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Essays on The Pearl

Prompt examples for "the pearl" essays, the symbolism of the pearl.

Discuss the symbolism of the pearl in the novella, exploring its various meanings and how it represents different things to different characters.

Character Analysis: Kino

Analyze the character of Kino, his motivations, and the transformation he undergoes as he searches for the pearl and faces its consequences.

The Effects of Wealth and Greed

Examine how the pursuit of wealth and the consequences of greed are depicted in the novella, including their impact on Kino's family and the community.

The Theme of Family and Sacrifice

Discuss the theme of family and the sacrifices made by Kino and Juana for the sake of their son, Coyotito, and how it drives the plot.

Social Injustice and Discrimination

Explore the themes of social injustice and discrimination in "The Pearl," including the way the indigenous characters are treated by the colonial society.

Nature and the Environment

Analyze the role of nature and the natural world in the novella, considering how it both supports and threatens the characters' lives.

Aggression and Violence

Discuss the instances of aggression and violence in the story, including the conflicts between characters and their consequences.

John Steinbeck's Writing Style

Examine John Steinbeck's writing style and narrative techniques in "The Pearl," including his use of symbolism, imagery, and storytelling devices.

The Tragic Hero and Catharsis

Discuss whether Kino can be considered a tragic hero and whether the novella elicits a sense of catharsis in the reader.

The Ending and Its Interpretations

Explore the ending of "The Pearl" and the various interpretations it offers, including its implications for Kino and Juana.

The Pearl Theme Analysis

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A Theme of Greed in The Pearl by John Steinbeck

Depiction of oppression in the pearl by john steinbeck, symbolism in john steinbeck’s the pearl, racism and classism in the pearl and the secret river, let us write you an essay from scratch.

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The Power of Greed in Treasure Island by Robert Louis Stevenson and The Pearl by John Steinbeck

A perspective of nature in the pearl, a book by john steinbeck, the portrayal of verism in the pearl and of mice and men.

John Steinbeck

English, Spanish, Portuguese

Kino, Juana, Coyotito, The Doctor, Juan Tomas, Apolonia, The pearl dealers, The thieves and trackers

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the pearl essay prediction 2022

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AQA English Language Paper 1 June 2022: The Pearl

AQA English Language Paper 1 June 2022: The Pearl

Subject: English

Age range: 14-16

Resource type: Lesson (complete)


Last updated

28 March 2023

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the pearl essay prediction 2022

A resource focusing on questions 2-5 of June 2022 English Language AQA Paper 1 with an Extract from The Pearl. Includes AQA Extract. Lesson comes complete with planning and model answers from Q2-4, exemplar Q5 story, examples of planning for story and vocab sheet that can be used as help.

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The Pearl Essays

John Steinbeck is the author of this text. His life dates from 1902 to 1968. He hails from Salinas, in a moderately well up family. His writing career dates from 1925. His first published work includes a series of humor filled stories about Monterey paisanos, widely known as ‘Tortilla Flat’. A...

1 972 words

The Odyssey and The Pearl: Loyalty Loyalty to another person or to a cause may be an admirable trait, but it can lead to either positive or negative consequences. In Homer's epic The Odyssey and John Steinbeck's novel The Pearl there are characters that show great examples of this trait. Penelope...

In this article "The Pearls of Obedience", Stanley Milgram asserts that obedience to authority is a common response for many people in today's society, often diminishing an individuals beliefs or ideals. Stanley Milgram designs an experiment to understand how strong a person's tendency to obey...

Symbolism in The Pearl by John Steinbeck Novels were created to show a very naive view in great depth. The Pearl is a novel in its most complete form. Steinbeck does this by conveying life symbolically. Through symbols, John offers the reader a clearer look at life and it's content. He shows major...

The Girl with the Pearl Earring Main characters: 1. )Griet: Griet is a protestant girl from Holland who goes to work as a maid in Vermeer's home after her father has an accident that leaves him blind. She is a young girl with fair skin and blonde hair. She wears the clothes of a servant. She is...

1 664 words

"AYUBOWAN" May you have the gift of long life! It is with this traditional greeting, that everyone is welcomed to Sri Lanka, the paradise island. For a small island Sri Lanka has many nicknames; Serendip, Ceylon, Tear drop of India, Resplendent Isle, Island of Dhamma, Pearl of the Indian Ocean...

The Pearl In John Steinbeck's Nobel Prize-winning novel, The Pearl, the author portrays a realistic storyline as well as many life-lessons. In Steinbeck's opinion, the job of the writer is to expose "our many grievous faults and failures" in an attempt to improve ourselves, and meanwhile also to...

The Pearl By: John Steinbeck Discuss the symbolism used in the novel. Consider the following, the doctor as a symbol of racism, the pearl as a symbol of hope and Coyotito as a symbol of the future. In The Pearl by John Steinbeck symbolism is using for lots of things and these things can symbolize...

The Pearl Maiden The Pearl Maiden by S ir H. Rider Haggard is the story of Miriam, A young Christian women living in the roman empire during the first century after Christ. Rachel, mother of Miriam, facing hardship by the persecution of the Romans after Christians brushes with death as the Romans...

The Pearl: setting Over the course of John Steinbeck’s The Pearl, the description of the setting changes dramatically over the course of the novel. The protagonist of the story, Kino, was a simple and happy man, in the beginning. He is a member of a tribe, at the out skirts of his town. In the town...

Setting: The Village: In many ways, the village in which most of the story takes place, is a symbol of the oppression of the people. To create this symbol, Steinbeck personifies the town. The Gulf Another important element of the setting is the sea. It, too, takes on symbolic importance in the...

1 441 words

Assignment 1 " Money is the root of all evil". To what extend is this one of the themes of the novel you studied. The Pearl by John Steinbeck - The theme of Greed Nurain Ariff This theme emerges the moment the people of La Paz get to know about Kino's pearl and we begin to see changes in the...

2 955 words

Social classes were widely separated in the world which John Steinbeck knew. The differences between the lower class and the upper class were very obvious. Unlike today, there was no such thing as a middle class. A person was either categorized as very rich or very poor. Steinbeck used his...

Name ___________________ Date___________________ The Pearl by John Steinbeck Test Questions Multiple Choice 1) Where did the Pearl take place? A. Spain B. Mexico C. Cuba D. United States 2) What stings Coyotito? A. A Porcupine B. A Hornet C. A Scorpion D. A Bee 3) With what does Kino offer to pay...

In John Steinbeck’s The Pearl, rich symbolism is used to convey the message of the parable being told. Symbolism is a useful tool in storytelling because it helps the author add a deeper meaning to the story. In The Pearl, Steinbeck enriches every aspect of the story with symbolism from the setting...

1 499 words

Analysis of the pearl by John Steinbeck (page 40 – 50) THE WORRIEDNESS OF KINO TO LOSE THE PEARL A long page 40- 50, John Steinbeck told about the worriedness of Kino to lose the pearl, in the page 40 I see that there Kino, so anxious to lose the pearl, till he presume that a spot of rain as a...

In The Pearl, John Steinbeck describes pearl diving consisting of two ropes tied one to a stone and the other to a basket. The basket remained in the canoe while the rock went down under and lead him to the bottom of the water. "Kino had two ropes, one tied to a heavy stone and one to a basket. He...

The successful novella called the Pearl was written in 1945 by John Steinbeck who explores the themes of oppression, greed, evil and their connections to his great wealth through the characterisation of the Doctor, an essential character in the book. John Steinbeck uses literary devices such as...

The Pearl, Interpretive Essay In The Pearl, the author, John Steinbeck, uses the pearl to express what human nature is like. At the beginning of the novel, the pearl that Kino finds is described as large as being incandescent and as "perfect as the moon"; by the end of the novel, the pearl that...

1 164 words

Have you ever been told you were greedy? When Kino found the Pearl, he was suddenly changed by it. He became greedy and selfish the longer he had and thought of the Pearl. Taking possession over the Pearl also caused him to make horrible decisions. Lastly, the incredible find of it made him...


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Themes - The Pearl Study Guide

« Previous Topic Synopsis and Summary of Chapters - The Pearl Study Guide



Greed and corruption.

  • Nature of Power

Price of Wisdom

Good vs. evil, race, tradition, and oppression, value and wealth.

the pearl essay prediction 2022

Evil 1: Evil is introduced in the form of the scorpion that stings Coyotito. Until that moment, Kino's home is peaceful, filled with the Song of Family. But when he spots the scorpion dangling above Coyotito's bed, Kino recognizes the strains of the Song of Evil that recur throughout the story. The Song of Evil comes when anything threatens the family, and Kino does all that he can to destroy the evil and hush the sinister melody of the Song of Evil so that the Song of Family can return.

Evil 2: Kino hears the Song of Evil again when he and Juana stand at the gates of the doctor's house. Kino knows that the doctor is of the race that has abused Kino's own people for four hundred years; despite the fact that they need the doctor's help, Kino knows that the doctor is still the enemy. He will try to cheat them or abuse them as his people have always done to Kino's own race.

Evil 3: The buyers are out to take advantage of Kino and his pearl. Their goal is to cheat him and ruin his plans of happiness and peace for his family.

Evil 4: The doctor comes to take advantage of Kino's ignorance by making Coyotito sick and pretending that his illness is the result of the scorpion sting. Because Kino and Juana are uneducated, they are afraid to doubt the doctor's word, and he uses it to profit from their newfound wealth. He pretends as if he doesn't know of Kino's pearl, yet the only reason he has condescended to treat an Indian baby was to try and seek out where Kino might be hiding it. The pearl brings evil in the form of greed: many seek to take advantage of Kino's newfound wealth.

Evil 5: The buyers work together to cheat Kino of his pearl and intend to give him very little money for it. They have planned to convince him that his pearl is worthless and pretend that they're doing him a favor by taking it off his hands. The buyers are aware of the pearl's tremendous value, and intend to con the "uneducated native;" he will trust them because they are the "experts."

Evil 6: Kino believes that his friends will help protect him from the evils that might befall him because of the pearl, but instead of finding protection with his neighbors, he is attacked. His pearl has turned friends into enemies; they are jealous and envy the pearl of the world that Kino has found.

Evil 7: The pearl turns Juana and Kino against one another. The evil power of the pearl is strong enough to inspire violence between them. Juana and Kino are so close to one another that conversation isn't even needed, and yet the pearl is able to divide them. It has brought injury and danger, and now it pulls Juana and Kino away from each other.

Evil 8: Kino is forced to kill a man to defend himself and the pearl. Then Kino's hut is burned after someone searching for the pearl has ransacked it. Those who covet the great pearl destroy everything that Kino and Juana have in their attempts to find it. The Pearl is making everyone turn against them, and Kino and Juana know that they are no longer safe in their village, and must escape.

Evil 9: Kino looks into the pearl expecting to see visions of the dreams he had the night after he found the pearl, but the only things he sees are the horrible things that have happened to his family since he found the pearl. He begins to realize the evil the pearl contains, but still refuses to give it up.

Evil 10: In a dream, Kino has a premonition of danger. He wakes and discovers trackers are following his family. He knows that they will find them and kill them for the pearl. He feels trapped because there is no way for them to escape the trackers.

Evil 11: In the struggle to protect his family and survive, Kino turns into a killing machine. He attacks, swiftly and brutally, killing all three men who were tracking his family in a quest to steal his great pearl. Kino has been forced to do terrible things to survive and to protect the pearl from being stolen. The pearl's value has made it evil.

Family 1: Kino hears the Song of Family in each routine of his life. Although their life is simple, the rhythm of their habits and the sounds of each part of their lives make up a song that is important to Kino. It fills his ears and he is content with the safe and sturdy song. Kino will protect this song and the family it represents because it is all he has and he loves it.

Family 2: Kino inherited his canoe, his only thing of value, from his father and grandfather, and it makes him proud. It is his legacy and he takes great care of it because it is the tool he uses to provide for his family. The canoe is the only inheritance he has beyond the songs of his people, and Kino loves his canoe.

Family 3: Kino cannot take a chance that the doctor is lying to him about Coyotito's health because he doesn't want his child to suffer. The doctor takes advantage of a parent's concern for his child to turn a profit. He knows that Kino will trust enough in the doctor's knowledge to allow him to treat Coyotito because Kino is unsure that the baby is healed.

Family 4: Kino won't give up the pearl even though it's brought nothing but pain because he sees its value as a chance to provide for his son's education, allowing him to escape their simple life. Kino does not want those with a formal education to take advantage of Coyotito, like they do to other uneducated natives. He wants more for his son and his family than their simple life, and the pearl is the key to those aspirations.

Family 5: The pearl that Kino expected to protect his family is now tearing it apart. Juana warns Kino that the pearl will destroy their family, but Kino refuses to believe it because he thinks that the wealth the pearl offers is the best way to protect his family. He thinks that by keeping the pearl, he is doing what is best for his family, but the pearl is only pushing him and Juana apart. If it is dividing them, it cannot protect the family from harm. It only makes life more precarious for them.

Family 6: Juan Tomas helps his brother in every way that he can, by diverting the neighbors and gathering supplies for Kino's journey. Juan knows that the pearl has brought evil onto his brother's family, and he does all the he can to help them escape from it, but he cannot convince Kino to get rid of the pearl.

Family 7: As Kino, Juana, and Coyotito are making their escape, Kino believes that his family will triumph because they seem to be getting away. He begins to believe that everything will work out; the pearl promises security and peace, and they will escape the bad luck that has plagued them since he found the pearl. He believes that now his family will prosper.

Family 8: Kino considers giving himself up to the trackers because there is no way that he and his family can get away from them. The thought momentarily defeats him, until Juana reminds him that the trackers will kill her and Coyotito as well, and that prods Kino into action.

Family 9: In the midst of danger, their survival depends on keeping the baby quiet through the night. If he cries, their hiding place is given away, but if he can keep silent, perhaps Kino will be able to disarm the men and secure his family's escape.

Family 10: Juana was right from the beginning -- the pearl did destroy their son. The trackers who were following them kill Coyotito. Kino's insistence that the pearl would find peace and happiness for his family costs Coyotito his life and leaves a hole in their family that would not have been there had Kino never found the pearl.

Superstition 1: When Coyotito is in danger of being stung by the scorpion, Juana mutters an ancient magic incantation and then some Hail Marys to protect her son. The ancient, superstitious religion of the peasantry has been mixed with the Catholicism of the Western upper class. Juana appeals to native gods and the Western God, uncertain of which holds the true power. This mingling of a polytheistic religion with Roman Catholicism is common in native countries that are colonized. The natives combine the gods of their own religion with the figures of Catholicism. Elements of their original faith remain, such as incantations like the one Juana mutters.

Superstition 2: Juana prays that Kino will find a pearl so that they can have Coyotito's scorpion sting treated by the doctor. She prays in an attempt to force from the gods the luck she and Kino need to take care of Coyotito. Finding a pearl of value is strictly luck. Pearls themselves are accidental, and finding a pearl is considered a gift from the gods or God.

Superstition 3: When Kino finds the large shell, he is reluctant to open it first because he doesn't want to show the gods or God that he wants the pearl so much. He believes that if he wants it too much, it won't happen, and so he waits to open the shell.

Superstition 4: Kino worries that the gods will get revenge against him if he finds success. He knows that the gods hate when men plan for success, and now that Kino is making plans, he fears that something will come and rob him of this opportunity.

Superstition 5: Juana believes that the pearl is cursed because it has brought an intruder into their home. She warns Kino that it will destroy them all, including their son, if they don't throw it back into the sea, but Kino won't listen. His desire to use the pearl to educate his son and make a better life for his family is too strong. He ignores Juana's warning and keeps the pearl.

Superstition 6: Juana still believes that the pearl is cursed, and she asks Kino to throw it back into the sea again, but he refuses. He insists that it is their only chance and he won't give it up. Juana, however, knows that the pearl will only bring more evil and disaster to them, and decides she must take matters into her own hands, and get rid of the pearl.

Superstition 7: Juana decides that if Kino won't get rid of the cursed pearl, she will. She takes the pearl and tries to throw it back into the sea to protect her family from any more danger, but Kino stops her. Her fear of the pearl is well-founded; Kino beats her for trying to get rid of the pearl, further proving that the pearl is cursed and evil. It has made Kino attack and harm the one person he loves most.

Superstition 8: Juan warns Kino that the pearl is cursed and that he must get rid of it to pass the evil on to someone else. He hopes that Kino can sell it soon so that the evil of the pearl will not destroy his family before Kino can rid himself of it.

Superstition 9: When Kino looks into the pearl and sees only the tragedies that have befallen his family, he begins to believe that the pearl is cursed, but he still cannot part with it.

Superstition 10: Kino and Juana throw the pearl back into the sea after Coyotito is killed by the trackers. The cursed pearl has brought about the death of their child and forced Kino to kill to survive and protect his family. The great pearl has brought nothing but misery to Kino and his family, and together they throw the cursed object back into the sea. As it sinks, the music of the pearl turns to a whisper and then disappears.

As the word spreads that Kino has found a huge pearl, the news of his discovery “stirred up something infinitely black and evil in the town”; greed is a “black distillate” comparable to the poison of a scorpion. It infects rich and poor alike. The beggars in the street, the merchants, the pearl buyers, the doctor, and the local priest—all think of the pearl in terms of how they might profit from Kino’s possessing it. Greed drives some people in the town to commit acts of violence against Kino in attempting to steal the pearl. Blood is shed.

Corruption fueled by greed is evident in individual lives and in society at large. The doctor is corrupted by his love of money and fine possessions; in a silk robe, he sits in his beautiful house, sipping chocolate from a china cup, while he refuses to aid Coyotito, who has been stung by a scorpion. The baby is only an Indian, after all, and the doctor, he insists, is not a “veterinary”; moreover, Coyotito’s father, Kino, has nothing of value to give to the doctor in return for his treating the sick child. Later, the doctor uses his knowledge of medicine to make a recovering Coyotito ill in order to “save” him and gain access to Kino’s pearl. In the cold, calculated perversion of his profession, the doctor exhibits his moral corruption as a physician and as a human being.

The doctor’s attitude toward the native Indian population is rooted in centuries of colonial conquest and subjugation. He is “of a race which for nearly four hundred years had beaten and starved and robbed and despised Kino’s race, and frightened it too ….” The consequence of this history is a corrupt society determined to keep Kino’s people imprisoned by poverty and ignorance. From the pearl buyers in La Paz (secret representatives of a single buyer) who conspire to pay the Indians as little as possible for their pearls to the priest whose sermons admonish the Indians to accept their station in life, the institutions in society work in concert to deny freedom and justice to every member of Kino’s race. In doing so, those in power enrich themselves at the expense of the poor and the powerless.

In Chapter II, Kino dives for pearls in a desperate attempt to find one of value with which to pay the doctor to treat Coyotito for the scorpion sting that could kill him. Instead, Coyotito’s condition improves, the result of Juana’s treating his wound with an “old remedy,” and Kino finds not just a valuable pearl but “the Pearl of the World.” With these two events, Kino’s life changes dramatically. In the magnificence of the huge, perfect pearl, Kino envisions a future unlike any he had ever dared to imagine; looking into the glowing surface of the pearl, he sees “dreams form”—new clothes for his family, his and Juana’s wedding in the church, a harpoon and a rifle for himself, and most of all, an education for Coyotito. Kino’s contentment with the “Song of the Family” is now lost in “the music of the pearl” that sings with “triumph” in him.   Becoming a rich man changes Kino’s life immediately in ways he does not anticipate as “shadowy figures” attempt to steal the pearl. He is attacked, his home is invaded, and he kills a man in self-defense when he is attacked a second time. When Juana tries to throw the pearl back into the sea, believing that it is evil and will destroy them, Kino beats her with animal savagery and then is sickened by what he has done to her. For Kino, possessing the pearl with all its promises has become an obsession; he pursues it until his and Juana’s old life is destroyed and their baby is dead.   Despite the initial death and destruction the pearl brings into his and Juana’s life, Kino will not give it up. Rather than sell it to the corrupt pearl buyers for essentially nothing, he chooses to defy the system and sell it in the capital for a fair price; after his house has been burned and his canoe destroyed, he still refuses to sell the pearl in La Paz. “This pearl has become my soul,” Kino says. “If I give it up I shall lose my soul.” Leaving the old life behind, he takes Juana and Coyotito on a journey to the capital, leaving the trail and fleeing into the mountains when they are tracked by three men who will kill them for the pearl. Kino prevails over the trackers, killing them all, but his obsession with the pearl ends only when he realizes Coyotito has died, the innocent victim of a rifle shot. Returning to the village with Juana by his side, Kino throws the pearl into the sea.

Kino’s subjugation by society has not destroyed his pride or self-respect. Only for fear of Coyotito’s dying does he ask, hat in hand, for the doctor’s assistance. When he is turned away with an obvious lie by the doctor’s servant, Kino feels so deeply humiliated he is overcome by rage. He stands at the gate to the doctor’s house for “a long time,” puts his “suppliant hat on his head,” and then strikes the gate with “a crushing blow.” He will not consent to being marginalized; his pride will not allow him to endure passively the doctor’s insult.

Kino’s pride is manifested again in his confrontation with the pearl buyers in La Paz. Knowing that he is being cheated, Kino refuses to sell his pearl to them; in declaring that he will sell the pearl in the capital, Kino asserts his independence and refuses to be humiliated again. Later, when Kino’s house is burned and his canoe destroyed, the loss is more than material. To Juan Tomás Kino says, “[a]n insult has been put on me that is deeper than my life.” Kino’s pride, as much as his desire to secure money for Coyotito’s future, demands that he challenge the system that holds him down. He has no choice, for as he tells Juana, “I am a man.”

Nature of Power.

Power vs. powerlessness is a theme that runs throughout  The Pearl . Kino’s race has been subjugated for centuries by European colonialism. The oyster bed where Kino finds the great pearl is the same bed “that had raised the King of Spain to be a great power in Europe in past years, had helped to pay for his wars, and had decorated the churches for his soul’s sake.” Kino’s conquered people have remained powerless for four hundred years, “since first the strangers came with arguments and authority and gunpowder to back up both.” Once established, the subjugation of the Indians has been perpetuated by society’s ensuring that they remain poor and ignorant. Any desire they might have for a better life is suppressed by the church; the priest in La Paz teaches that each person must “remain faithful” to his station in life, assigned by God, in order to protect the universe from “the assaults of Hell.”

Kino is well aware of how powerless he is in life. After finding the pearl, his dreams of the future include buying a rifle, a weapon that gives a man power. More significantly, however, he dreams of an education for his son. If Coyotito could read, “the boy would know what things were in the books and what things were not.” Kino understands that real power lies in knowledge: “My son will read and open the books, and my son will write and know writing. And my son will make numbers, and these things will make us free because he will know—he will know and through him we will know.” The pearl means more than wealth to Kino; it offers an end to being trapped by ignorance. “This is our one chance,” he tells Juana. “Our son must go to school. He must break out of the pot that holds us in.” In defying the pearl buyers and challenging the system they represent, Kino initiates a power struggle that ultimately ends in Coyotito’s death. 

Juana understands far sooner than Kino the danger in possessing the pearl. “It will destroy us all,” she cries out to him. “Even our son.” After Kino and Juana’s way of life has been obliterated—their house burned and Kino’s canoe smashed—Juan Tomás attempts to save them from further destruction. “There is a devil in this pearl,” he tells Kino. “You should have sold it and passed on the devil. Perhaps you can still sell it and buy peace for yourself.” Kino refuses, clinging to the pearl although he perceives it differently: “I have it … And I will keep it … now it is my misfortune and my life and I will keep it.” When Kino is caught up in dreams of the future, he beats Juana for attempting to throw the pearl into the Gulf; at the conclusion of the story, it is Kino who returns the pearl to the sea. Juana stands beside him, the bloodied body of their dead son wrapped in her shawl—a terrible price to pay for Kino’s acquiring wisdom.

What, however, is the wisdom of  The Pearl , if indeed it is a parable? The question remains unanswered in the story, but a passage from the text suggests an interpretation:

For it is said that humans are never satisfied; that you give them one thing and they want something more. And this is said in disparagement, whereas it is one of the greatest talents the species has and one that has made it superior to animals that are satisfied with what they have.

The lesson inherent in Kino’s possessing “the Pearl of the World” may be found in this characteristic of human nature: the desire for more. One of man’s “greatest talents,” the story suggests, is also a curse that creates dissatisfaction and destroys contentment.

Before finding the pearl, Kino lives a peaceful and secure existence, in harmony with the natural world; he finds happiness and fulfillment in the simple routines of his life—waking up beside Juana, listening to “the little splash of morning waves on the beach,” watching Coyotito sleep in his cradle, and standing on the beach before dawn to watch the sun rise out of the Gulf. The morning before Kino finds the pearl is “a morning like other mornings and yet perfect among mornings.” He lives within “the Song of the Family”; it rises sometimes “to an aching chord that caught the throat, saying this is safety, this is warmth, this is the  Whole .”

When the pearl comes into his possession, Kino forfeits his old life for new dreams; he gains nothing and loses almost everything of real value. When he and Juana return to their village with Coyotito’s body, they have been transformed by grief and seem “removed from human experience.” The pearl, once luminous and enchanting, now seems ugly and gray to Kino, “like a malignant growth.” Standing at the water’s edge, he flings it into the sea “with all his might.” Readers find many meanings in  The Pearl , as Steinbeck intended, but the primary truth of the story seems to be a warning as much as a lesson—to be aware of the human drive to want more than we have and to appreciate and protect what is truly valuable in our lives before it is lost. 

The plot of The Pearl is driven by a constant struggle between the morally opposite forces of good and evil. Evil in The Pearl can appear in both man (the doctor) and nature (the scorpion); both evil man (the doctor) and good man (Kino); both ugly shape (the scorpion) and beautiful shape (the pearl). While the scorpion’s evil takes the form of lethal poison, man’s evil throughout the novel takes the form of overriding greed. The doctor, for instance, is evil because he acts upon greed over human care and professional responsibility. Similarly, the neighbors are evil when they act upon greed over neighborly respect, and Kino is evil when he acts upon greed over love for his wife.

Evil in the novel is an omnipotent, destructive force. One must either bear it (as in the case of the scorpion) or avoid it (as in the case of the pearl), because to combat it only breeds more evil. When Kino tries to fight off the thieves and protect the pearl, for instance, he ends up committing acts of evil himself, on both the thieves and his wife. Kino does destroy the evil-bearers that act to harm his family—he squashes the scorpion, kills the trackers, throws the pearl into the ocean—but he only succeeds in doing so after the evil has run its course and the poison has already seeped in.

Kino and Juana’s racial heritage both provides them with the grounding force of ritual and tradition and deprives them of power under the reign of European colonizers. They continue to sing the songs they have inherited from their ancestors, but they also continue to be oppressed as their ancestors were, by white people like the doctor and by people with economic influence like the pearl-dealers. Their oppression is brought increasingly to light throughout The Pearl, as Kino attempts to cooperate with the people who have the power (the money, the expertise) to help his son recover, but are the very same people that traditionally oppress people of Kino’s race.

In the end, dealing in the world of White wealth and medicine leaves Kino and Juana in a worse condition than they set out in: they end up without a son, home, or canoe. By throwing the pearl back into the ocean, it seems, Kino is attempting to free himself of the colonizers’ influence and escape their system of evaluation, to return to his own set of traditions and values. As readers, we might also take a step back and wonder whether Steinbeck might himself be guilty of the kind of racial discrimination that Kino attributes to the colonizers, in consistently describing him with animalistic characteristics and by making generalizations about “his people.”

The value and evaluation of material entities is a central theme in The Pearl. The value of the pearl, for example, requires reassessment throughout the novel: at the moment of its discovery, it seems to be worth Coyotito’s life. That the pearl-dealers then so underestimate the price of the pearl reveals how distant the monetary worth of something can be from its perceived value, and how much value is determined by those in power. Moreover, the determination of the pearl’s value has little to do with anything inherent to the object itself. As the narrator describes, a pearl forms by a natural “accident”: “a grain of sand could lie in the folds of muscle and irritate the flesh until in self-protection the flesh coated the grain with a layer of smooth cement.”

Kino’s canoe, on the other hand, is described as the “one thing of value he owned in the world.” Kino prizes his canoe not as a possession but as a “source of food,” a tool that allows him to fish and dive for pearls. It seems, therefore, that Kino values things that can help him provide him for his family. Unlike the pearl, whose sole function is to be possessed and looked at and whose value is assigned (arbitrarily) by people in power, the canoe is valuable because of its functionality and tradition, and its association with the dignity of work.

The Pearl reveals the slipperiness of value and evaluation: often, value is assessed by those who are already wealthy and powerful. What is valuable to one man (the canoe to Kino) may not seem valuable to another. Moreover, wealth in the novel is, in fact, not a source of well being, but of bad fortune or malicious greed. In the end, what remains of value to Kino and Juana is immaterial and has no price: love and the family.

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Pearl is a slasher prequel that makes the original even better

A killer follow-up to x creates a promising new horror franchise.

By Andrew Webster , an entertainment editor covering streaming, virtual worlds, and every single Pokémon video game. Andrew joined The Verge in 2012, writing over 4,000 stories.

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Mia Goth in Pearl.

When X came out earlier this year, it was a capable, well-crafted homage to ’70s slasher flicks from director Ti West, but there wasn’t much to it beyond that. It turns out the project is much bigger than that one-off story. As was teased at the end of X , we now have a prequel, Pearl , that tells the origin story of its titular bloodthirsty killer. On their own, the two films each offer a satisfying amount of scares and gore. But it’s when you put them together that they become much more intriguing.

This review contains spoilers for both Pearl and X.

X told the story of a group of young folks attempting to film a porn movie in a rented farmhouse before being steadily killed by the murderous elderly couple they were renting from. Pearl explains how that couple got so murderous. Its predecessor pulled liberally from classic horror movies like The Texas Chainsaw Massacre , but Pearl goes in a different direction. It’s much more like The Wizard of Oz. Only, you know, with lots of blood and guts.

Set in 1918, it stars Pearl (Mia Goth), a simple farm girl with dreams of being a star. Problem is, her husband (Alistair Sewell) is away fighting in World War I, her father (Matthew Sunderland) is sick with the Spanish flu, and her strict mother (Tandi Wright) needs Pearl’s help to keep their struggling farm going. Despite a seemingly cheery disposition, Pearl feels trapped. She sneaks out whenever she can to watch movies, dreaming of one day being a dancer on-screen. But it’s not long before the cracks start to show. Early on, she randomly kills a farm animal with a casual kind of blood lust, and later, she has a surprisingly intimate moment with a scarecrow. Something is wrong, and Pearl knows it. She just doesn’t know how to fix it.

Things really start to change when she meets the local projectionist (David Corenswet), a self-proclaimed Bohemian who introduces her to smut movies and the idea of living life for yourself. While her mother dismisses Pearl’s dreams, the projectionist actually supports them, fueling her desires. Soon after, her glamorous sister-in-law Misty (Emma Jenkins-Purro) convinces Pearl to audition for a local dance troupe. What follows is a series of unfortunate events that leads to Pearl ultimately becoming uncoupled from reality and taking her first steps into the wide world of being a slasher movie villain.

Pearl works as a standalone horror movie; the contrast between The Wizard of Oz vibe and the lurking dread builds a wonderful kind of tension and makes the moments of bloodshed hit that much harder. It helps that Goth turns in an incredible performance. She shines, particularly during a long, discomforting speech that sees her accept herself as well as the perfect yet painfully awkward credits sequence. Goth’s ability to swap between Pearl’s true self and the mask she wears in public is wonderful to watch.

Mia Goth as Maxine in X.

But what really makes the movie interesting is how it builds on, and adds layers and texture to, its predecessor. X made it clear that Pearl was full of spite and envy, yearning for her younger days. But now, those motivations are much more clear, to the point that she almost becomes a sympathetic figure. We also see how her husband is roped into the whole endeavor and even get an origin story for the alligator. No matter which order you watch them in, each movie strengthens the other.

This isn’t an entirely new phenomenon, of course. Horror movies are often great at building up a mythology over the course of multiple films, whether it’s Friday the 13th or A Nightmare on Elm Street . But with Pearl and X , much like with Netflix’s Fear Street trilogy , there’s an intentionality that’s clear from the beginning. The mythology isn’t being created on the fly; it’s there from the start, waiting for you to put the pieces together.

There’s more on the way, too: Pearl will be followed by Maxxxine , a direct sequel to X (I know, the titles are confusing) that sees Goth reprise her other role of Maxine as she attempts to make it in LA. Based on the first teaser , it’s clear Maxxxine will have an ’80s vibe, adding another flavor to West’s growing slasher story — and giving Goth another chance to establish herself as one of horror’s most promising new villains.

Pearl is in theaters on September 16th. This review is based on a screening at the Toronto International Film Festival.

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Pearl River flood predictions fall, but officials warn it's not over yet

the pearl essay prediction 2022

The Jackson area may have dodged a bullet as predictions of a 36-foot crest of the Pearl River were revised Sunday to a crest of 35.5 feet as early as late Sunday night or Monday morning.

The 36-foot high-water mark had been the barometer for the increased likelihood of flooding.

“It’s all good news,” reservoir general manager John Sigman said. “If you didn’t get water in your house yet, maybe you won’t.”

Sigman said the crest at the reservoir will hold at least 24 hours before beginning to fall.

WATER WOES FOR SCHOOLS: MAE, JAE highlight water issues in schools

MORE ON FLOOD: Pearl River flood: Jackson residents prepare for nightmare that won't end

“I have to get water out of the lake,” Sigman said. “We will hold the discharge, but we will not increase the discharge at this time.”

The National Weather Service also adjusted its estimate Sunday, now saying the Pearl River will crest at 35.5 late Sunday night or Monday, instead of the 36 feet that had been predicted previously.

“It’s actually going to be better than that prediction,” Sigman said. “It doesn’t mean there isn’t a water pileup in the floodplain that’s still got to get here, however.

“So, residents shouldn’t assume that what they see right now (Sunday afternoon) is as high as it will get. It could creep up another inch or so.”

“We anticipate that we can reduce the discharge in the near future,” Sigman said. “However, we do have to keep a high discharge for now.”

Marty Pope, a meteorologist from the National Weather Service, confirmed that the agency's prediction for the Pearl River crest is at 35.5 feet by Monday morning, below the 36 or more that had been anticipated just 24 hours ago.

The Ross Barnett Reservoir crested Sunday at 298.5 feet above sea level, the highest it has been since it crested at 299.5 feet in 1979, and all indications are that the Pearl River will crest lower than previously predicted.

The Sunday morning reading of the Pearl River was 35.12 feet, but there is some expected creep up that would take it to 35.5.

"It could be less than 35.5," Pope said. "But there are some other factors that we are looking at."

The weather forecast for Sunday calls for scattered showers in the area.

“We think any showers we get (Sunday) will be scattered in nature, but as long as it is not widespread or not several inches directly over the reservoir, it won’t give us any problem," Pope said.

All of the streams above the reservoir are falling very rapidly, Pope said. That should make the reservoir drop, and when that does, the river south of the reservoir will begin to drop, maybe even more quickly than originally anticipated.

Pope also said that after talking with emergency management officials in Hinds County, there are some houses that have been impacted that have visible water marks. That could mean there is some cresting already happening.

“I don’t want to get anyone’s hopes up too much at this point, but everything seems to be good news right now,” Pope said.

As for the rest of the week, the National Weather Service is keeping an eye on the tropics.

“We are going to have to keep an eye on things over the Labor Day weekend as tropical wave moves up through the Caribbean and toward the Gulf," Pope said. "There is a lot of uncertainty about how that is going to play because it is going to be several days or another week before there is a crest toward the lower end of the Pearl River."

On Saturday, Mississippi Gov. Tate Reeves declared a state of emergency for areas surrounding the Pearl River, and Jackson Mayor Chokwe Lumbuma urged residents of low-lying areas to get out of their houses as soon as possible.

How to Prepare Before a Flood

  • Collect important documents, records and valuable items and to move them to a safe place.
  • Gather important insurance documents.
  • Take photographs of valuable items for insurance records.
  • One shelter for those fleeing flood waters is open at the Jackson Police Academy at 3000 St. Charles St. Another shelter will be opened by the city and announced as needed.

School buses

  • Jackson Public Schools officials expect there to be some disruption of school buses in the coming days but won't know until they know the exact places where there will be flooding. They urged parents and students to be aware of any updates as they come.

How to get help, information

  • Jackson officials say if anyone has issues with mobility or transportation to leave their home because of potential flooding, they should  call 311  as soon as possible. If residents can't get through on 311, the city advises them to call the Jackson Police Department's non-emergency number at 601-960-1234 or the Hinds County Emergency Operations Center at 601-968-6771. These numbers are available 24 hours. 

What areas are in Jackson's voluntary evacuation order?

  • Any area near the Pearl River
  • Upper Northeast Jackson
  • Westbrook Road
  • S. West Street area
  • Hightower community 
  • Silas Brown Street

Neighborhoods in Jackson most frequently affected by flooding: 

  • Presidential Hills
  • Hemingway Circle
  • Casa Grande
  • Choctaw Road off State Street

Major creeks in the city are also particularly prone to flooding:

  • Hanging Moss
  • Purple Creek
  • Town Creek 
  • Eubanks Creek

Pearl River flooding at 34 feet 

  • City garage area off S. Jefferson Street
  • Eastover area
  • Foxboro Street
  • Galilee Street
  • Martin & Hinds streets
  • Old Brandon Road
  • President Street - south end
  • Sidney Street
  • South West Street - Union Planter s
  • South West Street - Randy's Upholstery parking lot
  • Rosemary Road east of Terry Road
  • Riverwood Drive - east of Harrow Drive 
  • Westbrook Road - east of Sedgewick Drive
  • Yucca Drive

Pearl River flooding at 35 feet 

  • Annie Street
  • Beasley Street
  • Cypress Trail
  • Greenwood  Avenue at Hardy Creek 
  • Hudson Street - east end
  • McNuitt Street
  • Nichols Street
  • Offutt Street 
  • President Street from South Silas Brown Street - south end
  • River cove area
  • River Glenn area
  • North River Road
  • Riverwood/Harrow drives 
  • Rollingwood at Yucca Drive - south end

Pearl River flooding at 36 feet

  • Beatty & Rankin streets at Silas Brown Street
  • Canterbury Court
  • Canton Club Circle at Sedgewick Drive 
  • Canton Club Circle - northeast end 
  • Harrow Drive
  • Hinds Street 
  • Julienne Street
  • Linde Air Trailer Court
  • Meadow Oaks Park Drive 
  • Moncure Road 
  • Rankin Street 
  • Santa Clara Circle 
  • Sedgewick Drive & Canton Club Circle
  • Sproles Street 
  • Stokes Robinson Road 

Pearl River flooding at 37 feet  

  • Canton Club Circle at Sedgewick Drive
  • Canton Club Circle - northeast end
  • Congress Street
  • Dunbarton Drive - west end 
  • Hinds Street
  • Linde Air Trailer Court 
  • Meadow Oaks Park Drive
  • Moncure Road
  • Rankin Street
  • Rollingwood South
  • Santa Clara Circle
  • Silas Brown between Congress & West streets
  • Sproles Street
  • State Street
  • Twin Lakes Circle off Greenbriar and Pebble lanes. 
  • Village Park Mobile Homes

Dynamic Graph Neural Networks Under Spatio-Temporal Distribution Shift

Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 35 (NeurIPS 2022) Main Conference Track

Zeyang Zhang, Xin Wang, Ziwei Zhang, Haoyang Li, Zhou Qin, Wenwu Zhu

Dynamic graph neural networks (DyGNNs) have demonstrated powerful predictive abilities by exploiting graph structural and temporal dynamics. However, the existing DyGNNs fail to handle distribution shifts, which naturally exist in dynamic graphs, mainly because the patterns exploited by DyGNNs may be variant with respect to labels under distribution shifts. In this paper, we propose to handle spatio-temporal distribution shifts in dynamic graphs by discovering and utilizing {\it invariant patterns}, i.e., structures and features whose predictive abilities are stable across distribution shifts, which faces two key challenges: 1) How to discover the complex variant and invariant spatio-temporal patterns in dynamic graphs, which involve both time-varying graph structures and node features. 2) How to handle spatio-temporal distribution shifts with the discovered variant and invariant patterns. To tackle these challenges, we propose the Disentangled Intervention-based Dynamic graph Attention networks (DIDA). Our proposed method can effectively handle spatio-temporal distribution shifts in dynamic graphs by discovering and fully utilizing invariant spatio-temporal patterns. Specifically, we first propose a disentangled spatio-temporal attention network to capture the variant and invariant patterns. Then, we design a spatio-temporal intervention mechanism to create multiple interventional distributions by sampling and reassembling variant patterns across neighborhoods and time stamps to eliminate the spurious impacts of variant patterns. Lastly, we propose an invariance regularization term to minimize the variance of predictions in intervened distributions so that our model can make predictions based on invariant patterns with stable predictive abilities and therefore handle distribution shifts. Experiments on three real-world datasets and one synthetic dataset demonstrate the superiority of our method over state-of-the-art baselines under distribution shifts. Our work is the first study of spatio-temporal distribution shifts in dynamic graphs, to the best of our knowledge.

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The Longest Film

Synopsis of The Pearl Movie: The Psychopath

the pearl essay prediction 2022

Thelongestfilm.com – Synopsis Pearl Movie. Feeling lonely living on her parents’ ranch, Pearl feels that she cannot pursue her dream of becoming a dancer. Even though she really wanted to be one of the chorus girls who entertained Americans at that time.

When feeling depressed, Pearl determined to kill everyone who gets in the way of her goals, including her parents. Pearl a slasher horror film by Ti West, which released by A24 on September 16, 2022. A prequel to the film X (2022), this film tells the origin story of Pearl before she became a sadistic killer.

Appearing like classic 1930s films, Pearl is one of the best horror films in 2022.  How good is the quality of this film?

Synopsis Pearl Movie

Texas, 1918. America is being hit by an influenza pandemic. An immigrant family from Germany lives on a farm outside the city. Pearl lives there with her parents, where her paralyzed father cared for by her mother, who manages family affairs.

Pearl already has a husband who is currently at war in Europe. Whenever Pearl went into town to pick up drugs, she stopped by the cinema for a movie. Impressed by the beauty of the world of cinema, he aspires to become one of the dancers of a very famous dance group in America. However, that not possible because his life limited by strict rules from his mother.

At the cinema, Pearl meets a projector player who encourages her to pursue her dream. Feeling motivated, Pearl started to formulate a plan in her mind. On the way home, he stopped first at the cornfield and danced with a scarecrow. Her mother realized that the change Pearl had brought was lacking, and punished her by depriving her of dinner.

Mitsy, her sister-in-law, came to visit and reported that there was a dance audition to find new dancers. Pearl thought that this was the way for her to start a career and leave her village. At night, Pearl sneaks out of the house and goes to the cinema to meet the projectionist guy. The man then offered Pearl to watch a movie. Pearl asked him to show a film about a dancer she had seen, but the man instead played porn from Europe.

the pearl essay prediction 2022

Synopsis Pearl Movie : Pearl attacked Ruth

The man said that he had aspirations to become a filmmaker for this new type of film which he thought would break into the world of cinema. Ruth finds a dance audition flyer and scolds Pearl. There was a loud argument between them at the dinner table. Pearl attacked Ruth and pushed her near the fireplace. Ruth’s clothes were also exposed to fire which quickly burned her whole body. Pearl quickly poured soup stock to put out the fire. But all was too late.

The dying Ruth kept by Pearl in the basement and she heads into town to meet the man at the movie theater and spends the night there. The next morning, the man drove her home. He surprised to see a roasted pig covered in maggots on the terrace of the house. He starts to become suspicious when Pearl makes inconsistent statements.

When the man hesitated and chose to leave, Pearl immediately chased him with a rake and killed him. After that, he drowned the man with his car into the river where a huge crocodile awaited. To attend the audition, Pearl wore her mother’s red dress. But before leaving, he did not forget to kill his father first.

Synopsis Pearl Movie : Pearl gave best performance

He met Mitsy at the church where the auditions were being held. When it was her turn, Pearl gave her best performance. However, the jury rejected it on the grounds that she was not the woman they were looking for. Pearl very disappointed and screamed hysterically in front of the jury. Pearl came home lethargic alone. Mitsy found him on the side of the road.

At home, Pearl told Mitsy about her great disappointment with her parents, husband and the people she thought were hindering her dreams. Even though Pearl promised not to be angry with Mitsy for passing the audition, Mitsy still felt intimidated.

Mitsy ran out of the house with Pearl behind her carrying an axe. Can Mitsy escape Pearl’s threat? Or become the next victim of Pearl’s ferocity? Keep watching the tension of this film until the end and get ready to surprised by the last scene.

Synopsis of The Pearl Movie: The Psychopath

Causes of Disturbing Mental Disorders

Pearl’s figure is no longer a mystery in this film, we already know her madness from the film X (2022). However, what we hope for in this film is the psychological foundation and the reason he became a sadistic killer, a new horror icon candidate.

And all were answered very well and satisfactorily by Ti West as the director. From the opening scene to the ending, the reasons that caused Pearl’s soul to be disturbed are explained one by one. The pressure from Ruth, the mother, on Pearl throughout the first half of the film is quite hard and intense.

She always forbids things Pearl likes, like wearing nice dresses or dancing in front of mirrors. Orders to clean the stables, feed the cattle, or bathe his father were full of harsh tones. Of course, Pearl very depressed mentally because of that.

Pearl really loved her parents

Especially when Ruth underestimated Pearl’s dream of becoming a dancer. He even belittled Pearl, saying that she would not the star she had hoped for and that Ruth would not allow her to leave this farm. Pearl’s pressure makes her do desperate things, even though sometimes she seems to realize that it’s wrong. This is the strength of this 1 hour, 43 minute film story.

At one time, Pearl really loved her parents, especially her father, whom she often talked to even though she didn’t get the same answer. But at another time, Pearl really hated her parents because they were considered to be blocking her dream of becoming a star.

And all of this explained implicitly, but in a way that creates curiosity about what Pearl will do next. Pearl’s indecisive thinking makes the plot difficult to predict, even though we know that in the end she will kill everyone who gets in her way. Luckily, the audition judges didn’t fall victim to it.

Synopsis of The Pearl Movie: The Psychopath

Rich, Amazing Visualization

The film opens with an image display similar to films from the 1930s, both from music, fonts, to cinematography with bright Technicolor colors in that era. The green of the grass, the red paint of the farm, and the blue of the sky look very stunning, as if we were watching a classic film.

Not only the coloring is captivating, but all the technical aspects have succeeded in making this film strong with its authentic impression. The production team worked on everything in detail, from location sets and costumes to all objects that fit the setting in which this story takes place.

Coupled with a series of dialogues between the actors that are closely related to the style of speech at that time The choice of sentences is actually ordinary, but when spoken by the characters, especially Mia Goth as Pearl, they hit very hard, as if we just heard about them from this film.

All of these elements certainly make us, as spectators in the modern era, really respect the glory of the world of cinema in the “Golden Age of Hollywood” era. And it’s not impossible that, after watching this film, we will moved to watch a film from that era, for example, The Wizard of Oz (1939) or Gone with the Wind (1939).

The Best Mia Goth look

And one thing that should not forgotten the slick performance of Mia Goth. Apart from being the main character, he is also the co-scriptwriter of this film with Ti West.

They wrote it when production of film X being postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Inspired by this global event, they incorporate elements of a pandemic into the storyline, giving it a relevant impression. It shown in the film that people walking in the city are all wearing masks, just like it is happening in our time. And the use of this mask also used as an element to display the horror in one of the scenes.

In this film, Mia Goth manages to show off all the best talents she has. He not only wrote a script with a good story structure, but he also convincingly developed the character of Pearlod. We shudder when he smiles because we don’t know what’s on his mind.

Even though we are sure that Pearl will kill everyone who gets in her way, when and how are still difficult to predict. The mysteriousness of Mia Goth’s expression is the key to answering all the questions that are really very difficult to guess.

There is one scene that is very unique and unusual. Towards the end of the film, Pearl welcomes her husband home from the battlefield. He then smiled broadly, and this expression continued to maintained by him as the credits progressed. There was a strange feeling, then pity when he saw his tears start to fall.

Synopsis of The Pearl Movie: The Psychopath

Mentality Pearl

We might wonder about the purpose of the scene. But what is certain is that scene depicts Pearl’s mental damage that has been imprinted after committing various murders.

The inner pressure within him was obvious, because all he could do now was take care of his household and not make his dream of becoming a star come true. We can get this impression from the end of this film. And of course our feelings will very disturbed when trying to remember Pearl’s smile again.

Especially at the end of the film, Pearl’s sadism in mutilating Mitsy clearly shown. This is the answer to the question that is on the minds of the audience because Pearl’s sadness seems less than optimal in the film.

Pearl has succeeded in proving Ti West’s capacity as a filmmaker specializing in horror films. And this best achievement just the beginning of the horror franchise that being built. His collaboration with Mia Goth in presenting Pearl’s sadism at its best promises that this character will become a horror icon in modern cinema.

With good story building and a well-spoken depiction of the causes of mental damage, Pearl’s character appears more convincing than her predecessors, such as Jason Vorhees, Michael Myers, and Leatherface.

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BOOK REVIEW – Predicting Pearl Harbor: Billy Mitchell and the Path to War

Book review – predicting pearl harbor: billy mitchell and the path to war.

the pearl essay prediction 2022

Reviewed by Charles C. Kolb, Ph.D.

In my assessment of Attack on Pearl Harbor: Strategy, Combat, Myths, Deceptions (Alan D. Zimm, Philadelphia and Oxford: Casemate Publishers, 2014), I pointed out that “WorldCat (an international library catalog) listed 18,353 publications and other media on the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.” I added:

“Among these, there are 6,903 catalog records for the actual attack on Pearl Harbor which includes 3,105 books, 1,293 videos/CDs/DVDs, 644 articles, and 134 theses and dissertations. The less comprehensive Library of Congress catalog has 1,247 cataloged items on Pearl Harbor, of which 590 concern the attack. It appears that more than 200 articles and books on this subject are published each year.”

With the 75 th anniversary of the attack celebrated last December, there was an upsurge in these numbers, confirming that researchers continue to mine older and newer sources on the subject and delve into related topics. Some of these accounts have been published by a highly-regarded university or commercial press, a lesser-known press, and smaller printing companies. Among the most recent academic press volumes are: Geoffrey M. White, Memorializing Pearl Harbor: Unfinished Histories and the Work of Remembrance (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2016); Saburō Kurusu, J. Garry Clifford, and Masako R. Okura, The Desperate Diplomat: Saburo Kurusu’s Memoir of the Weeks before Pearl Harbor (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2016); and James P. Delgado and Hans Van Tilburg, The Lost Submarines of Pearl Harbor: The Rediscovery and Archaeology of Japan’s Top-secret Midget Submarines of World War II (College Station: Texas A & M University Press, 2016). Volumes by commercial publishers include Tessa Link, Susan Elkin, and John W. Dower, Pearl Harbor: 75 Years Later: A Day of Infamy and Its Legacy (New York: Liberty Street, an imprint of Time Inc. Books, 2016); Steve Twomeym Countdown to Pearl Harbor: The Twelve Days to the Attack (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2017); and Craig Nelson, Pearl Harbor: From Infamy to Greatness (New York: Scribner, 2016).  Less well-known publishers contributed Brian Curtis, Fields of Battle: Pearl Harbor, The Rose Bowl, and the Boys Who Went to War (New York: Flatiron Books, 2016); and Syd Jones, Before and Beyond the Niihau Zero: The Unlikely Drama of Hawaii’s Forbidden Island Prior to, During & After the Pearl Harbor Attack (Merritt Island, FL: Signum Ops, 2014).  Lastly, memoirs by individual Pearl Harbor survivors or their descendants are continuously printed, often by small and vanity presses or self-published sometimes without International Standard Book Number (ISBN), a unique numeric book identifier (formerly 10 and now 13 digits).

Over the past two decades, Ronald J. Drez, the author of Predicting Pearl Harbor , has written a dozen books on diverse historical topics such as D-Day. The genres include biographies, personal narratives, oral histories, juvenile works, and basic military histories. He is affiliated with the Eisenhower Center, University of New Orleans, and has led tours to military sites in the Pacific theater since 2003.

Drez’s latest volume focuses on William “Billy” Mitchell (December 29, 1879 – February 19, 1936), a United States Army general regarded as the “father of the United States Air Force.”  Pelican Publishing Co. of Gretna, LA, provided an “unedited manuscript” for my assessment. The work is scheduled for publication in September 2017.  Hence, I will not comment on the need for copy editing (grammar, typographical errors, and inconsistencies and lack of complete citations).  Examples of the latter include citations to articles in Aviation magazine, Liberty , and newspaper accounts ( Washington Post and Star ) that lack author attributions and pagination.  Briefly, Mitchell served in France during World War I, ultimately commanding all American combat units there by 1918 and afterward was appointed deputy director of the Air Service where he advocated the value of air power, notably the ability of aircraft to sink battleships using aerial bombs which he demonstrated vividly in 1921. He organized a series of bombing runs against anchored ships designed to test this premise and antagonized many Army military and civilian administrators with his arguments and criticisms, testifying before Congressional committees at least 27 times. By 1925, he was demoted from the rank of brigadier general to the permanent rank of colonel and court-martialed for insubordination for accusing military leaders of “incompetency, criminal negligence, and almost treasonable administration by the War and Navy departments” (from an interview of Mitchell published in The New York Times , September 7, 1925).  Congress created the Army Air Corps on July 2, 1926.  Mitchell received numerous posthumous honors including an appointment to the rank of major general by President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

The book begins with a statement that the author’s interest in the topic stemmed from viewing the 1955 motion picture “ The Court Martial of Billy Mitchell , starring Gary Cooper. His interest in writing about it dates to 2003.  Drez also comments on the difficulty in accessing Mitchell’s “long-suppressed” inspection report from his 1923-1924 Pacific tour, and the unique status of Niihau (usually written Ni’ihau), the westernmost island in the Hawaiian archipelago purchased by Elizabeth Sinclair in 1864 for $10,000 from the Kingdom of Hawaii; her private ownership passed on to her descendants, the Robinson family.

Drez devotes a useful chapter to two military strategists who prophesized a conflict between the Empire of Japan and the United States. Homer Lea (November 17, 1876 – November 1, 1912) an American adventurer and strategist who examined American military defense and predicted a war between Japan and America in his book The Valor of Ignorance, with Specially Prepared Maps (New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1909, 1942; edition in Japanese, Tōkyō: Hakubunkan, 1911). His controversial publication, popular among America and Japanese military strategists, included maps of a hypothetical Japanese invasion of California and the Philippines. Reader’s interest in these issues should read the still-in-print original (Safety Harbor, FL: Simon Publications, 2001; n.p. Nabu Press, 2010) and consult Lea’s If America Fights with Japan: The Pacific War Foretold Thirty-three Years Ago , Tokyo: Hokuseido Press, 1942. The most up-to-date analytical assessment is Lawrence H. Kaplan’s Homer Lea: American Soldier of Fortune (Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky, 2010, derived from his 1986 dissertation). The chapter also considers Hector C. Bywater (October 21, 1884 – August 16 or 17, 1940) author of Sea Power in the Pacific: A Study of the American-Japanese Naval Problem, with Maps and a Chart (London: Constable, 1921) also still in print (Bedford, MA: Applewood Books, 2002).  Bywater describes a hypothetical naval war between Japan and the United States that influenced the actual naval strategies of both countries during World War II. The most recent assessment of Bywater’s essay is William H. Honan’s Visions of Infamy: The Untold Story of How Journalist Hector C. Bywater Devised the Plans that Led to Pearl Harbor (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991). Kudos to Drez for reminding us about these two authors mostly overlooked by recent historians.

Chapters three through eleven provide a good overview of Mitchell’s military career and subsequent court martial. Drez cites materials from Mitchell’s own publications, particularly Winged Defense: The Development and Possibilities of Modern Air Power — Economic and Military ( New York and London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1925; reprinted Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press, 2009).  The “long-suppressed” Mitchell Report of Inspection of United States Possessions in the Pacific and Java, Singapore, India, Siam, China & Japan by Brigadier General Wm. Mitchell, Assistant Chief of Air Service, October 24, 1924, is accessible in the Air Corps Library Collection (RG 18). The author also mentions materials from collections at the Library of Congress: William Mitchell [1879-1936].  Archival materials also available but not cited by Drez includes William Mitchell [1879-1936] William (Billy) Mitchell Collection, 1917-1958 (Library Special Collections Branch 6A52. MS 14, USAF Academy, CO: US Air Force Academy, McDermott Library, 2.8 linear feet).  A collection of reports, correspondence and memoranda, photographs, maps, and microfilm pertaining to one of the most controversial figures in the history of the United States Air Force, William Lendrum Mitchell.

Significant material deals with Mitchell’s fight for a separate air service and strategic bombardment after his return from World War I. The remainder of the collection relates to his various assignments and personal letters following his court martial.” Brian McAllister Linn refers to Mitchell’s report in Guardians of Empire: The U.S. Army and the Pacific, 1902-1940 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997).

In addition, Drez quotes materials from four significant secondary source biographies devoted to Mitchell:  Isaac Don Levine, Mitchell Pioneer of Air Power (Cleveland: World, 1943; New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1943; New York: Arno Press, 1972); Alfred F. Hurley, Billy Mitchell: Crusader for Air Power (New York: F. Watts, 1964; new ed., Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1975); Burke Davis, The Billy Mitchell Affair (New York: Random House, 1967; Delanco, NJ : Notable Trials Library, 2003); and Douglas C. Waller, A Question of Loyalty: General Billy Mitchell and the Court Martial that Gripped the Nation (New York: HarperCollins, 2004).  In the eighth chapter, “Falling on His Sword,” Drez relies on the US Army’s official reporter Alexander H. Gault (1925), Colonel William Mitchell, Air Service: Trial by General Court Martial, Washington, D.C., October 28, 1925 (Secret and confidential correspondence of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Office of the Secretary of the Navy, 1919-1927. 29 folders, 4 microfilm reels, 1980.  National Archives Microfilm Publications, Microcopy 1140, Washington, DC: National Archives).  Both the 1924 Mitchell report (Report of Inspection of United States Possessions in the Pacific) and Gault’s transcript (cited above) contain much additional valuable material related to Mitchell’s career and the court martial that shed additional light on Mitchell, the slow pace of aviation development, and the political firestorm he ignited by accusing the Army and Navy high commands of treason and criminal negligence in matters of national defense. Both Waller and Drez capture much of the spectacular seven-week court martial that became a national obsession.

Chapters six and eleven provide a review the history of Niihau (Ni’ihau) Island in the Hawaiian archipelago and the “Niʻihau Incident” just after the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 when a Japanese Zero fighter pilot crashed-landed on the island hoping to rendezvous with a rescue submarine. The pilot escaped with the assistance of local Japanese residents, but was ultimately recaptured and killed. The incident is documented in Syd Jones, Before and Beyond the Niihau Zero: The Unlikely Drama of Hawaii’s Forbidden Island Prior to, During & After the Pearl Harbor Attack (Merritt Island, FL: Signum Ops, 2014); and Dan King, The Last Zero Fighter: Firsthand Accounts from WWII Japanese Naval Pilots (Irvine, CA: Pacific Press, 2012; rev. ed., Rockwall, TX: Pacific Press, 2012). There are citations in Predicting Pearl Harbor to Minoru Genda, the planner of the Japanese carrier-based attack on Pearl Harbor, writing in The Pearl Harbor Papers: Inside the Japanese Plans (Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon, eds., Dulles, VA: Brassey’s, 2000, paperback edition of the 1993 volume), which I reviewed in 1999 for H-NET/H-US-Japan (United States and Japanese History and Culture).  Drez provides valuable new material on the incident obtained personally in 2011 during several interviews with Keith Robinson, one of the two brothers who currently own the private island.

Lastly, there is no mention of the Battle of Taranto which took place on the night of 11-12 November 1940 between British naval forces, under Admiral Andrew Cunningham, and Italian naval forces, under Admiral Inigo Campioni. This was the first all-aircraft ship-to-ship naval attack in history, employing a small number of obsolescent Fairey Swordfish biplane torpedo bombers from the aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious (R87) in the Mediterranean Sea. The attack struck the battle fleet of the Italian Regia Marina at anchor in the harbor of Taranto using aerial torpedoes despite the shallow depth of the water. Japanese Naval officers including Lieutenant Commander Takeshi Naito, the assistant naval attaché to Berlin, came to Taranto to investigate the attack. There is some evidence that the Imperial Japanese Navy’s staff carefully studied the Taranto raid during planning for the attack on Pearl Harbor because of the issues with a shallow harbor. The standard source for this engagement is Thomas P. Lowry and John W. G. Wellham’s The Attack on Taranto: Blueprint for Pearl Harbor (Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 1995).  Comparisons can also be made to the writings of Homer Lea and Hector Bywater.

Predicting Pearl Harbor: Billy Mitchell and the Path to War adds to the ever-growing list of publications about the Japanese Pearl Harbor attack. Drez reminds us of the early predictions of Lea and Bywater and the quotations from the Robinson interviews are enlightening.

Dr. Kolb is an Independent Scholar (National Endowment for the Humanities, Retired)

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Ti West's Pearl (2022) and the Affliction of Female Sensibility

Profile image of Danne Niko Dolar

Drawing from Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Ti West's Pearl (2022) shows the domestic woman’s descent into madness as a result of the "tyranny of man” (19) where women are deprived of reason and confined to the realm of sensibility. Throughout the film, Pearl struggles to reconcile her personal desires with the contradictions of the socialized standards of domesticity, romanticism, and beauty.

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    The role of fate looms large in Kino's undoing in two ways. First, Kino's downfall is incited by his accidental, divinely appointed discovery of the pearl. Second, Kino's status as an impoverished fisherman who lives under the burden of colonial oppression also creates the sense that his tragedy is decreed by fate.

  5. Essays on The Pearl

    2 pages / 917 words. "It is not good to want a thing too much. It sometimes drives the luck away. You must want it just enough, and you must be very tactful with Gods or the gods.". The Pearl, short story written by John Steinbeck, the author in which... The Pearl Book Review Symbolism. 6.

  6. NEW AQA Paper 1A practice exam: THE PEARL, John Steinbeck, 1947

    Includes a Q3 key terminology matching starter, a Q3 STRUCTURE model response, a new Q4 slide. This extract is taken from John Steinbeck's novella, 'The Pearl', published in 1947. In the extract, set in Mexico during the 1940s, a child named Coyotito has been stung by a scorpion. The child's father, a Mexican pearl diver named Kino, takes his ...

  7. AQA English Language Paper 1 June 2022: The Pearl

    File previews. pptx, 416.41 KB. pdf, 821.65 KB. A resource focusing on questions 2-5 of June 2022 English Language AQA Paper 1 with an Extract from The Pearl. Includes AQA Extract. Lesson comes complete with planning and model answers from Q2-4, exemplar Q5 story, examples of planning for story and vocab sheet that can be used as help.

  8. The Pearl Essays for College Students

    The Pearl, Interpretive Essay. The Pearl, Interpretive Essay In The Pearl, the author, John Steinbeck, uses the pearl to express what human nature is like. At the beginning of the novel, the pearl that Kino finds is described as large as being incandescent and as "perfect as the moon"; by the end of the novel, the pearl that... 1 164 words

  9. Themes

    2021 KCSE Prediction Papers; 2022 KCSE Prediction Questions and Answers - EasyElimu; KCSE Prediction 2023; Post Mocks. 2020 Post Mock Past Papers; 2021/2022 Post Mocks; 2023 Post Mocks; Lower Primary Materials. ... What, however, is the wisdom of The Pearl, if indeed it is a parable? The question remains unanswered in the story, but a passage ...

  10. Research papers Prediction of estuarine water quality using

    Estuarine water quality prediction models can provide early warnings to prevent major disasters in coastal ecosystems. In this study, several machine learning models—multiple linear regression, artificial neural networks, random forest, and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost)—were developed to predict NH 4+ -N in the Xiaoqing River estuary ...

  11. EasyElimu: Learning Simplified

    The EasyElimu Study App is a comprehensive learning solution that meets the needs of Kenyan learners and educators following the CBC Curriculum. We offer one of the biggest catalogs of educational materials for Kenyan students. Other than that, we offer real-time assessment 24/7 on all subjects in the CBC curriculum for all grades, as we have ...

  12. The Pearl: Study Guide

    The Pearl is a captivating novella by Nobel Prize winning author John Steinbeck that originally appeared in the magazine Woman's Home Companion in 1945 under the title "The Pearl of the World" and was then published as a book in 1947.The novella is set against the backdrop of the small Mexican village of La Paz. The story follows Kino, a humble pearl diver, and his wife, Juana.

  13. Pearl is a slasher prequel that makes the original even better

    Image: A24. But what really makes the movie interesting is how it builds on, and adds layers and texture to, its predecessor. X made it clear that Pearl was full of spite and envy, yearning for ...

  14. OTKGE: Multi-modal Knowledge Graph Embeddings via Optimal Transport

    Multi-modal knowledge graph embeddings (KGE) have caught more and more attention in learning representations of entities and relations for link prediction tasks. Different from previous uni-modal KGE approaches, multi-modal KGE can leverage expressive knowledge from a wealth of modalities (image, text, etc.), leading to more comprehensive ...

  15. Pearl River to crest lower than originally projected

    The Jackson area may have dodged a bullet as predictions of a 36-foot crest of the Pearl River were revised Sunday to a crest of 35.5 feet as early as late Sunday night or Monday morning. The 36 ...

  16. Dynamic Graph Neural Networks Under Spatio-Temporal Distribution ...

    Lastly, we propose an invariance regularization term to minimize the variance of predictions in intervened distributions so that our model can make predictions based on invariant patterns with stable predictive abilities and therefore handle distribution shifts.

  17. Synopsis of The Pearl Movie: The Psychopath

    A prequel to the film X (2022), this film tells the origin story of Pearl before she became a sadistic killer. Appearing like classic 1930s films, Pearl is one of the best horror films in 2022. How good is the quality of this film? Synopsis Pearl Movie. Texas, 1918. America is being hit by an influenza pandemic.

  18. Hi! Does anyone have the July 2022 Bar prof essay predictions?

    23. Dingbatdingbat • 1 yr. ago. not just that, but half the topics are heavily tested and half the topics less frequently; Any given administration, I'd say you'll get 4 essays from the top 7 subjects (Business Associations, Civ Pro, Contracts, Crim, Evidence, Real Propery, Torts), and 2 essays from the other 5 topics (Conflict of Law, Con ...

  19. The Pearl: Suggested Essay Topics

    Suggested Essay Topics. 1. How does the novella's conclusion complete Steinbeck's moral argument? Could the novella have ended in any other way? Is it wise of Kino to throw the pearl back into the sea, or should he have searched for another option? 2. What role does family play in The Pearl?


    There are citations in Predicting Pearl Harbor to Minoru Genda, the planner of the Japanese carrier-based attack on Pearl Harbor, writing in The Pearl Harbor Papers: Inside the Japanese Plans (Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon, eds., Dulles, VA: Brassey's, 2000, paperback edition of the 1993 volume), which I reviewed in 1999 for H ...

  21. The Pearl : John Steinbeck : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming

    The Pearl is a novella by the American author John Steinbeck. The story, first published in 1947, follows a pearl diver, Kino, and explores man's purpose as well as greed, defiance of societal norms, and evil. [1] This is an ePub edition of the book. The Pearl is a novella by the American author John Steinbeck.

  22. Is Pearl (2022) Highlighting Female Rage or Psychosis?

    Ti West released Pearl on 17th March 2023 (UK). I'm analysing what "Female Rage" means in the movie.-DISCLAIMER: Please keep in mind this is what I picked up...

  23. Ti West's Pearl (2022) and the Affliction of Female Sensibility

    Drawing from Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Ti West's Pearl (2022) shows the domestic woman's descent into madness as a result of the "tyranny of man" (19) where women are deprived of reason and confined to the ... Related Papers. Emerald Publishers. THE PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN -AN ANALYSIS OF NADIA HASHIMI'S THE ...