity and readability of an outline are improved if its entries are worded in similar grammatical form. Notice the lack of parallelism in the following outline:

I. The uses of the laser in the military

A. For range finding

B. For surveillance

C. To illuminate the enemy’s position

Entries A and B consist of the preposition “for” followed by a noun, whereas entry C is worded as an infinitive phrase. C should be reworded to make it grammatically like entries A and B:

C. For illuminating the enemy’s position

The outline now is easier to read because its entries are parallel.

Research Paper Outline Formats

The three main types of outlines are the topic outline, the sentence outline, and the paragraph outline. Never mix or combine the different formats in a research paper: use one type of outline exclusively.

The Topic Outline Template

The topic outline words each entry as a phrase, breaking down the subject into major subheadings. Topic outlines are particularly useful for outlining relatively simple subjects. Here is a topic outline of the paper on Grigori Rasputin:

Grigori Rasputin’s Other Side

Thesis : After six decades of being judged a demoniacal libertine, Rasputin now deserves to be viewed from another point of view–as a man who was intensely religious, who passionately desired peace, and who was deeply devoted to his family and friends.

I. The ambiguity of the real Rasputin

A. His birth

B. Popular historical view

1. His supporters

2. His detractors

II. Rasputin’s religious feelings

A. His vitality and exuberance

B. His simple peasant faith

III. Rasputin’s desire for peace in Russia

A. His concern for the Russian underdog

1. His loyalty to the peasantry

2. His opposition to anti-Semitism

B. His opposition to all wars

IV. Rasputin’s gentle, compassionate side

A. His kindness to the Romanovs

B. His love for family

Notice that the thesis of the research paper is a separate entry immediately after the title. It is also customary to omit introduction and conclusion entries.

The Sentence Outline Template

The sentence outline uses a complete sentence for each entry. Some instructors allow the entries to be worded as questions, but most prefer declarative sentences. Sentence outlines are especially well suited for complex subjects. Here is a sentence outline of the research paper on Grigori Rasputin:

I. The real Rasputin is difficult to discover.

A. The birth of Rasputin coincided with a shooting star.

B. The popular historical view of Rasputin portrays him as primarily evil.

1. Supporters called him a spiritual leader.

2. Detractors called him a satyr and charged that his depraved faithful were merely in awe of his sexual endowments.

II. Rasputin had intense religious feelings.

A. He was both vital and exuberant.

B. He had a simple peasant faith in God.

III. Rasputin’s passionate desire for peace in Russia revealed itself in several ways.

A. He was concerned for the Russian underdog.

1. He wanted a tsar who would stand up for the peasantry.

2. He spoke out boldly against anti-Semitism.

B. Because of his humanitarian spirit, he was opposed to all wars.

IV. Rasputin had a gentle, compassionate side.

A. He showed great kindness to the Romanovs.

B. Maria Rasputin tells of her father’s love for his family.

The Paragraph Outline Template

The paragraph outline records each entry as a complete paragraph, in effect producing a condensed version of the research paper. This form is useful mainly for long papers whose individual sections can be summarized in whole paragraphs; it is seldom recommended by instructors for ordinary college papers. Here is the Rasputin paper in the form of a paragraph outline:

I. Rasputin himself always attached great significance to the fact that at the time of his birth, a shooting star was seen streaking across the horizon. He considered the phenomenon to be an omen that he was fated to have influence and special powers. The popular historical view of Rasputin paints him primarily as evil. In his day, however, he attracted numerous supporters, who thought of him as their spiritual leader. But he also had many detractors who called him a satyr and accused his followers of sexual depravity.

II. Rasputin had intense religious feelings. He was so filled with vitality and exuberance that he could stay awake until the early hours of the morning, dancing and drinking in frenzied religious fervor. He did not have the theology of a sophisticated church cleric; instead he expressed his religion in the simple terms of a Russian peasant.

III. Rasputin’s passionate desire for peace in Russia revealed itself in several ways. For instance, he was concerned for the Russian underdogs, for the peasants and the Jews, always encouraging the tsar to protect these unfortunate groups. And, his humanitarian and pacifist nature made him a determined opponent of all wars.

IV. Rasputin had a gentle, compassionate side. He was completely devoted to the tsar’s family and was known to have had a calming influence on the hemophiliac son of the tsar. Maria Rasputin gives a glowing report of her father’s kindness and love.

The Decimal Outline Template

Other outline forms use various methods of indenting, labeling, and spacing. One form that has been gaining favor in business and science is the decimal outline. Based on the decimal accounting system, this outline form permits an unlimited number of subdivisions through the simple addition of another decimal place. Here is the body of the Rasputin research paper notated in the decimal outline form:

Thesis: After six decades of being judged a demoniacal libertine, Rasputin now deserves to be viewed from another point of view–as a man who was intensely religious, who passionately desired peace, and who was deeply devoted to his family and friends.

1. The ambiguity of the real Rasputin

1.1. His birth

1.2. Popular historical view

1.2.1. His supporters

1.2.2. His detractors

2. Rasputin’s religious feelings

2.1. His vitality and exuberance

2.2. His simple peasant faith

3. Rasputin’s desire for peace in Russia

3.1. His concern for the Russian underdog

3.1.1. His loyalty to the peasantry

3.1.2. His opposition to anti-Semitism

3.2. His opposition to all wars

4. Rasputin’s gentle, compassionate side

4.1. His kindness to the Romanovs

4.2. His love for family

Notice that the decimal outline form uses the same indentation pattern as other outlines, with larger ideas stacked to the left and smaller ideas to the right.

Which kind of outline should you use? If you are a beginning writer, and if your research has uncovered much detail on your subject, don’t hesitate: Use a detailed sentence outline. Develop it at least down to the third level—the level of Arabic numerals. In doing so, you actually erect a kind of scaffolding for the paper. To write the rough draft, you simply transcribe from the outline, fill in the blanks, insert transitions and connectives—and you have a research paper. The main entries of a sentence outline should be the topic sentences of various paragraphs. Its details should be exactly the kind you intend to use to support the topic sentence.

Not all instructors require a formal outline for a research paper. Indeed, not all writers would benefit from making one. Some writers compose organically and do not like to be hemmed in by a predefined plan. Others like to have a visible scaffolding for their papers. The point is, if your instructor does not require an outline and you do not feel you would benefit from making one, then simply sit down and begin writing the paper. On the other hand, if an outline would help you write a paper but is not required, go ahead and outline to your heart’s content. If given a choice between outlining and not outlining, do what suits you. The idea is to write the best paper you can, not the best outline.

Finally, we don’t want to leave you with the impression that the movement from thesis to outline to final paper is always neat, predictable, and certain. It is anything but. Writing, as we’ve said before, is a messy business. It leaves behind a litter of scrawled-over papers and almost never proceeds in a straight, unbroken line. For example, you could begin by drafting an outline and find to your dismay that the actual paper you write turns out to be considerably different from what you outlined. If that should happen to you, simply change the outline while being comforted by the thought that it has happened at one time or another to every writer. In fact, it is a healthy sign: It shows that once inspired, you were smart enough to write freely, that you weren’t hog-tied by misplaced loyalty to an outline. When it comes to writing, almost nothing occurs in an ideal way, and every paper is accompanied by a good deal of fumbling, false starts, dead ends, and unexpected departures from plans. Expect complications, and your outlook as you tackle your paper will be healthily realistic.

See  research paper outline examples .

Back to How To Write A Research Paper .


how to make outline in research

Trying to devise a structure for your essay can be one of the most difficult parts of the writing process. Making a detailed outline before you begin writing is a good way to make sure your ideas come across in a clear and logical order. A good outline will also save you time in the revision process, reducing the possibility that your ideas will need to be rearranged once you've written them.

The First Steps

Before you can begin outlining, you need to have a sense of what you will argue in the essay. From your analysis and close readings of primary and/or secondary sources you should have notes, ideas, and possible quotes to cite as evidence. Let's say you are writing about the 1999 Republican Primary and you want to prove that each candidate's financial resources were the most important element in the race. At this point, your notes probably lack much coherent order. Most likely, your ideas are still in the order in which they occurred to you; your notes and possible quotes probably still adhere to the chronology of the sources you've examined. Your goal is to rearrange your ideas, notes, and quotes—the raw material of your essay—into an order that best supports your argument, not the arguments you've read in other people's works. To do this, you have to group your notes into categories and then arrange these categories in a logical order.


The first step is to look over each individual piece of information that you've written and assign it to a general category. Ask yourself, "If I were to file this in a database, what would I file it under?" If, using the example of the Republican Primary, you wrote down an observation about John McCain's views on health care, you might list it under the general category of  "Health care policy." As you go through your notes, try to reuse categories whenever possible. Your goal is to reduce your notes to no more than a page of category listings.

Now examine your category headings. Do any seem repetitive? Do any go together? "McCain's expenditure on ads" and "Bush's expenditure on ads," while not exactly repetitive, could easily combine into a more general category like "Candidates' expenditures on ads." Also, keep an eye out for categories that no longer seem to relate to your argument. Individual pieces of information that at first seemed important can begin to appear irrelevant when grouped into a general category.

Now it's time to generalize again. Examine all your categories and look for common themes. Go through each category and ask yourself, "If I were to place this piece of information in a file cabinet, what would I label that cabinet?" Again, try to reuse labels as often as possible: "Health Care," "Foreign Policy," and "Immigration" can all be contained under "Policy Initiatives." Make these larger categories as general as possible so that there are no more than three or four for a 7-10 page paper.

With your notes grouped into generalized categories, the process of ordering them should be easier. To begin, look at your most general categories. With your thesis in mind, try to find a way that the labels might be arranged in a sentence or two that supports your argument. Let's say your thesis is that financial resources played the most important role in the 1999 Republican Primary. Your four most general categories are "Policy Initiatives," "Financial Resources," "Voters' Concerns," and "Voters' Loyalty." You might come up with the following sentence: ÒAlthough McCain's policy initiatives were closest to the voters' concerns, Bush's financial resources won the voters' loyalty.Ó This sentence should reveal the order of your most general categories. You will begin with an examination of McCain's and Bush's views on important issues and compare them to the voters' top concerns. Then you'll look at both candidates' financial resources and show how Bush could win voters' loyalty through effective use of his resources, despite his less popular policy ideas.

With your most general categories in order, you now must order the smaller categories. To do so, arrange each smaller category into a sentence or two that will support the more general sentence you've just devised. Under the category of "Financial Resources," for instance, you might have the smaller categories of "Ad Expenditure," "Campaign Contributions" and "Fundraising." A sentence that supports your general argument might read: "Bush's early emphasis on fundraising led to greater campaign contributions, allowing him to have a greater ad expenditure than McCain."

The final step of the outlining process is to repeat this procedure on the smallest level, with the original notes that you took for your essay. To order what probably was an unwieldy and disorganized set of information at the beginning of this process, you need now only think of a sentence or two to support your general argument. Under the category "Fundraising," for example, you might have quotes about each candidate's estimation of its importance, statistics about the amount of time each candidate spent fundraising, and an idea about how the importance of fundraising never can be overestimated. Sentences to support your general argument might read: "No candidate has ever raised too much money [your idea]. While both McCain and Bush acknowledged the importance of fundraising [your quotes], the numbers clearly point to Bush as the superior fundraiser [your statistics]." The arrangement of your ideas, quotes, and statistics now should come naturally.

Putting It All Together

With these sentences, you have essentially constructed an outline for your essay. The most general ideas, which you organized in your first sentence, constitute the essay's sections. They follow the order in which you placed them in your sentence. The order of the smaller categories within each larger category (determined by your secondary sentences) indicates the order of the paragraphs within each section. Finally, your last set of sentences about your specific notes should show the order of the sentences within each paragraph. An outline for the essay about the 1999 Republican Primary (showing only the sections worked out here) would look something like this:




            A.  Fundraising

                        a.  Original Idea

                        b.  McCain Quote/Bush Quote

                        c.  McCain Statistics/Bush Statistics

            B.  Campaign Contributions

            C.  Ad Expenditure


Copyright 2000, David Kornhaber, for the Writing Center at Harvard University

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Why and How to Create a Useful Outline

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Why create an outline? There are many reasons, but in general, it may be helpful to create an outline when you want to show the hierarchical relationship or logical ordering of information. For research papers, an outline may help you keep track of large amounts of information. For creative writing, an outline may help organize the various plot threads and help keep track of character traits. Many people find that organizing an oral report or presentation in outline form helps them speak more effectively in front of a crowd. Below are the primary reasons for creating an outline.

  • Aids in the process of writing
  • Helps you organize your ideas
  • Presents your material in a logical form
  • Shows the relationships among ideas in your writing
  • Constructs an ordered overview of your writing
  • Defines boundaries and groups

How do I create an outline?

  • Determine the purpose of your paper.
  • Determine the audience you are writing for.
  • Develop the thesis of your paper.
  • Brainstorm : List all the ideas that you want to include in your paper.
  • Organize : Group related ideas together.
  • Order : Arrange material in subsections from general to specific or from abstract to concrete.
  • Label : Create main and sub headings.

Remember: creating an outline before writing your paper will make organizing your thoughts a lot easier. Whether you follow the suggested guidelines is up to you, but making any kind of outline (even just some jotting down some main ideas) will be beneficial to your writing process.

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The creation of an outline is an invaluable tool in the process of writing a research paper. It will give structure to the fledgling paper and allow you to better imagine what you will need to write. Breaking the paper down into small sections also makes the process of writing far less overwhelming.

After choosing an appropriate topic and writing a thesis statement, you will need to brainstorm to get ideas on how to best support your thesis. The length of your paper will determine the level of detail you should pursue in your supporting content. When you have honed the results of your brainstorming down to a suitable number of subtopics, you can arrange them in the order you feel would be most effective in arguing your thesis statement.

1. Introduction

      A. Introductory Statement

      B. Thesis Statement

      A. First Subtopic

        a. supporting evidence

      B. Second Subtopic

      C. Third Subtopic

3.  Conclusion

      A Restatement of Thesis

      B. Compelling Conclusion

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how to make outline in research

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Research Paper Outline Examples

Below are examples of research paper outlines. Creating an outline is the first thing you should do before starting on your research paper.

This article is a part of the guide:

  • Example of a Paper
  • Write a Hypothesis
  • Introduction
  • Example of a Paper 2

Browse Full Outline

  • 1 Write a Research Paper
  • 2 Writing a Paper
  • 3.1 Write an Outline
  • 3.2 Outline Examples
  • 4.1 Thesis Statement
  • 4.2 Write a Hypothesis
  • 5.2 Abstract
  • 5.3 Introduction
  • 5.4 Methods
  • 5.5 Results
  • 5.6 Discussion
  • 5.7 Conclusion
  • 5.8 Bibliography
  • 6.1 Table of Contents
  • 6.2 Acknowledgements
  • 6.3 Appendix
  • 7.1 In Text Citations
  • 7.2 Footnotes
  • 7.3.1 Floating Blocks
  • 7.4 Example of a Paper
  • 7.5 Example of a Paper 2
  • 7.6.1 Citations
  • 7.7.1 Writing Style
  • 7.7.2 Citations
  • 8.1.1 Sham Peer Review
  • 8.1.2 Advantages
  • 8.1.3 Disadvantages
  • 8.2 Publication Bias
  • 8.3.1 Journal Rejection
  • 9.1 Article Writing
  • 9.2 Ideas for Topics

Research Paper Outline Examples

Once you've decided what topic you will be writing about, the next thing you should pay attention to is the scope of your paper or what you will be including in your discussion . The broader your topic is, the more difficult it is to discuss the full details. This is why you should establish early on the scope and limitations of your paper which will provide the foundation for your research paper outline.

Basically, your outline will constitute three main sections: the Introduction, the Body and the Conclusion. But to make sure your paper is complete, consult your instructor for specific parts they wants to be included in your research paper . Sample outlines for research papers will follow. But first, let’s discuss the main sections of your paper and what information each should cover.

how to make outline in research

The introduction should contain your thesis statement or the topic of your research as well as the purpose of your study. You may include here the reason why you chose that particular topic or simply the significance of your research paper's topic. You may also state what type of approach it is that you'll be using in your paper for the entire discussion of your topic. Generally, your Introduction should orient your readers to the major points the rest of the paper will be covering, and how.

how to make outline in research

The body of your paper is where you will be presenting all your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the “Rule of 3” which states that you should find 3 supporting arguments for each position you take. Start with a strong argument, followed by a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument as your final point.

The conclusion is where you form a summary of all your arguments so you can arrive at your final position. Explain and reiterate why you've ended up with the said conclusion.

As mentioned earlier, here are some sample outlines for research papers:

Thesis Topic: A Study on Factors Affecting the Infant Feeding Practices of Mothers in Las Pinas City

  • Statement of the Problem
  • Definition of Terms
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Type of Research
  • Respondents
  • Questionnaire
  • Review of Related Literature
  • Scope and Limitations
  • Significance of the Study
  • Benefits of Breastfeeding
  • WHO Recommendations
  • The International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes
  • The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative
  • The Innocenti Declaration on the Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding
  • National Situationer
  • The Milk Code
  • BFHI in the Philippines
  • Milk Code Violations
  • Formula Feeding
  • Factors Influencing the Decision Regarding Infant Feeding Method
  • Area Situationer
  • Socio-economic Demographic Profile of Mothers
  • Information Regarding Current (Youngest) Infant
  • Exclusive Breastfeeding
  • Mixed Feeding
  • Previous Infant Feeding Practices
  • Maternal Knowledge
  • Correlation Tests
  • Analytical Summary
  • Thesis Reworded
  • Recommendations

Topic: Asbestos Poisoning

  • Definition of Asbestos Poisoning
  • Symptoms of Asbestos Poisoning
  • Effects of Asbestos Poisoning
  • How to Deal with Asbestos Hazards

Topic: Shakespeare Adapted from .

  • Life of Anne Hathaway
  • Reference in Shakespeare's Poems
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • The Tempest
  • Much Ado About Nothing
  • Richard III
  • Other Poems
  • Last Two Plays
  • Concluding Statement

Research Paper Outline Examples

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ഒരു റിസർച്ച് പേപ്പർ എങ്ങനെ എഴുതാം

ഒരു റിസർച്ച് പേപ്പർ എങ്ങനെ എഴുതാം 

  • സ്മോഡിൻ എഡിറ്റോറിയൽ ടീം
  • അപ്ഡേറ്റുചെയ്തു: May 17, 2024

മിക്ക വിദ്യാർത്ഥികളും ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധങ്ങൾ എഴുതുന്നത് വെറുക്കുന്നു. ഈ പ്രക്രിയ പലപ്പോഴും ദൈർഘ്യമേറിയതും മടുപ്പിക്കുന്നതും ചിലപ്പോൾ തീർത്തും വിരസവുമാകാം. എന്നിരുന്നാലും, ഈ അസൈൻമെൻ്റുകൾ ഒരു വിദ്യാർത്ഥിയുടെ അക്കാദമിക് യാത്രയ്ക്ക് അത്യന്താപേക്ഷിതമാണ്. വിഷയത്തിൻ്റെ ആഴം ഉൾക്കൊള്ളുന്നതും വായനക്കാരൻ്റെ താൽപ്പര്യം നിലനിർത്തുന്നതുമായ ഒരു ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധം എങ്ങനെ എഴുതാമെന്ന് പഠിക്കണോ? അങ്ങനെയെങ്കിൽ, ഈ ഗൈഡ് നിങ്ങൾക്കുള്ളതാണ്.

ഗ്രേഡ് നേടുന്നതിന് നിങ്ങളെ സഹായിക്കുന്നതിന് നന്നായി ചിട്ടപ്പെടുത്തിയ ഒരു ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധം എങ്ങനെ കൂട്ടിച്ചേർക്കാമെന്ന് ഇന്ന് ഞങ്ങൾ നിങ്ങളെ കാണിച്ചുതരാം. നിങ്ങളുടെ ഗവേഷണത്തോടുള്ള ചിന്തനീയമായ സമീപനവും ബോധ്യപ്പെടുത്തുന്ന വാദവും ഉപയോഗിച്ച് നിങ്ങൾക്ക് ഏത് വിഷയത്തെയും ശ്രദ്ധേയമായ ഒരു ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധമാക്കി മാറ്റാനാകും.

ഈ ഗൈഡിൽ, പ്രക്രിയയെ അപകീർത്തിപ്പെടുത്താനും നിങ്ങളുടെ വഴിയിൽ നിങ്ങളെ നയിക്കാനും സഹായിക്കുന്ന ലളിതവും എന്നാൽ പ്രായോഗികവുമായ ഏഴ് നുറുങ്ങുകൾ ഞങ്ങൾ നൽകും. AI ടൂളുകൾക്ക് എങ്ങനെ ഗവേഷണവും എഴുത്ത് പ്രക്രിയയും വേഗത്തിലാക്കാൻ കഴിയുമെന്നും ഞങ്ങൾ വിശദീകരിക്കും, അതിനാൽ നിങ്ങൾക്ക് വിമർശനാത്മക ചിന്തയിൽ ശ്രദ്ധ കേന്ദ്രീകരിക്കാനാകും.

ഈ ലേഖനത്തിൻ്റെ അവസാനത്തോടെ, ഈ ലേഖനങ്ങൾ കൈകാര്യം ചെയ്യുന്നതിനുള്ള വ്യക്തമായ റോഡ്മാപ്പ് നിങ്ങൾക്ക് ലഭിക്കും. അവ എങ്ങനെ വേഗത്തിലും കാര്യക്ഷമമായും കൈകാര്യം ചെയ്യാമെന്നും നിങ്ങൾ പഠിക്കും. സമയവും അർപ്പണബോധവും കൊണ്ട്, നിങ്ങൾ ഉടൻ തന്നെ ഗവേഷണ പേപ്പർ റൈറ്റിംഗ് കലയിൽ പ്രാവീണ്യം നേടും.

ആരംഭിക്കാൻ തയ്യാറാണോ?

എന്താണ് ഒരു റിസർച്ച് പേപ്പർ?

നിങ്ങളുടെ സ്വന്തം സ്വതന്ത്ര ഗവേഷണത്തെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കി വിശദമായ വിശകലനമോ വ്യാഖ്യാനമോ വാദമോ നൽകുന്ന ഒരു സമഗ്രമായ ഉപന്യാസമാണ് ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധം. ഉയർന്ന തലത്തിലുള്ള അക്കാദമിക് ക്രമീകരണങ്ങളിൽ, ഇത് ഒരു ലളിതമായ സംഗ്രഹത്തിനപ്പുറം പോകുന്നു, വിഷയത്തെക്കുറിച്ചോ വിഷയങ്ങളെക്കുറിച്ചോ ഉള്ള ആഴത്തിലുള്ള അന്വേഷണം ഉൾപ്പെടുന്നു.

"ഗവേഷണ പേപ്പർ" എന്ന പദം വിവിധ തരത്തിലുള്ള അക്കാദമിക് രചനകളിൽ പ്രയോഗിക്കാൻ കഴിയുന്ന ഒരു വിശാലമായ പദമാണ്. സമപ്രായക്കാരായ പണ്ഡിത സാഹിത്യത്തിൽ നിന്നുള്ള കണ്ടെത്തലുകളുമായി നിങ്ങളുടെ ചിന്തകളെ സംയോജിപ്പിക്കുക എന്നതാണ് ലക്ഷ്യം.

നിങ്ങളുടെ ഉപന്യാസം പൂർത്തിയാകുമ്പോഴേക്കും, നിങ്ങളുടെ വായനക്കാരന് ഒരു പുതിയ വീക്ഷണം അല്ലെങ്കിൽ നിലവിലുള്ള കണ്ടെത്തലുകളെ വെല്ലുവിളിച്ചിരിക്കണം. ഇത് വിഷയത്തിലെ നിങ്ങളുടെ വൈദഗ്ധ്യം പ്രകടമാക്കുകയും, നടന്നുകൊണ്ടിരിക്കുന്ന പണ്ഡിത സംവാദങ്ങൾക്ക് സംഭാവന നൽകുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നു.

ഒരു ഗവേഷണ പേപ്പർ എഴുതുന്നതിനുള്ള 7 നുറുങ്ങുകൾ

പലപ്പോഴും, ഒരു ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധത്തിൻ്റെ ഏറ്റവും വെല്ലുവിളി നിറഞ്ഞ ഭാഗമാണ് ആരംഭിക്കുന്നത്. ഈ പ്രക്രിയ ഭയങ്കരമായി തോന്നുമെങ്കിലും, കൈകാര്യം ചെയ്യാവുന്ന ഘട്ടങ്ങളായി അതിനെ വിഭജിക്കുന്നത് നിയന്ത്രിക്കുന്നത് എളുപ്പമാക്കും. നിങ്ങളുടെ ആശയങ്ങൾ നിങ്ങളുടെ തലയിൽ നിന്നും പേജിലേക്ക് എത്തിക്കുന്നതിനുള്ള ഏഴ് നുറുങ്ങുകൾ ചുവടെയുണ്ട്.

1. നിങ്ങളുടെ അസൈൻമെൻ്റ് മനസ്സിലാക്കുക

ഇത് ലളിതമായി തോന്നാം, പക്ഷേ വിജയകരമായ ഒരു ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധം എഴുതുന്നതിനുള്ള ആദ്യപടി അസൈൻമെൻ്റ് വായിക്കുക എന്നതാണ്. ഇരിക്കുക, നിങ്ങളുടെ സമയത്തിൻ്റെ കുറച്ച് നിമിഷങ്ങൾ എടുത്ത് നിർദ്ദേശങ്ങളിലൂടെ കടന്നുപോകുക, അതുവഴി നിങ്ങളുടെ അസൈൻമെൻ്റ് നിങ്ങൾക്ക് പൂർണ്ണമായി മനസ്സിലാകും.

അസൈൻമെൻ്റിനെ തെറ്റായി വ്യാഖ്യാനിക്കുന്നത് കാര്യമായ സമയം പാഴാക്കാൻ മാത്രമല്ല നിങ്ങളുടെ ഗ്രേഡിനെ ബാധിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യും. നിങ്ങളുടെ അദ്ധ്യാപകനോ പ്രൊഫസറോ എത്ര ക്ഷമാശീലനാണെങ്കിലും അടിസ്ഥാന നിർദ്ദേശങ്ങൾ അവഗണിക്കുന്നത് പലപ്പോഴും ക്ഷമിക്കാനാവില്ല.

നിങ്ങൾ നിർദ്ദേശങ്ങൾ വായിച്ച് ഇപ്പോഴും ആശയക്കുഴപ്പത്തിലാണെങ്കിൽ, നിങ്ങൾ എഴുതാൻ തുടങ്ങുന്നതിനുമുമ്പ് വിശദീകരണം ചോദിക്കുക. ഇത് അസാധ്യമാണെങ്കിൽ, നിങ്ങൾക്ക് അത്തരം ഉപകരണങ്ങൾ ഉപയോഗിക്കാം സ്മോഡിൻറെ AI ചാറ്റ് സഹായിക്കാൻ. നിങ്ങൾ അവഗണിക്കാനിടയുള്ള നിർണായക ആവശ്യകതകൾ ഹൈലൈറ്റ് ചെയ്യാൻ സ്മോഡിൻ സഹായിക്കും.

ഈ പ്രാരംഭ നിക്ഷേപം നിങ്ങളുടെ എല്ലാ ഭാവി ശ്രമങ്ങളും കേന്ദ്രീകൃതവും കാര്യക്ഷമവുമാണെന്ന് ഉറപ്പാക്കുന്നു. ഓർമ്മിക്കുക, യഥാർത്ഥത്തിൽ ഉപന്യാസം എഴുതുന്നത് പോലെ തന്നെ പ്രധാനമാണ് ചിന്തയും, കൂടാതെ അത് സുഗമമായ എഴുത്ത് പ്രക്രിയയ്ക്ക് തിരമാല സൃഷ്ടിക്കാനും കഴിയും.

2. ഗവേഷണ സാമഗ്രികൾ ശേഖരിക്കുക

ഇപ്പോൾ രസകരമായ ഭാഗം വരുന്നു: ഗവേഷണം നടത്തുക. നിങ്ങൾ ഗവേഷണ സാമഗ്രികൾ ശേഖരിക്കുമ്പോൾ, അക്കാദമിക് ജേണലുകൾ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ പിയർ-റിവ്യൂഡ് പേപ്പറുകൾ പോലെയുള്ള വിശ്വസനീയമായ ഉറവിടങ്ങൾ എപ്പോഴും ഉപയോഗിക്കുക. അംഗീകൃത ഉറവിടങ്ങൾക്കും അക്കാദമിക് ഡാറ്റാബേസുകൾക്കുമായി ഫിൽട്ടർ ചെയ്യുന്ന തിരയൽ എഞ്ചിനുകൾ മാത്രം ഉപയോഗിക്കുക, അതുവഴി നിങ്ങളുടെ വിവരങ്ങൾ വിശ്വസനീയമാണെന്ന് ഉറപ്പാക്കാൻ കഴിയും.

നിങ്ങളുടെ സമയം ഒപ്റ്റിമൈസ് ചെയ്യാൻ, നിങ്ങൾ സ്കിമ്മിംഗ് കലയിൽ പ്രാവീണ്യം നേടണം. ഒരു ഉറവിടം പ്രസക്തവും മൂല്യവത്തായതുമാണെന്ന് തോന്നുകയാണെങ്കിൽ, അത് സംരക്ഷിച്ച് പിന്നീട് അവലോകനം ചെയ്യുക. അവസാന പേപ്പറിൽ വരാത്ത മെറ്റീരിയലിൽ സമയം പാഴാക്കുകയാണ് നിങ്ങൾ അവസാനമായി ചെയ്യേണ്ടത്.

പ്രക്രിയ കൂടുതൽ വേഗത്തിലാക്കാൻ, ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നത് പരിഗണിക്കുക സ്മോഡിൻറെ AI സംഗ്രഹം . നിങ്ങളുടെ വിഷയവുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട പ്രധാന വിവരങ്ങൾ ഹൈലൈറ്റ് ചെയ്ത് വലിയ ടെക്‌സ്‌റ്റുകൾ സംഗ്രഹിക്കാൻ ഈ ടൂൾ സഹായിക്കും. എഴുത്ത് പ്രക്രിയയുടെ തുടക്കത്തിൽ ഗവേഷണ സാമഗ്രികൾ ചിട്ടയായി ശേഖരിക്കുകയും ഫയൽ ചെയ്യുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നതിലൂടെ, നിങ്ങളുടെ പ്രബന്ധത്തിന് ശക്തമായ അടിത്തറ ഉണ്ടാക്കുന്നു.

3. നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസ് എഴുതുക

നിങ്ങളുടെ ഗവേഷണ പേപ്പറിലേക്ക് ഘടനയും ശ്രദ്ധയും കൊണ്ടുവരാൻ നിങ്ങൾക്ക് ചെയ്യാൻ കഴിയുന്ന ഏറ്റവും പ്രധാനപ്പെട്ട കാര്യം ഒരു സോളിഡ് തീസിസ് സ്റ്റേറ്റ്മെൻ്റ് സൃഷ്ടിക്കുക എന്നതാണ്. നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസ് നിങ്ങളുടെ വാദത്തിൻ്റെ പ്രധാന പോയിൻ്റ് ഒന്നോ രണ്ടോ ലളിതമായ വാക്യങ്ങളിൽ പ്രകടിപ്പിക്കണം. ഓർക്കുക, നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസ് സൃഷ്ടിക്കുമ്പോൾ, മുഴുവൻ പേപ്പറിനും നിങ്ങൾ ടോണും ദിശയും സജ്ജമാക്കുകയാണ്.

തീർച്ചയായും, നിങ്ങൾക്ക് ഒരു വിജയകരമായ തീസിസ് നേർത്ത വായുവിൽ നിന്ന് പുറത്തെടുക്കാൻ കഴിയില്ല. നിങ്ങളുടെ പ്രാഥമിക ഗവേഷണത്തെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കിയുള്ള സാധ്യതയുള്ള തീസിസ് ആശയങ്ങൾ മസ്തിഷ്കപ്രക്രിയയിലൂടെ ആരംഭിക്കുക. കാര്യങ്ങളെ കുറിച്ച് അമിതമായി ചിന്തിക്കരുത്; ചിലപ്പോൾ, ഏറ്റവും നേരായ ആശയങ്ങൾ പലപ്പോഴും മികച്ചതാണ്.

നിങ്ങളുടെ പേപ്പറിൻ്റെ പരിധിയിൽ കൈകാര്യം ചെയ്യാൻ കഴിയുന്നത്ര പ്രത്യേകമായ ഒരു തീസിസ് നിങ്ങൾ ആഗ്രഹിക്കുന്നു, എന്നാൽ ഒരു അദ്വിതീയ ചർച്ചയ്ക്ക് അനുവദിക്കുന്ന വിധം വിശാലമാണ്. നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസ് നിലവിലുള്ള പ്രതീക്ഷകളെ വെല്ലുവിളിക്കുകയും വിഷയത്തെക്കുറിച്ച് വായനക്കാരന് പുതിയ ഉൾക്കാഴ്ച നൽകുകയും വേണം. പ്രാരംഭ ഖണ്ഡികയിൽ വായനക്കാരനെ ആകർഷിക്കാനും അവസാന വാക്ക് വരെ അവരെ ഇടപഴകാനും നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസ് ഉപയോഗിക്കുക.

4. നിങ്ങളുടെ ഔട്ട്‌ലൈൻ എഴുതുക

ഒരു ഔട്ട്‌ലൈൻ എന്നത് പലപ്പോഴും ശ്രദ്ധിക്കപ്പെടാത്തതും എന്നാൽ നിങ്ങളുടെ ചിന്തകൾ സംഘടിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിനും നിങ്ങളുടെ പേപ്പർ രൂപപ്പെടുത്തുന്നതിനുമുള്ള അത്യാവശ്യമായ ഉപകരണമാണ്. ഇരട്ട ജോലി ചെയ്യുന്നതായി തോന്നുന്നതിനാൽ പല വിദ്യാർത്ഥികളും ഔട്ട്‌ലൈൻ ഒഴിവാക്കുന്നു, എന്നാൽ ശക്തമായ രൂപരേഖ ദീർഘകാലാടിസ്ഥാനത്തിൽ നിങ്ങളുടെ ജോലിയെ സംരക്ഷിക്കും.

നിങ്ങളുടെ രൂപരേഖ എങ്ങനെ ഫലപ്രദമായി രൂപപ്പെടുത്താമെന്നത് ഇതാ.

  • ആമുഖം: നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസ് സ്റ്റേറ്റ്മെൻ്റ് ലിസ്റ്റുചെയ്യുകയും നിങ്ങളുടെ ഉപന്യാസം ഉത്തരം നൽകുന്ന പ്രധാന ചോദ്യങ്ങളുടെ രൂപരേഖ തയ്യാറാക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുക.
  • സാഹിത്യ അവലോകനം: നിങ്ങൾ ചർച്ച ചെയ്യാൻ ഉദ്ദേശിക്കുന്ന പ്രധാന സാഹിത്യത്തിൻ്റെ രൂപരേഖ തയ്യാറാക്കുകയും അത് നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസുമായി എങ്ങനെ ബന്ധപ്പെട്ടിരിക്കുമെന്ന് വിശദീകരിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുക.
  • മെത്തഡോളജി: വിവരങ്ങൾ ശേഖരിക്കുന്നതിനും വിശകലനം ചെയ്യുന്നതിനും നിങ്ങൾ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്ന ഗവേഷണ രീതികൾ വിശദീകരിക്കുക.
  • ചർച്ച: നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസിനായുള്ള ഫലങ്ങളും അവയുടെ പ്രത്യാഘാതങ്ങളും എങ്ങനെ വ്യാഖ്യാനിക്കണമെന്ന് ആസൂത്രണം ചെയ്യുക.
  • തീരുമാനം: നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസ് പൂർണ്ണമായി വ്യക്തമാക്കുന്നതിന് മുകളിലുള്ള ഉള്ളടക്കം സംഗ്രഹിക്കുക.

ഈ പ്രക്രിയ കൂടുതൽ കാര്യക്ഷമമാക്കുന്നതിന്, ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നത് പരിഗണിക്കുക സ്മോഡിൻറെ ഗവേഷണ എഴുത്തുകാരൻ. നിങ്ങൾ നൽകുന്ന പ്രാരംഭ ഇൻപുട്ടിനെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കി നിങ്ങളുടെ ഇഷ്ടത്തിനനുസരിച്ച് ഒരു ഔട്ട്‌ലൈൻ സൃഷ്‌ടിക്കാനും മാറ്റാനും നിങ്ങളെ അനുവദിക്കുന്ന ഒരു സവിശേഷത ഈ ടൂൾ വാഗ്ദാനം ചെയ്യുന്നു. നിങ്ങളുടെ ഗവേഷണ കണ്ടെത്തലുകൾക്ക് അനുയോജ്യമായ രീതിയിൽ ഈ രൂപരേഖ ക്രമീകരിക്കാനും നിങ്ങളുടെ പേപ്പർ നന്നായി ചിട്ടപ്പെടുത്തിയതും ശ്രദ്ധ കേന്ദ്രീകരിക്കുന്നതും ഉറപ്പാക്കുകയും ചെയ്യാം.

5. ഒരു റഫ് ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റ് എഴുതുക

നിങ്ങളുടെ രൂപരേഖ സ്ഥാപിച്ചുകഴിഞ്ഞാൽ, നിങ്ങൾക്ക് എഴുത്ത് പ്രക്രിയ ആരംഭിക്കാം. ഓർക്കുക, നിങ്ങൾ ഒരു പരുക്കൻ ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റ് എഴുതുമ്പോൾ, അത് തികഞ്ഞതായിരിക്കണമെന്നില്ല. പകരം, നിങ്ങളുടെ വാദങ്ങളും തെളിവുകളും പരീക്ഷിക്കാനും പുനഃക്രമീകരിക്കാനും കഴിയുന്ന ഒരു പ്രവർത്തന രേഖയായി ഇത് ഉപയോഗിക്കുക.

നിങ്ങളുടെ പരുക്കൻ ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റ് എഴുതുമ്പോൾ വ്യാകരണം, ശൈലി അല്ലെങ്കിൽ വാക്യഘടന എന്നിവയെക്കുറിച്ച് വളരെയധികം വിഷമിക്കേണ്ട. നിങ്ങളുടെ ആശയങ്ങൾ കടലാസിൽ ഇറക്കി നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസ് ആർഗ്യുമെൻ്റുകൾ ഫ്ലഷ് ചെയ്യുന്നതിൽ ശ്രദ്ധ കേന്ദ്രീകരിക്കുക. നിങ്ങൾക്ക് എല്ലായ്പ്പോഴും അടുത്ത തവണ ഉള്ളടക്കം പരിഷ്കരിക്കാനും പുനഃക്രമീകരിക്കാനും കഴിയും.

നിങ്ങളുടെ രൂപരേഖയുടെ അടിസ്ഥാന ഘടന പിന്തുടരുക, എന്നാൽ നിങ്ങളുടെ ചിന്തകൾ പ്രകടിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിനുള്ള വ്യത്യസ്ത വഴികൾ പര്യവേക്ഷണം ചെയ്യാനുള്ള സ്വാതന്ത്ര്യം. സ്മോഡിൻറെ ഉപന്യാസ ലേഖകൻ അവരുടെ ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റുകൾ ആരംഭിക്കുന്നതിനോ രൂപപ്പെടുത്തുന്നതിനോ ബുദ്ധിമുട്ടുന്നവർക്ക് ശക്തമായ ഒരു പരിഹാരം വാഗ്ദാനം ചെയ്യുന്നു.

നിങ്ങൾ ഔട്ട്‌ലൈൻ അംഗീകരിച്ച ശേഷം, നിങ്ങളുടെ പ്രാരംഭ ഇൻപുട്ടുകളെ അടിസ്ഥാനമാക്കി സ്മോഡിന് ഒരു ഉപന്യാസം സൃഷ്ടിക്കാൻ കഴിയും. സമഗ്രമായ ഒരു ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റ് വേഗത്തിൽ സൃഷ്ടിക്കാൻ ഈ സവിശേഷത നിങ്ങളെ സഹായിക്കും, അത് നിങ്ങൾക്ക് അവലോകനം ചെയ്യാനും പരിഷ്കരിക്കാനും കഴിയും. തിരഞ്ഞെടുക്കേണ്ട ഒന്നിലധികം പരുക്കൻ ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റുകൾ സൃഷ്ടിക്കാൻ നിങ്ങൾക്ക് AI-യുടെ ശക്തി ഉപയോഗിക്കാം.

6. പിന്തുണയ്ക്കുന്ന തെളിവുകൾ ചേർക്കുക അല്ലെങ്കിൽ കുറയ്ക്കുക

നിങ്ങൾക്ക് ഒരു പരുക്കൻ ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റ് ലഭിച്ചുകഴിഞ്ഞാൽ, അവസാന പുനരവലോകനം ആരംഭിക്കുന്നതിന് മുമ്പ്, ഒരു ചെറിയ വൃത്തിയാക്കൽ നടത്തേണ്ട സമയമാണിത്. ഈ ഘട്ടത്തിൽ, നിങ്ങളുടെ എല്ലാ പിന്തുണയ്ക്കുന്ന തെളിവുകളും നിങ്ങൾ അവലോകനം ചെയ്യേണ്ടതുണ്ട്. അനാവശ്യമായി ഒന്നുമില്ലെന്നും നിർണായകമായ വിശദാംശങ്ങളൊന്നും നിങ്ങൾ അവഗണിച്ചിട്ടില്ലെന്നും ഉറപ്പാക്കാൻ നിങ്ങൾ ആഗ്രഹിക്കുന്നു.

പല വിദ്യാർത്ഥികളും ഒരു ഉപന്യാസത്തിന് ആവശ്യമായ പദങ്ങൾ കണക്കാക്കാൻ പാടുപെടുന്നു, കൂടാതെ അനാവശ്യ പ്രസ്താവനകൾ ഉപയോഗിച്ച് അവരുടെ രചനകൾ പാഡുചെയ്യാൻ അവലംബിക്കുന്നു. അനാവശ്യമായ ഉള്ളടക്കം ചേർക്കുന്നതിനുപകരം, ആഴത്തിലുള്ള ഉൾക്കാഴ്ചകൾ നൽകുന്നതിന് നിങ്ങളുടെ വിശകലനം വിപുലീകരിക്കുന്നതിൽ ശ്രദ്ധ കേന്ദ്രീകരിക്കുക.

ഒരു നല്ല ഉപന്യാസം, വിഷയമോ ഫോർമാറ്റോ പരിഗണിക്കാതെ, കാര്യക്ഷമമാക്കേണ്ടതുണ്ട്. ഇത് നിങ്ങളുടെ തീസിസിനെ പിന്തുണയ്ക്കുന്ന വ്യക്തവും ബോധ്യപ്പെടുത്തുന്നതും പ്രസക്തവുമായ വിവരങ്ങൾ നൽകണം. ചില വിവരങ്ങൾ അത് ചെയ്യുന്നില്ലെന്ന് നിങ്ങൾ കണ്ടെത്തുകയാണെങ്കിൽ, നിങ്ങളുടെ ഉറവിടങ്ങൾ മാറ്റുന്നത് പരിഗണിക്കുക.

പണ്ഡിതന്മാരിൽ നിന്നോ മറ്റ് വിദഗ്ധരിൽ നിന്നോ ഉള്ള പഠനങ്ങൾ, ഡാറ്റ, ഉദ്ധരണികൾ എന്നിവ ഉൾപ്പെടെ വിവിധ സ്രോതസ്സുകൾ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തുക. ഓർക്കുക, നിങ്ങൾ നിങ്ങളുടെ വാദത്തെ ശക്തിപ്പെടുത്തുക മാത്രമല്ല, നിങ്ങളുടെ ഗവേഷണത്തിൻ്റെ ആഴം പ്രകടിപ്പിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യുന്നു.

എഴുത്ത് കേന്ദ്രത്തിലേക്ക് പോകാതെയോ പ്രൊഫസറെ ശല്യപ്പെടുത്താതെയോ നിങ്ങളുടെ ഉപന്യാസത്തെക്കുറിച്ച് സമഗ്രമായ ഫീഡ്‌ബാക്ക് വേണമെങ്കിൽ, സ്മോഡിൻ ഉപയോഗിക്കുക. ദി AI ചാറ്റ് നിങ്ങളുടെ ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റ് നോക്കാനും മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്തുന്നതിനുള്ള നിർദ്ദേശങ്ങൾ നൽകാനും കഴിയും.

7. പുനഃപരിശോധിക്കുക, ഉദ്ധരിക്കുക, സമർപ്പിക്കുക

ഒരു ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധം തയ്യാറാക്കുന്നതിൻ്റെ അവസാന ഘട്ടങ്ങളിൽ പുനരവലോകനം, അവലംബം, അന്തിമ അവലോകനം എന്നിവ ഉൾപ്പെടുന്നു. നിങ്ങളുടെ പേപ്പർ മിനുക്കിയതും പ്രൊഫഷണലായി അവതരിപ്പിച്ചതും കോപ്പിയടി രഹിതവുമാണെന്ന് നിങ്ങൾ ഉറപ്പാക്കണം. തീർച്ചയായും, Smodin ൻ്റെ AI ടൂളുകൾ സംയോജിപ്പിക്കുന്നത് ഈ പ്രക്രിയയെ ഗണ്യമായി കാര്യക്ഷമമാക്കുകയും നിങ്ങളുടെ അന്തിമ സമർപ്പണത്തിൻ്റെ ഗുണനിലവാരം വർദ്ധിപ്പിക്കുകയും ചെയ്യും.


Smodin's Rewriter ടൂൾ ഉപയോഗിച്ച് ആരംഭിക്കുക. മൊത്തത്തിലുള്ള വായനാക്ഷമത മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്തുന്നതിന് നിങ്ങളുടെ ഡ്രാഫ്റ്റ് റീഫ്രെയ്‌സ് ചെയ്യാനും പരിഷ്കരിക്കാനും ഈ AI- പവർ ചെയ്യുന്ന ഫീച്ചറിന് കഴിയും. നിങ്ങളുടെ ഉപന്യാസത്തിൻ്റെ ഒരു പ്രത്യേക ഭാഗം "ശബ്ദം ശരിയല്ല" എങ്കിൽ, AI-ക്ക് ഇതര വാക്യഘടനകളും പദ തിരഞ്ഞെടുപ്പുകളും നിർദ്ദേശിക്കാനാകും.

എല്ലാ അക്കാദമിക് പേപ്പറുകൾക്കും ശരിയായ അവലംബം നിർബന്ധമാണ്. നന്ദി, നന്ദി സ്മോഡിൻറെ ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധം ആപ്പ്, ഒരിക്കൽ മടുപ്പിക്കുന്ന ഈ പ്രക്രിയ എന്നത്തേക്കാളും എളുപ്പമാണ്. ആവശ്യമായ സ്റ്റൈൽ ഗൈഡ് (APA, MLA, ചിക്കാഗോ മുതലായവ) അനുസരിച്ച് എല്ലാ ഉറവിടങ്ങളും കൃത്യമായി ഉദ്ധരിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ടെന്ന് AI ഉറപ്പാക്കുന്നു.

കോപ്പിയടി ചെക്കർ:

ആകസ്മികമായ കോപ്പിയടി സംഭവിക്കുമെന്ന് എല്ലാ വിദ്യാർത്ഥികളും തിരിച്ചറിയേണ്ടതുണ്ട്. അതുകൊണ്ടാണ് എ ഉപയോഗിക്കുന്നത് പ്ലഗിയറിസം ചെക്കർ സമർപ്പിക്കുന്നതിന് മുമ്പ് നിങ്ങളുടെ ഉപന്യാസം സ്കാൻ ചെയ്യുന്നത് എല്ലായ്പ്പോഴും ഉപയോഗപ്രദമാണ്. Smodin's Plagiarism Checker-ന് ആശങ്കയുള്ള മേഖലകൾ ഹൈലൈറ്റ് ചെയ്യാൻ കഴിയും, അതിനാൽ നിങ്ങൾക്ക് അതിനനുസരിച്ച് ക്രമീകരിക്കാനാകും.

അന്തിമ സമർപ്പണം

എല്ലാ അവലംബങ്ങളും പുനഃപരിശോധിക്കുന്നതിനും പുനഃക്രമീകരിച്ചതിനും ശേഷം ക്രമത്തിലാണെന്ന് ഉറപ്പുവരുത്തിയ ശേഷം ഉപയോഗിക്കുക സ്മോഡിൻറെ AI കണ്ടന്റ് ഡിറ്റക്ടർ നിങ്ങളുടെ പേപ്പർ അവസാനമായി ഒരു അവലോകനം നൽകാൻ. നിങ്ങളുടെ പേപ്പറിൻ്റെ മൊത്തത്തിലുള്ള ഗുണമേന്മയും വായനാക്ഷമതയും വിശകലനം ചെയ്യാൻ ഈ ടൂൾ നിങ്ങളെ സഹായിക്കും, അതിനാൽ നിങ്ങൾക്ക് അന്തിമമായ മാറ്റങ്ങൾ വരുത്താനോ മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്തലുകൾ ചെയ്യാനോ കഴിയും.

ഗവേഷണ പേപ്പറുകൾ മാസ്റ്ററിംഗ്

നിങ്ങൾ ഹൈസ്‌കൂളിലോ കോളേജിലോ ബിരുദാനന്തര ബിരുദപഠനത്തിലോ ആകട്ടെ, ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധത്തിൻ്റെ കലയിൽ പ്രാവീണ്യം നേടുന്നത് അമിതമായി കണക്കാക്കാനാവില്ല. മുകളിൽ ലിസ്‌റ്റ് ചെയ്‌തിരിക്കുന്ന AI ടൂളുകൾ പ്രയോജനപ്പെടുത്തി സമർപ്പിക്കുന്നതിന് നിങ്ങളുടെ ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധം ആത്മവിശ്വാസത്തോടെ തയ്യാറാക്കാം.

വിമർശനാത്മകമായി ചിന്തിക്കാനും ബോധ്യപ്പെടുത്തുന്ന രീതിയിൽ എഴുതാനുമുള്ള നിങ്ങളുടെ കഴിവുകൾ മെച്ചപ്പെടുത്താൻ ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധങ്ങൾ സഹായിക്കുന്നു. ഇവിടെ നിങ്ങൾ വികസിപ്പിച്ചെടുക്കുന്ന കഴിവുകൾ ക്ലാസ് മുറിയുടെ മതിലുകൾക്കപ്പുറത്തേക്ക് നിങ്ങളെ സഹായിക്കും. സങ്കീർണ്ണമായ ആശയങ്ങൾ വ്യക്തമായും ഫലപ്രദമായും ആശയവിനിമയം നടത്തുന്നത് നിങ്ങൾക്ക് കൈവശം വയ്ക്കാൻ കഴിയുന്ന ഏറ്റവും ശക്തമായ ഉപകരണങ്ങളിലൊന്നാണ്.

പോലുള്ള AI ടൂളുകളുടെ പുരോഗതിക്കൊപ്പം സ്മോഡിൻ , ഒരു ഗവേഷണ പ്രബന്ധം എഴുതുന്നത് മുമ്പത്തേക്കാൾ കൂടുതൽ ആക്സസ് ചെയ്യാവുന്നതായിത്തീരുന്നു. ഈ സാങ്കേതികവിദ്യകൾ നിങ്ങളുടെ ജോലി സംഘടിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിനും എഴുതുന്നതിനും പരിഷ്കരിക്കുന്നതിനുമുള്ള പ്രക്രിയയെ കാര്യക്ഷമമാക്കുന്നു. ആത്മവിശ്വാസത്തോടെ എഴുതുക, നിങ്ങളുടെ മികച്ച സൃഷ്ടി ഇനിയും വരാനിരിക്കുന്നതേയുള്ളൂ!

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Research Writing and Analysis

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  • Step 1: Seek Out Evidence
  • Step 2: Explain
  • Step 3: The Big Picture
  • Step 4: Own It
  • Step 5: Illustrate
  • Annotated Bibliography
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What is an Annotated Bibliography?

An annotated bibliography is a summary and evaluation of a resource. According to Merriam-Webster, a bibliography is “the works or a list of the works referred to in a text or consulted by the author in its production.” Your references (APA) or Works Cited (MLA) can be considered a bibliography. A bibliography follows a documentation style and usually includes bibliographic information (i.e., the author(s), title, publication date, place of publication, publisher, etc.). An annotation refers to explanatory notes or comments on a source.

An annotated bibliography, therefore, typically consists of:

Documentation for each source you have used, following the required documentation style.

For each entry, one to three paragraphs that:

Begins  with a summary ,

Evaluates  the reliability of the information,

Demonstrates  how the information relates to previous and future research.

Entries in an annotated bibliography should be in alphabetical order.

** Please note: This may vary depending on your professor’s requirements.

Why Write an Annotated Bibliography?

Why Write an Annotated Bibliography

Writing an annotated bibliography will help you understand your topics in-depth.

An annotated bibliography is useful for organizing and cataloging resources when developing an argument.

Formatting an Annotated Bibliography

Formatting Annotated Bibliographies

  • Use 1-inch margins all around
  • Indent annotations ½ inch from the left margin.
  • Use double spacing.
  • Entries should be in alphabetical order.

Structure of an Annotated Bibliography

This table provides a high-level outline of the structure of a research article and how each section relates to important information for developing an annotated bibliography.

Annotated Bibliography Sample Outline

Author, S. A. (date of publication). Title of the article.  Title of Periodical, vol.  (issue), page-page.

Write one or two paragraphs that focus on the study and its findings.

  • Two or more sentences that outline the thesis, hypothesis, and population of the study.
  • Two or more sentences that discuss the methodology.
  • Two or more sentences that discuss the study findings.  
  • One or more sentences evaluating the study and its relationship to other studies.

Sample Annotated Bibliographies

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  • 12 May 2024

Is the Internet bad for you? Huge study reveals surprise effect on well-being

  • Carissa Wong

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A woman and a man sit in bed in a dark bedroom, distracted by a laptop computer and a smartphone respectively.

People who had access to the Internet scored higher on measures of life satisfaction in a global survey. Credit: Ute Grabowsky/Photothek via Getty

A global, 16-year study 1 of 2.4 million people has found that Internet use might boost measures of well-being, such as life satisfaction and sense of purpose — challenging the commonly held idea that Internet use has negative effects on people’s welfare.

how to make outline in research

US TikTok ban: how the looming restriction is affecting scientists on the app

“It’s an important piece of the puzzle on digital-media use and mental health,” says psychologist Markus Appel at the University of Würzburg in Germany. “If social media and Internet and mobile-phone use is really such a devastating force in our society, we should see it on this bird’s-eye view [study] — but we don’t.” Such concerns are typically related to behaviours linked to social-media use, such as cyberbullying, social-media addiction and body-image issues. But the best studies have so far shown small negative effects, if any 2 , 3 , of Internet use on well-being, says Appel.

The authors of the latest study, published on 13 May in Technology, Mind and Behaviour , sought to capture a more global picture of the Internet’s effects than did previous research. “While the Internet is global, the study of it is not,” said Andrew Przybylski, a researcher at the University of Oxford, UK, who studies how technology affects well-being, in a press briefing on 9 May. “More than 90% of data sets come from a handful of English-speaking countries” that are mostly in the global north, he said. Previous studies have also focused on young people, he added.

To address this research gap, Pryzbylski and his colleagues analysed data on how Internet access was related to eight measures of well-being from the Gallup World Poll , conducted by analytics company Gallup, based in Washington DC. The data were collected annually from 2006 to 2021 from 1,000 people, aged 15 and above, in 168 countries, through phone or in-person interviews. The researchers controlled for factors that might affect Internet use and welfare, including income level, employment status, education level and health problems.

Like a walk in nature

The team found that, on average, people who had access to the Internet scored 8% higher on measures of life satisfaction, positive experiences and contentment with their social life, compared with people who lacked web access. Online activities can help people to learn new things and make friends, and this could contribute to the beneficial effects, suggests Appel.

The positive effect is similar to the well-being benefit associated with taking a walk in nature, says Przybylski.

However, women aged 15–24 who reported having used the Internet in the past week were, on average, less happy with the place they live, compared with people who didn’t use the web. This could be because people who do not feel welcome in their community spend more time online, said Przybylski. Further studies are needed to determine whether links between Internet use and well-being are causal or merely associations, he added.

The study comes at a time of discussion around the regulation of Internet and social-media use , especially among young people. “The study cannot contribute to the recent debate on whether or not social-media use is harmful, or whether or not smartphones should be banned at schools,” because the study was not designed to answer these questions, says Tobias Dienlin, who studies how social media affects well-being at the University of Vienna. “Different channels and uses of the Internet have vastly different effects on well-being outcomes,” he says.


Vuorre, M. & Przybylski, A. K. Technol. Mind Behav . (2024).

Article   Google Scholar  

Heffer, T. et al. Clin. Psychol. Sci. 7 , 462–470 (2018).

Coyne, S. M., Rogers, A. A., Zurcher, J. D., Stockdale, L. & Booth, M. Comput. Hum. Behav . 104 , 106160 (2020).

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