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How to Write a Good Economics Essay

Last Updated: March 7, 2023 References

This article was co-authored by Emily Listmann, MA . Emily Listmann is a Private Tutor and Life Coach in Santa Cruz, California. In 2018, she founded Mindful & Well, a natural healing and wellness coaching service. She has worked as a Social Studies Teacher, Curriculum Coordinator, and an SAT Prep Teacher. She received her MA in Education from the Stanford Graduate School of Education in 2014. Emily also received her Wellness Coach Certificate from Cornell University and completed the Mindfulness Training by Mindful Schools. This article has been viewed 128,057 times.

A good economics essay requires a clear argument that is well-supported by appropriately referenced evidence. Research your topic thoroughly and then carefully plan out your essay. A good structure is essential, as is sticking closely to the main essay question. Be sure to proofread your essay and try to write in formal and precise prose.

Preparing to Write Your Essay

Step 1 Read the question carefully.

  • For example a question such as “Discuss the macroeconomic consequences of rising house prices, alongside falling interest rates” could be divided into 2 parts: 1 part could be on the effects of rising prices, and 1 on the effects of falling interest rates.
  • In this example you could begin by discussing each separately and then bringing the 2 together and analysing how they influence each other.
  • Be sure to keep the question at the forefront of your mind and don’t veer off topic. [1] X Research source

Step 2 Research the topic thoroughly

  • Be sure that you understand all the key terms that you are being asked about.
  • Try to keep your reading focussed closely to the essay question.
  • Don’t forget to look at any lecture or class notes you have made.
  • 3 Come up with a thesis statement . A thesis statement is the main argument you will make in your essay. It should be 1-2 sentences long and respond to the essential question that’s being asked. The thesis will help you structure the body of your essay, and each point you make should relate back to the thesis.

Step 4 Plan out your content.

  • Once you have put together a list of key points, then try to add in some more detail that brings in elements from your research.
  • When you come to write out your essay, you can develop a paragraph based on each point.

Step 5 Think about your...

  • All of the evidence and explanation will be in the main body of the essay.
  • Order the key points in the body of your essay in such a way that they flow logically.
  • If you are writing a longer essay, you can break the main body into different sections. [2] X Research source
  • If you have a word limit, be sure to take this into account when you are planning.
  • Allocate yourself a rough number of words per section.
  • The introduction and conclusion can be just a paragraph each.

Writing the Essay

Step 1 Write the introduction...

  • What your essay is about.
  • What material you will cover in the essay.
  • What your argument is. [3] X Research source

Step 2 Outline your argument.

  • Having this stated clearly at the start can help you to stay focussed on the question as you work your way through the essay.
  • Try writing out this one or two sentence statement and sticking it up in front of you as you write, so it’s stays at the forefront of your mind.

Step 3 Write the body of the essay.

  • Try to begin each paragraph with a sentence that outlines what the paragraph will cover.
  • Look at the opening sentence of each paragraph and ask yourself if it is addressing the essay question. [5] X Research source

Step 4 Provide evidence for your argument.

  • Try to engage with arguments that run counter to yours, and use the evidence you have found to show the flaws.
  • It might help to imagine someone reading the essay, and anticipating the objections that he might raise.
  • Showing that you have thought about potential problems, and you can make an argument that overcomes them, is a hallmark of an excellent essay. [6] X Research source
  • If there is conflicting evidence, discuss it openly and try to show where the weight of the evidence lies. [7] X Research source
  • Don’t just ignore the evidence that runs counter to your argument.

Step 5 Write the conclusion...

  • In the conclusion you can add a few sentences that show how your essay could be developed and taken further.
  • Here you can assert why the question is important and make some tentative suggestions for further analysis.

Proofreading and Making Revisions

Step 1 Check for divergences away from the question.

  • As you read through it, think about how closely you stick to main overarching question.
  • If you notice paragraphs that drift off into other areas, you need to be tough and cut them out.
  • You have a limited number of words so it’s essential to make every one count by keeping tightly focussed on the main question.

Step 2 Assess the quality and depth of your argument.

  • Think about how you use the evidence too. Do you critically engage with it, or do you merely quote it to support your point?
  • A good analytical essay such discuss evidence critically at all times.
  • Even if the evidence supports your argument, you need to show that you have thought about the value of this particular piece of data.
  • Try to avoid making any assumptions, or writing as if something were beyond dispute. [10] X Research source

Step 3 Check spelling, grammar and style.

  • Remember an academic essay should be written in a formal style, so avoid colloquialisms.
  • Avoid contractions, such as “don’t”, or “won’t”.
  • Try to avoid paragraphs that are more than ten or fifteen lines long.
  • Think about how it looks on the page. [12] X Research source

Step 4 Check your referencing and bibliography.

  • Always include a bibliography, but don’t include references to things you haven’t read or didn’t inform your argument. [13] X Research source
  • Your teacher will know if you just add a load of titles into your bibliography that are not evidenced in the body of your essay.
  • Always follow the bibliography format used by your department or class.

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Community Answer

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  • ↑ http://www.economicshelp.org/help/tips-economic-essays/
  • ↑ http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/planning-and-organizing/organizing
  • ↑ http://carleton.ca/economics/courses/writing-preliminaries/academic-essay-writing/
  • ↑ https://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/archive/lse_writing/page_11.htm
  • ↑ http://homes.chass.utoronto.ca/~mcmillan/writing.pdf
  • ↑ https://www.royalholloway.ac.uk/economics/documents/pdf/essaywriting-departmentofeconomics.pdf

About This Article

Emily Listmann, MA

Before you begin writing your economics essay, make sure to carefully read the prompt so that you have a clear sense of the paper's purpose and scope. Once you have read the prompt, conduct research using your textbook and relevant articles. If you cannot find research materials, ask your instructor for recommendations. After your research is done, construct a 1-2 sentence thesis statement and begin outlining your main ideas so that your essay will have a clear structure. Make sure to leave time to write a draft and revise your work before it is due. If you want to learn more, like how to cite the sources you used for your essay, keep reading the article! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Economics Help

Tips for writing economics essays

Some tips for writing economics essays  Includes how to answer the question, including right diagrams and evaluation – primarily designed for A Level students.

1. Understand the question

Make sure you understand the essential point of the question. If appropriate, you could try and rephrase the question into a simpler version.

For example:

Q. Examine the macroeconomic implications of a significant fall in UK House prices, combined with a simultaneous loosening of Monetary Policy.

In plain English.

  • Discuss the effect of falling house prices on the economy
  • Discuss the effect of falling interest rates (loose monetary policy) on economy

In effect, there are two distinct parts to this question. It is a valid response, to deal with each separately, before considering both together.

It helps to keep reminding yourself of the question as you answer. Sometimes candidates start off well, but towards the end forget what the question was. Bear in mind, failure to answer the question can lead to a very low mark.

2. Write in simple sentences

For clarity of thought, it is usually best for students to write short sentences. The main thing is to avoid combining too many ideas into one sentence. If you write in short sentences, it may sound a little stilted; but it is worth remembering that there are no extra marks for a Shakespearian grasp of English. (at least in Economics Exams)

Look at this response to a question:

Q. What is the impact of higher interest rates?

Higher interest rates increase the cost of borrowing. As a result, those with mortgages will have lower disposable income. Also, consumers have less incentive to borrow and spend on credit cards. Therefore consumption will be lower. This fall in consumption will cause a fall in Aggregate Demand and therefore lead to lower economic growth. A fall in AD will also reduce inflation.


I could have combined 1 or 2 sentences together, but here I wanted to show that short sentences can aid clarity of thought. Nothing is wasted in the above example.

Simple sentences help you to focus on one thing at once, which is another important tip.

3. Answer the question

Quite frequently, when marking economic essays, you see a candidate who has a reasonable knowledge of economics, but unfortunately does not answer the question. Therefore, as a result, they can get zero for a question. It may seem harsh, but if you don’t answer the question, the examiner can’t give any marks.

At the end of each paragraph you can ask yourself; how does this paragraph answer the question? If necessary, you can write a one-sentence summary, which directly answers the question. Don’t wait until the end of the essay to realise you have answered a different question.

Discuss the impact of Euro membership on UK fiscal and monetary policy?

Most students will have revised a question on: “The benefits and costs of the Euro. Therefore, as soon as they see the Euro in the title, they put down all their notes on the benefits and costs of the Euro. However, this question is quite specific; it only wishes to know the impact on fiscal and monetary policy.

The “joke” goes, put 10 economists in a room and you will get 11 different answers. Why? you may ask. The nature of economics is that quite often there is no “right” answer. It is important that we always consider other points of view, and discuss various different, potential outcomes. This is what we mean by evaluation.


  • Depends on the state of the economy – full capacity or recession?
  • Time lags – it may take 18 months for interest rates to have an effect
  • Depends on other variables in the economy . Higher investment could be offset by fall in consumer spending.
  • The significance of factors . A fall in exports to the US is only a small proportion of UK AD. However, a recession in Europe is more significant because 50% of UK exports go to EU.
  • Consider the impact on all macroeconomic objectives . For example, higher interest rates may reduce inflation, but what about economic growth, unemployment, current account and balance of payments?
  • Consider both the supply and demand side . For example, expansionary fiscal policy can help to reduce demand-deficient unemployment, however, it will be ineffective in solving demand-side unemployment (e.g. structural unemployment)

Example question :

The effect of raising interest rates will reduce consumer spending.

  • However , if confidence is high, higher interest rates may not actually discourage consumer spending.


If the economy is close to full capacity a rise in interest rates may reduce inflation but not reduce growth. (AD falls from AD1 to AD2)

  • However , if there is already a slowdown in the economy, rising interest rates may cause a recession. (AD3 to AD3)


1. The impact depends on elasticity of demand


In both diagrams, we place the same tax on the good, causing supply to shift to the left.

  • When demand is price inelastic, the tax causes only a small fall in demand.
  • If demand is price elastic, the tax causes a bigger percentage fall in demand.

2. Time lag

In the short term, demand for petrol is likely to be price inelastic. However, over time, consumers may find alternatives, e.g. they buy electric cars. In the short-term, investment will not increase capacity, but over time, it may help to increase a firms profitability. Time lags.

3. Depends on market structure

If markets are competitive, then we can expect prices to remain low. However, if a firm has monopoly power, then we can expect higher prices.

4. Depends on business objectives

If a firm is seeking to maximise profits, we can expect prices to rise. However, if a firm is seeking to maximise market share, it may seek to cut prices – even if it means less profit.

5. Behavioural economics

In economics, we usually assume individuals are rational and seeking to maximise their utility. However, in the real world, people are subject to bias and may not meet expectations of classical economic theory. For example, the present-bias suggest consumers will give much higher weighting to present levels of happiness and ignore future costs. This may explain over-consumption of demerit goods and under-consumption of merit goods. See: behavioural economics


Exam tips for economics – Comprehensive e-book guide for just £5

8 thoughts on “Tips for writing economics essays”

I really want to know the difference between discussion questions and analysis questions and how to answer them in a correct way to get good credit in Economics

Analysis just involves one sided answers while Discussion questions involve using two points of view

This is a great lesson learnd by me

how can I actually manage my time

The evaluation points in this article are really useful! The thing I struggle with is analysis and application. I have all the knowledge and I have learnt the evaluation points like J-curve analysis and marshall learner condition, but my chains of reasoning are not good enough. I will try the shorter sentences recommended in this article.

What kind of method for costing analysis is most suitable for a craft brewery, in order to analyze the cost of production of different types of beer_

Really useful!Especially for the CIE exam papers

Does anyone know how to evaluate in those advantages/disadvantages essay questions where you would basically analyse the benefits of something and then evaluate? Struggling because wouldn’t the evaluation just be the disadvantages ?? Like how would you evaluate without just stating the disadvantage?

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How to Write a Good Economics Essay

Governor November 28, 2019 Real World Applications 3 Comments

Many students ask “How to write an economics essay?” This Guide to Writing a Good Economics Essay is applicable to both IB economics as well as the Singapore JC A-Level H2 economics examinations. Many of the pointers here are also applicable to large-mark case study questions.

6 Steps to Writing a Good Economics Essay

Step 1: dissect the question.

Make sure you analyse and fully understand the KEYWORDS and REQUIREMENTS of the question. This is a very important skill that is taught in our economics tuition classes .

For example, “Best”, “Most Effective” are closely related but mean different things.

Paraphrase the question to make it simpler if necessary.

Take note of the command word (eg: Explain, Discuss) as it determines the approach needed for the essay, for example, whether two sides are needed or one side is sufficient. Below are some common examples found in economics essay questions:

Command Words                                      Action Required

Account for                                                 Explain why

Analyse                                                        Break it down into step-by-step explanations

Assess                                                          For & Against. Consider other factors.

Compare                                                      Identify Similarities & Differences

Distinguish                                                   Point out differences

Discuss                                                        Explore both sides

Evaluate                                                       The Good and The Bad.

Explain                                                          Show why and how

Explain whether                                            Cover both possibilities

Examine                                                        Look closely. How so and how not so?

To What Extent                                              Yes…..But….Judgment

Remember to look out for the context in the question. This is usually given in the form of a country (eg: Singapore). The examples in your essay must be tailored to this particular context (for example, do not suggest interest rate policy for Singapore as that is considered infeasible in the Singapore context). If no context is given, any real-world example can be used.

Keep in mind the question throughout the essay and remember to always answer the question. Don’t go off-point!

Common Examiner’s Comment :  Not Answering Question (NAQ))

Step 2: Plan Your Answer

Take some time to consider what economic framework you will use to approach the question. Scribble down your main thesis and anti-thesis points. Ensure they ANSWER THE QUESTION.

Step 3: Essay Introduction

In the introduction, include definitions of keywords in the question and spell out the economic framework you will employ for your answer as well as key definitions.

Step 4: Body of Essay

In the body , there will be several paragraphs. 

The number of points/paragraphs depends on the question. It is common to require 2 main points for each 10 mark essay and similarly for 15 mark essay questions. Under each main point, there may be 1-2 sub-points.

Use one paragraph for each sub-point you are making.

However, do not be too focussed on the number of points or paragraphs. The key is to answer the question.

For each body paragraph , use TET’s PEEL(ED) structure. Include only one main idea per paragraph.

  • Point – Write your point in the first sentence so that markers will know what the paragraph will be about. The topic sentence must directly answer the question!
  • Explanation – Explain what you mean
  • Elaboration – Provide further analysis with clear step-by-step economic reasoning. This part may be done with examples as well as diagrams.
  • Link – Link your explanations back to the Point and to answer the question.
  • Exemplification – Give an example to support your reasoning. It can be statistics or real-world examples (for Case Studies, evidences from the Case must be uncovered!)
  • Diagram – Where possible, araw an appropriate diagram with correct labelling and refer to it in your answer. This is crucial to show economic reasoning. Diagrams are very important for economics essays!

These are of course much easier said than done! Thus, students in our economics tuition classes are regularly honed to achieve such output including with tips and tricks to spark off the correct thinking process.

Our resources including the Study Guides for A Level and IB economics also provide a very powerful and handy reference on the depth of analysis required to score the highest marks.

Common Examiner’s Comment :  Mere statements and claims. No economic rigour.

Step 5: In-Body Evaluation

This applies especially to the 15 mark essays for A-Level Economics. A total of 5 marks is catered for Evaluation. Students should attempt to achieve about 2-3 in-body evaluation marks by pointing out how the thesis and anti-thesis points may not be true due to certain assumptions made that may not hold. Students may write “However,….may not necessarily happen……It would depend on whether….”. This statement can be written after the associated sub-point has been made.


This only applies to the 15 mark essay questions.

Earn more evaluation marks by making a reasoned judgement. Deliver your verdict like a Judge! 

Check back on the question before you embark on this. Ensure your judgement answers the question.

So the question now is, how does a judge arrive at and deliver a verdict? Certainly, you should not be summarising or merely paraphrasing your main points in the conclusion. Obviously, you cannot expect more marks by saying the same thing over and over again!

After a verdict and reasons have been provided, consider providing further relevant insights and/or recommendations.

Common Examiner’s Comment :  Repetitive. Mere Summary.

Here are some quite common types of Concluding Sections 

  • Consider the relative importance of thesis and anti-thesis factors. Which factors are most important or pertinent in the given context? For example, certain policies better fit specifc types of economies.
  • Consider short-term vs long-term pros and cons. Do the short-term benefits outweigh the long-term costs? Is the policy more effective in the long-term, and if so, how pressing is the problem that needs to be addressed?
  • Suggest a multi-policy approach, in which each policy has strengths and weaknesses that allow them to complement each other.

There is no way to really memorise evaluation points as every question and context is different. After all, you are being tested on higher-order thinking!

There are other evaluation tips that our students will receive but the key point here is that the training of the mind to think and apply economics is essential. That is where our weekly economics lessons come into play and that is why our students are often asked questions in class and trained to think on their feet. As ex-student Xue Min from YIJC testified, Chief Tutor Mr. Kelvin Hong does not just spoon-feeds our students but mentors them in their thinking to arrive at the answers. This was different from other tutors that her classmates experienced and eventually this was the key to Xue Min’s A grade.

In your essay, write in simple and clear sentences. Everything you write should be value-adding. You do not have to spend time showing off vocabulary as no extra points are awarded for language. Focus on economic reasoning. Use succinct and effective examples which support the point you are trying to make as well as accurate diagrammatic analyses.

For samples of great economics essays, please check out our free Economics Model Essays and sample Past JC A-Level Economics Questions and Answers .

For our econs publications that are sold worldwide, please check out our A Level & IB Economics Study Guides and Model Essays Publications

About The Economics Tutor

Founded by Kelvin Hong in 1998, The Economics Tutor is one of the leading economics tuition in Singapore. We provide a comprehensive program to guide students in understanding complex economic concepts and applying them through case study analyses, essay writing and discussion of real world events.

For 24 years, the way we teach JC Economics Tuition (A Level Economics Tuition) and IB Economics Tuition classes helped learners appreciate economics and everything it entails on a much larger scale. We take things step-by-step, implement effective techniques in memorising frameworks and give every student the chance to nurture their ideas. 

We don’t just solely focus on helping you get stellar grades and perfect scores. We make sure that we also hone the critical thinking skills and investment / business decisions you can use outside the four walls of your classroom.

Looking for a fun, engaging and probably the best economics tutor in Singapore? Look no further—check out our extensive and high quality economics resources on the website such as our IB and A Level Economics Publication. Click here to order .

Book your lesson today and master the nuances of economics in our next class!

its good knowledgeable post regarding ib economics commentaries. i just wanted to admin can i use your blog as reference to my students .

Go ahead. We are all for helping students learn economics well.

Thank you, A lot of info!

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How to Write an Economics Paper: A Step-by-Step Guide

how to write an essay for economics

Economics is often called “the dismal science,” and most students would agree that it never lives up to that moniker more than when they are writing an economics paper for a college, university, or MBA course. Economics essays can be challenging because they combine scientific accuracy and mathematical reasoning with the interpretive and theoretical approaches of the humanities, making them one of the most difficult types of essays to write. However, economics papers don’t have to create anxiety if you know the right way to approach an economics paper.

In this article, we’ll take a look at the right way to write an economics paper by examining the process from start to finish and offering some tips about the best way to approach each of the steps in writing an economics essay.

So, where should you begin to write an economics paper?

Read the Assignment

This might seem like a no-brainer, but the first step in writing any essay is to read the assignment and make sure that you understand exactly what the question is asking. Be sure that you are clear on each of the requirements of the assignment, and that means that you need to carefully review the question and find each of the pieces that require a response in the essay. Beyond this, you should consider whether any of the requirements are unclear. If there is anything you don’t understand, be sure to seek clarification before you start writing.

Develop a Research Question

Based on the assignment, try to develop one or two guiding questions that will help to direct your research when you start to create the assignment. What do you want to know more about? What would you need to know to address the assignment? Having sharp research questions will help to direct your research and point you in the right direction as you gather resources.

Gather Research Before You Write

Many students take the approach that the fastest way to write a paper is to start writing and grab research to support their points as they move through. However, this is an inefficient way to write. The most effective way to write an essay is to gather your research before you begin the writing process. By researching the question and evaluating resources early on, you will be in a better position to create a strong thesis statement and develop a powerful paper that will help you to address the assignment completely. One effective technique is to read each research source, pull out key quotes you might use in your paper, and produce a reference list entry for each source before you start writing. That way, you can pull from your bank of research without having to stop and research new material as you write.

Develop a Thesis Statement

Based on the research that you’ve done, you should develop a thesis statement explaining your unique perspective on the assignment and what you will demonstrate or prove during the course of the paper. A strong thesis statement is specific and sharp rather than vague and general. Your thesis should be original and not merely repeating something someone else has already done in a prior economics paper.

Outline Your Economics Paper

Many students skip this step because they think that it is a waste of time that they could be spending writing, but outlining can actually be a time-saver in the long run. Using your thesis statement, you should develop an outline that develops each part of the thesis into a paragraph or section of your outline. Each section of your outline should have supporting details, including resources, quotes, and evidence, that you will use to assemble your paper. The more detail that you put together in your outline, the easier it will be to write the final paper.

Write the Paper, Saving the Intro for Last

Your outline should make it easy to develop your paper. All you need to do at this point is to take the outline that you wrote, flesh it out by turning its points into complete sentences, drop in quotations and supporting information (with citations), and connect the dots with transitions. When you write the final paper, you should save the introduction for last. That way, you will be able to use the conclusion that you come to at the end of the paper to craft an introduction that will set up the paper. If you try doing the introduction first, you might feel tempted to tailor your conclusion to keep the introduction intact. This way, if your conclusion changes as you write, you won’t lose time or text.

Get Economics Essay Help If Needed

Writing economics papers can be hard, but these tips should make it easier. However, if you find yourself in need of additional help, it can be helpful to pay someone for writing help. When you hire an expert from an online service like WriteMyPaperHub.com , you can receive the kind of benefits that you can’t get anywhere else, including customized and personalized research and writing assistance from an expert writer with an advanced degree and years of experience producing papers for students just like you. Whether you need writing help because you are pressed for time or don’t know where to start, professional help can be the solution to help you solve your hardest essay challenges and to help you make the grade on your next economics paper.



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Economics Essay Examples

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Ace Your Essay With Our Economics Essay Examples

Published on: Jun 6, 2023

Last updated on: Jan 31, 2024

economics essay examples

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Are you struggling to understand economics essays and how to write your own?

It can be challenging to grasp the complexities of economic concepts without practical examples.

But don’t worry! 

We’ve got the solution you've been looking for. Explore quality examples that bridge the gap between theory and real-world applications. In addition, get insightful tips for writing economics essays.

So, if you're a student aiming for academic success, this blog is your go-to resource for mastering economics essays.

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What is an Economics Essay?

An economics essay is a written piece that explores economic theories, concepts, and their real-world applications. It involves analyzing economic issues, presenting arguments, and providing evidence to support ideas. 

The goal of an economics essay is to demonstrate an understanding of economic principles and the ability to critically evaluate economic topics.

Why Write an Economics Essay?

Writing an economics essay serves multiple purposes:

  • Demonstrate Understanding: Showcasing your comprehension of economic concepts and their practical applications.
  • Develop Critical Thinking: Cultivating analytical skills to evaluate economic issues from different perspectives.
  • Apply Theory to Real-World Contexts: Bridging the gap between economic theory and real-life scenarios.
  • Enhance Research and Analysis Skills: Improving abilities to gather and interpret economic data.
  • Prepare for Academic and Professional Pursuits: Building a foundation for success in future economics-related endeavors.

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If you’re wondering, ‘how do I write an economics essay?’, consulting an example essay might be a good option for you. Here are some economics essay examples:

Short Essay About Economics

A Level Economics Essay Examples

Here is an essay on economics a level structure:

Band 6 Economics Essay Examples

Here are some downloadable economics essays:

Economics essay pdf

Economics essay introduction

Economics Extended Essay Examples

In an economics extended essay, students have the opportunity to delve into a specific economic topic of interest. They are required to conduct an in-depth analysis of this topic and compile a lengthy essay. 

Here are some potential economics extended essay question examples:

  • How does foreign direct investment impact economic growth in developing countries?
  • What are the factors influencing consumer behavior and their effects on market demand for sustainable products?
  • To what extent does government intervention in the form of minimum wage policies affect employment levels and income inequality?
  • What are the economic consequences of implementing a carbon tax to combat climate change?
  • How does globalization influence income distribution and the wage gap in developed economies?

IB Economics Extended Essay Examples 

IB Economics Extended Essay Examples

Economics Extended Essay Topic Examples

Extended Essay Research Question Examples Economics

Tips for Writing an Economics Essay

Writing an economics essay requires specific expertise and skills. So, it's important to have some tips up your sleeve to make sure your essay is of high quality:

  • Start with a Clear Thesis Statement: It defines your essay's focus and argument. This statement should be concise, to the point, and present the crux of your essay.
  • Conduct Research and Gather Data: Collect facts and figures from reliable sources such as academic journals, government reports, and reputable news outlets. Use this data to support your arguments and analysis and compile a literature review.
  • Use Economic Theories and Models: These help you to support your arguments and provide a framework for your analysis. Make sure to clearly explain these theories and models so that the reader can follow your reasoning.
  • Analyze the Micro and Macro Aspects: Consider all angles of the topic. This means examining how the issue affects individuals, businesses, and the economy as a whole.
  • Use Real-World Examples: Practical examples and case studies help to illustrate your points. This can make your arguments more relatable and understandable.
  • Consider the Policy Implications: Take into account the impacts of your analysis. What are the potential solutions to the problem you're examining? How might different policies affect the outcomes you're discussing?
  • Use Graphs and Charts: These help to illustrate your data and analysis. These visual aids can help make your arguments more compelling and easier to understand.
  • Proofread and Edit: Make sure to proofread your essay carefully for grammar and spelling errors. In economics, precision and accuracy are essential, so errors can undermine the credibility of your analysis.

These tips can help make your essay writing journey a breeze. Tailor them to your topic to make sure you end with a well-researched and accurate economics essay.

To wrap it up , writing an economics essay requires a combination of solid research, analytical thinking, and effective communication. 

You can craft a compelling piece of work by taking our examples as a guide and following the tips.

However, if you are still questioning "how do I write an economics essay?", it's time to get professional help from the best essay writing service -  CollegeEssay.org.

Our economics essay writing service is always ready to help students like you. Our experienced economics essay writers are dedicated to delivering high-quality, custom-written essays that are 100% plagiarism free.

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Barbara is a highly educated and qualified author with a Ph.D. in public health from an Ivy League university. She has spent a significant amount of time working in the medical field, conducting a thorough study on a variety of health issues. Her work has been published in several major publications.

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how to write an essay for economics

How to write economics essays

All Economics exam papers at A-Level will have a 25-mark essay-style question, which requires evaluation .

There are different approaches that can be taken in dealing with essay questions, and there is not one essay writing 'template' or 'wizard' that can deal will all questions. However, a commonly used method is to use the first half of your essay to complete the analysis and the second half to evaluate - this is an easy approach to master, and can be used to answer most microeconomic and macroeconomic essays. More on this later.

What the mark scheme tells us

The mark-scheme for a 25-mark question is typically based on the ' levels ' method, with marks allocated in the following way:

4 marks for correctly demonstrating knowledge and understanding of economic concepts and models

4 marks for applying your knowledge and understanding to the 'context' put before you - this case a chocolate manufacturer

8 marks for providing an analysis of the decision (in this case, to raise price) - i.e. what are the expected effects, consequences and results

9 marks for evaluating a decision (question, issue, policy, or problem) based on your judgment , with reference to the problems or risks associated with the decision (policy, problem etc.)

Points to note

  • Exam boards often state that, in a 25-mark question, definitions are not specifically required , but it is good practice to define key economic terms that are specific to economics, and to the question.
  • Application does not happen in one section of your answer, but should run throughout your answer . In other words, answers that are purely theoretical and detached from the context will not earn high marks.
  • For analysis and evaluation, developing a chain of reasoning is essential - ( read more on chains of reasoning ) you have to show exactly how you arrived at a point, judgment or conclusion. A carefully chosen, well draw, accurately explained and fully integrated diagram is essential for effective analysis. This is only possible if you start out by making your assumptions clear.
  • For evaluation, it is essential that you provide an alternative approach , (alternative decision, policy etc.) and that your conclusion is not just a summary but a 'weighted' judgment .
  • While you only have 30 minutes to write, it is essential you plan your route through your answer - 4-5 minutes planning is worth its weight in gold!

So, lets have a look at a couple of ways to deal with a 25-mark question. Both have similar openings and conclusions, but start out with different assumptions.

' Evaluate the decision by a chocolate manufacturer to raise the price of its 'luxury' box of chocolates .'

There are several factors a chocolate manufacturer will take into account when making a decision about its price. Factors affecting this decision depend on the market structure it operates in, the level of competition it faces, its size and ownership structure. These will affect its main business objective, which in turn will affect its decision regarding price and non-price factors.

We will assume that the chocolate manufacturer's objective is to maximise profits and that it is a price maker and facing a downward sloping demand curve. This means that it is not operating in a highly competitive market, and can raise price without suffering a complete collapse in sales. Profit maximisation arises at the output where MC=MR, which in the diagram is quantity Q. At profit maximisation, the area of supernormal profits (SNP) is area p a b c.

At this quantity, marginal revenue equals marginal cost, which means that any change in price or quantity produced will move it away from profit maximisation. For example, if the chocolate manufacturer increases price to P1, demand will contract along the demand (AR) curve, from 'a' to 'v', resulting in equilibrium quantity falling to Q1. At Q1, MR is greater than MC, which means there is an opportunity cost because the firm could reduce price and produce more, which would lead to an increase its supernormal profits.  So, reducung price and producing extra marginal units of output will add to SNP until MC=MR is reached. Hence, in terms of achieving its profit maximising objective, an increase in price above 'P' is clearly counter-productive. This is supported by the probability that demand for 'luxury' chocolates is price elastic, and the producer is operating in the elastic range of the AR curve. As a result, any increase in price will reduce total revenue, and also reduce SNP, which falls to area P1 v w x.

However, there are issues with this analysis. Are the assumptions about the chocolate producer and its market valid? Is the chocolate producer targeting profits, or attempting to achieve a different objective? Will  there be negative, and even unexpected consequences of the price rise?

The assumptions regarding the market structure certainly might not hold - in a less competitive market, with fewer firms, the price rise may have a much smaller effect because consumers have less choice. Demand may be more inelastic than predicted, especially if there is loyalty to the brand of chocolate - even though it is a luxury product.

Also, the chocolate producer may have previously been a revenue or sales maximiser and may have decided to change its strategy from revenue or sales maximising to profit maximising. As a revenue or sales maximiser price will be set at a lower level, to stimulate sales or gain more revenue. Management salaries or bonuses may be connected with sales, hence a low price will help the firm achieve this objective. The price increase will move it towards profit maximisation rather than away from it, and help it achieve its new objective. Alternatively, the producer may be a 'profit satisficer' looking to increase its profits but not maximising them. In any of these cases, the price rise might be a rational decision.

It is not known whether rivals will keep their prices on hold, reduce them or raise them to match the firm's price increase. If the firm has a few close competitors, then these firms may be interdependent, meaning it may be more beneficial to keep prices on hold to reduce uncertainty.

Furthermore, the price rise could encourage unwanted new entrants, attracted by the opportunity presented. Raising price could also send a signal to existing producers to launch their own 'luxury' version of the product.

Of course, there may be alternative decisions to consider to help it achieve its objectives, such as changing its non-price activities. So, the price rise could be justified if an effective marketing campaign could help increase demand (AR) and, diagrammatically, shift the AR (and MR) curve to the right, as shown.

In this case, profits are maintained, or even increased, as shown, with lower supernormal profits at area P1 k r m.

Taking a wider view, price rises reduce consumer surplus, and if personal incomes remain constant, consumer will have less income to spend on other goods and services, and the price rise will cause a negative income effect. Of course, a rise in the price of chocolate would not have the same effect as a rise in interest rates or house prices, so the income effect is very small.

In conclusion, the decision to raise prices cannot be judged without understanding the nature of the market, the level of competition and the firm's current objectives, and compared with alternatives. There is also the wider economic context to consider, such as whether the economy is in a recession, with pressure on disposable income, or whether the economy is growing, with consumers feeling confident. There are clearly risks associated with an increase in price, and it might be less risky not to raise price, and put more effort into non-price strategies. However, if the assumptions that the firm is already a profit maximiser, that there are no other changes to its non-price activity, and that the behaviour of other chocolate producers does not change, then a price rise seems unjustifiable as it would fail to achieve its dominant objective - to maximise profits - and raising price would, in this case, be an irrational decision.

Answer two - the alternative answer

We will assume that the chocolate manufacturer's objective is to maximise profits and that it is a price maker and facing a downward sloping demand curve.  We will also assume that it currently is not profit maximising, but producing at an output greater than profit maximisation, at output Q, and a lower price, at P in the following diagram. Profit maximisation arises at the output where MC=MR, which in the diagram is quantity Q1, and price P1.

At the quantity Q, while marginal revenue is negative at 'f' and below marginal cost at 's',  the chocolate manufacturer still makes a supernormal profit, shown as the area SNP (area Pvwx). Also, at the current price of P, price elasticity of demand is inelastic because, in the diagram quantity demanded, Q at price P is to the right of the mid-point of the demand (AR) curve. Given that, at the mid-point, PED equals (-) 1.0, which is where MR=0, at its current output, PED must be inelastic.

Given these assumptions, a decision to increase price above P will help the manufacturer achieve profit maximisation. Because the firm operates in the inelastic portion of its demand (AR) curve, the planned price rise reduces the quantity demanded, to Q1, but increases total revenue - at least up to the output where MR=0. The reduction in output that follows means that the variable costs of production fall, which means that marginal costs fall (from 's' to 't'), while at the same time marginal revenue increases from 'f' to 't'. Assuming profit maximisation is still the dominant objective, the price rise is clearly beneficial, as it leads to increased profits (area P1a b c) resulting from the lower marginal cost and the higher marginal revenue.

However, there issues with this analysis. Firstly, are the assumptions about the chocolate producer valid, secondly, is the chocolate producer wishing to increase profits, and thirdly, will there be any negative, and even unexpected consequences of the price rise?

The assumptions regarding the market structure certainly might not hold - the market could be much more competitive, and approach perfect competition. This would result in a very different outcome for the producer, especially in terms of a price elasticity of demand, which rises with increased competition. In a more competitive market, there are more choices for the consumer, and any price rise by one firm may result in falling revenue. Demand may be more elastic than predicted, especially because the price rise is for the 'luxury' version of the box of chocolates, where demand is likely to be more elastic.

Also, the chocolate producer may not be a profit maximiser, but may instead be a revenue or sales maximiser, in which case the price rise could move it away from maximising sales or revenue points. If the firm is a large producer where there is a separation of ownership and control, it is more likely that other 'managerial' objectives dominate decision making. If, for example, the firm is looking to maximise sales volume, perhaps because management salaries or bonuses are connected with sales, then a price rise would not be beneficial.

It is not known whether rivals will keep their prices on hold, reduce them or raise them to match the firm's price increase. If the firm has a few close competitors, then the fact that these firms may be interdependent means that it may be more beneficial to keep prices on hold and reduce uncertainty.

Of course, there may be alternative decisions to consider to help it achieve its objectives, such as changing its non-price policy. So, if there is also a successful marketing campaign designed to increase sales, or build a brand, price increases could be postponed until the brand is well established.

In conclusion, the decision to raise prices cannot be judged without understanding the nature of the market and competition and the firm's current objectives, and compared with alternatives. There is also the wider economic context to consider, such as whether the economy is in a recession, with pressure on disposable income, or whether the economy is growing, with consumers feeling confident. There are clearly risks associated with an increase in price, and it might be less risky not to raise price, and put more effort into non-price strategies. However, if all the assumptions listed above are fully met, then a price rise seems justifiable in that the firm can achieve its dominant objective - to maximise profits.

These are two answers which use a similar structure, and common introduction and conclusion - but start with different assumptions, and therefore have a different analysis, and evaluation.

There are other several possible approaches to this question, and other evaluative points that could have been included. For example, there could have been more emphasis on what rivals might do, and there could be more robust questioning about exactly how much the price is being increased by, and whether this is just a temporary strategy. The essay could also have raised the question of the possible external effects arising from less output and consumption (namely fewer negative consumption and production externalities). However, with the time constraint in the examination room, it is not possible to cover every 'blade of grass' and some good points may have to be sacrificed.

Finally, the 'starting point' and assumptions could have been different, which would have led to a different analysis.

Conclusion and key takeaways

Having a structure to help you tackle an essay-style question is very important.

Both essays use the same four-part structure :

  • Part 1, the analysis - making assumptions, and using the correct diagram to show how a decision or policy will work to achieve an objective.
  • Part 2, the evaluation begins with ' the bridge ' of the essay - assumptions are questioned and probably changed.
  • Part 3 the full evaluation , where an alternative or alternatives are explained based on the change of assumptions.
  • Part 4, the conclusion , where the evidence or strength of argument is assessed, and the decision, policy or assertion is 'accepted in full', 'accepted in part' or 'rejected' in favour of the alternative(s).

Finally, it is clear how important diagrams are in analysis and evaluation, and helping develop a logical chain of reasoning - so ensure that you have undertaken enough practice in constructing, applying and integrating diagrams to a wide range of past questions.

Other tips:

How to study economics

How to write the perfect conclusion

How to answer data response questions

How to include chains of reasoning

how to write an essay for economics

A State-Ranker’s Guide to Writing 20/20 Economics Essays

So, you want to know how to improve your preliminary and HSC economics essay...

Cory Aitchison

Cory Aitchison

State Ranker & 99.95 ATAR

1. Introduction to this Guide

So, you want to know how to improve your preliminary and HSC economics essay writing? Look no further! In this guide, I’ll be covering key tips to help YOU smash the structure, amaze with your analysis, conquer the contemporary, and ultimately master the mystery of maximising your marks.

My name is Cory Aitchison, currently one of the Economics tutors at Project Academy . I completed the HSC in 2018, achieving a 99.95 ATAR as well as two state ranks — 6th in economics and 12th in chemistry. Graduating from Knox Grammar School, I also topped my grade in economics and was awarded Dux of the School for STEM. Believe it or not, at the beginning of Year 11 I initially struggled with economics due to the transition in conceptual thinking required in approaching economic assessments in comparison to my other subjects such as English. However, through Year 11 and Year 12, I built up key tips and strategies — that I’ll be sharing with you in this guide — to help me not only consistently achieve top marks in my internal assessments, but to ultimately go on to achieve the results I did in the HSC.

2. The Correct Way to Write

First off, you need to understand something: HSC economics essays are NOT english essays! They aren’t scientific discussions, nor geography reports, nor historical recounts. They’re unique and often quite different from other essays that you might’ve done previously in high school. The style of writing and approach to answering questions can be confusing at first, but follow these tips and you’ll be ready in no time:

Phrasing should be understandable and concise

Unlike some subjects where sophisticated phrasing is beneficial to getting marks, HSC economics essays should emphasise getting your point across with clarity. This means don’t run your sentences on for too long, be aware of any superfluous words, and make sure you actually understand yourself what you’re trying to say in a sentence.

For example:

GOOD: “An increase in interest rates should lead to decreased economic growth.”

NOT GOOD: “As a result of a rise or increase in interest rate levels from their previous values, the general state of economic activity in the domestic economy may begin to decrease and subsequently indicate the resultant situation of a decrease in economic growth.”

“Understandable” does not mean slang or lacking in terminology

Just because you want to get a point across, doesn’t mean you should resort to slang. In fact, using economic terminology is a strong way to boost your standing in the eyes of the marker — if you use it correctly! Always make sure you use full sentences, proper English grammar, and try and incorporate correct economic terms where possible.

GOOD: “This was a detrimental outcome for the economy.”

NOT GOOD: “This was a pretty bad outcome for the economy.”

GOOD: “The Australian Dollar depreciated.”

NOT GOOD: “The Australian Dollar decreased in value.”

Analysis should be done using low modality

Modality just refers to the confidence of your language — saying something “will” happen is strong modality, whereas saying something “might” happen is considered low modality. Since a large portion of economics is about applying theory, we have to make sure that we are aware that we are doing just that — talking about the theoretical, and so we can’t say for sure that anything will happen as predicted.

Some useful words include:

May, Might, Should, Could, Can theoretically

Don’t use words like:

Must, Will, Has to, Always

3. How to use Statistics

“What’s most important is that this contemporary is used to bring meaning or context to your argument…”

Using contemporary (statistics) can often seem straightforward at first, but using it effectively is usually harder than it looks. Contemporary generally refers to applying real-world facts to your analysis to help strengthen (or weaken) the theoretical arguments. This can include many different statistics or pieces of information, including:

  • Historic economic indicators, such as GDP, inflation, GINI coefficients, exchange rates, or unemployment rates
  • Trends or economic goals, such as long-term GDP growth rates, or the stability band for inflation
  • Names of economic policies, such as examples of fiscal or microeconomic policies
  • Specifics of economic policies, such as the amount spent on infrastructure in 2017

how to write an essay for economics

Whatever statistics you deem relevant to include in your essay, what’s most important is that this contemporary is used to bring meaning or context to your argument — just throwing around random numbers to show off your memorisation skills won’t impress the marker, and in fact might appear as if you were making them up on the spot. Rather, your use of contemporary should actively improve your analysis.

GOOD: “Following a period of growth consistently below the long-term trend-line of 3%, the depreciation of the AUD to 0.71USD in 2017 preceded an increase in economic growth to a 10-year high of 3.4% in 2018.”

NOT GOOD: “Economic growth increased by 1 percentage point in 2017 to 2018”

NOT GOOD: “GDP was $1.32403 trillion in 2017”

GOOD: “The 2017 Budget’s Infrastructure Plan injected $42 billion into the economy — up 30% from 2016’s $31 billion, and 20% higher than the inflation-adjusted long-term expenditure.”

NOT GOOD: “The 2017 Budget’s Infrastructure Plan injected $42 billion into the economy”

That in mind, don’t think that these statistics have to be overly specific. As long as the general ideas gets across, it’s fine. You don’t need to say “$1,505,120” — just “$1.5 million” will suffice.

Ask yourself: if I get rid of the contemporary from my paragraphs, does the essay still have enough content?

Further, don’t get roped into the “contemporary trap” — where you fall into the mindset that “if I memorise all these statistics, my essay will get good marks”. Including numbers and contemporary at the expense of having a robust theoretical explanation and analysis will definitely be detrimental in getting you top marks. Particularly in trial exams and the HSC when you’ve got all these numbers floating in your head, it can be tempting to try and include as many as you can (often just because you can!). To avoid this, always try and focus your arguments on analysis and syllabus content first, contemporary second. Ask yourself: if I get rid of the contemporary from my paragraph, does the essay still have enough content?

4. Must Have Insightful “However”s

If you really want to extend your analysis and show the marker that you know your stuff, including insightful “however”s is a strong way to do it. What I mean by this is that for each of your paragraphs, try and include a counterpoint that highlights the flexible nature of economic theory. There are broadly two kinds of “however”s:

Theoretical “However”s

These are counterpoints that are based on theory — often there will be theoretical limitations for many of the concepts you come across in economics. It’s always important to include these limitations as it reinforces your knowledge of the actual content of economics.

“Although the Budget and fiscal policy can be effective at stimulating economic growth, it is also restricted by the “implementation time lag” limitation since it is only introduced annually.”

Contemporary “However”s

These are counterpoints that are based on contemporary — highlighting how although something should happen theoretically, this isn’t usually what is observed in reality. This can be particularly powerful in that it combines your knowledge of theory with your analysis of contemporary.

“Despite the expansionary stance that the RBA adopted in 2012–2016 for monetary policy, Australia’s annual GDP growth rate has remained below the trend rate of 3% — against the theoretical expectations. This could be attributed to factors such as …”

5. How to Interpret the Question

When you first look at a question, before you even put pen to paper, you need to come up with a plan of attack — how can you ensure that you answer the question correctly, and give the markers what they want? There are three main points to look for when interpreting essay questions:

Knowing your verbs

As you may (or may not) know, NESA has a bank of words that they like to pull from when writing questions, and these words impact how they want their question answered. These verbs should help steer your analysis onto the right path. For example:

Explain: “Relate causes and effects”

To answer these questions, you have to demonstrate a thorough understanding of how theory and events impact each other and the economy. This verb particularly emphasises the idea of a process — you need to be able to make clear links as to how each step leads to the next, rather than just jumping to the outcomes.

Analyse: “Draw out and relate implications”

These questions usually wants you to investigate the connections between different aspects of economic theory. Generally this involves showing a holistic understanding of how different areas (such as micro- and macroeconomic policies) come together to make a cohesive impact on the economy. It usually helps to think back to the syllabus and how the points are introduced when figuring out which ideas to link together.

Assess/Evaluate: “Make a judgement based on value/a criteria”

These require you to not only critically analyse a topic but also come to a conclusion given the arguments you provided. This type of question usually gets you to make a judgement of the effectiveness of some economic theory — such as the ability for economic policies to achieve their goals. Make sure you actually include this judgement in your answer — for example, say things like “strong impact”, “highly influential”, “extremely detrimental”.

Discuss: “Provide points for and/or against”

Similar to assess, discuss wants you to provide arguments towards and against a particular topic. Although it doesn’t require a specific judgement to be made, it does place greater emphasis on showing a well-rounded approach to the argument — providing relatively equal weightings towards both the positive and negative sides of the discussion.

Linking to the syllabus

When trying to understand what the question wants from you, I found the best way to approach it is to consider what points in the syllabus it is referring to (To do this, you need to have a solid understanding of the syllabus in the first place). Once you’ve located it, try drawing upon other topics in the vicinity of that dot point to help you answer the question.

how to write an essay for economics

For example, if the question mentions “trends in Australia’s trade and financial flows”, then you know from the syllabus that you probably need to talk about value, composition and direction in order to get high marks. Further, it may also be worth it to bring in ideas from the Balance of Payments, as this is the next dot point along in the syllabus.

Digging into the source

For essay questions that provide a source for you to include in your answer, this is another goldmine from which you can discern what the marker really wants. If the source mentions microeconomic policy, it probably wasn’t on accident! Even if it may not be obvious how to link that to the question immediately, try and draw upon your knowledge and implications and see if there’s a different angle that you might be missing.

6. Putting it All together — Structuring your essay

My essays usually consisted of four main parts: an introduction, a background paragraph, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.


Your introduction should not be long. I rarely wrote an introduction longer than three sentences.

First sentence: Answer the question (thesis)

Try and answer the question, while including the main key words of the question in your answer. Don’t directly restate it — instead, try and add meaning to it in a way that represents what you’re trying to get across in your essay.

For example: if the question was “Assess the impact of microeconomic policy in improving economic growth in Australia”, my first sentence might be “Microeconomic policy has had a significant impact in increasing aggregate supply and thus long-term economic growth in Australia since the 1960s”.

Next sentences: Introduce your arguments/paragraphs

In this part, it’s fine to almost list your paragraphs — there’s no need to do a whole sentence explaining each. That’s what the paragraphs themselves are for.

For example: using the same question as above, my next sentence might be “Although trade liberalisation may have been detrimental for short-term growth in manufacturing, policies such as competition policy and wage decentralisation have been highly effective in fostering economic growth in Australia”.

Background Paragraph

The aim of a background paragraph is threefold: to get across the main theory that underpins your argument; to establish the economic context for your argument; and to show the marker that you “know your stuff”.

For example, if the essay was on monetary policy, you may want to describe the process of Domestic Market Operations (how the reserve bank changes the cash rate) in your background paragraph, so that you don’t need to mention it each time you bring up changing stances. Further, it may be good to showcase the current economic climate — such as GDP growth rate and inflation — to give context to your analysis in your essay.

Some ideas for what to include in this paragraph include:

  • Key theory such as DMOs or the rationale for macroeconomic policies
  • Economic indicators that provide context to the time period that you’re working in, such as growth rates, inflation, unemployment rates, exchange rates, cash rates, etc.
  • A brief description of the recent Budget (if talking about fiscal policy), including the stance and outcome

Bear in mind that this paragraph shouldn’t be too long — it isn’t the focus of your essay! Instead, aim for around 100–150 words at most. At this point in your essay, it may also be good to include a graph (more on this later).

Body Paragraphs

There’s no set rule for how many body paragraphs to include in your essay — I generally aim for at least 4, but there’s no real limit to how many you can (or should) write! Unlike english essays, it’s totally acceptable to just split a paragraph in two if you feel like the idea is too large to be written in one paragraph (as long as each paragraph makes sense on its own).

When writing a paragraph, I usually follow this structure:

Topic sentence

This is where you answer the question, and outline your argument or idea for this paragraph. If you are doing a discuss/assess/evaluate essay, try and make your judgement or side obvious. For example: “Trade liberalisation has been detrimental in its impact on economic growth in manufacturing industries”.

These sentences are where you bring together the theory and contemporary to build up your argument. Remember, the theory should be the focus, and contemporary a bonus. Try and weave a “story” into your analysis if you can — you should be showing the marker how everything fits together, how causes lead to effects, and ultimately bringing together relevant economic concepts to answer the question. Feel free to also include graphs here when they help strengthen your argument.

Fit in your “however” statements here. For discuss questions, this however section may take up a larger part of the paragraph if you choose to showcase two opposing arguments together.

Link your argument back to your overarching thesis, and answer the question. Following on from your “however” statement, it can often be a good idea to use linking words such as “nevertheless”, “notwithstanding”, or “despite this” to show that taking into account your arguments presented in the “however” statement, the overarching idea for the paragraph still remains.

Like the introduction, your conclusion should not be overly long. Rather, it should briefly restate the arguments made throughout your essay, and bring them all together again to reinforce how these points help answer the question.

how to write an essay for economics

Aggregate Demand / Supply Graph

Graphs are a great way to add extra spice to your essay — not only does it help strengthen your explanations of economic theory, it also makes it look like you wrote more pages than you actually did! Graphs, such as aggregate demand graphs, business cycle graphs, and Phillips curves, can be great in reinforcing your ideas when you mention them in your essay. They usually come either in background paragraphs or body paragraphs, and it’s usually best to draw them about a quarter to a third of the page in size. It’s also good practice to label them as “Figure 1” or “Graph 1”, and refer to them as such in your actual paragraph.

Although they can be beneficial, don’t try and force them either. Not all essays have appropriate graphs, and trying to include as many as you can without regards for their relevance may come across negatively in the eyes of the marker.

8. How to Answer Source Questions

If your essay question involves a source, try and refer to it multiple times throughout your essay. For example, this can be in the background paragraph and two of your body paragraphs. Rather than just adding in an “…as seen in the source” to one of your sentences, try and actively analyse it — show the marker that you understand why they included it, and how it actually helps strengthen your arguments.

9. Plan You Essay

Don’t be afraid to use the first page of your answer booklet as a planning page. Taking a couple minutes before you answer the question to lay out your scaffold for body paragraphs is a great first step to helping ensure that you actually end up answering the question to the best of your abilities. It also serves as a great reminder to keep checking as you finish each paragraph to ensure that you actually wrote what you intended. Just make sure to make it clear to the marker that those scribbles on the page are just a plan, and not your actual essay!

10. How to Prepare for Essays in the Exam

I find it much better to prepare paragraphs and ideas that you can draw upon to help “build up” a response during the exam itself.

Don’t go into the exam with a pre-prepared essay that you are ready to regurgitate — not only are there too many possibilities to prepare for, but it’s also unlikely that you’ll actually answer the question well with a pre-prepared response.

Instead of memorising sets of essays before the exam, I find it much better to prepare paragraphs and ideas that you can draw upon to help “build up” a response during the exam itself. What I mean by this, is that in your mind you have a “bank of different paragraphs” and ideas from all the topics in the syllabus, and when you read the exam, you start drawing from different paragraphs here and there to best formulate a response that answers the question. This allows you to be flexible in answering almost any question they can throw at you.

On top of this, ensure you have a solid foundation in both the theory and contemporary — knowing what statistics or topics to include in your essay is useless knowledge unless you have the actual content to back it up.

Now that you know the basics of how to write a good HSC economics essay, it’s time to start practising! Have a go, try out different styles, and find what works best for you. Good luck!

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Economics Essay Topics: 162 Practical Ideas & Useful Tips

how to write an essay for economics

Essay writing is an inherent part of the economics studying process. Nevertheless, it is quite a challenging task. Are you a high school or college student who is struggling with an economic essay topic choice? Or maybe you are unsure about your writing skills?

We know how to help you .

The following article will guide you in choosing the best topic for your essay on economics. Here, you can find a variety of ideas for high school or college. The economic essay topics are divided into several categories that will help you with your research. And a pleasant bonus from our team! We have created a great guide on how to write an economics essay.

So, don’t miss your chance to write an outstanding economic paper! Check out our essay ideas, read our tips carefully, and be ready to receive your grade A!

  • ⭐ Best Economic Topics
  • 🤝 Socio-Economic
  • 🗺️ International Economics
  • 🛠️ Labor Economics
  • 🌆 Urban Economics
  • ⚽ Sports Economics
  • 💉 Health Economics
  • 💼 Business Economics
  • 🏤 Globalization
  • 🧮 Economic History
  • 💫 How to Write?

⭐ 15 Best Economic Essay Topics

  • 2008 Economic Crisis.
  • Socio-economic policy.
  • Economic systems – Singapore.
  • Racial pay gap.
  • Economic globalization.
  • History of online trading.
  • Child labor policies.
  • The Economic Naturalist.
  • Foundations of economic theory.
  • Impact of unemployment.
  • Universal Basic Income.
  • The role of consumerism.
  • Healthcare economics – Canada’s Medicare.
  • Reasons for recession.
  • Cryptocurrency & environmental issues.

✨ Excellent Economic Essay Topics

Has economics always been a subject of meticulous research? The question is quite controversial, right? There is no specific time when economics started its rapid progress. Generally, economics remains the topic of interest since the establishment of capitalism in the Western world.

Nowadays, the economy is the main engine that moves our world forward. The way we do business determines the geopolitical situation in the world. Moreover, it influences many other parts of our lives.

The skills developed through studying economics are incredibly versatile.

Economics studying is of utmost importance nowadays. It helps to gain a better understanding of processes that put everything in motion.

Economics is quite broad, so it has a great variety of subfields. And this is a fantastic opportunity for us to generate as many essay ideas as possible. Here, you will find great economic topics for your paper. As mentioned before, we have divided them into several sections to ease your selection process. There’s a wide selection of free college essays samples on economics in our database, too. So be sure to check that out.

🤝 Socio-Economic Essay Topics

  • The economic impact of racial segregation in America in the 1950s.
  • Designing a just socio-economic system.
  • Socio-economic status of Hong Kong in modern-day China. Explain how the city of Hong Kong gained a special status in China. Why did it emerge as one of the most important cities in its economy? Comment on the significance of Hong Kong in the international economic arena.
  • Economic growth in the United States in the post-World War 2 period.
  • Mobile banking in Saudi Arabia: towards understanding the factors that affect the sector.
  • The importance of Dior’s bar suit to the women’s fashion industry.
  • Economic problems in the 1980’s Soviet Union. Talk about the significant problems with the economy the USSR had in the 1980s. What role did they play in its collapse?
  • What socio-economic problems did segregation in South Africa cause?
  • History of economic development in the UAE. Discuss the economic miracle in the UAE and Dubai. Explain how the government could turn the city of Dubai into one of the most famous tourist destinations. What strategies were applied?
  • Gender inequality and socio-economic development .
  • The problem of poverty in Venezuela.
  • How the socio-economic and political position of women changed between 1880 and 1940.
  • The economic impact of COVID-19 on global trade.

World trade is expected to fall due to the Coronavirus pandemic.

  • How do the three main economic groups interact with each other? There are three critical economic groups: – Consumers – Producers – Government Analyze the interaction of these groups with each other.
  • Extended essay: how the study of economic data helped our society to advance?
  • Western industrialization socio-economic impacts.
  • Inequality at the top: not all billionaires have the same powers. Analyze billionaires’ net worth, liquidity, political power, and wealth security. Explain why they have unequal social status. What factors determine the influence of billionaires?
  • An analysis of systems that help us measure agricultural development in a country.
  • Is social media a useful tool for brand promotion?
  • The phenomenon of dualism in economic development.

🗺️ International Economics Essay Topics

  • Globalization and its impact on international economic relations. Define the term globalization. What role does globalization play in international economic relations? Provide specific examples of globalization’s impact on the global political economy.
  • The lack of justice for the cheap international labor market. Discuss the issue of cheap labor in various countries. Why do some workers often lack fundamental human rights while others abuse moral norms? Analyze the causes and effects of inequality in the workplace.
  • Japan macroeconomics: problems and possible solutions.
  • The issue of mercantilism in the history of Great Britain. Analyze the rise and development of mercantilism in the history of Great Britain. To solidify your ideas, provide persuasive arguments, and appropriate examples of mercantilism.
  • Why does the problem of environmental protection remain unresolved among global economies?
  • Nissan Motor company’s international business.
  • International environmental concerns in economics: the case of China .
  • The issue of international criminal justice in industry. Explain why international businesses often avoid criminal justice after wrongdoings. Select one case of unethical behavior of a company’s CEO or regular employee. Briefly introduce the problem. What were the causes and effects? How was the issue resolved? Express your own opinion regarding the lack of criminal justice in business.
  • The economy of Singapore and its role in international trade.
  • International microeconomics trade dispute case study: US-China dispute on the exportation of raw materials.
  • The phenomenon of the “gig economy” and its impact on the global economy.
  • The effect of population growth in the international economy.
  • International economics in the context of globalization.

Technological and political changes have chipped away at the barriers separating nations.

  • How does Brexit affect the economy of the European Union? Analyze the immediate impact of Brexit on the EU’s economy. Predict future advantages and disadvantages of Brexit for both: Great Britain and the EU.
  • South Africa: international agribusiness, trade, and financing.
  • Historical essay: the economy of the Dutch East India company.
  • The issue of Mozambique’s economy and possible solutions. Investigate the issue of extreme poverty in Mozambique. What are some possible solutions to the problem of poverty? Base your suggestions on the country’s cultural, historical, and geographical aspects.
  • Imbalances in the global economy. Discuss the imbalances between trading countries on the scale of the global economy. What solutions would you suggest to deal with this issue?
  • How will global economies adapt to China’s growing power?
  • Etihad Airways company managerial economics.

🛠️ Labor Economics Essay Topics

  • Ford Motor company’s labor economics.
  • Labor economics: child labor.
  • The UPS firm perspective: the labor market.
  • Gender inequality of wage rate in modern business. Research how and why gender inequality is still an issue in the modern world of economics. What are some ways to deal with the problem? Present your ideas accurately and effectively. Provide solid arguments and appropriate examples to prove your position.
  • What are the best ways to increase labor productivity in business?
  • Labor unions adverse effects on economics.
  • The decrease of the labor force in modern industries. Talk about the rising rates of robotization in the majority of industries. How will it affect the traditional labor force? Comment on the problem of unemployment caused by labor automatization.
  • Violations of labor rights of workers.
  • Modern labor essay: how can an entrepreneur guarantee the minimum wage to their workers?
  • How can labor geography help develop a special economic zone? Talk about labor geography and its effects on developing an exclusive economic zone. How does the geopolitical location of a particular country influence its level of economic development?
  • Entrepreneurship in the organic cosmetics sphere.
  • Gender-oriented labor trade unions. A case study. Discuss the gender-oriented trade unions and analyze their impact on our society.
  • Child labor in the Turkish cotton industry.

The Syrian refugee crisis increased the risks of child labor in Turkey.

  • The connection between economic growth and demography. Analyze the connection between economic growth and its demographic context. Investigate both sides: – The issue of overpopulation – The problem of low birth rate. From an economic perspective, what problem is more dangerous?
  • The issue of sex discrimination in the workplace.
  • The effects of Landrum-Griffin Labor Act. Explore the labor Act of Landrum-Griffin that was passed in the US Congress in 1959. Discuss its implications and consequences. Discuss its implications and consequences.

🌆 Urban Economics Essay Topics

  • Cities and their role in aggregate economics.
  • Urbanization in Hong Kong and its effects on citizens.
  • The urban planning of the city of New York: a critical analysis. Analyze the urban history of NY. How has the city been developing? Discuss revolutionary solutions to the past and problems of modern times.
  • The impact of a city’s design on the local traffic.
  • Dubai’s spatial planning: creative solutions for building a city in the desert.
  • Globalization, urban political economy, and economic restructuring.
  • How do urban areas affect local wildlife? Comment on how modern production technologies in urban areas impact the natural diversity of wildlife. What impact does the rapid economic progress have on the environment? Suggest possible solutions.
  • Urban sociology: does the city make us better people?
  • Why should people be more careful about investing in real estate? Discuss the issues of overinvestment into real estate. Consider the economic crisis of 2008 as an example.
  • How can regional authorities help improve a city?
  • Urban life and its effects on education.
  • The economic development of a city’s metropolitan area: challenges and solutions.
  • Main factors for the emergence of cities in the Middle Ages.
  • The ethics of relocation: is it justified? Talk about the case of relocating locals when building projects of great magnitude. To what extent can it be justified? Mention its economic and ethical side.
  • The difficulties behind the construction of “green” buildings. Discuss the relatively new phenomenon of environmentally friendly buildings. Analyze both sides: the pros and cons. What obstacles lie behind the “green” building? What opportunities do the “green” buildings offer? Elaborate on your ideas by providing clear arguments or counterarguments.
  • What factors play a critical role in the success of retail productivity in cities?

⚽ Sports Economics Essay Topics

  • Do teams with higher budgets perform better on the field?
  • Corruption in European football leagues: a critical analysis. Investigate the corruption issue in the European football leagues. State reasons and solutions for the problem.
  • The managerial catastrophe of Arsenal F.C.

Discuss the football club of Arsenal.

  • The NextG sports company’s communication planning.
  • Roger D. Blair’s Sports Economics literary review. Write a literary analysis of Sports Economics by Roger D. Blair. Discuss his opinion on the economy of sports. Do you agree or disagree with his position? Provide compelling supportive arguments or strong counterarguments.
  • How significant is the impact factor of a local team on a city’s economy?
  • Kinsmen Sports Centre: marketing metrics innovation.
  • What role does statistical data play in sports? Analyze the part of economic statistical data in different sports organizations. How can statistics help to develop an effective financing plan? Comment on the impact of financing on the performance of a sports club.
  • Sports and energy drinks marketing analysis.
  • Is there a connection between the lack of money and any contemporary issues in a sports team?
  • Performance-enhancing drugs in sports.
  • The business of FIFA: a financial analysis. Investigate the finances of FIFA. What economic factors make them so influential in the modern world of football?
  • The global sports retail industry.
  • The Olympics: logistics and economy. Discuss the logistics behind the Olympics Games event. How the Olympic Games impact the economy of the host country?

💉 Health Economics Essay Topics

  • Is bioprinting the new future of medicine? Analyze the new market of organ printing and discuss its challenges. Investigate bioprinting from an economic perspective. Will the outputs cover the inputs? How will bioprinting impact the financial aspect of the health care sector?
  • Cost-effectiveness of pharmaceutical products in the United States. Comment on the immense cost-effectiveness of pharmaceuticals. What do you think is the price of pharmaceutical products reasonable? Is it ethical to set extremely high prices on the medicals?
  • An economic evaluation of the antibiotics market.
  • Health economics-SIC and NAICS.
  • The financial side of cancer treatment: is it too expensive? Analyze the market for cancer treatment programs in various countries. Explore its costs and complications. What are some possible ways to reduce the price of cancer treatment and make it more affordable?
  • The issue of fast food consumption: a multibillion-dollar market . Fast food has always been one of the notable causes of obesity, diabetes, and other illnesses. Investigate the economic aspect of the issue. Are high profits from fast food production worth peoples’ health conditions?
  • History and evolution of healthcare economics.

Health has become a dominant economic and political issue over the past years.

  • The financial management of a hospital: a case study.
  • The issue of public healthcare in the USA. Write about the long-standing issue of medical sector operation in the USA. Analyze its history, financial, and social aspects.
  • Demand in healthcare economics.
  • What are the economic outcomes of a global pandemic? Taking the COVID-19 outbreak as an example, conduct research on the effects of a pandemic on the economy. How does it affect local economies? What impact does the quarantine have on the international economy? Provide appropriate examples to support your ideas.

💼 Business Economics Essay Topics

  • When does an advertising campaign become unnecessary?
  • Sustainable development of a nation’s economic stability. Discuss how a country can create a sustainable economy. Provide bright examples to solidify your position.
  • How can a small business compete with monopolies?
  • What are the limitations of the Lewis Model?
  • The phenomenon of inflation: inevitable liability or a land of opportunity for our economies? Explore the process of inflation in modern economies. Does it only have adverse effects on the countries’ economies? Are there any advantages of inflation? Analyze it from a positive perspective.
  • Economics, business, and sugar in the UK.
  • The shadow economy of the finance sector. Dive into the backstage of the finance sector and research various “grey” areas where business can be done.
  • Chinese and Japanese business systems comparison.
  • Oil demand and its changes in the XXI century: a critical analysis. Analyze the oil sector and write about its fluctuation in the XXI century. How did the changes in oil demand affect the global economy?
  • The social and economic impact of mass emigration.

🌠 40 More Good Economic Essay Topics

Scrolled through our ideas, but can’t find a suitable topic for yourself? No worries! We have more issues to share with you.

So, don’t stress out. Take a look at our list of economical essay topics. Here are 40 more ideas focusing on globalization and the history of economics.

🏤 Economic Globalization Essay Topics

  • The impact of globalization on the tourist industry in the Caribbean . Analyze both: the positive and negative effects of globalization on the Caribbean. To make your paper well-structured, explore two advantages and two disadvantages. Don’t forget to improve your essay with strong evidence and appropriate examples!
  • Toyota Motor Corporation: impacts of globalization.
  • What are the effects of globalization on developing countries? To what extent do developing countries profit from globalization? Research the subject by comparing various examples.
  • Defining globalization and its effects on current trade.
  • Economic growth as a result of globalization: proper financial strategies. How can a country successfully achieve prosperity with globalization? Discuss proper economic strategies.
  • The socio-political significance of the IT industry’s globalization.
  • Human trafficking in developing nations as a result of globalization.

Modern-day trafficking of humans has become more rewarding for traffickers due to globalization.

  • Globalization and criminal justice policy.
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of globalization?
  • Globalization challenges and countermeasures.
  • The effect of globalization on worldwide trade and employment rates.
  • Economic integration within the European Union: a critical analysis. Talk about the history of economic integration within the EU. What are the negative and positive outcomes of economic integration?
  • Globalization and food in Japan.
  • Does globalization bring negative effects to cultural heritage and identity?
  • The Industrial Revolution as the first step towards globalization. Focus on the Industrial Revolution in Europe. Discuss its precursors and consequences. Why is the revolution considered to be a starting point of globalization? Provide specific examples of globalization processes that occurred in the economic sector after the Industrial revolution.
  • Globalization 2.0 an analysis of a book by David Rieff.
  • Globalization effects on fundamentalism growth.
  • Does direct investment by foreign businesses come with strings attached? Dive into the shady area of globalization and discuss how to direct foreign investment can bring problems of geopolitical scale.
  • Effects of globalization on sexuality.
  • Alibaba’s globalization strategy: an economic analysis.

🧮 Economic History Essay Topics

  • The rapid economic growth of Europe during the Age of Discovery. Analyze the factors that brought economic growth to Europe during the Age of Discovery. What factors contributed to the dynamic economic progress of that time?
  • Brazil’s economic history.
  • History of capitalism: from the Renaissance to the United States of America. Discuss the origins of capitalism and its centuries-long path towards XXth century America. How the establishment of capitalism impacted the economy of the USA?
  • Max Weber: economic history, the theory of bureaucracy, and politics as a vocation.
  • 2008 Economic Crisis: origins and fallout. Talk about the 2008 Financial Crisis. Discuss its causes and outcomes. What should have been done differently to avoid the global crisis? Comment on the economic strategies countries used to recover from it.
  • The economic marvel of Communist China: from rags to riches.
  • What made world economic growth of the Renaissance possible?

Renaissance Europe had a very diverse economy.

  • The economic history of Canada: how did the settlers facilitate economic growth?
  • What did the major powers of the XIXth century base their economies on?
  • The Rothschilds: political and financial role in the Industrial Revolution. Research the dynasty of Rothschilds and how they came to power. What was their role in Europe’s Industrial Revolution?
  • The link between the “oil curse” and the economic history of Latin America.
  • Roman Empire’s monetary policy: a socio-economic analysis.
  • How did the demand for different goods change their value in the 2000s years? Analyze the demand for goods in the 2000s years and their change in value. Why do these fluctuations in demand for products and services occur?
  • The history of economic thought.
  • Soviet Union’s economic timeline: from the new Economic Policy to Reformation. Discuss the economic issues of the Soviet Union from the historical perspective. Why did the Soviet Union collapse? What improvements in the financial sector should have been done?
  • History of France economics over the past 20 years.
  • The history of economic analysis.
  • The concept of serfdom and slavery as the main economic engine of the past. Dive into the idea of feudalism and serfdom. Discuss its social and economic aspects.
  • The World Bank’s structure, history, activities.
  • The history of Islamic banking: concepts and ideas.

💫 How to Write an Economics Essay?

Generally, essay writing on economics has the same structure as any other essay. However, there are some distinctive features of economic papers. Thus, it is essential to figure them out from the very beginning of your work.

You might be wondering what those aspects of the economic paper are. Well, we have an answer.

An economic essay usually relies on the common essay structure.

Below, you will find a detailed plan that explains the fundamental concepts of the essay writing process. So, don’t hesitate to use our tips! They are indeed helpful.

Pick a topic and dissect it. Picking the right topic is the very basis of writing a successful essay. Think of something that you will be interested in and make sure you understand the issue clearly. Also, don’t forget to check our ultimate economics essay topics and samples list!

Research it. After selecting the right idea from our economical essay topics, research your subject thoroughly. Try to find every fascinating and intriguing detail about it. Remember that you can always ask your fellow students, friends, or a teacher for help.

Come up with a thesis statement. A thesis statement is an essential element of your essay. It will determine your focus and guide the readers throughout your paper. Make your thesis secure and try to catch the reader’s attention using context and word choice.

Outline your essay. Never underestimate the power of a well-structured outline! Creating an essay outline can significantly help you to determine your general plan. Evaluate which economic framework you will be using to address the issue. State the main points of your thesis and antithesis. Make sure that they answer the central question of your work.

Write your introduction. First and foremost, a practical introduction should capture the readers’ attention and state the essay’s key topic. So, put enough effort to develop an outstanding introduction. It will create the first impression of your paper.

Moreover, an introduction should include a thesis statement. As we have mentioned above, a thesis plays a crucial role. Thus, make sure it is clearly stated.

Another significant feature of the introduction is its coherence with the body of your essay. Consequently, the introductory paragraph’s last statement has to present the subject of the next section, generically. Also, keep in mind that no more than three key points can be discussed in a paper, even if it is an extended essay.

Thoroughly work on the body paragraphs. Usually, the body of the essay contains several paragraphs. The number of these paragraphs will depend on the nature of your question. Be sure to create one section for every critical point that you make. This will make your paper properly-structured, and the reader will quickly get your ideas. For your convenience, we created a plan to develop your ideas in each paragraph, So, use it and make your writing process easier!

  • Argument. Present your argument in the topic sentence of the paragraph in a way that directly answers the question. A hint: the most effective way to introduce the critical point is to place the topic sentence at the beginning of the paragraph. This will help the readers to concentrate their attention on a specific idea.
  • Comment and discussion. Explain the meaning of your argument and provide an economic analysis. Present clear evidence and persuasive arguments to solidify your position.
  • Connection. Link your comments with the vital point of the paragraph. Demonstrate the coherence of your evidence with the point.
  • Diagrams, tables, charts. If necessary, provide the reader with visual aids. Sometimes, an appropriate diagram or a suitable chart can say more than words. Besides, your paper will look more professional if you use any kind of visual aids.

Conclude your essay. In your conclusion, summarize and synthesize your work by restating your thesis. Also, it is crucial to strengthen it by mentioning the practical value of your findings. Remember to make your essay readable by choosing appropriate wording and avoiding too complex grammar constructions.

Create a reference list at the bottom of your economic essay if you referred to sources.

Thank you for visiting our page! Did you enjoy our article and learned something new? We are glad to help you. Don’t forget to leave a comment and share the article with others!

🔗 References

  • High School Economics Topics: Econlib, The Library of Economics and Liberty
  • Guide to Writing an Economics Essay: The Economics Tutor
  • How to Write the Introduction of Your Development Economics Paper: David Evans, Center For Global Development
  • Senior Essay: Department of Economics, Yale University
  • Developing A Thesis: Maxine Rodburg and The Tutors of the Writing Center at Harvard University
  • Academic Essay Writing, Some Guidelines: Department of Economics, Carleton University
  • The Writing Process: Writing Centre Resource Guide, LibGuides at Dalhousie University
  • Research Papers: KU Writing Center, the University of Kansas
  • Unpacking the Topic: University of Southern Queensland
  • Economic Issues: PIIE, Peterson Institute for International Economics
  • Areas of Research: EPI, Economic Policy Institute
  • Top 100 Economics Blogs Of 2023: Prateek Agarwal, Intelligent Economist
  • Current Environmental Economic Topics, Environmental Economics: US EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency
  • Hot Topics in the U.S. Economy: The Balance
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Writing for Economics

Up: Economics Network > Writing for Economics

Essay writing

The idea of setting essays is to offer you the chance to make a longer, more complex argument. Nonetheless, in the model we recommend, the fundamentals remain the same. In each paragraph, a flow of main idea (thesis) — explanation / reasoning (justification) — evidence / example (support) is an excellent structure to use. If you read through academic writing, you will find this structure over and over. The same is true for professional writing. There are of course other structures, however this one always works and makes you sound concise and clear.

An essay has conventional sections that it is wise to follow. These are an introduction, main body and a conclusion. The 'LSE' essay structure can be described as 'say what you're going to say (intro), say it in detail (main body), say what you've said (conclusion)'. Although this may appear repetitive, it offers the reader great clarity. Also, if you think about the executive summary, background, analysis and conclusions / recommendations sections of a business report, you can see that a similar structure holds.

In your essay, try to follow this structure for your essay sections.

        Statement about the context of the question — explain why the question in important (either in the 'real' world or for the discipline of economics)

        Give your answer to the question

        Summarise your argument in support of this answer — this summary should match the order of your paragraphs

        Decide on the most logical order of your paragraphs — this might be importance, chronology or causation, but the basic flow should be simple and clear

Start each paragraph with a sentence that clearly addresses the question itself — this will be your thesis for the paragraph and if a reader only read these opening sentences, they should make sense one after the other and provide a summary of your argument Follow the opening 'topic' sentence with your reasoning and evidence for why this opening statement is valid. Be specific, not general. The more detail you can bring in, the more expert you will sound and the more persuasive your argument will be

Conclusion Summarise your argument again — as you did in the intro (different words though!)

        Restate your answer to the essay question

        So what? — say what the significance of your answer is either in the 'real' world or to the discipline of economics


        List the books / articles you read while researching your answer

Below you'll find two essays written by students last year. Bearing the above in mind, decide which one makes the clearer argument and which, therefore, got the higher mark.

In the year 2000, there were auctions of spectrum rights for third generation mobile telephones in several European countries. These auctions generated very different amount of revenue in different countries. How can this be explained?

Auction theory as a very useful brunch of game theory is of the great interest of modern economists. Among other reasons of its popularity stands direct importance of its ideas to modern businesses and governments. Nowadays any business sector is more or less competitive, which requires all it's participants to be dynamic and creative. Modernization and expansion is a vital part of modern business world. Governments, as owners of resources that allow businesses to expand and modernize, are always ready to sell those resources as it will eventually help businesses and certainly bring revenues.

The best way for government to sell available resources is to declare an auction. That's where auction theory comes into play. Modern auction theory is a very powerful tool for designing auctions of very profitable kind. Proper auction design will rise maximum amount of money for the government and provide companies with resources they need. However actions that maximize profits for the government have a direct influence also on the life of the citizens, as Dixit puts it: "...because of significant contributions the budget, auctions affect important macroeconomic magnitudes, such as interest rates".

So, auctions held by government, and to be more specific properly designed actions directly influence the life of modern country. In this essay I would like to make a kind of short review of auctions of spectrum rights for third generation mobile phones held in Europe in year 2000. The peculiarity of these auctions lies in the fact that revenues that were generated by European governments are different as a result of differently designed actions they held. This fact allows as to trace features of the auctions that were successful and resulted in relatively high revenues for the government.

There were 6 European countries to held spectrum right auctions in 2000. They were: United Kingdom, Austria, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Switzerland. Let's start with United Kingdom as it was the first country to hold such kind of auctions.

Strategy that United Kingdom had chosen was selling 5 licenses during classical ascending auction. Auction resulted in huge revenues: 650 euros per capita. Firstly it should be said that auctions as any normal business activity should be competitive in order to be effective. UK spectrum auction was relatively competitive attracting 13 participants. There are several reasons why this action attracted so many participants. Firstly, UK was the first country in the world to hold spectrum rights auction. Participants were not completely aware of the usefulness of 3G cell phones, but were eager to get competitive advantage in the new generation mobile communication technology. Secondly, UK sold 5 licenses to the market with 4 major phone operators. This fact attracted new entrants, since at least one of the licenses can be potentially won by new entrants to the market. Both this facts generated highly competitive auction environment and limited possible collusions. Result of the auction was a huge success for UK government.

The next country to run spectrum rights auction in 2000 was Netherlands. This auction raised 170 euros per capita. Reason of such flop, comparing to the British result was lack of competition. When auction were run there were 5 major phone operators for 5 licenses to be sold. Few entrants decided to participate in the auction, since everybody was sure that 5 licenses will be distributed among market leaders. Another factor that made things even worse was the fact that that was an ascending auction. In this case with few participants there is a risk of collusion among market leaders. Netherlands would have generated much more money if they would some how encourage competition and change the action design in such a way that it would be possible for participants other than market leaders to place bids independently of each other to reduce collusion (sealed bid).

Italy generated 240 euros per capita and attracted 6 participants. Italy intentionally reduced amount of participants by imposing a requirements that participant of the auction must satisfy. Such situation combined with the fact that Italian auction was ascending could result in possible collusions among competitors. As a result wrong auction design resulted in low revenues.

Swiss auction was a real flop. They generated only 20 euros per capita. Here amount of participants was also artificially limited by allowing participants to join into the groups. And the price that government accepts was also reduced for some reason. Number of participants was sufficient to run profitable auction, but combination of officially permitted collusions and low reserve price resulted in absolutely insufficient revenues.

German and Austrian auctions were similar. Number of participants in both countries' auctions was low, which means that there were risks of collusion. Both countries sold licenses in blocks, allowing "number of winners be determined by bidders". Additionally Austrian government set a very low reserve price. Germany and Austria generated 615 and 100 euros per capita in revenue respectively. Germany designed auction in such a way that bids of two main market players were rationalized in a way that it resulted in high revenues.

Generally, the main difference in revenues generated from spectrum rights auctions can be explained by the difference in chosen auction design. Different auction design results in different amounts of money in revenues. Countries that tried to facilitate competitive bidding and limited the possibilities of collusion enjoyed high revenues.

Klemperer say that what really matters in auction design is "robustness against collusion and attractiveness to entry". Exactly the combination or lack of one of this factors resulted in the difference in the revenues generated by European countries. Any country that wants to increase revenues from auction must try to facilitate the competition among bidders by trying to make participation in auction as attractive as possible and eliminating any barriers for participation. There should be no cooperation between participants, as it will result in lower bids and as a consequence in low revenues. Countries should not choose auction design that facilitates collusion, as ascending auction in our case.

Of course there are several other reasons for difference in revenues, among them there is a fact that UK as a country that run the first spectrum rights auction in the world, might have enjoyed high revenues simply because participants were new to the licenses and had no idea of their true value. Overall economic situations in the counties as well as political might also result in differences in revenues. But the main reason for difference in profitability of the spectrum licenses auctions is difference in auction designs which were effective in some countries and not in the others.


A.K. Dixit and S. Skeath, Games of Strategy , 2nd edition, Norton, 2004

Paul Klemperer, Auctions: Theory and Practice Electronic version of book on http://www.paulklemperer.org/index.htm

In the year 2000, European auctions of 3G mobile telecommunication licenses raised over 100 billion euros in government revenues. The countries that participated were United Kingdom, Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Germany and Austria. There was a big differential between revenues raised in each country with United Kingdom leading at 650 euros per capita and Switzerland coming in last at 20 euros per capita. The reasons for this big discrepancy in revenues is likely due to poor auction designs and the sequence in which the auctions took place.

When it comes to auction design, the two crucial components are attracting entry and preventing collusion. Ascending auctions encourage bidders to act collusively and deter weaker potential bidders as they know that the stronger bidder will always out bid him. On the other hand, (first-price) sealed-bid auctions act in the opposite direction from ascending auctions. It does not give bidders a chance to collude and encourages weaker bidders to participate. However, the disadvantage of using a sealed-bid auction is that it is more likely to lead to inefficient results than an ascending auction. The reason for this is that sometimes bidders with a lower value may beat opponents with a higher value. Hence, there is no perfect auction design and they must be customized to suit different environments and targets.

United Kingdom was the first to hold the auctions and they are a good example of how a well-planned auction design and good marketing strategies can lead to a favourable outcome. As there were five licenses and 4 incumbents, they had an ascending auction. To prevent collusion, each license could not be shared and each bidder was allowed no more than one license. Also, the fact that at least one license was available to new entrants lead to fierce competition from nine new entrants. To top it all off, UK had a solid marketing strategy which was planned over three years (1997 - 2000). All this helped contribute to UK raising 39 billion euros and being the most successful out of all the countries that took part in the 3G auctions.

Netherlands, Italy and Switzerland made the mistake of following UK and carrying out an ascending auction when a sealed-bid auction would have served them better. This resulted in revenues less than that achieved by UK.

In the case of Netherlands, they had five licenses and five incumbents. This deterred new entrants as well as facilitated collusion. For example, Deutsche Telekom colluded with local incumbents to bid for a 3G license. A sealed-bid would have worked better as this would have discouraged joint bidding, raise higher revenues as well as give new entrants a glimmer of hope.

Italy had their auction next but failed to learn from Netherlands and UK. Their auction design was not robust and failed to adapt to the environment in Italy. They adopted the UK design but had the additional rule that if bidders did not exceed licenses, the number of licenses would be reduced. They did not realize that having one more bidder than license does not assure that the outcome will be competitive. Also, Italy had failed to anticipate that firms would react differently to those in Netherlands and UK as they now had more information. Hence, weaker bidders were discouraged by previous auctions and did not bother to participate and since the participation rate was low, it made it easier for the strong bidders to collude. A bad auction design that was not tailored to the Italian environment and a low reserve price resulted in Italy only earning less than 25 billion euros.

Switzerland was the most unsuccessful amongst all the countries that held the auctions. It raised only 20 euros per capita in its ascending auction and this can be attributed to an unfeasible auction design, badly formulated rules and an absurdly low reserve price. Since the beginning, weaker bidders were deterred by the auction form. They felt that they did not stand a chance against the strong bidders and hence did not bother participating. This resulted in little competition. Furthermore, The Swiss government committed auction suicide when they permitted last-minute joint-bidding! This resulted in nine bidders colluding to become just four. The last mistake that the Swiss government made was to set a reserve price that was way too low. Since there were four licenses and four bidders, bidders ended up paying only the reserve price.

Germany and Austria chose a more complicated auction design.

Germany's auction design was an ascending auction of twelve blocks of spectrum from which bidders could create four three-block licenses or six two-block licenses. Germany's auction design was very susceptible to collusion and deterring new entrants but they were lucky and managed to earn high revenues.

Austria, on the other hand, adopted Germany's auction design but was not so lucky and only earned 100 euros per capita. The reason for this was that there were 6 bidders competing for 12 blocks of spectrum and a very low reserve price (one-eight of the reserve price in Germany). So instead of trying to get three blocks of spectrum, the bidders divided the 12 blocks of spectrum equally and paid the reserve price. This reason lead to Austria earning less per capita revenue than UK and Germany.

The other factor that affected the amount of revenue earned by each country was the sequence in which the auctions took place. Looking at the results of the 3G auctions held in 2000, it can be seen that the most successful auctions were the first of their type (United Kingdom and Germany). The reason for this is that between auctions, bidders learnt from previous auctions, came up with new strategies and learnt more about their rivals. However, the auction designs remained almost the same and were unable to keep up with the new ideas the bidders had come up with. This resulted in the later auctions not being as successful as the first.

In conclusion, the reason for the different revenues earned amongst the countries that took part in the 3G auctions is due to the auction designs and the sequence in which they took place. Revenues depend on how well the auction design is able to attract entry and prevent collusion. Also, it has to be able to adapt to new environments. For example, a good auction design takes into account the information bidders have and the knowledge they have gained from previous auctions. A sensible reserve price is of high importance as well and should not be overlooked like in the case of Switzerland and Germany. Lastly, auction design is not "one size fits all" and the failure of the government to design an auction that suited the country's environment lead to different revenues being earned.


A.K. Dixit and S.Skeath, Games of Strategy, 2 nd edition, Norton, 2004

Professor Kenneth Binmore, "Economic Theory Sometimes Works"

The Young Economist’s Short Guide to Writing Economic Research

Attributes of writing economics.

  • The discourse is often mathematical, with lots of formulas, lemmas, and proofs.
  • Writing styles vary widely. Some authors are very dry and technical while a few are quite eloquent.

Economics writing is different from many other types of writing. It is essentially technical, and the primary goal is to achieve clarity. A clear presentation will allow the strength of your underlying analysis and the quality of your research to shine through.

Unlike prose writing in other disciplines, economics research takes time. Successful papers are not cranked out the night before a due date.

General Guidelines for Quality Research

Getting started.

The hardest part of any writing assignment is starting. Economics research usually begins with a strong understanding of literature, and papers require a section that summarizes and applies previous literature to what the paper at hand. This is the best way to start.

Your writing will demonstrate that you understand the findings that relate to the topic.

Economists use the first few paragraphs to set up research questions and the model and data they use to think about it. Sure, it can be dry, but this format ensures the write and reader have strong grasp on the subject and structure of the work that follows.

Clear and Concise Work

Clarity is hard to achieve, but revising and reworking a paper ensures it is easy to read

  • Organize your ideas into an argument with the help of an outline.
  • Define the important terms you will use
  • State your hypothesis and proceed deductively to reach your conclusions
  • Avoid excess verbiage
  • Edit yourself, remove what is not needed, and keep revising until you get down to a simple, efficient way of communicating
  • Use the active voice
  • Put statements in positive form
  • Omit needless words (concise writing is clear writing)
  • In summaries, generally stick to one tense

Time Management

Poor time management can wreck the best-planned papers. Deadlines are key to successful research papers.

  • Start the project by finding your topic
  • Begin your research
  • Start and outline
  • Write a draft
  • Revise and polish

The Language of Economic Analysis

Economic theory has become very mathematical. Most PhD students are mathematicians, not simply economics majors. This means most quality economic research requires a strong use of mathematical language. Economic analysis is characterized by the use of models, simplified representations of how economic phenomena work. A model’s predictions about the future or the past are essentially empirical hypotheses. Since economics is not easily tested in controlled experiments, research requires data from the real world (census reports, balance sheets), and statistical methods (regressions and econometrics) to test the predictive power of models and hypotheses based on those models.

The Writing Process

Finding a topic.

There are a million ways to find a topic. It may be that you are writing for a specific subfield of economics, so topics are limited and thus easier to pick. However, must research starts organically, from passive reading or striking news articles. Make sure to find something that interests you. Be sure to find a niche and make a contribution to the subfield.

You will also need a project that can be done within the parameters of the assignment (length, due date, access to research materials). A profoundly interesting topic may not be manageable given the time and other constraints you face. The key is to just be practical.

Be sure to start your research as soon as possible. Your topic will evolve along the way, and the question you begin with may become less interesting as new information draws you in other directions. It is perfectly fine to shape your topic based on available data, but don’t get caught up in endlessly revising topics.

Finding and Using Sources

There are two types of economic sources: empirical data (information that is or can be easily translated into numerical form), and academic literature (books and articles that help you organize your ideas).

Economic data is compiled into a number of useful secondary sources:

  • Economic Report of the President
  • Statistical Abstract of the United States
  • National Longitudinal Survey
  • Census data
  • Academic journals

The Outline

A good outline acts as an agenda for the things you want to accomplish:

  • Introduction: Pose an interesting question or problem
  • Literature Review: Survey the literature on your topic
  • Methods/Data: Formulate your hypothesis and describe your data
  • Results: Present your results with the help of graphs and charts
  • Discussion: Critique your method and/or discuss any policy implications
  • Conclusions: Summarize what you have done; pose questions for further research

Writing a Literature Review

The literature review demonstrates your familiarity with scholarly work on your topic and lays the foundations for your paper. The particular issues you intent to raise, the terms you will employ, and the approach you will take should be defined with reference to previous scholarly works.

Presenting a Hypothesis

Formulate a question, problem or conjecture, and describe the approach you will take to answer, solve, or test it. In presenting your hypothesis, you need to discuss the data set you are using and the type of regression you will run. You should say where you found the data, and use a table, graph, or simple statistics to summarize them. In term papers, it may not be possible to reach conclusive results. Don’t be afraid to state this clearly and accurately. It is okay to have an inconclusive paper, but it is not okay to make overly broad and unsupported statements.

Presenting Results

There are essentially two decisions to make: (1) How many empirical results should be presented, and (2) How should these results be described in the text?

  • Focus only on what is important and be as clear as possible. Both smart and dumb readers will appreciate you pointing things out directly and clearly.
  • Less is usually more: Reporting a small group of relevant results is better than covering every possible statistical analysis that could be made on the data.
  • Clearly and precisely describe your tables, graphs, and figures in the text of your results section. The first and last sentence in a paragraph describing a result should be “big picture” statements, describing how the results in the table, graph or figure fit into the overall theme of the paper.

Discussing Results

The key to discussing results is to stay clear of making value judgments, and rely instead on economic facts and analyses. It is not the job of an economist to draw policy conclusions, even if the research supports strong evidence in a particular direction.

Referencing Sources

As with any research paper, source referencing depends on the will of a professor a discourse community. However, economists generally use soft references in the literature review section and then cite sources in conventional formats at the end of papers.

This guide was made possible by the excellent work of Robert Neugeboren and Mireille Jacobson of Harvard University and Paul Dudenhefer of Duke University.

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Example 25-Mark Essay in style of AQA Economics A-level

Below is an example model answer to a 25 mark question in the style of AQA Economics A-level.

To practise your AQA exam technique with 2024 practice questions, click the button below:

Question for model answer

Consider the following question. I have written this question in the style of a 25-mark AQA Economics A-level question for section B:

Taking effect from 1st April 2023, the UK Government has committed to increasing the corporation tax rate from 19% to 25% for companies with profits above £250,000 per year. For firms with profits below £50,000, there is no increase in corporation tax rates. But for firms with profits between £50,000 and £250,000 there will be a smaller increase in corporation tax rates.

(Source: here )

Evaluate the effects on the UK economy of increasing corporation tax rates on firms making high profits (25 marks) .

This is a key macroeconomics essay on current affairs. A quick essay plan is here:

  • Define key terms.
  • Laffer curve – higher government revenue.
  • Evaluation – position on Laffer curve.
  • AD effect – lower investment and negative multiplier effect.
  • Evaluation – proportion of AD that comes from investment.
  • LRAS effect – reduced incentives and productivity.
  • Evaluation – need to compare corporation tax rates to those of other economies.


Possible model answer

Corporation tax is a tax on firms’ profits. Aggregate demand (AD) is the total demand in the economy, AD = C+I+G+X-M. 

Increasing corporation tax rates may increase tax revenue for the UK Government. The Laffer curve shows this. An increase in tax rates from T to T1 raises tax revenue from R to R1. This revenue could go towards reducing the budget deficit. The government’s budget deficit is very high at 4.2% of the UK’s GDP in 2023-24. This is because of government spending on Covid support programmes such as the furlough scheme, energy subsidies and other tax cuts. Reducing the budget deficit may lead to government borrowing and hence reduced debt interest payments . With less spending on debt interest the UK Government could choose to spend more money in the future on other priorities such as healthcare spending. Sounder public finances might also make investors more confident in the UK Government’s ability to make bond repayments. This may reduce the interest rates at which investors are willing to buy government bonds and thus reduce future borrowing costs.

how to write an essay for economics

Whether the tax increase raises government revenue depends on the position of the UK economy on the Laffer curve. If instead the economy is at point (T1,R1) before raising corporation taxes, then increasing the corporation tax rate to T2 may decrease revenue to R. This is because a corporation tax rise may reduce incentives to start or grow a business, reducing the size of the tax base. The UK Government does predict that tax revenue would rise by over £10bn a year because of the corporation tax rate rise. With corporate tax rates relatively low now, it is likely that there will be higher revenue. But the effect of higher taxes on incentives may reduce the extent to which revenue increases.

Increasing corporation tax rates “from 19% to 25% for companies with profits above £250,000 per year” reduces the post-tax profits of these firms. This leaves reduced funds for investment, so investment may fall. Also as firms know any future profits will be taxed at a higher rate, this will disincentivise investment further. This is because firms will have reduced returns (lower post-tax profits) from any new investment. So investment falls and as investment is a component of aggregate demand (AD=C+I+G+X-M), aggregate demand shifts left from AD to AD1. This may cause a negative multiplier effect . This is where a fall in investment leads to a larger than proportionate fall in A. Lower investment results in lower incomes for firms and cuts in wages, so consumers cut their spending, meaning consumption also falls and so on. So AD shifts further left to AD2. This results in lower real GDP as real GDP falls from Y to Y2. Hence corporation tax may lower real GDP, likely resulting in lower living standards.

how to write an essay for economics

However this argument depends on the proportion of AD influenced by the corporation tax rate rise. Only firms making larger profits are facing a corporation tax rise. So firms making lower profits, for example small businesses, are less likely to reduce their investment. Also consumption is the largest component of AD, making up roughly 60% of AD, not investment. So a given percentage fall in investment may have only a smaller effect on AD. Corporation tax is likely to reduce AD leading to lower real GDP. But these impacts are limited by the relative importance of investment to AD and the design of the policy to target high profit firms only.

Decreased investment can also influence the supply side of the economy. Lower investment could mean reduced firm spending on capital goods and human capital. So this could reduce productivity and hence the productive capacity of the economy. This means the LRAS could shift to the left. Higher corporation taxes could mean higher business costs, shifting the short-run aggregate supply curve left too. Lower productivity and higher business costs could lead to a higher price level in the UK economy, reducing the price competitiveness of UK exports which may widen the current account deficit. Productivity for the UK economy is 15% below the average of other G7 economies (as of 2015), so corporate tax rises could further worsen this UK productivity gap with other nations. There may also be fewer businesses choosing to set up in the UK, preferring to set up abroad in locations with lower taxes. This would further reduce the productive potential of the economy, compared to a situation of lower corporation tax rates.

However this depends on the level of corporation tax rates in other economies . The UK has the lowest corporate tax rate among the G7 economies, even after the tax rise. Hence there may be fewer incentives to set up a business abroad, so the effect on competitiveness is reduced. Also many economies have agreed to a global minimum corporation tax of 15%, further reducing the risk to competitiveness from raising corporation taxes. While the corporation tax rate rise may reduce investment, it is less likely to have a significant impact on competitiveness.

Overall raising corporation tax on firms making high profits is likely to be effective in raising revenue. While raising corporation tax will reduce aggregate demand and aggregate supply, by raising taxes only on higher-profit firms, the impact is limited. The impact of the tax rise does depend on how other countries respond – if other countries maintain or reduce their tax rates to attract more businesses, then increasing corporate taxes could significantly reduce the incentive for international businesses to set up in the UK. However, given the increasing degree of tax cooperation globally , as shown by the 15% minimum corporate tax rate agreement, it seems likely that countries will not seek to undercut each other’s corporate tax rates.

Application is throughout using examples from the short extract and from own knowledge to support analysis and evaluation.

Analysis is detailed, using chains of reasoning and graphs to support the answer.

Evaluation is also detailed, making use of chains of reasoning and where relevant, data about the economy. The conclusion addresses the question and justifies the answer.

Note for the conclusion you could have picked another side for this policy too depending on the arguments used. You could also use other possible points – there is no right way of doing this. For example with interest rates at historical lows, how does that impact the cost of government borrowing and the necessity of raising taxes? What other factors may matter for investment beside corporate tax rates?

This essay would likely score level 5 according to AQA Economics A-level criteria.

For more guidance on AQA exam technique (25 markers, 15 markers, 9 markers and more), check out the blue button below:

Other Questions

How many words should there be in a 25 marker economics.

Most 25 mark responses, that can be replicated within exam conditions, are within the range of 700 to 1000 words.

However this is arbitrary. Word count does not matter as much, provided you answer the question and write in depth.

Achieving depth in analysis and evaluation, answering the question – see my economics resources here for more information on essay structures and how to evaluate.

How should you structure a 25 marker economics essay?


Depending on depth of your previous points, add another round of analysis and evaluation.

For more information on AQA Economics essay structure, I recommend the following article linked here .

How should you write a conclusion for 25 markers economics?

A conclusion has these key elements:

  • Answer the question.
  • Justify your answer in step 1.
  • Consider other evaluation points, including real-world context, for further justification or that may go against your answer.

How should you evaluate in economics 25 markers?

I recommend the “depends on” structure for AQA Economics style evaluation. For more information on this, see my AQA Economics style evaluation guide here .

More Resources

For AQA style practice questions on recent current affairs, click the blue button below:

If you are interested in more A-level Economics resources, please feel free to click the button below:

About the author

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Helping economics students online since 2015. Previously an economist, I now provide economics resources on tfurber.com and tutor A Level Economics students. Read more about me here .

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How to Write an Economics Essay

Overview on how to write an economics essay .

Economics essays are a requisite in the examination of individuals pursuing economics or other related fields. They are used as an avenue for scholars to demonstrate their understanding of key concepts, theories, and relevant bodies of knowledge and their application in real life scenarios.

Due to the nature of economics as a discipline, economics essays are some on the most engaging essays. They are quite technical in approach and have to consider a multitude of factors in the development of their arguments.

This is a critical consideration when it comes to  how to write an essay . Such essays have to focus on some areas that determine their quality. Some of these areas include:  

a)  Understanding the Economics Essay Requirements

Usually, economics essays seek to evaluate the relationships between different economic variables. Such questions demands that you correctly determine the number of relationships that need to explored. A typical economics question could be as illustrated below.

Q.  Explore the impacts of an increase in commodity prices coupled with a decline in individual incomes on the market demand.

The above question is good example of the type of relationships economics essays seek to examine. Per se, this question requires you to examine two sets of relationships.

a) The relationship between increase in commodity prices and demand.

b) The relationship between decline in individual incomes and demand.

Answering the above essay questions requires you to first consider the two sets of questions separately. Keeping in mind that you need to address both of these questions is critical in ensuring that you remain on course in your answer.

Then you are supposed to go ahead and combine the two questions in one essay answer, ensuring that each set of question is addressed equally and adequately.  It is important to ensure that all the sentences and paragraphs written answer specific question(s).

Content that does not answer the question(s) should be avoided.  

b)  Evaluation in Answering the Economics Essay Question

This is the most important part of an economics essay. It is essential to understand that shifts in and interactions between different economics variables is likely to result into a multitude of economic situations. To begin with, economics essays could require you to conduct either a macro evaluation or a micro evaluation.

In economics, both types of analyses are likely to yield different and numerous situations.

In the above question for instance, evaluation of the first set of question (The relationship between increase in commodity prices and demand should explore how increase in product prices influences the consumer’s purchase power).

In this case, it will be important to note that some commodities do not obey the normal demand and supply curves (Giffen goods). Precious commodities like gold, diamonds, and art are likely to experience an increase in demand with increase in prices.  

Demand Curve for Normal Goods

Figure 1 . Demand Curve for Normal Goods (As price of a good increases, its demand declines).

Demand Curve for Giffen Goods

Figure 2 . Demand Curve for Giffen Goods (As the price of the good increases, its demand increases as well). 

As illustrated above, an answer arguing that increase in the price of commodities results into a decline in demand could be correct. As well, an opposite argument could be correct. It is therefore important to consider both scenarios when answering the economics essay question.

Steps on how to Write an Economics Essay

The various steps entailed in writing an economics essay include:

a)  Identifying the essay requirements : this step entails going through the economics essay question to clearly identify the expectations of the essay. As noted above, this step usually seeks to identify the specific areas in the essay question that require addressing.

b)  Conducting research on the essay topic:  in this step, you should conduct a thorough research on the essay topic using resources such as text books, journals, and online sources. The research should be within the essay question’s scope and should cover all the relevant concepts, theories, and bodies of knowledge.

You should establish new knowledge related to the topic and evaluate its suitability on whether it is appropriate content for the economics essay.

c)  Developing a thesis statement : this is a critical step in the economics essay writing process. It provides the bearing for the essay. The thesis statement should reflect the essay question in a brief and concise manner.

Usually one or two sentences in length, it should be the rallying point for all the arguments being advanced in the essay.

d)  Coming up with a rough draft : this step involves compiling information from selected research resources to generate logical arguments. Generally, you should explore for common themes from the relevant resources and combine such information to develop numerous points supporting essay argument(s).

This entails putting all the evidence available together to support the essay. The evidence should be backed by proper referencing. Data, statistics, and examples should be incorporated to make arguments more credible.

e)  Writing the introduction:  with the relevant essay points developed, it is time to create the introduction. This step involves giving a brief overview of the essay’s argument(s) and the scope of the answers.

The introduction should start with a bold statement to capture the reader’s interest and end with the thesis statement.

f)  Compiling the essay points:  this step requires you to organize your points to form the coherent argument(s) supporting the essay thesis. The points should be compiled starting with the strongest. In this step, you should pay close attention to the correct essay structure, especially within the paragraphs.

g)  Writing the conclusion : this step requires you to summarize all the major points in the essay. It should end the essay by recapturing the thesis statement.

h)  Proofreading:  this is the last step and should involve going through the essay to ensure that the essay question is answered correctly, there are no grammatical mistakes, and the essay is coherent.     

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5 strategies to unlock your winning college essay.

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CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS - JUNE 29: People walk through the gate on Harvard Yard at the Harvard ... [+] University campus on June 29, 2023 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race-conscious admission policies used by Harvard and the University of North Carolina violate the Constitution, bringing an end to affirmative action in higher education. (Photo by Scott Eisen/Getty Images)

The college application season is upon us, and high school students everywhere are staring down at one of the most daunting tasks: the college essay. As someone who has guided countless applicants through the admissions process and reviewed admissions essays on an undergraduate admissions committee, I've pinpointed the essential ingredient to a differentiated candidacy—the core of your college admissions X-factor .

The essential ingredient to your college admissions X-factor is your intellectual vitality. Intellectual vitality is your passion for learning and curiosity. By demonstrating and conveying this passion, you can transform an average essay into a compelling narrative that boosts your chances of getting accepted to your top schools. Here are five dynamic strategies to achieve that goal.

Unleash Your Authentic Voice

Admissions officers sift through thousands of essays every year. What stops them in their tracks? An authentic voice that leaps off the page. Forget trying to guess what the admissions committee wants to hear. Focus on being true to yourself. Share your unique perspective, your passions, and your values. Authenticity resonates deeply with application reviewers, making your essay memorable and impactful. You need not have experienced trauma or tragedy to create a strong narrative. You can write about what you know—intellectually or personally—to convey your enthusiasm, creativity, and leadership. Intellectual vitality shines through when you write with personalized reflection about what lights you up.

Weave A Captivating Story

Everyone loves a good story, and your essay is the perfect place to tell yours. The Common Application personal statement has seven choices of prompts to ground the structure for your narrative. The most compelling stories are often about the smallest moments in life, whether it’s shopping at Costco or about why you wear socks that have holes. Think of the Common Application personal statement as a window into your soul rather than a dry list of your achievements or your overly broad event-based life story. Use vivid anecdotes to bring your experiences to life. A well-told story can showcase your growth, highlight your character, and illustrate how you've overcome challenges. Intellectual vitality often emerges in these narratives, revealing how your curiosity and proactive approach to learning have driven you to explore and innovate.

Reflect And Reveal Insights

It's not just about what you've done—it's about what you've learned along the way. When you are writing about a specific event, you can use the STAR framework—situation, task, action, and result (your learning). Focus most of your writing space on the “R” part of this framework to dive deeply into your experiences and reflect on how they've shaped your aspirations and identity.

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The most insightful college-specific supplement essays demonstrate depth of thought, and the ability to connect past experiences with your future life in college and beyond. Reflecting on your intellectual journey signals maturity and a readiness to embrace the college experience. It shows admissions officers that you engage deeply with your studies and are eager to contribute to the academic community.

Highlight Your Contributions—But Don’t Brag

Whether it's a special talent, an unusual hobby, or a unique perspective, showcasing what you can bring to the college environment can make a significant impact. Recognize that the hard work behind the accomplishment is what colleges are interested in learning more about—not retelling about the accomplishment itself. (Honors and activities can be conveyed in another section of the application.) Walk us through the journey to your summit; don’t just take us to the peak and expect us know how you earned it.

Intellectual vitality can be demonstrated through your proactive approach to solving problems, starting new projects, or leading initiatives that reflect your passion for learning and growth. These experiences often have a place in the college-specific supplement essays. They ground the reasons why you want to study in your major and at the particular college.

Perfect Your Prose

Great writing is essential. Anyone can use AI or a thesaurus to assist with an essay, but AI cannot write your story in the way that you tell it. Admissions officers don’t give out extra credit for choosing the longest words with the most amount of syllables.

The best essays have clear, coherent language and are free of errors. The story is clearly and specifically told. After drafting, take the time to revise and polish your writing. Seek feedback from teachers, mentors, or trusted friends, but ensure the final piece is unmistakably yours. A well-crafted essay showcases your diligence and attention to detail—qualities that admissions officers highly value. Intellectual vitality is also reflected in your writing process, showing your commitment to excellence and your enthusiasm for presenting your best self.

Crafting a standout college essay is about presenting your true self in an engaging, reflective, and polished manner while showcasing your intellectual vitality. Happy writing.

Dr. Aviva Legatt

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Home » Articles » How to Write a Great Essay (Tips for Kids)

How to Write a Great Essay (Tips for Kids)

Writing a great essay can be fun and easy if kids follow some simple tips like brainstorming ideas, creating an outline, and writing clear and concise sentences. Academized services can be incredibly helpful for young writers, providing guidance and examples to ensure they understand the basics of essay writing. With the support of Academized.com essay writing service, kids can learn to organize their thoughts and present them effectively, making the writing process less daunting and more enjoyable.

With the right guidance and practice, anyone can become a skilled essay writer. In this post, we’ll explore some valuable tips to help kids write great essays.

The Essay Structure

Before you start writing, it’s essential to understand the basic structure of an essay. A well-structured essay consists of three main parts: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion.

1. The Introduction

The introduction is where you capture the reader’s attention and provide an overview of your essay’s main idea or thesis statement. It should be concise and engaging, leaving the reader eager to learn more.

2. The Body

The body is the meat of your essay, where you present your arguments, evidence, and supporting details. Each paragraph should focus on a single idea or point, supporting your thesis statement.

3. The Conclusion

The conclusion is your final opportunity to reinforce your main idea and leave a lasting impression on the reader. It should summarize your key points and provide a sense of closure.

Prewriting: Brainstorming and Planning

An Academized overview can show kids how professional writing services can assist in honing their essay-writing skills through expert tips and examples. Before you start writing, take some time to brainstorm and plan your essay. This step is crucial as it helps organize your thoughts and ideas, making the writing process smoother.

1. Brainstorming

Jot down any thoughts, ideas, or examples that come to mind related to your essay topic. Don’t worry about organizing them yet; just let your ideas flow freely.

2. Creating an Outline

Once you’ve brainstormed, organize your ideas into a logical outline. This will serve as a roadmap for your essay, ensuring that your thoughts are structured and coherent.

Creating an Engaging Introduction

The introduction is the first impression your reader will have of your essay, so it’s essential to make it captivating. Here are some tips for writing an engaging introduction:

1. Use a Hook

Start with an attention-grabbing statement, such as a quote, a rhetorical question, or an interesting fact related to your topic. This will pique the reader’s interest and encourage them to keep reading.

2. Provide Background Information

Give your reader some context by providing relevant background information about your topic. This will help them understand the importance and significance of your essay.

3. State Your Thesis

Clearly state your thesis statement, which is the main idea or argument of your essay. This will guide the reader through the rest of your essay and ensure that your writing stays focused.

Developing a Strong Body

The body of your essay is where you present your arguments, evidence, and supporting details. Here are some tips for developing a strong body:

1. Use Topic Sentences

Begin each body paragraph with a clear topic sentence that introduces the main idea or argument of that paragraph. This will help your reader follow your train of thought.

2. Provide Evidence and Examples

Support your arguments with relevant evidence, facts, examples, or quotes from reliable sources. This will strengthen your essay and make it more persuasive.

3. Analyze and Explain

Don’t just present information; analyze and explain it. Show your reader how the evidence supports your argument and why it’s important.

4. Transition Smoothly

Use transition words and phrases to guide your reader from one idea to the next, creating a smooth and logical flow throughout your essay.

Writing a Great Conclusion

The conclusion is your final opportunity to leave a lasting impression on your reader. Here are some tips for writing a compelling conclusion:

1. Restate Your Thesis

Briefly restate your thesis statement, but in different words than you used in the introduction. This will remind the reader of your main argument.

2. Summarize Key Points

Summarize the main points or arguments you’ve made throughout your essay. This will reinforce your ideas and leave a strong impression on the reader.

3. End with a Memorable Closing Statement

Conclude your essay with a memorable closing statement, such as a thought-provoking question, a call to action, or a powerful quote. This will leave the reader with something to ponder long after they’ve finished reading.

Revising and Editing

Once you’ve written your first draft, it’s time to revise and edit your essay. This step is crucial for improving the quality and clarity of your writing.

1. Read Your Essay Aloud

Reading your essay aloud can help you identify areas that need improvement, such as awkward phrasing, poor flow, or unclear explanations.

2. Check for Clarity and Coherence

Ensure that your ideas are clearly expressed and that your essay flows logically from one point to the next. If something is unclear or confusing, revise it.

3. Proofread for Errors

Carefully proofread your essay for spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors. These small mistakes can detract from the overall quality of your writing.

4. Get Feedback

Ask a trusted friend, family member, or teacher to read your essay and provide feedback. Fresh eyes can often spot areas for improvement that you may have missed.

Statistics and Facts

To support the importance of writing essays and the need for guidance, here’s a table with relevant statistics:

By following these tips and incorporating relevant statistics and facts, kids can develop the skills needed to write great essays. Remember, writing is a process that takes practice, but with dedication and guidance, anyone can become a skilled essay writer.

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how to write an essay for economics

PaperTyper.net: How to Write an Essay with AI and Save Your Time?

  • June 3, 2024 2:11 PM / Updated: June 3, 2024 2:11 PM

Digital Team

Hi, I’m Peter, a 3rd year public-relations student. I already combine work with my studies. This is quite tiring, since you need to constantly manage to complete all tasks on time. But sometimes I can’t keep up with the schedule.

Recently I got so busy that I forgot to write an essay on sociology. The next day I had to hand in the paper, so I started looking for all possible ways to still prepare the text.

I came across the PaperTyper website completely by accident while trying to find an essay writing tool. And imagine my surprise when it turned out that the website offers an essay generator based on artificial intelligence. I decided to try it out and decide whether this website and its AI writer could write me an essay of high quality. The generated text exceeded all my expectations. I will talk about this in more detail below. You will learn how the AI Essay Generator tool works and why you should try it yourself.

How does AI Essay Generator tool work?

So, first, let’s figure out how the tool works. AI Essay Writer helps you write a text on any topic you need. I needed to prepare a relatively simple text on the topic “The influence of social networks on modern society” as part of one of the academic disciplines.

To generate text, you need to follow a few simple steps:

  • Go to the service website and go through a simple registration. You can register through social networks or by creating your username and password.
  • Go to your personal account and find the “My Projects” item. Here, you can also start a new project or edit an existing document. The free version has a limit of 500 words, so you can try out the content generation features initially to see if this service is right for you. I was satisfied with the first draft, so I continued working on my paper. Subscriptions cost $5 and $10. For $5, you will get 10k words, and for $10, you will get 40k words.
  • Next, you need to open the project from the list. You will be redirected to a page with a text editor that resembles a classic Word document. The main difference is the presence of a line where you need to write down your full request for AI Essay Writer.
  • At the next stage, you need to write down your essay topic. I tried to describe my request in as much detail as possible so that the AI tool could generate all the necessary material.
  • You also need to choose the number of words that you need to generate. The maximum number of words you can get per one generation is 2500 words.
  • After this, the tool starts working. I just had to wait for the results.
  • Now, the real work begins. I generated as much as needed and decided to check the text I got. Using the built-in tool, I checked the grammar and made edits. In this way, I worked until I received the finished first draft that I used for my own paper.

Overall, I was pleased with the results. I was able to quickly generate a ready-made article on the specified topic. Of course, I had to tinker a little, but I prepared the essay much faster than I would have done it by hand. There are some nuances that I would like to note before starting to work with AI Essay Generator.

My assessment of the service

After testing the AI Essay Generator, I was pleased with the generated essay. I received an excellent grade in my subject, which I am happy about. At the same time, I saved a lot of time searching for information. Now, I can create papers in other disciplines without spending a lot of time on research and drafting with my busy schedule.

I greatly enjoyed the simple and intuitive interface. I quickly found all the tools I needed and figured out the features of generating texts.

Within a few minutes, I was able to evaluate how well and accurately the artificial intelligence generates articles. The essay covered all the subtopics I planned to discuss. At the same time, I spent three times less time than I would have had to write on my own. Now, I can devote more time to crucial tasks and my work and prepare texts for the university using the generator.

The essay was well-structured and clearly written. Of course, I had to make some edits manually, but it’s understandable. It was necessary to independently add some arguments, examples, and a list of references. I used the AI generator mainly to build a foundation for my paper.

I liked the writing style of the text. There was no water or unnecessary details in it. Everything is described clearly and to the point.

The small drawback of the AI tool, as for me, is that you need to describe your request in great detail. Only in this way will the AI-powered writer understand you correctly and prepare the expected content. However, I noticed that all AI tools work like this. Even those tools that work with designs, mathematics, or code. I understand the reason behind it. A generalized request produces generalized content.

Did the AI essay writing tool help me?

Overall, I can say that AI Essay Generators are a convenient and useful tool. I will definitely use it to write essays again. Writing texts isn’t my profile. Using this service, I was able to generate my essay quickly and of high quality. Of course, I had to do some extra work, but it’s much better than writing everything from scratch without any ideas.

AI Essay Generator is a user-friendly tool that I can definitely recommend to other students. If you don’t have time or ideas when writing an essay, then you should definitely use this AI-powered writer. It is quite simple, intuitive, works quickly and generates texts on any topic. A large set of tools on the PaperTyper website allows you to refine your article and make it even more detailed. I will definitely use this service again for my research.

how to write an essay for economics

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Guest Essay

Jamie Raskin: How to Force Justices Alito and Thomas to Recuse Themselves in the Jan. 6 Cases

A white chain in the foreground, with the pillars of the Supreme Court Building in the background.

By Jamie Raskin

Mr. Raskin represents Maryland’s Eighth Congressional District in the House of Representatives. He taught constitutional law for more than 25 years and was the lead prosecutor in the second impeachment trial of Donald Trump.

Many people have gloomily accepted the conventional wisdom that because there is no binding Supreme Court ethics code, there is no way to force Associate Justices Samuel Alito and Clarence Thomas to recuse themselves from the Jan. 6 cases that are before the court.

Justices Alito and Thomas are probably making the same assumption.

But all of them are wrong.

It seems unfathomable that the two justices could get away with deciding for themselves whether they can be impartial in ruling on cases affecting Donald Trump’s liability for crimes he is accused of committing on Jan. 6. Justice Thomas’s wife, Ginni Thomas, was deeply involved in the Jan. 6 “stop the steal” movement. Above the Virginia home of Justice Alito and his wife, Martha-Ann Alito, flew an upside-down American flag — a strong political statement among the people who stormed the Capitol. Above the Alitos’ beach home in New Jersey flew another flag that has been adopted by groups opposed to President Biden.

Justices Alito and Thomas face a groundswell of appeals beseeching them not to participate in Trump v. United States , the case that will decide whether Mr. Trump enjoys absolute immunity from criminal prosecution, and Fischer v. United States , which will decide whether Jan. 6 insurrectionists — and Mr. Trump — can be charged under a statute that criminalizes “corruptly” obstructing an official proceeding. (Justice Alito said on Wednesday that he would not recuse himself from Jan. 6-related cases.)

Everyone assumes that nothing can be done about the recusal situation because the highest court in the land has the lowest ethical standards — no binding ethics code or process outside of personal reflection. Each justice decides for him- or herself whether he or she can be impartial.

Of course, Justices Alito and Thomas could choose to recuse themselves — wouldn’t that be nice? But begging them to do the right thing misses a far more effective course of action.

The U.S. Department of Justice — including the U.S. attorney for the District of Columbia, an appointed U.S. special counsel and the solicitor general, all of whom were involved in different ways in the criminal prosecutions underlying these cases and are opposing Mr. Trump’s constitutional and statutory claims — can petition the other seven justices to require Justices Alito and Thomas to recuse themselves not as a matter of grace but as a matter of law.

The Justice Department and Attorney General Merrick Garland can invoke two powerful textual authorities for this motion: the Constitution of the United States, specifically the due process clause, and the federal statute mandating judicial disqualification for questionable impartiality, 28 U.S.C. Section 455. The Constitution has come into play in several recent Supreme Court decisions striking down rulings by stubborn judges in lower courts whose political impartiality has been reasonably questioned but who threw caution to the wind to hear a case anyway. This statute requires potentially biased judges throughout the federal system to recuse themselves at the start of the process to avoid judicial unfairness and embarrassing controversies and reversals.

The constitutional and statutory standards apply to Supreme Court justices. The Constitution, and the federal laws under it, is the “ supreme law of the land ,” and the recusal statute explicitly treats Supreme Court justices as it does other judges: “Any justice, judge or magistrate judge of the United States shall disqualify himself in any proceeding in which his impartiality might reasonably be questioned.” The only justices in the federal judiciary are the ones on the Supreme Court.

This recusal statute, if triggered, is not a friendly suggestion. It is Congress’s command, binding on the justices, just as the due process clause is. The Supreme Court cannot disregard this law just because it directly affects one or two of its justices. Ignoring it would trespass on the constitutional separation of powers because the justices would essentially be saying that they have the power to override a congressional command.

When the arguments are properly before the court, Chief Justice John Roberts and Associate Justices Amy Coney Barrett, Neil Gorsuch, Ketanji Brown Jackson, Elena Kagan, Brett Kavanaugh and Sonia Sotomayor will have both a constitutional obligation and a statutory obligation to enforce recusal standards.

Indeed, there is even a compelling argument based on case law that Chief Justice Roberts and the other unaffected justices should raise the matter of recusal on their own, or sua sponte. Numerous circuit courts have agreed with the Eighth Circuit that this is the right course of action when members of an appellate court are aware of “ overt acts ” of a judge reflecting personal bias. Cases like this stand for the idea that appellate jurists who see something should say something instead of placing all the burden on parties in a case who would have to risk angering a judge by bringing up the awkward matter of potential bias and favoritism on the bench.

But even if no member of the court raises the issue of recusal, the urgent need to deal with it persists. Once it is raised, the court would almost surely have to find that the due process clause and Section 455 compel Justices Alito and Thomas to recuse themselves. To arrive at that substantive conclusion, the justices need only read their court’s own recusal decisions.

In one key 5-to-3 Supreme Court case from 2016, Williams v. Pennsylvania, Justice Anthony Kennedy explained why judicial bias is a defect of constitutional magnitude and offered specific objective standards for identifying it. Significantly, Justices Alito and Thomas dissented from the majority’s ruling.

The case concerned the bias of the chief justice of Pennsylvania, who had been involved as a prosecutor on the state’s side in an appellate death penalty case that was before him. Justice Kennedy found that the judge’s refusal to recuse himself when asked to do so violated due process. Justice Kennedy’s authoritative opinion on recusal illuminates three critical aspects of the current controversy.

First, Justice Kennedy found that the standard for recusal must be objective because it is impossible to rely on the affected judge’s introspection and subjective interpretations. The court’s objective standard requires recusal when the likelihood of bias on the part of the judge “is too high to be constitutionally tolerable,” citing an earlier case. “This objective risk of bias,” according to Justice Kennedy, “is reflected in the due process maxim that ‘no man can be a judge in his own case.’” A judge or justice can be convinced of his or her own impartiality but also completely missing what other people are seeing.

Second, the Williams majority endorsed the American Bar Association’s Model Code of Judicial Conduct as an appropriate articulation of the Madisonian standard that “no man can be a judge in his own cause.” Model Code Rule 2.11 on judicial disqualification says that a judge “shall disqualify himself or herself in any proceeding in which the judge’s impartiality might reasonably be questioned.” This includes, illustratively, cases in which the judge “has a personal bias or prejudice concerning a party,” a married judge knows that “the judge’s spouse” is “a person who has more than a de minimis interest that could be substantially affected by the proceeding” or the judge “has made a public statement, other than in a court proceeding, judicial decision or opinion, that commits or appears to commit the judge to reach a particular result.” These model code illustrations ring a lot of bells at this moment.

Third and most important, Justice Kennedy found for the court that the failure of an objectively biased judge to recuse him- or herself is not “harmless error” just because the biased judge’s vote is not apparently determinative in the vote of a panel of judges. A biased judge contaminates the proceeding not just by the casting and tabulation of his or her own vote but by participating in the body’s collective deliberations and affecting, even subtly, other judges’ perceptions of the case.

Justice Kennedy was emphatic on this point : “It does not matter whether the disqualified judge’s vote was necessary to the disposition of the case. The fact that the interested judge’s vote was not dispositive may mean only that the judge was successful in persuading most members of the court to accept his or her position — an outcome that does not lessen the unfairness to the affected party.”

Courts generally have found that any reasonable doubts about a judge’s partiality must be resolved in favor of recusal. A judge “shall disqualify himself in any proceeding in which his impartiality might reasonably be questioned.” While recognizing that the “challenged judge enjoys a margin of discretion,” the courts have repeatedly held that “doubts ordinarily ought to be resolved in favor of recusal.” After all, the reputation of the whole tribunal and public confidence in the judiciary are both on the line.

Judge David Tatel of the D.C. Circuit emphasized this fundamental principle in 2019 when his court issued a writ of mandamus to force recusal of a military judge who blithely ignored at least the appearance of a glaring conflict of interest. He stated : “Impartial adjudicators are the cornerstone of any system of justice worthy of the label. And because ‘deference to the judgments and rulings of courts depends upon public confidence in the integrity and independence of judges,’ jurists must avoid even the appearance of partiality.” He reminded us that to perform its high function in the best way, as Justice Felix Frankfurter stated, “justice must satisfy the appearance of justice.”

The Supreme Court has been especially disposed to favor recusal when partisan politics appear to be a prejudicial factor even when the judge’s impartiality has not been questioned. In Caperton v. A.T. Massey Coal Co. , from 2009, the court held that a state supreme court justice was constitutionally disqualified from a case in which the president of a corporation appearing before him had helped to get him elected by spending $3 million promoting his campaign. The court, through Justice Kennedy, asked whether, quoting a 1975 decision, “under a realistic appraisal of psychological tendencies and human weakness,” the judge’s obvious political alignment with a party in a case “poses such a risk of actual bias or prejudgment that the practice must be forbidden if the guarantee of due process is to be adequately implemented.”

The federal statute on disqualification, Section 455(b) , also makes recusal analysis directly applicable to bias imputed to a spouse’s interest in the case. Ms. Thomas and Mrs. Alito (who, according to Justice Alito, is the one who put up the inverted flag outside their home) meet this standard. A judge must recuse him- or herself when a spouse “is known by the judge to have an interest in a case that could be substantially affected by the outcome of the proceeding.”

At his Senate confirmation hearing, Chief Justice Roberts assured America that “judges are like umpires.”

But professional baseball would never allow an umpire to continue to officiate the World Series after learning that the pennant of one of the two teams competing was flying in the front yard of the umpire’s home. Nor would an umpire be allowed to call balls and strikes in a World Series game after the umpire’s wife tried to get the official score of a prior game in the series overthrown and canceled out to benefit the losing team. If judges are like umpires, then they should be treated like umpires, not team owners, fans or players.

Justice Barrett has said she wants to convince people “that this court is not comprised of a bunch of partisan hacks.” Justice Alito himself declared the importance of judicial objectivity in his opinion for the majority in the Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization decision overruling Roe v. Wade — a bit of self-praise that now rings especially hollow.

But the Constitution and Congress’s recusal statute provide the objective framework of analysis and remedy for cases of judicial bias that are apparent to the world, even if they may be invisible to the judges involved. This is not really optional for the justices.

I look forward to seeing seven members of the court act to defend the reputation and integrity of the institution.

Jamie Raskin, a Democrat, represents Maryland’s Eighth Congressional District in the House of Representatives. He taught constitutional law for more than 25 years and was the lead prosecutor in the second impeachment trial of Donald Trump.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

Follow the New York Times Opinion section on Facebook , Instagram , TikTok , WhatsApp , X and Threads .


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  22. How To Write A Good Economics Essay, EconomicsCafe.com.sg

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    Recently I got so busy that I forgot to write an essay on sociology. The next day I had to hand in the paper, so I started looking for all possible ways to still prepare the text. I came across the PaperTyper website completely by accident while trying to find an essay writing tool.

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