How to Become a Writer

Sean Glatch  |  May 24, 2024  |  12 Comments

how to become a writer

So you’re wondering how to become a writer. The short answer is: anyone who writes is a writer. However, becoming a writer who’s serious about their professional career requires lots of work, and if you’re wondering how to become a professional writer, you’re here to start your journey towards a productive and successful literary career.

How do you become a writer? You don’t need a degree to be a writer, nor do you need to be a certain age. Becoming a writer simply requires an admiration for—and a longing to create with—language. So, don’t worry about becoming a writer later in life or lacking a formal education. (That’s what Writers.com is here for!)

No one can teach you how to admire the written word, but the instructors at Writers.com are experts at turning longing into language. That’s why this article covers everything you need on how to become a writer. From the personal to the professional, let’s dive into everything writers need to build a successful literary career.

How to Become a Writer: Contents

How to Become a Writer: Anyone Can Become One

It’s never too late to become a writer, how to become a writer: where to begin your writing journey, how to become a professional writer: what “professional” means, how to become a writer: resources for becoming a professional writer, how to become a writer: developing a writing habit.

Even today, there’s a persistent myth that writers are elite, born-with-it Ivory Tower folks who possess some ineffable gift of the Muses. Yes, some great writers were born with greatness (and plenty were born with wealth and privilege), but anyone who calls themselves a writer does so because they labor with the written word.

Becoming a writer simply requires an ardent exploration of language.

In others words, you don’t need an MFA from the University of Iowa to call yourself a writer. Becoming a writer simply requires an ardent exploration of language. If we had to boil a writer down to three requirements, it wouldn’t involve age or degree. The 4 traits for becoming a writer are:

  • Passion for the written word,
  • Desire to expand the boundaries and possibilities of language,
  • Persistence and patience, bordering on stubbornness, and
  • Willingness to grow and learn continuously.

Many writers who have these traits stop themselves from writing, maybe because they’re wondering how to become a writer without a degree, or simply because they don’t believe in themselves without the privilege and connections writers seem to have. Now, writers certainly benefit from a university education or a family legacy in literature, but countless writers have acquired respect and success without a degree or name recognition.

Ernest Hemingway never went to college, but he still won a Pulitzer and Nobel Prize; neither did Maya Angelou attend university, yet she’s celebrated as the “black woman’s poet laureate” and later accepted a professorship with Wake Forest University. Degrees are just paper; it’s words that matter.

Degrees are just paper; it’s words that matter.

Becoming a writer has no age restriction; the act of writing is rated G for the General Public, and those aforementioned traits are found in writers from ages 2 to 99+.

Many writers discover their writing talents in their later years. Why, exactly? Neurology reveals there are two types of intelligence : fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. “Fluid” refers to creative and adaptive thinking, including activities like writing and problem solving. “Crystallized” refers to the solidified body of knowledge people draw from—all the words, definitions, and experiences that build a foundation for the world.

Generally, younger adults have more fluid intelligence, whereas life experience builds one’s crystallized intelligence over time. The two intelligences tend to converge in a person’s 40s, since this is an age where the faculties for fluid intelligence haven’t declined, and crystallized intelligence abounds. Not-so-coincidentally, many writers see their careers flourish in their 40s and 50s!

Many celebrated writers didn’t put pen to paper until middle age or later.

In fact, many celebrated writers didn’t put pen to paper until middle age or later. Laura Ingalls Wilder didn’t start writing until her 40s, and her Little House series didn’t start printing until she was 65. Likewise, Most of Wallace Stevens’ work was published after he turned 50; despite being a poet, he worked at an insurance company, and most of his coworkers were shocked when he won a Pulitzer at 75. Nobody knew that he wrote!

Finally, many university students return for a writing degree after establishing a career elsewhere. BFA and MFA programs around the world educate students in their 30s and beyond; in 2017, the average age of a low-residency MFA student in the U.S. was 35.4, according to LitHub and AWP .

Whether you’re 19 or 90, you’re never too old to write. The best time to write is yesterday; the second-best time is today.

Rather than an If-Then structure, the writing profession follows a Became-Because structure.

How do you become a writer? Where do you begin? The writing profession is unlike most professions, which follow an If-Then structure. If you get a bachelor’s degree, Then you can work as a nurse, computer scientist, or accountant; If you join a worker’s guild or apprenticeship program, Then you can find work in a number of trade jobs.

The writing profession follows a Became-Because structure. Zora Neale Hurston became a writer because she obtained degrees from Howard University and Barnard College, encouraging her to dissect the African American experience through a literary and anthropological lens.

Conversely, Haruki Murakami became a writer because of a baseball game .

The qualifications for becoming a writer are unique to the individual, and every writer is formed by personal interests and experiences. As a result, no one can tell you where to begin your writing journey; however, if you’re wondering how to become a writer, you’ve already started your journey by thinking about it.

If you’re wondering how to become a writer, you’ve already started your journey by thinking about it.

One distinction to help you think about your writing journey is the difference between amateur and professional writers. If you’re not sure what you want to become, start with the following question: what does “professional” mean?

There are, generally, two classes of writers: amateurs and professionals. Before describing the professional writer, let’s be clear: “amateur” is not derogatory, and professional writers are not “better” than amateurs. Amateur comes from the Latin amator , “lover.” An amateur writer loves the written word just as much, sometimes even more, than the professional; amateurs simply have less pressure, deadlines, and financial dependence on writing. It’s a pastime, not a career.

If you want writing to be a significant portion of your income, then you aspire to being a professional writer.

If you want writing to be a significant portion of your income, then you aspire to being a professional writer. Professional writers have to approach their writing as a business, building a literary audience and keeping a regular writing schedule. Professional writers need to understand the ins and outs of the publishing industry—which they often learn through obtaining a university degree—and it also helps to have formal training in the publishing world and experience operating literary magazines.

How do you start to work toward becoming a professional writer? Below are resources to get you started.

At some point, the professional writer needs to know the ins and outs of writing as a business. This list covers the essentials of how to become a professional writer.

How to make money as a writer

  • Explore freelance writing opportunities (updated weekdays at F.W.G.)
  • 6 writers explain how they make money (NY Mag)
  • Self-publishing versus traditional publishing (Self-Publishing School)
  • Writing to market (Funds For Writers)

Taxes as a self-employed creative

  • Taxes on freelance writing and royalties (TurboTax)
  • Tax tips and unique situations (The Balance Careers)

Resources on publishing

  • Poetry journals
  • Fiction journals
  • Creative nonfiction journals
  • How to get published in a literary journal (Reader’s Digest)
  • Book: What Editors Do by Peter Ginna ($25 at UChicago Press)

Becoming a writer online

  • Basic guide to each social media platform (Kindlepreneur)
  • Building an author’s website (The Write Practice)
  • Free website template for authors (Copyfolio)
  • Running a mailing list (Your Writer Platform)

Things to know before taking writing classes

  • Poetry courses
  • Fiction courses
  • Creative nonfiction courses
  • Why take a writing course?

Additional resources for learning how to become a writer

  • Setting SMART goals
  • Reading like a writer
  • The golden rule: show, don’t tell
  • Overcoming writer’s block
  • Becoming a poet
  • 8 tips on learning how to write
  • Best online creative writing classes

How do professional writers spend their workdays? Perhaps the trickiest part about becoming a writer is establishing a writing habit. For example, Haruki Murakami runs a 10K every morning to support his writing, and Charles Dickens wrote (and slept) facing north to improve his creativity.

Perhaps the trickiest part about becoming a writer is establishing a writing habit.

What works for one person rarely works for another, so experiment with writing habits—and when you find one that works, stick with it.

Generally, you can parse the writing business into 3 separate components:

  • The writing life—putting pen to paper at regular intervals.
  • Scheduled time for “the business of writing”—literary submissions, applying for grants, etc.
  • An active media/marketing presence—blogging, tweeting, emailing, etc.

You’ll want to schedule time for each of these elements in your daily writing habit. Of course, this is easier said than done. Budding writers often overestimate their ability to work: they think they can spend 3 hours writing, 2 hours replying to emails, and 2 hours submitting work to journals. Then they spend the afternoon watching reruns of BBC quiz shows. (Yes! I did do this recently.)

That’s why forging a consistent writing habit is essential—for amateur writers as well as professionals. Writing at the same place at the same time encourages your brain to write every day. And, if you can’t keep yourself focused on writing, try experimenting with different writing rituals. If a 10K helps Murakami write, something equally unique could help you, too.

How to Become a Writer: Take Your Next Step with Writers.com!

The classes we’ve curated in our upcoming schedule will take your writing life to the next level. Whether learning a new writing style or mastering the business of writing, becoming a writer feels a whole lot simpler with Writers.com.

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Sean Glatch


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Brilliant review Misty

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I hope, I can be a better writer with your support.

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Yeah. Same thing as with all other fields. Practice, practice, and once again, practice! It’s like a sport, you should always find new ways to practice.

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This really helped me out. Thank you so much!

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I’m 14 and i hope to become a writer someday. Thank you so much for the info.

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Thank you for the information About to start my writing journey and thus really helped.

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I’m a senior that would like to turn my love of writing into a profession. The information you have presented here has inspired me to continue moving towards that goal.

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I live in a rural area of Uganda with very little education but always aspired to write a book on families. I am much encouraged. started it but got stuck ..

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I love writing and thank you for information you have given meand am obliged to say thank.

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i am very eager to become a writer be that script know how or fiction. i am a sponge for knowledge so i learn as i work. i treat everyday as a school day. i want to learn every single part of the writing career-be that if the editor drinks tea or coffee and how they like there papers folded. i soak information as i do a task. i love to build the bullet points for a story because everything needs a beginning. if you are baking a cake the eggs and flour are needed before you think about putting anything in the oven. to prepare a cake you need a tray to put it in-before you build a story you need a starting and then ingredients to put in along the way. i really love to build a story from different snippets of things. i have a thirst for many different aspects of life having spent a majority of time in hospitals and then being taken advantage of my my family because of my brain injury. so i know more than most in a lot of different subjects and matters in life, i have lost more than most in life but i am here telling my version of it to the big bright world. 0874762400 is my contact number

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Discovering the path to becoming a writer is both exhilarating and daunting. It requires a blend of passion, persistence, and honing one’s craft. From mastering the art of storytelling to navigating the intricacies of the publishing world, the journey demands dedication and resilience. Embrace every word written, every rejection faced, for they are stepping stones on the road to literary success.

[…] Writers.com: A comprehensive guide covering personal and professional aspects of becoming a writer1. […]

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Education Requirements for Writers

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Do You Need a Degree to Become a Writer?

Educational backgrounds of writers, a glimpse into the educational tapestry of writers, common educational threads among writers, do writers need specific degrees.

  • Linguistic Mastery and Storytelling: Often developed through studies in literature, languages, or creative writing programs.
  • Research and Analytical Skills: Essential for non-fiction writers, which can be cultivated in academic fields such as journalism, history, or even the sciences.
  • Subject Matter Expertise: Writers often benefit from deep knowledge in specialized areas, which can be gained from any academic discipline.

Forging a Writer's Educational Path

  • Writing Practice: Regular writing, whether through personal projects, blogging, or contributions to publications, helps to refine one's craft.
  • Workshops and Critique Groups: Participating in writing groups and workshops provides valuable feedback and helps to improve writing skills.
  • Continued Education: Engaging in writing courses, seminars, and conferences can keep a writer's skills sharp and up-to-date with current trends.

The Essence of a Writer's Education: Diversity and Adaptability

Most common degrees for writers, english literature or language, creative writing, journalism or communications, technical writing or professional writing, liberal arts or humanities, popular majors for writers, english literature, communications, technical writing, popular minors for writers, digital media, foreign language, why pursue a degree for a writer career, networking and professional development in writing, career opportunities with a degree in writing, degree alternatives for a writer, writing workshops and retreats, online writing courses and platforms, writing competitions and literary journals, professional writing organizations, content creation and blogging, navigating a writer career without a degree, develop a writing routine, create a diverse portfolio, master the art of pitching, build your online presence, network and collaborate, seek feedback and revise, self-publish your work, continuously learn and adapt, monetize your skills, education faqs for writer, do you need to go to college to become a writer, is it worth it to get a degree for a writer role, how important is continuous learning for a writer.

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what kind of education is required to be a writer

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Shaping narratives and engaging audiences through compelling, creative content

Translating complex tech jargon into clear, user-friendly content, bridging knowledge gaps

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10 Best Degrees for Writers What to study if you want to write for a living

Ready to start your journey.

If you’re a great writer, you have a versatile skill that is useful in just about every occupation. If you’re a storyteller, you might want to major in a subject that teaches you how to craft a narrative that elicits emotion. Writers with other interests can combine their passions. For example, if you’re fascinated by engineering, you could major in technical writing. The following degrees allow you to learn marketable skills and are ideal for someone who wants to write for a living.

Recommended Online Degrees for Writers

Explore our featured online programs to find the right match for you today.

1. Liberal Arts

A liberal arts degree is one of the most general and flexible options for writers. Some schools offer distinct majors under the liberal arts umbrella. Others offer specific degrees in liberal arts.

You can take courses in several categories for a liberal arts degree. This area of study includes science, technology, engineering, art, communications, economics, political science, history, psychology and sociology. Once you begin, you’ll likely narrow down your path to match your interests and talents.

A history degree can give you the foundation to research and write scripts for documentary films, for example. An economics degree can spur a career in finance writing.

Liberal arts degrees often teach soft skills, which are not easy to quantify. For example, this adaptable degree program enhances creative thinking, interpersonal skills and emotional intelligence. Students can round out their knowledge by taking some courses that teach hard skills, such as statistical analysis or medical writing.

Who Is This Degree Good For?

A liberal arts degree prepares you for a broad range of professions. It’s a good option for people who are interested in writing and creative pursuits but aren’t sure what career path they’d like to follow. Many liberal arts students are interested in expressing themselves, helping their communities and enhancing their communication skills.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With a Liberal Arts Degree?

A liberal arts degree can help you get a job in just about any field. If you’re a writer, some career paths that might interest you as a liberal arts major include public relations, non-profit administration, marketing, human resources and academic research. You’ll have a chance to use your writing and communication skills in any of these positions.

Recommended Online Liberal Arts Programs

A degree in English exposes students to a wide variety of literature. You’ll read works by historic and contemporary authors, writing analyses and critiques. Students will also learn effective communication, time management, critical thinking and creative skills.

There are typically two concentrations within an English degree program. You can choose to major in English language and literature or composition and rhetoric. If you want to be a writer, getting plenty of time to practice is important.

Some people think that an English degree is too general to help you secure a good job. However, the major allows you to be flexible. It teaches marketable skills that will help you succeed in any industry.

English majors do a lot of reading. You’ll become better acquainted with the classics and learn what made them impactful. You may not receive direct instruction on the business of writing. However, you can complement this major by minoring in a specialty to which you can apply your skills. You might want to take courses on blogging or social media marketing, for example.

People who want to develop strong written communication skills are excellent candidates for an English degree. This is a flexible option for creative thinkers who enjoy reading and writing and want to set up a flexible foundation for their career and further studies.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With an English Degree?

Surprisingly, the most common jobs for English majors are in education and law. However, many graduates with this degree also work in proofreading, editing, copywriting, technical writing and journalism. Some other career choices for writers with an English degree include grant writing positions and public relations. The average salary for someone with an English degree is $75,096.

Recommended Online English Degree Programs

3. creative writing.

A creative writing degree is ideal for someone who is extremely verbal and drawn to expressing themselves with words. A creative writing major will spend a lot of time reading, interpreting and examining existing works of literature. They’ll also practice expressing emotions, thoughts and messages in a variety of ways.

Analyzing other writers’ work exposes you to different ways of structuring your own writing. Creative writing majors do a lot of reading. You’ll learn how to critique other artists’ work as well as your own. Regular feedback will help you improve your skills. You’ll also be required to write under pressure and meet deadlines, which are valuable skills in any market.

Do you write in your spare time? A creative writing degree is ideal for people who already spend a significant portion of their life writing. You’ll be assigned plenty of writing homework while you pursue this major. If composing essays is your least favorite task, this may not be the degree path for you.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With a Creative Writing Degree?

While you don’t need a formal academic degree to get your work published, you will learn how to infuse your projects with expression and meaning if you pursue a creative writing degree. This can help you find work as a novelist or poet. But it takes time to write a book, and you need a job immediately after college.

A specialization in creative writing fosters skills that are in demand across industries, such as effective communication, critical analysis and self-discipline. Many creative writing majors go on to work in marketing and advertising, copywriting, ghostwriting, editing, screenwriting or journalism.

Interestingly, approximately 50% of creative writers are age 40 or older. This may indicate that graduates with this degree pursue jobs in other fields before writing the next great novel or take on other roles early on in their careers.

Recommended Online Writing Degree Programs

4. media and journalism.

A journalism or media degree sets you up to write for newspapers, magazines and broadcast news. It focuses on communication skills and using rhetoric to generate a clear, persuasive message. Creativity is important in this field, but so are accurate research, fact-checking and non-fiction writing. Students will learn how to present accurate information in an objective but engaging way.

Media and journalism majors may also study politics, ethics and law. They should have a good grasp on current events and have interest in learning about the political landscape. The media shapes many of society’s conventions and beliefs. Journalism majors will learn principles of persuasion, which help you build solid relationships in any workplace. Students pursuing this degree will also learn how to analyze data and statistics.

The journalistic environment is constantly evolving. The best media and journalism majors offer up-to-date courses that resonate with today’s media landscape. You might want to learn about social media influence and video editing along with formatting principles for news environments.

A journalism degree is ideal for individuals who want to make an impact on the world using their communication skills. You’ll round out your proficiency in writing by learning how to adapt your message to other media channels. If you enjoy working with people, have a curious nature and excel at organizing information into a clear, accurate message, you may be an excellent candidate for a journalism degree.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With a Media and Journalism Degree?

Many journalism majors work for print and broadcast news outlets. They may write the scripts for news stories or work as investigative journalists in the field. Journalists earn an average base salary of $62,000 per year . A degree in journalism can also prepare you for a job in marketing. The ability to transform data into an engaging message is essential in marketing. The confidence and communication skills that you gain in this area of study also position you to adapt well to a career in public relations or law.

Recommended Online Journalism Degrees

5. theater and film.

Theater and film majors aren’t just for actors. These degrees help writers develop the necessary skills for screenwriting, playwriting, arts journalism and film criticism. Courses often require students to read scripts and watch performances that are crafted by stage and cinema masters. You’ll learn about the structure and artistry behind story development in plays and movies.

Most theater and film degree programs offer plenty of courses in writing. You will develop a strong grasp of different storytelling devices. By the time you graduate, you should be well-versed in different areas, such as dramatic, expository and episodic writing. You’ll supplement your writing skills by learning about visual storytelling elements and different genres too.

People with an interest in performance art make good candidates for a theater and film degree. Many students seek to enter this field because they have a strong interest in watching films and plays. You’ll have to be able to collaborate with others and adapt your work based on external feedback.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With a Theater and Film Degree?

Students with this degree will be ready to write for the screen and stage. Film and theater graduates often pursue jobs in the motion picture industry, advertising and computer technology. Learning more about the back end of performance art prepares you to work behind the scenes in a variety of production categories.

6. Professional and Technical Writing

Professional and technical writing majors are extremely specific subsets within the liberal arts category. Some schools offer specialty courses in this category under other degree programs, such as creative writing or business. Others have distinct professional and technical writing degree programs.

Some of the subcategories of technical writing programs include technical communication, medical writing and scientific writing, and business communications.

Technical and professional writers must have a solid grasp of the English language. They must be able to organize complex information into structured documents. This degree is ideal for people who enjoy doing in-depth research and can adhere to deadlines. A love of learning helps; technical writers have to familiarize themselves with the subjects that they write about. This field usually requires technological proficiency.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With a Professional and Technical Writing Degree?

Many companies hire technical writers for instruction manuals, journal articles, professional documents and training handbooks. Many professional writers also compose press releases, draft memos and document policies. They may work in health care, law, business or the arts. The median annual salary for technical writers is $74,650, and the growth outlook is above average.

7. Linguistics

Linguistics degrees are often packaged with liberal arts, literature and creative writing programs. However, some educational institutions offer linguistics degrees as standalone majors.

Linguistics teaches you the basics of language history, semantics, grammar and rhetoric. You might study the way that different cultures have used language. Linguistics compares languages and studies their evolution. Delving into the details of language can help you craft your own writing more effectively.

You’ll develop the ability to recognize various writing styles, which makes you a more adaptable writer. Students will also learn about different aspects of discourse and persuasion.

People who love language generally enjoy diving into its particularities. Those with an affinity for writing will benefit from understanding the background of various words. Critical thinking skills are important because students will learn how to analyze language from a data-driven perspective.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With a Linguistics Degree?

A linguistics degree sets you up to be an excellent communicator. You can work in education, business, creative pursuits or the public sector. This field of study interconnects with anthropology, philosophy, psychology and sociology. Many linguistics majors go into publishing, information technology, international relations, speech therapy and language education. If you want a job that makes the most of your writing skills, you could work as an interpreter, translator, marketing specialist or editor.

8. Marketing

A marketing degree allows you to hone your writing skills while learning how to research, plan and implement effective promotional strategies. Students will learn how to research target markets, use visual, audio and verbal communication strategically and analyze the results of their efforts.

Successful marketing involves some knowledge of psychology. It’s important to understand why people behave and think the way that they do. That knowledge allows you to craft promotional strategies that will achieve the desired results.

A marketing degree program will provide some insight into psychology, linguistics and philosophy. Many marketing programs offer education about specific niches, such as digital and social media marketing.

Strong communication skills are essential for marketing. You could choose this degree program if you have a passion for sharing information in unique, creative and convincing ways. Marketing students must also be dynamic and flexible. You have to keep up with the ever-changing needs of the industry. You’ll have many opportunities to collaborate with others, which is an essential part of the marketing industry. You should be able to brainstorm with other people and develop ideas as a team player.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With a Marketing Degree?

A marketing degree is practical and highly adaptable. Every business should use strategic marketing to promote their offerings. Someone with an interest in writing can look for jobs that require top-notch verbal and language skills, such as developing social media campaigns or writing copy for printed brochures. Anyone with strong communication skills can write marketing material. A marketing degree lays the framework for you to understand intricate concepts and put them to use in industries such as entertainment, law, business, health care, retail and blogging.

9. Publishing

A publishing degree provides writers with an alternative way to influence the literary environment. Studying the publishing industry will give you a comprehensive background on business, marketing, communications and technology.

Students will learn traditional and contemporary publishing techniques. They’ll focus on industry trends and advancements. They’ll combine their visual and verbal skills to build their knowledge of design and layout standards.

Business skills are crucial for people in the publishing industry. Students who pursue this degree will learn about financial and operational functions in business. You must be able to recognize a profitable piece of literature, which involves understanding consumer markets, sales strategies and publishing channels.

Undergraduate degrees in publishing exist, but they’re not plentiful. Many students choose a more general major for their bachelor’s degree and pursue publishing at the master’s level.

If you have a love of the written word, you may want to immerse yourself in the industry. Studying publishing lets you approach writing from a business perspective. Ideal candidates for this degree are passionate about sharing important messages with the world.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With a Publishing Degree?

With a publishing degree, you can work in any department of a publishing company. You may have a hands-on position that requires some writing and editing. Alternatively, you may work in a business-oriented department, such as sales or marketing. Other publishing jobs include publicist, literary agent, production manager and contract manager.

10. Business

There is more to a writing career than putting pen to paper or fingers on a keyboard. To earn money by writing, you have to understand concepts such as supply and demand, management, entrepreneurship and economics. A business degree allows you to work behind the scenes in any field. It also provides a solid background for writers who want to self-publish or become entrepreneurs.

A business degree helps students develop soft and hard skills. You’ll learn leadership and motivational strategies that are applicable to any industry. You’ll also receive training on quantitative skills, such as accounting, data analysis and project management.

Many writers want to create content. However, others become interested in the business of writing. A business degree complements strong communication, leadership and teamwork skills. It can be an ideal area of study for people who want to expand their abilities beyond writing. You won’t have as much writing-specific coursework in this degree area as you might in English or creative writing. Still, business majors are required to complete a good amount of writing assignments.

What Kind of Work Can You Get With a Business Degree?

Strong writing skills enhance any company’s quality and reputation . If you understand business concepts and have excellent verbal skills, you will be an asset to businesses in any industry. If you’d like to use your written skills in your job, look for a position as a business writer, marketing content creator, curriculum developer or research analyst. You could also start your own business as a publisher, literary agency or publishing relations firm.

Recommended Online Business Degrees

Related Articles:

10 Best Degrees for Journalism

10 Best Degrees for Artists

10 Best Degrees for Digital Nomads

10 Best Degrees for the Music & Entertainment Industry

Accredited Online English Degrees

what kind of education is required to be a writer

What education do writers have?

Bachelor's degree, degree level, what level of education do writers have.

Writers often have similar levels of education. 72% of writers have a bachelor's degree, with the second most common being a certificate or associate degree at 26%.

Level of education that writers have

Education % of writers
No education 0%
High school diploma 0%
Certificate or associate degree 26%
Bachelor's degree 72%
Master's degree 2%
Doctorate 0%

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what kind of education is required to be a writer

Wondering how to become an author? Well, that answer will depend on the type of author you want to be.

Maybe you’ve always been a writer at heart, and are ready to share your story with the world and earn the title of “author.”

Or maybe you’re passionate about a certain topic and are ready to help others by sharing your expertise.

Regardless of your reason – the issue still stands: you want to know how to become an author of a book and a bestselling one at that. So what is an author anyway? And how does becoming an author work?

To learn how to become an author, the short answer is: You write a book.

Sounds simple, right?  

But writing is rarely simple. So, let’s go for the more complex dilemma: How to become an author of a book that actually gets read .

You want to author a book that’s phenomenal, polished, and packed with content that readers will truly connect with.  So how do you do that?

In this guide, we’ll focus on how to become an author of a book that sells . But before we dive into the steps on how to become an author, it's important you understand exactly what an author is.

This guide to how to become an author will cover:

What does it mean to become an author.

When you learn how to become an author, it means that you ideated, created, and produced a written work, most commonly a book, novel, short story , poem, or other literary work of prose.

Traditionally, an author meant someone who had written a book, and this connotation still stands today, but it has expanded with societal changes. The term author can actually pertain to journalists, essayists, and those in the digital space such as bloggers or article writers.

Writer vs author

What's the difference between a writer and author , you ask? Great question.

While writer and author are often used interchangeably, there is definitely a difference between the two. An author is a writer, but a writer isn't always an author.

Difference Between A Writer Vs Author

How hard is it to become an author?

While the path of learning how to become an author is easier with today's technology and the rise of self-publishing, learning how to become an author takes determination, hard work, and usually a specific set of skills (which we'll cover more on later).

For some, opportunity comes easier than it does for others. Some people become an author and find quick success, whereas others struggle for years to complete their book and publish it.

For most people, creating a consistent writing routine and actually getting the words written is the hardest part – in which case a book writing coach could be just the person you need in your corner, keeping you motivated and accountable.

It also depends on the book publishing method, which we'll explain more on in the publishing section of this article. For example, traditional publishing deals are hard to come by, and it is a lengthy process. On the other hand, self-publishing makes becoming an author more accessible.

How to become an author in 8 simple steps

Now that you have a deeper understanding of what being an author entails, it's time to dive into the exact process of how to become an author.

When learning how to become an author, here are the eight steps you should take:

1. Invest in education

Learning how to become an author doesn't have any formal educational requirements. But at minimum, a high school degree is recommended. Becoming an author mainly requires that you have a strong set of skills, like the ability to read and write well.

When learning how to become an author, having a degree isn't required, but it can help.

There is a wide range of educational levels for authors, from those with a basic high school education to those who have completed doctorate programs. Pursuing a higher formal education degree can certainly help you learn how to become an author, but it's not a requirement.

Whether you get a degree or not, you must be an exceptional writer and avid reader to improve your chances of becoming an author of a book that actually gets read .

Our society values higher education . When you’re exploring new careers, the first question is usually: What kind of education is needed for this job?

So, it isn’t any wonder that people researching how to become an author immediately ask what type of education or credentials are needed to write a book.

A caveat to this: If you’re looking to publish a book on a specific topic , you must be an expert in that field or industry. A college degree helps build your credibility significantly, even though it is not completely necessary.

Common degrees to consider for aspiring book writers

  • English . Anyone with a college degree in English has spent the majority of their college career taking classes on writing development and reading literature for deep analysis. Those with an English degree usually have a strong command of writing, and study the works of famous authors.
  • Literature . Similar to a degree in English, a degree in Literature follows the same course syllabus in the sense that it is heavily focused on reading, analyzing, and writing about literary works.
  • Creative writing . Writers with a degree in Creative Writing have undergone extensive academic courses surrounding creative writing fundamentals and storytelling. Creative Writing students are expected to write rigorously to improve their craft.
  • History . Because history goes hand-in-hand with many literary subjects, those with a degree in History will have a well-rounded skillset to apply as an author.
  • Journalism . Writers with a journalism background are likely educated on news-style writing, features, interview processes, and more. Those with a journalism degree often have experience as newspaper columnists or feature writers, which can translate well into an author career.
  • Psychology . Those who study psychology have an in-depth understanding of human behavior and interaction, which makes for great writing, especially in fiction.
  • Communications . People with a communications degree often have experience in news-writing, marketing, public relations, and more, which are all fields that rely heavily on great writing skills.
  • Theater/cinema . Those with a theater background make great authors and writers due to their creativity, understanding of character dynamics, and screenwriting skills.
  • Liberal arts . Any degree in liberal arts is likely to be focused on heavy research and writing – no matter the field. Therefore, a liberal arts degree can set you up well for learning how to become an author.
  • A degree in any subject you want to write about! If you have a particular industry or niche that you want to focus on in your writing, pursue a degree in that! For example, if I could re-do college all over again, I would pursue a minor degree in Women's Studies, because I love to write about those topics.

Alternatives to college degrees

There are also non-degree online education options for aspiring authors to consider. These are a great choice if you want to learn how to write a book or publish a book on your own. Programs like these are focused on achieving a specific goal, and can be completed at a quicker pace. (Example: Himalayan Writing Retreat )

If you get a traditional college degree, you likely will NOT learn how to write and publish a book. So, if you know for sure that you want to learn how to become an author, you'll save time and money by investing in a course or program that's specific to publishing.

For example, there are many online education programs specifically for aspiring authors, including self-publishing courses.

Be sure to thoroughly do your research to make sure the program is a good fit for your needs.

Online education options

  • Self-Publishing courses . Start here if you want to join an education program that provides a complete roadmap to becoming a bestselling author.
  • Coursera . Consider a program where you can select specific topics to learn about.
  • Udemy . You can find cost-effective micro-courses based on specific topics around writing and publishing.
  • MasterClass . There are limited courses for aspiring authors on this platform, but if you're particularly interested in learning how to improve your writing from bestselling, world-renowned authors like Margaret Atwood, check this out.
  • CreativeLive . Another option for creative courses specific to certain topics around developing certain creative skills.
Training ProgramSelf-Publishing Courses Courses that teach how to write and publish a book
Learning PlatformSites like SkillShare Coursera, Udemy, MasterClass Micro-course offerings that teach specific topics on writing and publishing
Hands-on LearningReal world experienceMany would argue that the best education you can get to become an author is to develop a skillset that improves your writing craft
CollegeEnglish DegreeClasses on writing development and reading literature for deep analysis
CollegeLiterature DegreeHeavily focused on reading, analyzing, and writing on literary works.
CollegeCreative Writing ProgramCreative writing fundamentals and storytelling
CollegeHistoryExtensive writing and research skill development
CollegeJournalismExtensive writing, research, and communication skill development
CollegePsychologyUnderstanding of human behavior and interaction, which makes for great character development
CollegeCommunicationsDevelop a broad skillset in writing, publish relations, marketing, and more
CollegeTheater/CinemaBuild creativity, understanding of character dynamics, and screenwriting skill.
CollegeLiberal ArtsHeavy research and writing - no matter the field.
CollegeA degree in any subject you want to write aboutIf you have a particular industry or niche that you want to focus on in your writing, pursue a degree in that!

2. Learn the skills to become a successful author

While there aren’t any formal education requirements to learn how to become an author of a book, there are certainly some important skills that many successful writers have in common.

Consider these skills like prerequisites – you should aim to improve these skills if you truly want to learn how to become a writer.

In a society of high competition, possessing many of these skills will set you apart and increase your chances of gaining a solid readership.

How To Become An Author: Top Skills For Authors

The top skills needed to learn how to become an author are:

Exceptional writing development skills

Being an excellent writer who can communicate effectively through words is the premise of learning how to become an author successfully. We’ll cover more on the fundamentals of writing that you should master in the next section, but you can check out these writing websites to learn how to be a better writer.

Creative storytelling that engages

It’s an art in itself! Whether you’re writing nonfiction or fiction, no matter what genre your book falls in, you need to be able to craft an engaging story that pulls readers in.

The ability to research well

Ask any successful author, and they will tell you that a major factor in successfully writing a book is to conduct thorough research . You need to know your content in and out – whether you’re writing historical fiction, a children's picture book , or a self-help book.

Since you’re reading this article and researching how to become an author, there’s a good chance you’re already research-savvy!

The tendency to naturally observe people and places

In order to create life-size characters, make your story come alive, and describe people and events vividly, you need to possess the power of observation. If you’re not one to naturally sit back and watch from the sidelines, try improving your observation skills .

Vulnerability and grit

Authors put everything they possess into their writing. It takes vulnerability to put your words out there, and resilience to keep at it when the going gets tough. To learn how to become an author, you’ll need to overcome some serious mental blocks, and be courageous even when you’re overworked or fearing judgment.

How To Become An Author: Skills Needed To Become An Author

3. Master the fundamentals of book writing

Having an excellent command of writing skills builds a solid foundation on which to begin your author journey.

Many people can write, but not many people can write well. And if you can’t write well, that’s okay!

The good news is that there are a number of ways to improve your writing.

YouTube video

Writing isn’t necessarily a talent, it’s a craft. It can be cultivated. It can be strengthened. And with a growth mindset, you can improve your writing skills by mastering the fundamentals.

Some basic examples of the fundamentals of writing are being able to express ideas clearly and in an organized fashion, using powerful word choice , developing a clear point of view , and using proper grammar and punctuation .

However, there are a lot more fundamental writing techniques to learn and implement in your own writing.

  • Learn the writing fundamentals. First, learn all there is to know! You can learn basic writing fundamentals by taking writing development courses, and reading books on writing.
  • Study the fundamentals. Be an avid, deep reader. Don’t just read to understand the story. Read to analyze how the author told that story. Study the author’s style, specifically in the genres you want to write in. By doing this, you’ll start to identify characteristics of remarkable writing.
  • Practice, practice, practice. Put what you’ve learned into practice. Remember all the literary elements you learned about in school. Start actually using those in your writing. Try mirroring an author’s style that you admire. Write often and make it part of your everyday life. Write in a journal , complete writing prompts, write letters to friends, or write short stories.
  • Explore different genres. Part of finding your author's voice and developing yourself as a writer means experimenting with other genres that you may not have written on before. Use creative writing prompts to help you practice your writing fundamentals.
  • Show, don't tell in writing . This is the number one rule to writing , and it's important for you to master it. Practice showing and not telling in your own writing, and understand when to use it.

While you shouldn’t cut corners on your writing development, it’s important to not get stuck in this phase.

At the end of the day, you can read and take all the courses in the world, but the most growth and development you will experience is when you’re actually writing.

4. Create a positive author mindset

Many writers experience feelings of insecurity. Ernest Hemingway supposedly said, “There is nothing to writing. All you do is sit down at a typewriter and bleed.”

If writers are figuratively transforming the essence of their being into words on paper for others to read, then it’s no wonder the best writers suffer from their own insecurities and fear of judgment !

Feeling inadequate is expected, and totally normal. But the ability to pursue your goal to learn how to become an author (despite your fear) is what will set you apart from all the other aspiring book writers out there.

How To Become An Author: How To Create An Author Mindset

Steps to build a positive author mindset:

  • Overcome imposter syndrome and self-doubt as a writer . Give yourself permission to be an author. Don’t shy away from calling yourself a writer – start owning it.
  • Accept that you’re a work in progress. Don’t strive for perfection in writing. Maintain a growth mindset , and understand that there is always room for improvement. You are constantly learning, and improving, and there isn’t anything wrong with that. If you wait for perfection, it’ll never get done.
  • Set a writing habit. Making writing part of your daily lifestyle is super important. If you tend to wait for inspiration as a writer, you’ll be left high and dry more often than not. We’ll cover more on how to set a writing habit in the next section.
  • Focus, focus, focus. We’ve all been there. You sit down at the table to write, and find that an hour has passed and you’ve only churned out a few sentences. Find a focus technique that works for you and stick to it.
  • Think courageously. Try not to get too bogged down in the negative “what-ifs.” What if no one likes my book? What if my writing sucks? What if this book is an entire flop? It’s okay to fear failure, but learn to shake it off and be courageous instead. For every negative thought you have, try to think of two positive thoughts!
  • Define your own success. Success means something different for every author. Some writers want to share their words with the world, while others simply want to build an author's salary to support their writing. Whatever your reason is, get clarity around your definition of success.

5. Write Your first book to learn how to become an author

To truly learn how to become an author, you have to write a book first.

The world is full of great writers with stories to share. The trouble for many is – they never get around to actually finishing a book.

It also depends on what type of book you want to write. If you want to write a nonfiction book , the process is different than learning how to write a novel . The same is true if you're learning how to write a memoir .

This is where it can really get tough. But with grit, determination, and a clear game plan, you can do it. We’re cheering for you!

Here are the steps to write a book and learn how to become an author:  

Get clear on your foundation

Because writing a book can be an uphill battle, you want to make sure your foundation is rock solid. This means getting clear on why you want to become the author of this book. Once you’re super clear on your foundation, you’ll be able to write your book with intention.

Foundational questions you’ll want to ask yourself are:

  • When do you want to have this book done by?
  • How will you position the book?
  • Who are you writing this book for (your target reader)?
  • What is your book's topic or genre?
  • To grow your income
  • To build a reputation/authority
  • To fuel a passion project
  • To share a story or knowledge

Brainstorm with a mind map

Letting your ideas flow freely with a mind map is an effective way to get those creative juices flowing. With so many ideas to explore for your book’s topic, mind map exercises will help you “brain dump” all your thoughts.

Follow these steps to create a mind map for your book:

  • Set a timer for 10-15 minutes to start.
  • Always be writing – don’t worry about grammar or spelling, just write out your thoughts without reservations!
  • Start with a central idea, topic, or concept.
  • Add connecting branches of key ideas that relate to that central idea.
  • Jot down any words that tie ideas together.
  • Use colored highlighters or sticky notes to organize similar concepts or ideas.

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Create an outline

Using your mind map, start creating a basic outline for your book. Don’t get hung up on the details. Think of it in terms of a beginning, a middle, and an end. A simple outline will help you get the ball rolling as you start writing your first draft. As you dive deeper into the writing, your outline can get more detailed, and be revised as needed.

Set a writing schedule

Commit to your writing goals each and every day if you want to learn how to become an author. Set a specific plan for yourself, and set small milestones or goals, whether it’s by word count or time spent writing .

You can have all the ideas in the world, but if you aren’t setting time aside each day to actually write, then the chances of your book being completed will be low.

Tips for setting a writing schedule:

  • Set up a distraction-free writing space
  • Plan for short brain breaks to avoid burnout
  • Set a daily word count goal
  • Do NOT edit as you write
  • Have a buddy keep you accountable
  • Use book writing software to help you meet your daily goals
  • Set a deadline to complete your book by

How To Become An Author: Tips To Set A Writing Schedule

Write your rough draft

Sounds simple, but it’s definitely easier said than done. You can do it! The only way to write a book is to actually sit down and do it. You become a book writer by writing a completed book. Use your outline for guidance, and remember – don’t edit while you write !

Self-edit your book

Once your rough draft is completed, it’s important that you focus on self-editing your book. Although your book will go through a professional editing phase during the publishing process, if you self-edit thoroughly, your editor will be able to focus on other edits that you weren’t able to catch.

Tips for self-editing your book:

  • Do a verbal read – through to find areas of improvement in your sentence structure and storyline.
  • Work chapter by chapter to increase productivity and focus.
  • Don’t get stuck in the editing phase.
  • Remember that any points of uncertainty will be cleared up in the professional editing phase.

How To Become An Author: Tips For Self-Editing Your Book

6. Publish your book

Through blood, sweat, and tears, you’ve committed to writing your book, and have officially become a writer.

Now, it’s time to take the next step and learn how to become an author. And that means publishing your book!

How To Become An Author Of A Book

Here’s how to become an author of a published book:

Decide how to publish

Modern book writers are faced with a major decision on how to publish a book . There are two ways to publish: traditionally publish or self-publish .

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You’ll have to weigh the pros and cons of each, including the cost to publish , and determine which route is more advantageous for you.

If you traditionally publish your book , this means that an actual publishing company will publish your book for you. However, landing a book contract with a traditional publisher is extremely competitive, and the chances are slim for most authors.

So what is self-publishing , you ask? If you self-publish your book , this means that you will be in charge of the publishing process yourself. There are many benefits in going this route, but you'll need to make sure you are self-publishing the right way to ensure book quality and success .

Steps to traditionally publish a book

  • Pitch your book draft to literary agents.
  • If your manuscript is accepted by an agent, your book will be pitched to publishers.
  • If a publisher accepts your work, you will be offered a book contract.
  • The publisher will have your book edited, formatted, and designed.
  • You earn royalties based on the number of books that are sold.

Steps to self-publish a book

  • Find a book editor for each type of editing needed
  • Hire a formatter (if needed) for your book.
  • Hire a professional book cover designer to create an engaging book cover.
  • Choose which self-publishing platforms to sell your book on.
  • Upload the book to the self-publishing platform.

If you still need help deciding how to publish, compare your earning potential with our Book Royalties Calculator .

1. My book will be published by a...

2. my book will be an:, 3. my royalty rate will be:.

*Please note that this royalty rate is based on the market averages for paperback books. Actual royalty rates for traditional and indie publishing can vary by author depending on several factors.

4. My book’s retail price:

5. the # of books sold:, your results, your profit per book sold, for books sold, you earn:, for 1,000 books sold, you earn:, for 10,000 books sold, you earn:, royalties comparisons for 10,000 books sold, want to receive personalized tips on how to sell more books right in your inbox, 7. market your book to become a bestselling author.

Whether you traditionally publish or self-publish, you need to launch and market your book to learn how to become an author successfully.

This step is crucial because if you don’t market your book, how are you going to reach potential readers?

You dedicated time, effort, and – at times – your sanity, to get your book out. Now it’s time to let the world know about it.

You’ll need a strategic book launch and marketing plan in place, which should include a number of techniques to gain readership and sell your book.

Book marketing strategies to consider

  • Build a launch team before your official book release
  • Social media marketing , such as on Pinterest and Instagram
  • Effective book pricing that appeals to prospective readers
  • Build an author website to create your own author platform
  • Use book advertising on various book promo sites like BookBub
  • Get book reviews to increase visibility, reach, and credibility

To dive deep into your book marketing , plan ahead, set a budget, do research, and reach out to your network!

How To Become An Author: Become A Bestselling Author With Book Reviews

8. Write another book!

Your first book is a learning experience, and once your first book is published, you'll realize how many ideas you have for more books.

And that is where the real success comes in. In today's digital author landscape, it's important to keep writing books in order to build a career as an author.

Don't make the mistake of thinking that one book will find instant success. While that does happen for some writers, it is the exception and NOT the rule.

So keep going! Write your next book. The more books you write, the smoother your process will become.

Are you ready to become an author?

Great books make the world go ‘round, which is why we’re all about helping writers learn how to become authors.

As you research how to become an author, one thing becomes clear: it’s a process that takes time, dedication, and some serious effort.

But nothing worth having comes easy.

Books are life-changing, not just for the book writer, but for the book readers all across the world that will learn from your story.

Becoming an author can be one of the most rewarding, and fulfilling accomplishments of your life. You deserve to celebrate it!

Ready To Learn How to Become An Author? This FREE eBook Will Walk You Step-By-Step Through The ENTIRE PROCESS

Faqs about how to become an author.

Here are answers to commonly asked questions about what an author is and how to become an author:

What is a writer?

A writer is someone who writes or expresses ideas or concepts through the written word. There are many people who write for a variety of reasons – whether it's part of their occupation, or for creative expression.

Types of writers that aren't necessarily authors:

  • Technical writers
  • Ghostwriters
  • Copywriters
  • Content writers
  • Songwriters

Can anyone be a writer?

It depends on the type of writer, but yes, technically anyone can be a writer as long as they know how to write. However, specialized writers, such as technical writers and copywriters often require advanced experience and/or degrees in order to be qualified for a writing position. Of course, learning how to become an author is a different story, entirely.

What is an author?

Authors are people who write books, novels, short stories, poems, literary prose, and even screenplays.

What is an author, exactly? An author is someone who has written and published a complete literary work. The publishing is key. If you haven't published your work, then you are a writer but not an author.

How do authors get paid?

Authors can be paid in a variety of ways, but most commonly authors are paid through book advancements and royalty fees.

How much do authors get paid?

The average author salary has a very wide range, and an author's income depends on a number of criteria, such as the number of books published, the publishing method, the book genre and topic, and the success of the book.

As of writing, the current average author salary is between $35,000 to $135,000.

How do i get started as an author?

Really, you just need to start writing! Finish a manuscript, edit it, hire a book cover designer and a marketing team, and learn how to self-publish a book . It may seem like an overwhelming process at first, but there are self-publishing companies that can help you with every step along the way.

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  • Writers and Authors: Jobs, Career, Salary and Education Information

Writers and Authors

Career, salary and education information.

What They Do : Writers and authors develop written content for various types of media.

Work Environment : Writers and authors may work anywhere they have access to a computer. Many writers and authors are self-employed.

How to Become One : A college degree in English, communications, or journalism is generally required for a full-time position as a writer or author. Experience gained through internships or any writing that improves skill, such as blogging, is beneficial.

Salary : The median annual wage for writers and authors is $69,510.

Job Outlook : Employment of writers and authors is projected to grow 4 percent over the next ten years, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

Related Careers : Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of writers and authors with similar occupations.

Following is everything you need to know about a career as a writers or author with lots of details. As a first step, take a look at some of the following jobs, which are real jobs with real employers. You will be able to see the very real job career requirements for employers who are actively hiring. The link will open in a new tab so that you can come back to this page to continue reading about the career:

Top 3 Writer and Author Jobs

Technical Writing - Author and review instrument validation deliverables in accordance with established validation program. Assist with developing/enhancing instrumentation procedures. Author and ...

As a List Author , you will be writing articles that provide more in-depth analysis on a variety of topical events, shows or people in the entertainment industry. Collider covers a wide range of these ...

Write / author technical reports to management depicting the quality levels, quality problems and cost of quality. * Optimize manufacturability, assembly, testability, cost and quality of components ...

See all Writer and Author jobs

What Writers and Authors Do [ About this section ] [ To Top ]

Writers and authors develop written content for various types of media, including advertisements; books; magazines; movie, play, and television scripts; and blogs.

Duties of Writers and Authors

Writers and authors typically do the following:

  • Choose subject matter that interests readers
  • Write fiction or nonfiction through scripts, novels, biographies, and more
  • Conduct research to obtain factual information and authentic detail
  • Write advertising copy for newspapers, magazines, broadcasts, and the Internet
  • Present drafts to editors and clients for feedback
  • Work with editors and clients to shape the material so it can be published

Writers must establish their credibility with editors and readers through clean prose, strong research, and the use of appropriate sources and citations. Writers and authors select the material they want to use and then convey the information to readers. With help from editors, they may revise or rewrite sections, searching for the clearest language and the most appropriate phrasing.

Some writers and authors are self-employed or freelance writers and authors. They sell their written content to book and magazine publishers; news organizations; advertising agencies; and movie, theater, and television producers. They may be hired to complete specific short-term or recurring assignments, such as writing a newspaper column, contributing to a series of articles in a magazine, or producing an organization's newsletter.

An increasing number of writers are producing material that is published only on the Internet, such as for digital news organizations or blogs.

The following are examples of types of writers and authors:

Copywriters prepare advertisements to promote the sale of a good or service. They often work with a client to produce written content, such as advertising themes, jingles, and slogans.

Content writers write about any topic of interest, unlike writers who usually specialize in a given field.

Biographers write a thorough account of a person's life. They gather information from interviews and research about the person to accurately portray important events in that person's life.

Bloggers write posts to a blog that may pertain to any topic or a specific field, such as fashion, news, or sports.

Novelists write books of fiction, creating characters and plots that may be imaginary or based on real events.

Playwrights write scripts for theatrical productions. They come up with a concept, write lines for actors to say, produce stage direction for actors to follow, and suggest ideas for theatrical set design.

Screenwriters create scripts for movies and television. They may produce original stories, characters, and dialogue, or turn a book into a movie or television script.

Speechwriters write speeches for business leaders, politicians, and others who must speak in front of an audience. A speech is heard, not read, which means speechwriters must think about audience reaction and rhetorical effect.

Work Environment for Writers and Authors [ About this section ] [ To Top ]

Writers and authors hold about 142,800 jobs. The largest employers of writers and authors are as follows:

Self-employed workers 62%
Professional, scientific, and technical services 11%
Information 11%
Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations 3%
Performing arts, spectator sports, and related industries 3%

Writers and authors may work anywhere they have access to a computer.

Jobs are somewhat concentrated in major media and entertainment markets—California, New York, Texas, and Washington, DC—but improved communications and Internet capabilities allow writers and authors to work from almost anywhere. Some writers and authors prefer to work and travel to meet with publishers and clients and to do research or conduct interviews in person.

Writer and Author Work Schedules

Some writers and authors work part time. Most keep regular office hours, either to stay in contact with sources and editors or to set up a writing routine, but many set their own hours. Others may need to work evenings and weekends to produce something acceptable for an editor or client. Self-employed or freelance writers and authors may face the pressures of juggling multiple projects or continually looking for new work.

How to Become a Writer or Author [ About this section ] [ To Top ]

Get the education you need: Find schools for Writers and Authors near you!

A college degree in English, journalism, or communications is generally required for a salaried position as a writer or author. Experience can be gained through internships, but any form of writing that improves skill, such as blogging, is beneficial.

Education for Writers and Authors

A bachelor's degree is typically needed for a full-time job as a writer. Because writing skills are essential in this occupation, many employers prefer candidates with a degree in English, journalism, or communications.

Other Work Experience for Writers and Authors

Writers can obtain job experience by working for high school and college newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations, advertising and publishing companies, or nonprofit organizations. College theater programs offer playwrights an opportunity to have their work performed. Many magazines and newspapers also have internships for students. Interns may write stories, conduct research and interviews, and gain general publishing experience.

Employers also increasingly prefer new applicants to have the ability to code and program webpages or manipulate data to create a visual story using tables, charts, infographics, and maps. Online publications require knowledge of computer software and editing tools that are used to combine text with graphics, audio, video, and animation.

In addition, anyone with Internet access can start a blog and gain writing experience. Some of this writing may lead to paid assignments regardless of education, because the quality of writing, the unique perspective, and the size of the potential audience are the greatest determinants of success for a piece of writing.

Writers or authors can come from a variety of backgrounds and experiences as long as they demonstrate strong writing skills.

Writer and Author Training

Writers and authors typically need to gain writing experience through on-the-job training. They may practice writing and work with more experienced writers and editors before their work is ready for publication.

Writers who want to write about a particular topic may need formal training or experience related to that topic.

Licenses, Certifications, and Registrations for Writers and Authors

Some associations offer certifications for writers and authors. Certification can demonstrate competence and professionalism, making candidates more attractive to employers. For example, the American Grant Writers' Association (AGWA) offers the Certified Grant Writer® credential.

Certification can also increase opportunities for advancement.

Advancement for Writers and Authors

Beginning writers and authors can get a start and put their name on work immediately by writing for small businesses, local newspapers, advertising agencies, and nonprofit organizations. However, opportunities for advancement within these organizations may be limited because they usually do not have enough regular work.

Writers and authors can advance their careers further by building a reputation, taking on more complex writing assignments, and getting published in more prestigious markets and publications. Having published work that has been well received and maintaining a track record of meeting deadlines are important for advancement.

Many editors begin work as writers. Those who are particularly skilled at identifying stories, correcting writing style, and interacting with writers may be interested in editing jobs.

Important Qualities for Writers and Authors

Adaptability. Writers and authors need to be able to adapt to newer software platforms and programs, including various content management systems (CMS).

Creativity. Writers and authors must be able to develop new and interesting plots, characters, or ideas so they can come up with new stories.

Critical-thinking skills. Writers and authors must have dual expertise in thinking through or understanding new concepts, and conveying it through writing.

Determination. Writers and authors sometimes work on projects that take years to complete. They must demonstrate perseverance and personal drive to meet deadlines.

Persuasion. Writers, especially those in advertising, must be able to persuade others to feel a certain way about a good or service.

Social perceptiveness. Writers and authors must understand how readers react to certain ideas in order to connect with their audience.

Writing skills. Writers and authors must be able to write clearly and effectively in order to convey feeling and emotion and communicate with readers.

Writer and Author Salaries [ About this section ] [ More salary/earnings info ] [ To Top ]

The median annual wage for writers and authors is $69,510. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $38,500, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $133,580.

The median annual wages for writers and authors in the top industries in which they work are as follows:

Information $80,560
Professional, scientific, and technical services $65,210
Religious, grantmaking, civic, professional, and similar organizations $64,280
Educational services; state, local, and private $61,940

Job Outlook for Writers and Authors [ About this section ] [ To Top ]

Employment of writers and authors is projected to grow 4 percent over the next ten years, about as fast as the average for all occupations.

About 15,200 openings for writers and authors are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.

Employment of Writers and Authors

As traditional print publications lose ground to other media forms, writers and authors are shifting their focus to online media, which should result in some employment growth for these workers.

Employment projections data for Writers and Authors, 2021-31
Occupational Title Employment, 2021 Projected Employment, 2031 Change, 2021-31
Percent Numeric
Writers and authors 142,800 148,700 4 5,900

Careers Related to Writers and Authors [ About this section ] [ To Top ]

Announcers and djs.

Announcers present news and sports or may interview guests on media such as radio and television. Disc jockeys (DJs) act as masters of ceremonies (emcees) or play recorded music at weddings, parties, or clubs.

Editors plan, review, and revise content for publication.

News Analysts, Reporters, and Journalists

News analysts, reporters, and journalists keep the public updated about current events and noteworthy information. They report international, national, and local news for newspapers, magazines, websites, television, and radio.

Public Relations and Fundraising Managers

Public relations managers plan and direct the creation of material that will maintain or enhance the public image of their employer or client. Fundraising managers coordinate campaigns that bring in donations for their organization.

Public Relations Specialists

Public relations specialists create and maintain a favorable public image for the organization they represent. They craft media releases and develop social media programs to shape public perception of their organization and to increase awareness of its work and goals.

Technical Writers

Technical writers, also called technical communicators, prepare instruction manuals, how-to guides, journal articles, and other supporting documents to communicate complex and technical information more easily. They also develop, gather, and disseminate technical information through an organization's communications channels.

More Writer and Author Information [ About this section ] [ To Top ]

For more information about writers and authors, visit

American Grant Writers’ Association, Inc.

American Society of Journalists and Authors

Association of Writers & Writing Programs

National Association of Science Writers

Society of Professional Journalists

Writers Guild of America East

A portion of the information on this page is used by permission of the U.S. Department of Labor.

Explore more careers: View all Careers or the Top 30 Career Profiles

Search for jobs:.

What is the Best Degree for Becoming a Writer?

Ready to find the perfect college degree.

Image of a writer for our FAQ on What is the Best Degree for Becoming a Writer

You’ve written short stories since you first learned how to hold a pen. You ask for novels and notebooks for Christmas and birthdays. Your favorite class in high school was English. Maybe you’ve known your entire life that you want to be a writer, but what is the best college major for becoming a writer?

Many universities offer a wide range of degrees in writing, and just about any college degree can be a springboard for a writing career. From journalism to creative writing, the best degrees for writers offer excellent earning potential and professional freedom.

To find the right degree path, it helps to start with the core concepts of:

  • composition

Every writing program begins with a core curriculum and builds up to more advanced concepts. While it may not be necessary to earn a writing degree, it will help to build a foundation of knowledge that could prove useful for a lifetime.

writing degree

Of course, English is one of the most prominent degrees for aspiring writers. Along with related degrees like creative writing, literature, and writing, English teaches students how to write. While pursuing a degree in English, you’ll write:

  • short stories
  • research papers

You’ll study classic works of literature and emulate those styles. You will be required to produce massive amounts of writing, all of which will receive feedback from experienced professors. You can go on to become any type of writer. Companies are eager to hire English majors for communications and technical writing positions. Of course, you could become a novelist like Stephen King or write songs like Sting or Paul Simon. All three of those men have English degrees. No matter what type of writer you want to become, an English degree will give you a solid background in the art of writing.

To earn your degree in history, you will fill reams of paper with your writing. After English and creative writing courses, history is one of the most writing-intensive avenues of study. Every class you take will give you the opportunity to complete one or more research papers.

However, many liberal arts degrees require extensive reading and writing. What makes history a better course of study than anthropology or political science? History majors consider the broad span of human existence. As a history major, you might learn about Roman peasants, American settlers, and Asian aristocrats in a single semester. Even more, you’ll study how seemingly small political decisions can impact an entire nation. With a history degree, you will be an expert world-builder and prepared to create riveting novels or popular works on history.

Many famous writers, including Malcolm Gladwell, Karl Marx, and H.G. Wells, have used their studies in history to launch successful careers.

Natural Sciences

Yes, a degree like biology, chemistry, or physics could help you become a science writer. Textbooks, journals, magazines, and newspapers desperately need writers who can translate dense scientific jargon into readable prose. The Council for the Advancement of Science Writing recommends that aspiring writers take courses in natural sciences and journalism. If your passion is science fiction, then your bachelor’s of science degree will come in handy. Your fans will appreciate your expertise. Think of the fantastical creatures you can dream up with a solid foundation in existing biology. Imagine the realistic future technology you can describe if you finish a degree in engineering.

Isaac Asimov earned a chemistry degree. Arthur C. Clarke took certificates in mathematics and physics. Robert A. Heinlein graduated with a bachelor’s in engineering. With proper training in scientific thought, perhaps you can be the next sci-fi legend.

Liberal Arts

A few generations ago, an education in liberal arts was standard for most college graduates.  The liberal arts, also sometimes called the humanities, include:

  •  art history
  • religious philosophy

Over the last several decades, educators have shifted the emphasis from liberal studies to the natural and social sciences, promoting the subjects of:

  • engineering
  • mathematics

The STEM fields have taken the prized place in Western culture, leaving English, history, and philosophy by the wayside, or reducing them to quantitative disciplines.

The problem with quantifying these subjects is that they transcend objective quantity. They deal with subjective qualities. This is why a liberal arts education is perfect for writers, who must learn to be perceptive. Many private four-year universities exclusively offer a liberal arts education, but these schools usually don’t have graduate programs. While there are many types of writing jobs, most of the high-paying ones require a graduate degree.

World Literature

A general education in liberal arts is worthwhile, but many writers will want to narrow their focus to a particular subject. The world’s literature contains all the truths that human beings have ever committed to print.Studying literature can help writers expand their thinking.

From Lao Tzu to Flannery O’Connor, the world’s significant writers have distilled their wisdom into poems, plays, novels, and short stories. Many schools offer courses on film as literature, as well. Now that the songwriter Bob Dylan has won the Nobel Prize in literature, some teachers may include a study of song lyrics in their courses. After all, one of the earliest songwriters to influence world literature is the ancient Greek lyricist Sappho.

With an education in world literature, an aspiring writer can find work as a:

  • grant writer
  • technical writer

However, writers with an intense interest in literature might want to continue their education at the graduate level.

Creative Writing

Creative writing is a good degree choice for writers with the maturity and self-discipline to produce work that other people find valuable. The top creative writing programs are competitive, selecting only those candidates whose achievements and talent stand out.

While merit is the most important factor in the selection process, the top creative writing programs also look for students with compelling backgrounds and contemporary interests. Graduates of these programs may go on to become celebrated authors or sought-after creative writing instructors. Therefore, they must have a certain appeal within the publishing industry.

While the top programs are competitive, many solid alternatives around the country admit students who show promise. With degrees in writing from these second-tier programs, writers can find work as teachers or writers in industries from business to communications. The media industry, while volatile, will continue to grow as the internet becomes more accessible around the world, creating new jobs for writers.

degrees to be a writer

The journalism industry has its ups and downs, but journalists with a strong work ethic and broad skillset can find stable employment. Journalists typically begin their careers writing for local newspapers or news websites, building up a professional portfolio by soliciting articles to national publications.

Journalism school is a concentration in the communications department at many universities. In these programs, students learn to write objective, factual reports about current events. They answer the questions about who, what, when, where, why, and how.

With a degree in journalism, a writer can become a:

Over the course of their career, they can break into editorial or opinion writing. The salaries for journalists range from around $35,000 to millions of dollars per year, depending on the writer’s publishing credits and renown.

Foreign Languages

Foreign languages offer some of the best degrees in writing because they combine the study of linguistics, literature, and foreign culture for a valuable all-around education. With a foreign language degree, a writer can find high-paying work as a translator or interpreter. With a background in world literature, finding work as a translator is even easier.

While computer algorithms can translate basic phrases and even whole documents, they’ll never replace human translators who have deep knowledge of foreign cultures and world literature. To see why human translators will always be necessary, consider how many unique translations of Homer or the Bible there are. The evolution of culture drives demand for updated translations of literary works. Every translation requires human input to be relevant to readers. A computer can’t fake that quality for the same reason that a human can’t. Consciousness is subjective, so people with training in subjective arts, such as writing and translation, will always have work.

Graduate School

Graduate degrees in writing can open up new horizons for writers. With a master’s degree, a writer can find employment as a:

They work in a demanding field such as:

  • public service

The ideal graduate program for writing depends on the individual. Many aspiring writers will want to enroll in a literary or creative writing program. Others will find a technical subject more to their liking. With a master’s degree in biology or psychology, for example, a writer can find high-paying work as a medical or healthcare writer.

The field of journalism offers many jobs for writers with special expertise in technical subjects. As more people turn to the internet for factual information about health, wellness, and nutrition, there will be a growing demand for writers with advanced education in these subjects.

Types of Writing Careers

Few writers earn an income solely from creative writing. Most published fiction writers earn the bulk of their income from a day job, which could be teaching, waiting tables, or construction. Even the major names in fiction had regular jobs while producing their work, including David Foster Wallace and Deborah Eisenberg. Bestselling authors like J.K Rowling and Stephen King are the exception, once their works became famous.

Fortunately, however, there are plenty of other ways to earn money with writing. For left-brained people, some good options include:

  • technical writing
  • science writing
  • medical writing
  • legal writing

Creative people can try:

  • advertising
  • ghostwriting
  • blog writing

For extra money on the side, skilled writers can offer their services in the freelance marketplace.

With enough practice and self-discipline, any professional writer can break into the national publishing circuit, whether it’s with fiction or nonfiction. To make a full-time job of it, though, takes a deeper level of will and ingenuity.

Becoming a Better Writer

To understand how to get better at writing, it helps to think about the nature of language. When children learn to speak, they don’t yet have the brainpower to learn by studying. They pick up new words intuitively without even realizing what they’re doing.

Words originate in a deep level of the psyche that’s more transparent in infancy than in adulthood. As adults, humans navigate the world using intellectual faculties. These include the real-time verbalization of feelings and impressions coming from this intuitive psychic core. Eastern religions have understood this makeup of the human psyche for millennia. Meditation can help to elucidate it for the curious writer.

With awareness of this gut-to-brain verbal pipeline, finding the right words to express an idea becomes easier. In fact, grammar itself is a natural system that structures language at the gut level. People who use “improper” grammar do so according to a common set of rules that they learned as children. It’s only prescriptive grammar that has formal rules.

As a working writer, you’ll need to know grammatical rules. You’ll also need to know the rules of style, which aren’t as loose as you may think. For example, it matters where you put commas in your sentences, even though the rules for comma usage have no basis in natural language. With practice, you’ll learn at the intuitive level, and with study, you’ll learn at the intellectual level. The key ingredient to becoming a better writer is the intent to do so.

Going to Film School

schools for writing

The entertainment industry has a growing need for screenwriters to write scripts for TV shows and movies. With the growth of streaming video, there’s more work than ever for competent screenwriters.

The process of finding screenwriting work in the streaming video industry is basically the same as  any other field of writing. With a college degree, resume, and portfolio, any writer can apply for work as a screenwriter in traditional or web-based media.

Most screenwriting jobs are based in Los Angeles, so it may be necessary to move there. The competition for entertainment jobs in Los Angeles is famously intense, so it’s important to be:

  • thick-skinned
  • professional

Because Hollywood screenwriting jobs go to the most talented writers, it’s also important to be good, which is a matter of deep introspective self-realization.

The Job Outlook for Writers

Writing jobs are growing at around nine percent per year, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics . The national average for job growth is around four percent, so writers are well-positioned to find employment in their fields of expertise. While the median annual salary for writers is $67,120, the range of salaries is huge. With education, experience, and professionalism, the average writer can expect to earn a comfortable living.

Any degree can start your career as a writer. You’ll have to consider your writing talents and ambitions when choosing the best degree for your individual needs. You can achieve success with any degree, as long as you’re committed to a future as a writer. Writing careers can be exciting, fulfilling, and profitable. With so many degrees in writing to choose from, the potential for a rewarding career is excellent.

Related Resources:

  • 20 Best Online Degrees for Writers and Writing 2022
  • 30 Best Online Bachelor’s in Creative Writing or Professional Writing
  • Which Degree Programs Require the Least Amount of Reading and Writing?

This concludes our article on the top degrees for becoming a writer.

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Growth Trends for Related Jobs

What type of education do you need to be a writer.

careertrend article image

Writers communicate concepts through the written word. They entertain with dramatic stories in novels and scripts, persuade with witty copy in advertising and explain with straightforward instruction in computer manuals. With a computer and Internet access, they may work anywhere, including at home or in an office. Their educational requirements depend on the type of writing they do.

Creative Writers

Creative writers pen fiction ranging from short poems to novels running hundreds of pages. They send their efforts to editors for possible publication and payment. No educational background is necessary beyond the knowledge of grammar and spelling taught in high school. A bachelor’s degree in liberal arts or creative writing can be helpful, according to author Jennifer Weiner, because you can learn how to read, write and reason better. Acquiring life experiences is more important. You may do this by working and then writing every day to practice the craft. Marketing courses available in community colleges and technical schools can help you sell your work.

Technical Writers

Technical writers develop operations guides, quick-start sheets, help screens and other documentation designed to help users understand machines, services and procedures. They typically need a bachelor’s degree in technical writing, English or communications. Some employers require writing education and a technical major, such as computers, engineering or medicine. When starting out, technical writers may work on parts of bigger projects under supervision until they learn their employers' writing style. They can then advance to independent work or lead complex writing projects.


Journalists, also called reporters, write stories explaining important happenings that can range from the local to the state, national and international level. They typically need a bachelor’s degree in journalism or communications, and many intern or work on college papers to obtain experience. Employers also accept degrees from other fields if applicants have related work experience. Journalists typically work for news organizations and publish their stories, sometimes several times a day, in newspapers and magazines and on websites. People skills are just as important as writing ability, because journalists obtain much of their information through interviews.


Copywriters use writing to persuade customers to buy a product or service. Positions usually require a bachelor’s degree in advertising, marketing, liberal arts or business. Experience is important, however, especially for advertising agencies, and many only hire those with at least three years of experience. Writing for community projects, charitable organizations and the school paper are some ways of gaining experience. Copywriters can become supervisors or copy chiefs, who coordinate the work of subordinates, or account executives, who handle sales and service to particular clients.

Technical Writers salary

  • Top 10% Annual Salary: More than $41,220 ($19.82/hour)
  • Median Annual Salary: $32,620 ($15.68/hour)
  • Bottom 10% Annual Salary: Less than $24,660 ($11.86/hour)

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  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: How to Become a Technical Writer
  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: How to Become a Reporter, Correspondent or Broadcast News Analyst
  • U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: Occupational Outlook Handbook: Technical Writers
  • Career Trend: Technical Writers

Aurelio Locsin has been writing professionally since 1982. He published his first book in 1996 and is a frequent contributor to many online publications, specializing in consumer, business and technical topics. Locsin holds a Bachelor of Arts in scientific and technical communications from the University of Washington.

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Author/Writer Education Requirements

The educational requirements for an author/writer vary, with some holding no degree, while others having a high school diploma, associate, bachelor's, master's, or even a doctorate degree. Majors often include English, business, communication, psychology, and journalism. According to Dr. Wilma Davidson , Instructor at the University of South Florida, "All businesses need good writers. You can work remotely as a freelancer or an employee without concern about where your employer is located." She further adds, "If you'd like to be a technical writer, there is an advantage to being close to the engineers you may be working with as you write their manuals, but that can be handled-and already is-being handled remotely."

What education do you need to become an author/writer?

What degree do you need to be an author/writer.

The most common degree for author/writers is bachelor's degree, with 59% of author/writers earning that degree. The second and third most common degree levels are master's degree degree at 17% and master's degree degree at 12%.

  • Bachelor's , 59%
  • Master's , 17%
  • Associate , 12%
  • High School Diploma , 5%
  • Other Degrees , 7%

What should I major in to become an author/writer?

According to Emily Griesinger, Ph.D. , Professor of English at Azusa Pacific University, "don't give up" if you're an aspiring author or writer. She suggests that those with English majors, in particular, can excel in this field due to their critical thinking and persuasive writing skills. Therefore, a bachelor's degree in English stands out as one of the best majors for an author/writer.

  • English , 15%
  • Business , 14%
  • Communication , 11%
  • Psychology , 8%
  • Other Majors , 52%

Most common colleges for author/writers

Author/writers often get their degrees at University of Phoenix, Temple University, and University of Central Florida. Here are the most common colleges for author/writers in the US based on their resumes.

Author/Writer Common CollegePercentages
University of Phoenix14.29%
Temple University11.11%
University of Central Florida6.35%
California State University - San Bernardino6.35%
Rowan University4.76%

Best majors for author/writers

1 14.8%
2 13.5%
3 10.5%
4 7.6%
5 7.6%

Best colleges for author/writers

The top colleges for author/writers, including Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, are chosen based on admissions rate, retention rate, and graduates' earnings. These institutions offer Bachelor's and Master's degrees, which are crucial for author/writers seeking higher salaries and better job opportunities.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cambridge, MA • Private

In-State Tuition

Harvard University

2. Harvard University

Northwestern University

3. Northwestern University

Evanston, IL • Private

Columbia University in the City of New York

4. Columbia University in the City of New York

New York, NY • Private

University of California, Berkeley

5. University of California, Berkeley

Berkeley, CA • Private

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

6. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Chapel Hill, NC • Private

California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo

7. California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo

San Luis Obispo, CA • Private

University of Southern California

8. University of Southern California

Los Angeles, CA • Private

Emory University

9. Emory University

Atlanta, GA • Private

University of Texas at Austin

10. University of Texas at Austin

Austin, TX • Private

20 best online courses for author/writers

1. Fiction for Young Writers (Writing Mastery)

A fun, interactive workshop to help young writers unlock their creativity, improve their craft, and write better stories...

2. Bestseller Book Marketing: Amazon Kindle KDP Self-Publishing

2023 Amazon book marketing & Kindle KDP self-publishing! Paperback books & Kindle (KDP) ebooks. Amazon Kindle KDP sales!...

3. Become a Freelance Content Writer - Get Paid to Write Online

Learn everything you need to know about becoming a freelance writer - Work from home!...

4. Reverse Engineer Riveting Fiction & Write Best Selling Books

You will be writing page turning fiction that your readers will love when you plot, outline and write the right way...

5. Write & Publish Your First Nonfiction Book on the Side

Learn how to write a bestselling kindle book while working a full time job (even if you don't have lot of time)...

6. Helping Writers to Write and Keep Writing

This limiting factor with most writers is their mind. This course will help get your state of mind into Success Mode...

7. Conquering Writer's Block (Writing Mastery)

Proven strategies and tools to overcome writer's block, renew your motivation, and write novels with confidence...

8. Write A Book - Share Your Story

Write, Self Publish and Market your Non-Fiction Book, Launch on Amazon and Learn How to Become a Best Seller on Kindle...

9. COMPLETE Creative Writing - All Genres - THE FULL COURSE!

Learn to write engaging Fiction, Poetry, Drama, & Creative Non-Fiction and become the successful writer you want to be...

10. How To Become a Bestselling Author on Amazon Kindle

Learn how to make money writing with this complete guide to writing, formatting, publishing and marketing Kindle ebooks...

11. How to Write a Nonfiction Book That Actually Sells

The Step-by-Step System for Writing Non-fiction Books in 30 Days from #1 Bestselling Author Tom Corson-Knowles...

12. Writing Science Fiction and Fantasy

Turn your idea into a published novel or screenplay in one of today's hottest genres...

13. The Foundations of Fiction (Writing Mastery)

Become a creative writing master and write killer novels, memoirs, or short stories...

14. Publish Your Novel: Self-Publishing & Marketing Masterclass

The Complete, Step-by-Step Guide to Self-Publishing and Marketing Your Book and Launching Your Author Career...

15. 3-Step Writing System: Blogging & Writing Secrets

Blogging & writing tips for beginners to pros. Become an expert blogger/freelance writer. Ultimate blog writing course!...

16. Writing Fiction That Sings: Write Novels With Great Voice

Writing novels, blogs, or nonfiction books? Learn editing techniques in this writing course and up your writing skills...

17. Writing Revenue: Write Well, Get Published, & Earn Money

A practical guide to become a successful writer, get published in big publications, and generate a healthy income...

18. Amazon Self-Publishing - Create Kindle Books Fast

Advanced Techniques to Create Books Fast and Build your Publishing Empire...

19. Writing Tools & Hacks: Copywriting/Blogging/Content Writing

The best FREE writing tools & apps + Hacks to take your copywriting, blogging, & content writing to the next level...

20. Kindle Launch Plan: Publish and Market an Amazon Bestseller

Learn the proven process of how to take your non-fiction book from idea to the top of the Amazon charts...

Top 10 most affordable universities for author/writers

The most affordable schools for author/writers are Baruch College of the City University of New York, university of florida, and brooklyn college of the city university of new york.

If the best universities for author/writers are out of your price range, check out these affordable schools. After factoring in in-state tuition and fees, the average cost of attendance, admissions rate, average net price, and mean earnings after six years, we found that these are the most affordable schools for author/writers.

Baruch College of the City University of New York

1. Baruch College of the City University of New York

Cost of Attendance

University of Florida

2. University of Florida

Gainesville, FL • Private

Brooklyn College of the City University of New York

3. Brooklyn College of the City University of New York

Brooklyn, NY • Private

Brigham Young University

4. Brigham Young University

Provo, UT • Private

California State University - Long Beach

5. California State University - Long Beach

Long Beach, CA • Private

USF St. Petersburg

6. USF St. Petersburg

St. Petersburg, FL • Private

California State University - Los Angeles

7. California State University - Los Angeles

SUNY Farmingdale

8. SUNY Farmingdale

Farmingdale, NY • Private

9. Lehman College of the City University of New York

Bronx, NY • Private

University of South Florida

10. University of South Florida

Tampa, FL • Private

Top 10 hardest universities to get into for author/writers

The hardest universities for author/writers to get into are Northwestern University, Harvard University, and Northeastern University.

Some great schools for author/writers are hard to get into, but they also set your career up for greater success. The list below shows the most challenging universities to get into for author/writers based on an institution's admissions rates, average SAT scores accepted, median ACT scores accepted, and mean earnings of students six years after admission.

1. Northwestern University

Admissions Rate

SAT Average

Northeastern University

3. Northeastern University

Boston, MA • Private

Boston University

4. Boston University

University of Tulsa

5. University of Tulsa

Tulsa, OK • Private

Southern Methodist University

6. Southern Methodist University

Dallas, TX • Private

7. Columbia University in the City of New York

8. massachusetts institute of technology.

New York University

9. New York University

10. emory university, top 10 easy-to-apply-to universities for author/writers.

The easiest schools for author/writers to get into are University of the Incarnate Word, notre dame de namur university, and rochester university.

Some schools are much easier to get into. If you want to start your career as an author/writer without much hassle, check out the list of schools where you will be accepted in no time. We compiled admissions rates, average SAT scores, average ACT scores, and average salary of students six years after graduation to uncover which were the easiest schools to get into for author/writers.

University of the Incarnate Word

1. University of the Incarnate Word

San Antonio, TX • Private

Notre Dame de Namur University

2. Notre Dame de Namur University

Belmont, CA • Private

3. Rochester University

Rochester Hills, MI • Private

Grand View University

4. Grand View University

Des Moines, IA • Private

Centenary University

5. Centenary University

Hackettstown, NJ • Private

Gwynedd Mercy University

6. Gwynedd Mercy University

Gwynedd Valley, PA • Private

Nyack College

7. Nyack College

Wayland Baptist University

8. Wayland Baptist University

Plainview, TX • Private

Curry College

9. Curry College

Milton, MA • Private

San Francisco State University

10. San Francisco State University

San Francisco, CA • Private

Average author/writer salary by education level

According to our data, author/writers with a Doctorate degree earn the highest average salary, at $68,722 annually. Author/writers with a Master's degree earn an average annual salary of $64,827.

Author/Writer education levelAuthor/Writer salary
Master's Degree$64,827
Bachelor's Degree$64,682
Doctorate Degree$68,722

Author/Writer Education FAQs

What is the best college for author/writers, search for author/writer jobs.

Updated April 5, 2024

Editorial Staff

The Zippia Research Team has spent countless hours reviewing resumes, job postings, and government data to determine what goes into getting a job in each phase of life. Professional writers and data scientists comprise the Zippia Research Team.

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Updated By Sakunth Kumar on 28 Sep, 2021 11:20 A.M

Last Updated By Harleen Kaur on 25 Aug, 2022

How to Become a Writer

About writer.

Are you interested to become a writer? Are you passionate about writing? Creative Writing is a potential career for those who are interested in writing and have a passion towards the field. A career in creative writing offers excellent monetary returns. However, creative writing is not a career for all. A career in creative writing is an artistic work, and the person who wants to become a good writer must have both creative and language skills. Creative writers are known by several names such as novelists, poets, lyricists etc. A writer is capable of inculcating feelings in a person through his writings. Creative writing requires a lot of research and hard work. A writer has to express his/ her feelings through imaginative ideas and thoughts.

A writer is a specialist at using words. They use words to express ideas, information, and particular kinds of messages. Writing, which was once limited to pen, paper, and typewriters, now thrives on the Internet and other digital media and has a worldwide effect. Writing careers exist in almost every field because writers are crucial to communication. Words are used by writers to express ideas. They work in a variety of media, including books, magazines, and print media, as well as blogs and the Internet. Writers can use words, phrases and photos, and words combined with other kinds of media like video streaming. Writers work in a variety of settings, including advertising, magazines, and newspapers. Writers create digital content for the billions and billions of Internet pages. E-commerce, online ads, and messaging are examples of this connectivity. Writers also create scripts, plays, and screenplays for films.

Eligibility to become Writer

For taking up Under Graduate courses in different languages, Journalism  Mass Communication, a pass in Class 12 with a minimum of 45% marks in qualifying exams

For certificate and diploma courses in creative writing, Class 12 is the minimum qualification

Steps to Becoming a Writer

There is no one way to become a writer; successful writers come from a wide range of perspectives, personal histories, or rather educational backgrounds. Jobs as a writer typically necessitate some degree of education. Most companies will require a bachelor's degree in a field related to writing, such as English Literature. Hiring managers seeking to fill higher-paying and more demanding positions frequently require significant relevant work experience as well as a master's degree.

Step 1: Complete your Basic Schooling

A writer typically needs to have a minimum level of education, such as a high school diploma or an equivalent, in order to be employed by others. The fact that self-taught people have achieved success as writers is one of the special characteristics of the writing profession. Courses in English, writing, grammar, and reading provide significant advantages and skills for aspiring writers in the realm of formal education.Many students start out as columnists for school publications such as newspaper articles, bulletins, and school books.Reading is a fundamental skill of good writers. By consuming a large amount of meaningful writing, writers gain firsthand knowledge of the power of written words. In some ways, writing is the ability to convey an experience; writers assist people in visualising and comprehending things, including fresh and unfamiliar subjects.

Step 2: Complete a Bachelor's or Writing Education degree

A formal writing education can be achieved at an accredited school, college, or university. Writing education can also be acquired through practical roles that help strengthen technical writing, knowledge, and skill sets. After high school, formal education generally consists of a bachelor's, or master's degree in a writing-related field. Several aspiring writers major in literature, English, or sociology. Writers with a solid foundation in writing, composition, and literature can benefit from a wide variety of minor and major disciplines. Writers must exhibit their expertise, knowledge, and any areas of specialisation. The writer's portfolio is one frequently used tool. A portfolio is a collection of the author's writings that serve as examples of their style and subject expertise. The portfolio can show depth in a few topics or the writer's voice expressed across a variety of subjects.

Step 3: Identify Areas of Interest

Writing is not a restricted field; writing and written communications are used in almost every artistic, commercial, or social activity. When starting a writing career, it may be beneficial to begin in areas of interest. Motivation comes from a strong interest, as well as writers can take advantage of work that helps them develop and refine their professional writing skills. Hobbies, athletics, technology, and entertainment can all be pursued alongside writing.

Step 4: Acquire Experience

Writing jobs can be dynamic, and employers will base their hiring decisions on academic achievement, writing samples, portfolios, and expertise. Internships, cooperative projects, and other similar opportunities can help a writer gain experience. Training programmes, vocational schools, colleges, and universities frequently assist students in obtaining internships and awarding academic credit for them. Internships can provide you with valuable contacts, a body of specific experience in a profession, and on-the-job learning and training in some fields such as healthcare, international trade, or business.

Step 5: Find Work

Writers with an education or a degree as well as some experience can find work. Full-time writing jobs are available in almost every type of business, industry, and commercial company. State, regional, and federal governments hire writers to manage the massive amount of content required by public functions. Because writing work is portable and easily outsourced by a variety of individuals, businesses, and organisations, writers today have several options in the 'gig economy.' Several writers are self-employed experts who work online and in their local areas on a variety of writing projects. They can take advantage of on-demand employment opportunities as well as the high demand for digital content and marketing. Poets, novelists, and nonfiction writers who want to publish their work must find publications and sell their work. Some writers hire literary agents to help them market their work and search for publishing opportunities. However, creative writers do not always have complete control over their outcomes, and the process can be complicated with temporary failures. Authors now have a plethora of self-publishing options available through large Internet publications and book sales platforms.

Step 6: Earn a Master’s Degree

A writer may find it easier to find employment in their desired fields with advanced degrees. A Master of Arts in English or Literature, or a Master of Fine Arts degree, can advance your career and present you with new opportunities. In the writing industry, advanced degrees are a source of authority, and many hiring managers prioritise this level of education.

Tools Needed to Become a Writer

To become a good writer, one must first understand the fundamentals of content creation. Knowledge of tools for identifying grammatical errors and plagiarism. To become a writer, you must use specific tools.

When you write a paragraph, you will notice spelling and grammar errors. To avoid these errors, use Grammarly's tools for detecting grammatical and spelling errors. This tool will strengthen the content's quality and make it easier for users to understand

  • Another tool, called a plagiarism checker, is used to determine whether the content is original or tried to copy. You can use this tool after you've written the content to test it and ensure its uniqueness
  • Some of the articles have been written in the WordPress tool, which allows for various modes of writing with text and special characters

Guidance for Aspiring Writers

Use the guidance given below to improve as a writer.

  • Make it a habit to read books that will help you with your language every day
  • Watch English-language movies to learn sentence structure
  • Try to submit brief articles daily to various journals

Types of Job Roles Writer

Here is the list of some of the popular job designations available for a creative writer/ writer: -

Copywriters:  The responsibility of a copywriter is to create content describing a particular product, its features, benefits etc. Copywriters also write advertising letters, brochures, newsletters, catalogues etc.

Article Writers:  These writers are responsible for writing articles on varied topics such as education, food, sports, entertainment, business, health etc.

Author/ Book Writer:  A writer can become an author of a book by narrating a beautiful story on any topic. They can write fictional and non-fictional books for children and adults. The popularity of the writer depends on upon his writing and creativity.

Content Writers/ Online Writers:  These writers have different roles from content writing to blogging to freelance writing to technical writing.

Script Writers: Writers who are good at writing dialogues can become scriptwriters. These writers write content for movies, television shows and plays.

Novelists:  Writers with outstanding power of imagination can excel in the world of fiction by writing novels.  

Lyricist:  Writers who are most skilled with figures of speech, metaphors and poetry can turn into lyricists by writing songs.

Technical Writers:  A writer who can translate or explain the technical terms of companies’ products in simple language for an understanding of the common person is called as a technical writer.

Employment Opportunities for Writers:

Creative Writers/ Writers are required in numerous agencies and companies. Candidates with excellent writing skills can get jobs in the following fields: -

  • Advertising Agencies
  • Books Publishing Agencies
  • Transport Agencies (Technical Writer)
  • Software Companies
  • Online Shopping Portals
  • Freelancing
  • Movies/ Entertainment

Top Recruiting Agencies for Writers

Here is the list of top companies that recruit content writers, article writers, technical writers etc: -

  • Times of India
  • Eenadu (Telugu News Paper)
  • Triumph India Software Services
  • Cisco Systems
  • Careers 360
  • CollegeDekho

Skills Required to Become the Best Writer

To become a writer, candidates must possess some special abilities:

  • Communication abilities
  • Creative writing abilities
  • Language Determination Knowledge
  • Outstanding verbal communication abilities
  • Understanding of media production
  • Thinking ability and creativeness

Planning to choose Writer as your career?

Pay scale/salary of writer.

The salaries offered to a deserving writer are not constant, and it depends on creative skills and experience. However, fixed salaries depending on the experience will be offered to some of the positions in creative writing.

Content Writers

Rs. 1,50,000

Rs. 2,50,000

Rs. 4,00,000

Editors (in Newspapers)

Rs. 1,50,000

Rs. 3,00,000

Rs. 4,00,000

Technical Writer

Rs. 1,50,000

Rs. 2,50,000

Rs. 4,00,000

Advertising Agencies

Rs. 1,50,000

Rs. 3,00,000

Rs. 4,00,000

Scriptwriters, lyricists etc will be paid as per their popularity, skills and experience. There are senior or junior level positions in these fields.

Note: The above figures are an estimate and may vary from individual to individual and company to company.

Books & Study Material to Become Writer

Here is the list of some of the top special education books for enhancing your skills in writing: -

Everybody Writes: Your Go-To Guide to Creating Ridiculously Good Content by Ann Handley

Write Tight: Say Exactly What You Mean with Precision and Power by William Brohaugh

The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person’s Guide to Writing in the 21st Century by Steven Pinker

You Are a Writer (So Start Acting Like One) by Jeff Goins

Stein On Writing by Sol Stein

1001 Ways to Write Great Fiction, Get Published, and Earn Your Audience by Chuck Wendig

Zen in the Art of Writing by Ray Bradbury

Pros of becoming a Writer

Creative writers with outstanding skills can earn high salary packages.

Flexible working hours and the nature of work

Cons of becoming a Writer

Starting salaries are low compared to other fields

Sometimes, there will be stress and pressure to meet the deadlines.

Top Colleges to pursue career as Writer

Career path for writer.

Language skills and creativity are the key skills that a writer should possess besides relevant educational qualification. Pursuing special courses in creative writing will add advantage to your professional career. After Class 12, students can take up a course in the English Language, i.e., B.A. English to improve their literature and language skills. If you want to become a writer in your native language, then you can take up specialised course in your language. For example, B.A. Telugu, B.A. Bengali, B.A. Hindi etc

Subjects Combination: Usually, there is no specific subject combination required to become a writer.

Paths for Being Writer

Do you think this is the right career choice for you.

Take our test and find out if it suits your strengths.

FAQs about Writer

To become a successful writer, one must be a voracious reader but must also possess certain other qualities like strong research skills, organizational skills, adaptability etc.

J K Rowling is currently the highest paid writer in the world.

There is no right age to become a writer.

Dorothy Straight is currently the youngest writer in the world.

Benyamin, a Malayali Author, is currently the richest writer in India.

No, you cannot become anything without experience, let alone being a writer.

Yes, you can become rich by choosing writing as a profession provided you strike the balance between your vision as an author and meeting commercial imperatives.

Freelance writers in India usually charge as low as 1 rupee per word and as high as 10 rupees per word depending upon the quality of the content they produce.

No, it is not that hard to become a writer provided the aspirant has strong writing skills to stand apart from the crowd of aspiring writers.

A writer in India earns in the bracket of INR 10K to INR 12K per month during the initial stages. Freelancers can earn between 25,000/- rupees and 40,000/- rupees per month whereas a content writer associated with an organisation can bring home something around 20K per month and 60K per month.

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Last updated on Jun 06, 2024

How to Become an Editor in 2024: A Guide for Beginners

This post was written based on insights from professional Reedsy editors Clem Flanagan , Eli Bortz , and Aja Pollock .

Any process that results in published writing usually involves editors, which is why they form a key part of several industries. If you’ve got an impeccable understanding of grammar and a discerning eye when it comes to identifying structural and conceptual flaws in a piece of writing, read on to find out how to become an editor yourself.

What does an editor do?

An editor plans, coordinates, and revises pieces of writing for publication in books, newspapers, blog posts, magazines, and elsewhere.

Editors typically assess submissions and decide what should be published based on the quality of the writing and what might appeal to readers. They then polish the content and prose of the writing to ensure correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation, as well as consistent and clear storytelling or structure before publication.

How to become an editor | Image editors working on a book

The exact duties of a professional editor differ in each industry, with many related administrative tasks attached to the role. For instance, video editors have different tasks from those of editors who deal with written material (which this post will focus on).

As we look at how to get into editing of written texts we’ll learn more about the sheer variety of the work it entails — so, let’s get started!

🤓  Curious about how much money an editor makes? Head to our post on editor salaries for more information.

Can I become an editor without a degree?

Before we dive into the nitty-gritty of how to become an editor, let’s talk about degrees and relevant qualifications.

Out of ten Reedsy editors we selected at random, six of them majored in Literature, one of them majored in Journalism, one of them majored in Medieval Culture, one of them majored in History, Political Science, and Journalism, and one of them majored in Modern English Studies.

So, even if many editors out there do have an undergraduate degree in Literature or English, that’s not the be-all and end-all. For those of you who are able to afford and commit to a degree in the humanities — or even a  publishing degree — it can definitely help you and your CV stand out.

But if higher education isn’t in the cards for you at the moment, don’t fret! Many successful editors built their craft through short-term courses and certifications for editing . Reedsy editor Aja Pollock , who has taken courses in copy editing, proofreading , and developmental editing, “definitely recommends them to anyone starting out.”

“The foundational courses I took… were all very helpful. They allowed me to develop a consistent process for each type of editorial work, and understand the expectations for each role and how it fit into the larger process of book publishing.”

If a short-term course isn’t an option for you either, Reedsy editor Eli Bortz , who studied history, political science, and journalism at university, believes that hands-on experience “beats any course or lecture you could ever attend” and has even steered many of his undergraduate assistants towards work environments where they get to learn by doing.

Even if you’ve got countless academic degrees, you’ll be hard-pressed to find eager clients or a willing employer at a publishing company if you’ve never edited a full manuscript before. More than anything, it all comes down to experience and a proven track record, so let’s look closer at how to get that.

How to become an editor in 5 steps

Now that we’ve discussed the possibility of becoming an editor without a degree, here are five simple steps to follow to help you get your career started:

1. Choose your type and style of editing

Editing is a broad field, and it always helps to start by pointing your career in a direction: an area of publishing you would like to work in. As with every career, you never know where you might actually end up, but knowing the options and picking a lane can help you better prepare yourself in terms of getting the right qualifications and work experiences.

How to Become An Editor | Bullet points listing book editing, news and magazine editing, academic editing, web editing, technical editing, legal editing.

Here are the six major types of editing that you can explore:

Book editing

A book editor works closely with writers to revise and streamline manuscripts ahead of publication. This involves various types of editing , from editorial assessment (also known as manuscript evaluation) to developmental editing and copy editing (or line editing).

Proofreading is also a form of editing that comes at the end of the process, and sometimes you will hear people refer to these draft stages as first, second, third, and final pass editing. 

All types of editing can be done on a freelance basis, but it is especially common when it comes to copy editing and proofreading, as publishers or authors often commission external professionals for these services.



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Aside from editing text, an editor working at a publisher may have different responsibilities depending on the structure and size of the  imprint . They may have tasks such as budgeting, coordinating publication catalogs, and even typesetting .

They also need to be highly organized team players, as they are responsible for communicating with literary agents and authors, as well as colleagues; coordinating with other departments like marketing, design, and publicity; commissioning new titles; and performing routine administrative tasks such as writing cover blurbs and updating book metadata.

💡Job titles:   editorial assistant , assistant editor, editor, senior editor, commissioning editor, editorial director (Note: these particular roles are listed in order of the career advancement ladder.)

News and magazine editing

A news or magazine editor is responsible for proofreading and structurally editing articles; fact-checking; ensuring consistency with the publication’s house style and relevance to the publication’s aims or themes (if any); commissioning articles from regular contributors; responding to pitches; and reporting to the publication’s editorial board.

Sub-editors usually only work on editing text and do not have any commissioning/managerial duties, whereas section editors develop the strategy and direction of their section and report to management.

💡 Job titles: section editor, associate editor, sub-editor, editor

Academic editing

Unsurprisingly, academic editors belong to the area of scholarly output. They can hold full-time, in-house positions at an academic publisher (e.g., Oxford University Press) or voluntary, part-time roles as editors of an academic journal.

In addition to being well-versed in structural and copy editing, these editors ensure academic rigor, objectivity, and ethical academic practice. The latter involves checking for plagiarism, fact-checking, verifying bibliographical data, and arranging for the creation of an index. Academic editors are also expected to coordinate the peer-review process and communicate feedback to authors.

💡 Job titles: academic editor, journal editor

Web editing

A web editor is responsible for managing an organization’s digital content. The specifics will vary, but typical duties include editing articles or blog posts for publication, commissioning or assigning new pieces of content, deciding on subjects to be covered, using Search Engine Optimization (SEO) to attract organic traffic, making decisions about how posts are presented, and promoting said content on social media (or collaborating with social media marketers) to increase the reach of the product.

💡 Job titles: web editor, content editor, content manager, blog manager, head of content

Technical editing

A technical editor is not so concerned with grammatical correctness or fluency of expression. Instead, their main focus is to ensure that highly technical information is accurate and communicated clearly. For this reason, technical editors with expertise in the subject matter at hand are usually highly sought after and hired to apply their knowledge to a piece of writing.

From checking that any equations and graphs are accurate to ensuring information complexity meets the knowledge level of the intended audience, a technical editor operates as a subject matter consultant.

💡 Job titles: technical editor, subject-matter expert (SME)

Legal editing 

A legal editor’s job is not vastly different from that of a technical editor: the primary aim is to ensure the accuracy of legal texts and compliance with the aims of the publication at hand.

A legal editor may also be responsible for compiling “digests” of court cases, researching legal issues, or analyzing legal news or developments.

💡 Job titles: legal editor, legal researcher, legal reporter

After you’ve decided on the area of editing you want to work in, you’ll need to focus on accumulating some first-hand experience.

2.  Gain experience through internships and freelancing

In an ideal world, you’d immediately find an entry-level position as an editorial assistant that gets your foot through the door so you can learn on the job. But despite being considered entry-level, editing positions can be competitive and usually require some prior engagement or experience with editing or writing.

You may be able to nab one of these coveted roles if your CV contains relevant extracurriculars (such as being a student reporter or editor), but many aspiring editors start out by securing administrative work experience, an internship, or  part-time editing experience as a freelancer. These opportunities offer a chance for aspiring editors to experience working with authors and clients, hone their editing and communication skills, build their networks, and grow their editorial portfolios.

To find book editing internships, check Indeed, LinkedIn, and, if you are still in school or have recently graduated, your college’s job search portal. It’s also worth getting involved in social media platforms such as Twitter — at least as a reader. Managing editors and publishers post about vacancies and networking events all the time!

How to become an editor | Clem Flanagan's photo

If you can’t find (or can’t afford to take) an internship, look for short-term gigs on freelancing sites. Note that even with a compelling profile and plenty of self-marketing, you might have to take jobs that don’t really interest you at first. For instance, you might plan to specialize in developmental book editing, but you might find yourself copy editing blogs and academic essays to start with.

As long as you learn and grow from your experiences, that shouldn’t discourage you. You’ll soon be able to apply for entry-level positions…

3. Apply for entry-level publishing and editorial positions

Reedsy editor Clem Flanagan tells us that her years working in entry-level positions were crucial in forging her network and skills . Most editors are happy to refer writers to fellow professionals who are either more experienced or looking for gigs.

Authors themselves often recommend editors to their writer friends, so you should never underestimate the power of word of mouth. You may start small, but if you build that reputation by working entry-level jobs steadily, it’ll pay off. 

This part of your editing career is the definition of hustling. You’ll most likely work long hours, not getting paid as much as you deserve. But if you can push through all that, you’ll emerge on the other side with the kind of knowledge and experience that you can build a more sustainable career on. Hang in there!

4. Network with clients and publishing professionals

Assuming you’ve now got substantial editing experience, you’ll have naturally accrued some contacts in your industry, online or in real life. From literary agents and journalists to academics and creative directors, you’ll know a good number of people in different positions within your field.

And you might not realize it at first, but sub-fields of professional activity in a particular city or region are a small world, where you’ll run into the same people throughout your career.

How to become an editor | A group of penguins stand around in icy Antarctica.

Make sure to always respond to strangers’ requests politely and thoughtfully, even if you want to decline. Introduce people who might like to work together to each other. Recommend your best co-workers. Put in a good word for entry-level assistants when you’ve progressed to a more senior level. Treat interns with patience and respect. Send people job opportunities you happen to see that they may be interested in.

All of that — in other words, being a kind, respectful, and decent person to work with — will help you in more ways than you can imagine.

This may not come in the form of a job offer falling onto your doorstep from the heavens. But it’ll work in quiet ways that’ll lead to people treating you well and taking you seriously, as well as giving you a boost of good karma as your career progresses. 

5. Get promoted to a senior editor position

How to become an editor | Image of people working on computers in a well-lit office

With experience under your belt and a large network, you’ll start noticing where your natural skills lie and what you enjoy doing the most. So while you’re working on a variety of projects, you should be thinking about what kind of editor you’d like to be down the line.

Even if you aren’t ready yet to move into a new role, keep your eyes open for new opportunities. Read through job descriptions for editorial roles within your industry and beyond it, and make a note of any recurring requirements, such as familiarity with specialist software or SEO.

You can then slowly work on your skills to become an even better editor in your free time or within your current role, with a view to transition to a different job. For example, an editorial assistant for the Lifestyle section of a magazine could find their way into nonfiction book publishing via a Lifestyle imprint that publishes health and food and drink titles. Meanwhile, if you’re happy with the niche you’re in, the ladder-climbing begins.

Alternatively, you can look into starting your own business and becoming a freelance editor on Reedsy to exercise more control over your work days.

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Down the line, who knows what you’ll accomplish? A project you’ve worked on might just end up topping bestseller lists or winning a Pulitzer Prize. One thing is for sure: if you’ve always wanted to make your mark on the world, becoming an editor is an amazing way to do that. 

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Why Schools Should Teach Handwriting in a Digital World

Brain imaging shows surprising benefits of handwriting for both kids and adults..

Posted June 18, 2024 | Reviewed by Abigail Fagan

  • Why Education Is Important
  • Find a Child Therapist
  • Writing by hand is a cognitive benefit for both children and adults.
  • There are important grade-school advantages for writing by hand over keyboarding.
  • Both handwriting and keyboarding are essential for literacy in the computer age.

Should you be concerned about the current rage for keyboards in kindergarten to replace crayons, pencils, and paper? Are you worried if your third grader can’t write or read their name in cursive? What about your own habits? Do you write letters frequently or mostly tap out emails? Is your grocery list on your phone or handwritten on a piece of paper? For longer pieces—a job report, memo, letter to the editor, journal article or restaurant review—would the piece be more creative and invoke deeper thought had you written it out first by hand rather than dictated it by phone or typed it on a computer? Here are revelations from neuroscience for both children and adults regarding the benefits of writing by hand along with warning signs for scrapping the paper and pen.

For preschoolers, kindergarteners, and first graders, the complexity and time spent learning how to grip a pencil, position the paper, write their name by hand, and match written letters to sounds for spelling is worth the extra time and effort, according to the latest findings in neuroscience and cognition . Brain research shows that teaching handwriting has positive effects on letter learning, word reading, spelling and composing (James & Berninger, 2019).

These findings may not be appealing to many educators who now champion digital learning and electric keyboards. Surprisingly, handwriting benefits not only apply to children developing the foundations of literacy in their preschool and early grade years but also throughout elementary, middle, high school and beyond. Handwriting benefits also apply to whatever writing you do as an adult.

In an enlightening article on bringing back pencil gripping and shorthand entitled “Why Writing by Hand Beats Typing for Thinking and Learning,” journalist Jonathan Lambert lays out what he calls surprising benefits for pen and paper for both children and adults backed by the latest neuroscience and cognitive psychology even while considering the practical benefits of keyboarding for saving time, effort, and boosting productivity .

The Benefits of Writing By Hand and Warning Signs for Scrapping It

1. The benefits for handwriting start early.

Name writing in preschool kickstarts and strengthens neural circuitry in the brain used for developing reading and spelling and helps build essential foundational literacy knowledge. A child who scribbles but is unable to write their first name when entering kindergarten is likely already behind. There are numerous benefits to name writing in preschool. The child learns the concept that a written word is a visual representation of a spoken word, in this case, a visual representation of their name. Learning to write one's own name is not only a milestone but motivational for literacy learning. Beginners learn that English letters represent sounds, and in English the letters have both a name and a sound—the system is complex. They conceptualize that English writing goes from left to right (Reutzel, 2015). This is a lot of new information to process the first week of kindergarten if these essential foundations have not been taught or learned at home. Beyond that, research shows that learning consonant letter names and sounds is easier when they are mastered in preschool early in the child’s oral language development (Justice et al., 2006).

2. Can your child write the ABCs quickly and legibly from memory?

Remarkably, studies show that the ability to automatically write the alphabet in A-to-Z order legibly and from memory predicts spelling and composing skills up through grade six (Berninger, 1999)! Ask your first through sixth grader to write the alphabet in their best handwriting as quickly as they can. Here’s a sample of one child’s attempt following these instructions.

J. Richard Gentry

If you see ABC samples like this from first graders or older kids, it’s a tip-off that handwriting is not being properly modeled and explicitly taught. Red flags in this sample include the fact that some letters aren’t legible plus you see a confounding mix of upper and lowercase. From a cognitive perspective, the problem is that the child likely doesn’t have knowledge in long-term memory of how to form letters due to lack of instruction and practice. Using short-term memory to think about how to form letters and match them to sounds slows the writing process down and distracts later on when the child is retrieving letter knowledge for reading, spelling, or composing. Orthographic coding, storing single letters, letter groups, and syllable patterns for automatic retrieval in working memory along with sequential finger movements integrate circuitry for reading, spelling, and writing. Many teachers have not been trained to teach handwriting and spelling which are reciprocal (James & Beringer, 2009). In both cases, teachers and students need a grade-by-grade curriculum as provided in resources such as handwriting practice manuals and spelling books.

3. Lined paper and sequenced arrows are a boon for first grade instruction.

First graders should have advanced to writing on lined paper and at the end of composing a piece to be published there should be evidence of explicit teacher modeling and student handwriting practice. Students are taught where to start a letter in manuscript with sequenced letter arrow cues, such as in this Manuscript Alphabet sample.

Zaner-Bloser Handwriting, Used with permission.

4. Handwriting improves thinking

In “Why Writing by Hand Beats Typing for Thinking and Learning” Jonathan Lambert reports, “A slew of recent brain imaging research suggests handwriting's power stems from the relative complexity of the process and how it forces different brain systems to work together to reproduce the shapes of letters in our heads onto the page.” While further imaging research will be forthcoming, contrasting what happens when children engage in handwriting and the letter recognition/reading network in adults has been highly beneficial to researchers and holds promise for future research.

what kind of education is required to be a writer

5. Handwriting benefits you

An adult benefit from handwriting is that it slows us down. Lambert’s article summarizes psychologist Audrey van der Meer’s ideas: “For adults, one of the main benefits of writing by hand is that it simply forces us to slow down. During a meeting or lecture, it’s possible to type what you’re hearing verbatim. But often, you’re not actually processing that information—you’re just typing in the blind. If you take notes by hand, you can’t write everything down ... The relative slowness of the medium forces you to process the information, writing key words or phrases and using drawing or arrows to work through ideas. You make the information your own, which helps it stick in the brain.” (Lambert, 2024. page 1).

A tangible benefit of adult handwriting is that it personalizes a piece and makes it more intimate. Contrast a handwritten recipe from a great grandmother with one simply typed out, or a note commemorating a special occasion versus a digital version sent in one click.

Science Says Teach Kids to Be Hybrid Writers

All schools should be teaching handwriting in the computer age and keyboarding skills. Here’s how brain imaging scientists Karen James and Virginia Berninger say we should do it. Teach all students to be hybrid writers. Imaging studies imply it’s best to introduce manuscript in preschool through grade 1, cursive in third and fourth grades for better spelling and composing, and two-hand touch-typing on a keyboard (not hunt and peck with one hand) in upper elementary and middle grades (James & Berninger, 2019. page 28). This hybrid approach will better activate the reading, spelling, and composing brain circuitry in all students at all grade levels. With this kind of evidence, how could we possibly think it’s wise to scrap handwriting?

Berninger, V. W. (2009). Highlights of Programmatic, Interdisciplinary Research on Writing. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice , 24(2), 69-80. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5826.2009.00281.x

James, K., & Berninger, V. (2019) Brain Research Shows Why Handwriting Should Be Taught in the Computer Age. Learning Difficulties Australia Bulletin , 51(1)25-30. https://thebehaviorrevolution.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/Brain-rese…

Justice , L.M., Pence , K., Bowles, R. B. & Wiggins, A. (2006). An Investigation of Four Hypotheses Concerning the Order by Which 4-Year-Old Children Learn the Alphabet Letters, Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 21( 3 ) 374 – 389.

Reutzel, R. (2015), The Reading Teacher, 69(1) 14–24. https://www.uwyo.edu/wsup/_files/docs/esl_conference/reutzel-2015-the_r…

J. Richard Gentry Ph.D.

J. Richard Gentry, Ph.D. , is an expert on childhood literacy, reading, and spelling. He is the author of Raising Confident Readers: H ow to Teach Your Child to Read and Write—Baby to Age 7 .

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Becoming a Teacher: A Guide for Aspiring Educators

Follow the key steps to becoming a teacher, from ensuring teaching is the right career choice, to earning a college degree and undertaking student teaching, to getting certified and landing your first teaching job. 

Published on June 18, 2024

A noble calling

Becoming a teacher is a challenging yet rewarding career path.

 The process requires dedication , a strong educational foundation and a deep passion for engaging learners from all backgrounds. As Claudia Lyles, the CEO of Keystone Academy Charter School in Philadelphia, notes in U.S. News & World Report, " you really have to like children and young people in order to do the job. You can't be iffy about it .”

While Lyles’ statement limits the student population — learners can be older, continuing-education students — she is correct about the personal engagement required of teachers. Patience, a passion for helping others, and effective communication: These characteristics require a facility for human connection .

Get started!

Does this career path resonate with you?

If you know teaching is the right career choice for you, follow these steps to become a teacher:   

  • Earn a college degree . According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, public school teachers must have at least a bachelor’s degree for entrance into the profession . This degree does not necessarily have to be in education, but it should provide a solid foundation in the subject you plan to teach. 
  • Complete a teacher-preparation program . These programs provide aspiring teachers with the pedagogical knowledge and real-time classroom experience necessary to become effective educators. Whether these programs take the form of additional college courses, independent work-study, or registered apprenticeships , their goal is to help teacher candidates become confident in the classroom and ready for state teacher-certification exams. 
  • Take Praxis® tests . Not only are Praxis® tests often a requirement for teacher licensure, they also help create pedagogically informed teachers. The Praxis Core test gauges skills in reading, writing, and math, while Praxis® Subject Assessments measure knowledge of more specific subjects that K-12 educators cover. And taken together, Core and Subject tests help reinforce the general and subject-specific teaching skills educators need for the classroom. 
  • Prepare for teaching job interviews . When you begin applying to jobs, research each position as well as the school or institution. Doing so will inform you more about the job and provide insight on the culture. During the interview, be prepared to discuss your teaching philosophy or mission statement that explains why you want to work with students as well as what you hope to achieve through teaching . Remember, the teachers and administrators at the school consider it a privilege to facilitate the well-being and education of their students, so they search for teachers who share the same values.

Love of learning lasts forever

Teachers are in the unique position of influencing and inspiring students .

They help foster student curiosity and guide their exploration of the world. And for that reason alone, the journey to teaching, though rigorous and demanding, is rewarding. As educators, we have the power to ignite a love for learning , instill values of respect and empathy , and empower students to reach their full potential . In essence, teaching strives toward a greater societal good as students gain the knowledge and confidence to become the leaders, innovators, and changemakers of tomorrow . 

ETS supports all aspiring teachers. Ready to demonstrate your teaching expertise ?

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A Guide To The Top 14 Types Of Reports With Examples Of When To Use Them

Types Of Reports Blog By RIB Software

What Is The Report Definition?

What are the different types of reports, what does a report look like, what you should look for in a reporting tool, types of reporting for every business & purpose.

Businesses have been producing reports forever. No matter what role or industry you work in, chances are that you have been faced with the task of generating a tedious report to show your progress or performance.

While reporting has been a common practice for many decades, the business world keeps evolving, and with more competitive industries, the need to generate fast and accurate reports becomes critical. This presents a problem for many modern organizations today, as building reports can take from hours to days. In fact, a survey about management reports performed by Deloitte says that 50% of managers are unsatisfied with the speed of delivery and the quality of the reports they receive.

With this issue in mind, several BI tools, such as RIB BI+ , have been developed to assist businesses in generating interactive reports with just a few clicks, enhancing the way companies make critical decisions and service insights from their most valuable data.

But, with so many types of reports used daily, how can you know when to use them effectively? How can you push yourself ahead of the pack with the power of information? Here, we will explore the 14 most common types of reports in business and provide some examples of when to use them to your brand-boosting advantage. In addition, we will see how online dashboards have overthrown the static nature of classic reports and given way to a much faster, more interactive way of working with data.

Let’s get started with a brief report definition.

Construction Dashboard For Project Controlling

A report is a document that presents relevant business information in an organized and understandable format. Each report is aimed at a specific audience and business purpose, and it summarizes the development of different activities based on goals and objectives.

That said, there are various types of reports that can be used for different purposes. Whether you want to track the progress of your strategies or stay compliant with financial laws, there is a different report for each task. To help you identify when to use them, we will cover the top 14 most common report formats used for businesses today.

Top 14 Types Of Reports

1. Informational Reports

The first in our list of reporting types is informational reports. As their name suggests, this report type aims to give factual insights about a specific topic. This can include performance reports, expense reports, and justification reports, among others. A differentiating characteristic of these reports is their objectivity; they are only meant to inform but not propose solutions or hypotheses. Common informational reports examples are for performance tracking, such as annual, monthly, or weekly reports.

2. Analytical Reports

This report type contains a mix of useful information to facilitate the decision-making process through a mix of qualitative and quantitative insights as well as real-time and historical insights. Unlike informational reports that purely inform users about a topic, this report type also aims to provide recommendations about the next steps and help with problem-solving. With this information in hand, businesses can build strategies based on analytical evidence and not simple intuition. With the use of the right BI reporting tool, businesses can generate various types of analytical reports that include accurate forecasts via predictive analytics technologies. Let’s look at it with an analytical report example.

Sales Analytical Report

The example above is the perfect representation of how analytical reports can boost a business’s performance. By getting detailed information such as sales opportunities, a probability rate, as well as an accurate pipeline value forecast based on historical data, sales teams can prepare their strategies in advance, tackle any inefficiencies, and make informed decisions for increased efficiency.

3. Operational Reports

These reports track every pertinent detail of the company’s operational tasks, such as its production processes. They are typically short-term reports as they aim to paint a picture of the present. Businesses use this type of report to spot any issues and define their solutions or to identify improvement opportunities to optimize their operational efficiency. Operational reports are commonly used in manufacturing, logistics, and retail as they help keep track of inventory, production, and costs, among others.

4. Industry Reports

Next in our list of the most common kinds of reports, we have industry-specific reports. As its name suggests, these types of reports are used in specific industries and provide valuable information about KPIs and goals that are unique to that industry. For instance, construction reports are invaluable tools to track project progress and extract valuable conclusions to optimize processes.

The example below is a report for a construction company that has multiple active projects. The template offers a complete overview of performance with KPIs related to contract value, budget, and profit margins, among other things. That said, the most valuable part of this report is the detailed overview of finishing projects and projects in execution, where we see that industry-specific KPIs like the SPI and CPI are tracked for each project with color to understand the status at a glance. Templates like this one play a fundamental role in efficient project management in construction as they offer the necessary overview to make smart decisions with fresh data. 

Construction Project Report

5. Product Reports

As its name suggests, this report type is used to monitor several aspects related to product development. Businesses often use them to track which of their products or subscriptions are selling the most within a given time period, calculate inventories, or see what kind of product the client values the most. Another common use case of these reports is to research the implementation of new products or develop existing ones. Let’s see it in more detail with a visual example.

Product Innovation Report

The image above is a product report that shows valuable insights regarding usage intention, purchase intention, willingness to pay, and more. In this case, the report is based on the answers from a survey that aimed to understand how the target customer would receive a new product. Getting this level of insight through this report type is very useful for businesses as it allows them to make smart investments in new products and set realistic pricing based on their clients’ willingness to pay.

6. Department Reports

These reports are specific to each department or business function. They serve as a communication tool between managers and team members who must stay connected and work together for common goals. Whether it is the sales department, customer service, logistics, or finances, this specific report type helps track and optimize strategies on a deeper level. Let’s look at it with an example of a team performance report.

Department Report Template For Customer Service

The image above is a department report created with an online data analysis tool, and it tracks the performance of a support team. This insightful report displays relevant metrics such as the top-performing agents, net promoter score, and first contact resolution rate, among others. Having this information in hand not only helps each team member to keep track of their individual progress but also allows managers to understand who needs more training and who is performing at their best.

7. Progress Reports

From the branch of informational reports, progress reports provide critical information about a project’s status. Employees or managers can produce these reports daily, weekly, or monthly to track performance and fine-tune tasks for the project’s better development. Progress reports are often used as visual materials to support meetings and discussions. A good example is a KPI scorecard.

8. Internal Reports

A type of report that encompasses many others on this list, internal reports refer to any type of report that is used internally in a business. They convey information between team members and departments to keep communication flowing regarding goals and business objectives.

Internal Report Example For Hospital Management

As mentioned above, internal reports are useful communication tools to keep every relevant person in the organization informed and engaged. This healthcare report aims to do just that. By providing insights into the performance of different departments and areas of a hospital, such as in and outpatients, average waiting times, treatment costs, and more, healthcare managers can allocate resources and plan the schedule accurately, as well as monitor any changes or issues in real-time.

9. External Reports

Although most of the report types listed here are used for internal purposes, not all reporting is meant to be used behind closed doors. External reports are created to share information with external stakeholders such as clients or investors for budget or progress accountability, as well as for governmental bodies to stay compliant with the law requirements.

External Report Template

The image above is the perfect example of an external client report from an IT project. This insightful report provides a visual overview of every relevant aspect of the project’s development. From deadlines, budget usage, completion stage, and task breakdown, clients can be fully informed and involved in the project.

10. Vertical & Lateral Reports

Next, in our rundown of types of reports, we have vertical and lateral reports. This reporting type refers to the direction in which a report travels. A vertical report is meant to go upward or downward the hierarchy, for example, a management report. A lateral report assists in organization and communication between groups that are at the same level of the hierarchy, such as the financial and marketing departments.

11. Research Reports

Without a doubt, one of the most vital reporting types for any modern business is centered on research. Being able to collect, collate, and drill down into insights based on key pockets of your customer base or industry will give you the tools to drive innovation while meeting your audience’s needs head-on.

Research Report For Customer Demographics

The image above is a market research analytics report example for customer demographics. It serves up a balanced blend of metrics that will empower you to boost engagement as well as retention rates. Here, you can drill down into your audience’s behaviors, interests, gender, educational levels, and tech adoption life cycles with a simple glance.

What’s particularly striking about this dashboard is the fact that you can explore key trends in brand innovation with ease, gaining a working insight into how your audience perceives your business. This invaluable type of report will help you get under the skin of your consumers, driving growth and loyalty in the process.

12. Strategic Reports

Strategy is a vital component of every business, big or small. Strategic analytics tools are perhaps the broadest and most universal of all the different types of business reports imaginable.

These particular tools exist to help you consistently understand, meet, and exceed your most pressing organizational goals by providing top-level metrics on various initiatives or functions.

By working with strategic-style tools, you will:

  • Improve internal motivation and engagement
  • Refine your plans and strategies for the best possible return on investment (ROI)
  • Enhance internal communication and optimize the way your various departments run
  • Create more room for innovation and creative thinking

13. Project Reports

Projects are key to keeping a business moving in the right direction while keeping innovation and evolution at the forefront of every plan, communication, or campaign. But without the right management tools, a potentially groundbreaking project can become a resource-sapping disaster.

A project management report serves as a summary of a particular project’s status and its various components. It’s a visual tool that you can share with partners, colleagues, clients, and stakeholders to showcase your project’s progress at multiple stages. Let’s look at our example and dig a little deeper.

Project Report Template

Our example above is a construction project management dashboard that offers a 360-degree view of a project’s development. This invaluable construction collaboration tool can help keep every relevant project stakeholder involved and informed about the latest developments to ensure maximum efficiency and transparency.

Work and budget development and cost breakdown charts can help develop efficient construction cost control strategies to ensure the project remains profitable and on schedule. On the other hand, progress metrics like the SPI and the CPI can help assess construction productivity issues that can lead to delays and costly overruns.

14. Statutory Reports

It may not seem exciting or glamorous, but keeping your business’s statutory affairs in order is vital to your ongoing commercial health and success.

When it comes to submitting vital financial and non-financial information to official bodies, one small error can result in serious repercussions. As such, working with statutory report formats is a watertight way of keeping track of your affairs and records while significantly reducing the risk of human error.

Armed with interactive insights and dynamic visuals, you will keep your records clean and compliant while gaining the ability to nip any potential errors or issues in the bud.

Now that we’ve covered the most relevant types of reports, we will answer the question: what does a report look like?

As mentioned at the beginning of this insightful guide, static reporting is a thing of the past. With the rise of modern technologies like self-service BI tools, the use of interactive reports in the shape of business dashboards has become more and more popular among companies.

Unlike static reports that take time to be generated and are difficult to understand, modern reporting tools are intuitive. Their visual nature makes them easy to understand for any type of user, and they provide businesses with a central view of their most important performance indicators for an improved decision-making process. Here, we will cover 20 useful dashboard examples from different industries, functions, and platforms to put the value of dashboard reporting into perspective.

1. Financial Report

Financial KPI Report

Keeping finances in check is critical for success. This financial report offers an overview of the most important financial metrics that a business needs to monitor its economic activities and answer vital questions to ensure healthy finances.

With insights about liquidity, invoicing, budgeting, and general financial stability, managers can extract long and short-term conclusions to reduce inefficiencies, make accurate forecasts about future performance, and keep the overall financial efficiency of the business flowing. For instance, getting a detailed calculation of the business’s working capital can allow you to understand how liquid your company is. If it’s higher than expected, it means you have the potential to invest and grow—definitely one of the most valuable types of finance reports.

2. Construction Report

Bid Management Report

Our next example is a construction report offering the perfect overview for efficient construction bid management . In this case, the template is tracked for an enterprise that has multiple projects working simultaneously and needs a general view of how everything is performing to ensure maximum efficiency.

The key metric highlighted in this report is the net bid value, which shows the value of all submitted bids, including canceled ones. As seen in the net bid value by status chart, only a small amount is accounted for canceled bids, which means this organization’s construction bidding process is efficient. The rest of the charts displayed in the template help provide a deeper understanding of bids to make informed decisions.

Another valuable aspect of this construction report is its interactivity. The filters on top allow the user to visualize only data for a specific category, project classification, or bid status, making it possible to answer any questions that arise during meetings or discussions. This was not possible in the past as the construction industry relied heavily on static reporting. Luckily, with the rise of digital construction tools, like interactive real-time reporting, they no longer need to rely solely on intuition or outdated information. Instead, they have fresh insights at all times.

3. Marketing Report

Marketing Performance Report

Our following example is a marketing report that ensures a healthy return on investment from your marketing efforts. This type of report offers a detailed overview of campaign performance over the last 12 weeks. Having access to this information enables you to maximize the value of your promotional actions, keeping your audience engaged by providing a targeted experience.

For instance, you can implement different campaign formats as a test and then compare which one is most successful for your business. This is possible thanks to the monitoring of important marketing metrics such as the click-through rate (CTR), cost per click (CPC), cost per acquisition (CPA), and more.

The visual nature of this report makes it easy to understand important insights at a glance. For instance, the four gauge charts at the top show the total spending from all campaigns and how much of the total budget of each campaign has been used. In just seconds, you can see if you are on target to meet your marketing budgets for every single campaign.

4. Sales Report

Sales KPI Report

An intuitive sales dashboard like the one above is the perfect analytical tool to monitor and optimize sales performance. Armed with powerful high-level metrics, this report type is especially interesting for managers, executives, and sales VPs as it provides relevant data to ensure strategic and operational success.

The value of this sales report lies in the fact that it offers a complete and comprehensive overview of relevant insights needed to make smart sales decisions. For instance, at the top of an analysis tool, you get important metrics such as the number of sales, revenue, profit, and costs, all compared to a set target and to the previous time period. The use of historical data is fundamental when building successful sales strategies as they provide a picture of what could happen in the future. Being able to filter the key metrics all in one screen is a key benefit of modern reporting.

5. HR Report

Human Resources Report

Our next report example concerns human resources analytics. The HR department needs to track various KPIs for employee performance and effectiveness. However, it must also ensure that employees are happy and working in a healthy environment since an unhappy workforce can significantly damage an organization. This intuitive dashboard makes this possible.

Providing a comprehensive mix of metrics, this employee-centric report drills down into every major element needed to ensure successful workforce management. For example, the top portion of the dashboard covers absenteeism in 3 different ways: yearly average, absenteeism rate with a target of 3.8%, and absenteeism over the last five years. Tracking absenteeism rates in detail is helpful as it can tell you if your employees are skipping workdays. If the rate is over the expected target, then you have to dig deeper into the reasons and find sustainable solutions.

On the other hand, the second part of the dashboard covers the overall labor effectiveness (OLE). This can be tracked based on specific criteria that HR predefined, and it helps them understand if workers are achieving their targets or if they need extra training or help.

6. Management Report

Investors Management Report

Managers must monitor big amounts of data to ensure that the business is running smoothly. One of them being investor relationships. This management dashboard focuses on high-level metrics that shareholders need to look at before investing, such as the return on assets, return on equity, debt-equity ratio, and share price, among others.

By getting an overview of these important metrics, investors can easily extract the needed insights to make an informed decision regarding an investment in your business. For instance, the return on assets measures how efficiently are the company’s assets being used to generate profit. With this knowledge, investors can understand how effectively your company deploys available resources compared to others in the market. Another great indicator is the share price; the higher the increase in your share price, the more money your shareholders are making from their investment.

7. IT Report

IT Issue Management Report

Just like all the other departments and sections covered in this list, the IT department is one that can especially benefit from these types of reports. With so many technical issues to solve, the need for a visual tool to help IT specialists stay on track with their workload becomes critical.

As seen in the image above, this IT dashboard offers detailed information about different system indicators. For starters, we get a visual overview of the status of each server, followed by a detailed graph displaying the uptime & downtime of each week. This is complemented by the most common downtown issues and some ticket management information. Getting this level of insight helps your IT staff to know what is happening and when it is happening and find proper solutions to prevent these issues from repeating themselves. Keeping constant track of these metrics will ensure robust system performance.

8. Procurement Report

Procurement KPI Report

The following report example was built with intuitive procurement analytics software. It gives a general view of various metrics that any procurement department needs to manage suppliers efficiently.

With the possibility to filter, drill down, and interact with KPIs, this intuitive procurement dashboard offers key information to ensure a healthy supplier relationship. With metrics such as compliance rate, the number of suppliers, or the purchase order cycle time, the procurement team can classify the different suppliers, define the relationship each of them has with the company and optimize processes to ensure it stays profitable.

One of the industries that could truly benefit from this template is construction. Managing procurement in construction projects is not easy, as suppliers must be picked carefully to ensure they meet the project’s needs. An overview like this one can help assess the abilities of each supplier to choose the ones that best meet the requirements. In construction, supplier selection is more than just about pricing, it also involves availability, certifications, quality, etc.

9. Customer Service Report

Customer Service Report

Following our list of examples of reports is one from the support area. Armed with powerful customer service KPIs, this dashboard is a useful tool for monitoring performance, spotting trends, identifying strengths and weaknesses, and improving the overall effectiveness of the customer support department.

Covering aspects such as revenue and costs from customer support as well as customer satisfaction, this complete analysis tool is the perfect tool for managers who have to keep an eye on every little detail from a performance and operational perspective. For example, by monitoring your customer service costs and comparing them to the revenue, you can understand if you are investing the right amount into your support processes. This can be directly related to your agent’s average time to solve issues; the longer it takes to solve a support ticket, the more money it will cost and the less revenue it will bring. If your agents take too long to solve an issue, you can think of some training instances to help them reduce this number.

10. Market Research Report

Market Research Report On Brand Analytics

This list of report types would not be complete without a market research report. Market research agencies deal with a large amount of information coming from surveys and other research sources. Considering that, reports that can be filtered for deeper interaction become more necessary for this industry than for any other.

The image above is a brand analytics dashboard that displays the survey results about how the public perceives a brand. This savvy tool contains different charts that make it easy to understand the information visually. For instance, the map chart with the different colors lets you quickly understand in which regions each age range is located. The charts can be filtered further to see the detailed answers from each group for a deeper analysis.

11. Social Media Report

Social Media Report

Last but not least, we have a social media report. This scorecard-format dashboard monitors the performance of four main social media channels: Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube. It serves as a perfect visual overview to track the performance of different social media efforts and achievements.

Tracking relevant metrics such as followers, impressions, clicks, engagement rates, and conversions, this report type serves as a perfect progress report for managers or clients who need to see the status of their social channels. Each metric is shown in its actual value and compared to a set target. The colors green and red from the fourth column let you quickly understand if a metric is over or under its expected target.

12. Logistics Report

Logistics are the cornerstone of an operationally fluent and progressive business. If you deal with large quantities of goods and tangible items, in particular, maintaining a solid logistical strategy is vital to ensuring you maintain your brand reputation while keeping things flowing in the right direction.

Warehouse Logistics Report

A prime example designed to improve logistical management, our warehouse KPI dashboard is equipped with metrics required to maintain strategic movement while eliminating any unnecessary costs or redundant processes. Here, you can dig into your shipping success rates across regions while accessing warehouse costs and perfect order rates in real-time. If you spot any potential inefficiencies, you can track them here and take the correct course of action to refine your strategy. This is an essential tool for any business with a busy or scaling warehouse.

13. Manufacturing Report

Next, in our essential types of business reports examples, we’re looking at tools made to improve your business’s various manufacturing processes.

Manufacturing Production Report

Our clean and concise production tool is a sight to behold and serves up key manufacturing KPIs that improve the decision-making process regarding costs, volume, and machinery.

Here, you can hone in on historical patterns and trends while connecting with priceless real-time insights that will not only enable you to make the right calls concerning your manufacturing process at the moment but will also allow you to formulate predictive strategies that will ultimately save money, boost productivity, and result in top-quality products across the board.

14. Retail Report

As a retailer with so many channels to consider and so many important choices to make, working with the right metrics and visuals is absolutely essential. Fortunately, we live in an age where there are different types of reporting designed for this very reason.

Retail Report Template

Our sales and order example, generated with retail analytics software, is a dream come true for retailers as it offers the visual insights needed to understand your product range in greater detail while keeping a firm grip on your order volumes, perfect order rates, and reasons for returns.

Gaining access to these invaluable insights in one visually presentable space will allow you to track increases or decreases in orders over a set timeframe (and understand whether you’re doing the right things to drive engagement) while plowing your promotional resources into the products that are likely to offer the best returns.

Plus, by gaining an accurate overview of why people are returning your products, you can omit problem items or processes from your retail strategy, improving your brand reputation as well as revenue in the process.

15. Digital Media Report

The content and communications you publish are critical to your ongoing success, regardless of your sector, niche, or specialty. Without putting out communications that speak directly to the right segments of your audience at the right times in their journey, your brand will swiftly fade into the background.

Content Quality Report

To ensure your brand remains inspiring, engaging, and thought-leading across channels, working with media types of a business report is essential. You must ensure your communications cut through the noise and scream ‘quality’ from start to finish—no ifs, no buts, no exceptions.

Our content quality control tool is designed with a logical hierarchy that will tell you if your content sparks readership, if the language you’re using is inclusive and conversational, and how much engagement-specific communications earn. You can also check your most engaging articles with a quick glance to understand what your users value most. Armed with this information, you can keep creating content that your audience loves and ultimately drives true value to the business.

16. Energy Report

In the age of sustainability and in the face of international fuel hikes, managing the energy your business uses effectively is paramount. Here, there is little room for excess or error, and as such, working with the right metrics is the only way to ensure successful energy regulation.

Energy Management Report

If your company has a big HQ or multiple sites that require power, our energy management analytics tool will help you take the stress out of managing your resources. One of the most striking features of this dashboard is the fact that it empowers you to compare your company’s energy usage against those from other sectors and set an accurate benchmark.

Here, you can also get a digestible breakdown of your various production costs regarding energy consumption and the main sources you use to keep your organization running. Regularly consulting these metrics will not only allow you to save colossal chunks of your budget, but it will also give you the intelligence to become more sustainable as an organization. This, in turn, is good for the planet and your brand reputation—a real win-win-win.

17. FMCG Report

FMCG Report

The fast-moving consuming goods (FMCG) industry can highly benefit from a powerful report containing real-time insights. This is because the products handled in this sector, which are often food and beverages, don’t last very long. Therefore, having a live overview of all the latest developments can aid decision-makers in optimizing the supply chain to ensure everything runs smoothly and no major issues happen.

Our report format example above aims to do just that by providing an overview of critical performance indicators, such as the percentage of products sold within freshness date, the out-of-stock rate, on-time in full deliveries, inventory turnover, and more. What makes this template so valuable is the fact that it provides a range of periods to get a more recent view of events but also a longer yearly view to extract deeper insights.

The FMCG dashboard also offers an overview of the main KPIs to aid users in understanding if they are on the right track to meet their goals. There, we can observe that the OTIF is far from its target of 90%. Therefore, it should be looked at in more detail to optimize it and prevent it from affecting the entire supply chain.

18. Google Analytics Report

Google Analytics Performance Report

Regardless of your industry, if you have a website, you probably require a Google Analytics report. This powerful tool helps you understand how your audience interacts with your website while helping you reach more people through the Google search engine. The issue is that the reports the tool provides are more or less basic and don’t give you the dynamic and agile view you need to stay on top of your data and competitors.

For that reason, we generated a range of Google Analytics dashboards that take your experience one step further by allowing you to explore your most important KPIs in real-time. That way, you’ll be able to spot any potential issues or opportunities to improve as soon as they occur, allowing you to act on them on the spot.

Among some of the most valuable metrics you can find in this sample are the sessions and their daily, weekly, and monthly development, the average session duration, the bounce rate by channel and by top 5 countries, among others.

19. LinkedIn Report

LinkedIn Report

Another very important platform that companies use, no matter their size or industry, is LinkedIn. This platform is the place where companies develop and showcase their corporate image, network with other companies, and tell their clients and audience about the different initiatives they are developing to grow and be better. Some organizations also use LinkedIn to showcase their charity or sustainability initiatives.

The truth is LinkedIn has become an increasingly relevant platform, and just like we discussed with YouTube, organizations need to analyze data to ensure their strategies are on the right path to success.

The template above offers a 360-degree view of a company page’s performance. With metrics such as the followers gained, engagement rate, impressions vs unique impressions, CTR, and more. Decision-makers can dive deeper into the performance of their content and understand what their audience enjoys the most. For instance, by looking at the CTR of the last 5 company updates, you can start to get a sense of what topics and content format your audience on the platforms interact with the most. That way, you’ll avoid wasting time and resources producing content without interaction.

20. Healthcare Report

Healthcare Report For Patient Satisfaction

Moving on from platform-related examples, we have one last monthly report template from a very relevant sector, the healthcare industry. For decades now, hospitals and healthcare professionals have benefited from data to develop new treatments and analyze unknown diseases. But data can also help to ensure daily patient care is of top quality.

Our sample above is a healthcare dashboard report that tracks patient satisfaction stats for a clinic named Saint Martins Clinic. The template provides insights into various aspects of patient care that can affect their satisfaction levels to help spot any weak areas.

Just by looking at the report in a bit more detail, we can already see that the average waiting time for arrival at a bed and time to see a doctor are on the higher side. This is something that needs to be looked into immediately, as waiting times are the most important success factors for patients. Additionally, we can see those lab test turnarounds are also above target. This is another aspect that should be optimized to prevent satisfaction levels from going down.

Reporting Tools Features

As you learned from our extensive list of examples, different reports are widely used across industries and sectors. Now, you might wonder, how do I get my hands on one of these reports? The answer is a professional online reporting tool. With the right software in hand, you can generate stunning reports to extract the maximum potential out of your data and boost business growth in the process.

But, with so many options in the market, how do make sure you choose the best tool for your needs? Below we cover some of the most relevant features and capabilities you should look for to make the most out of the process.

1. Pre-made reporting templates

To ensure successful operations, a business will most likely need to use many reports for its internal and external strategies. Manually generating these reports can become a time-consuming task that burdens the business. That is why professional reporting software should offer pre-made reporting templates. At RIB, we offer an extensive template library for the construction industry that allows users to generate reports in a matter of seconds—allowing them to use their time on actually analyzing the information and extracting powerful insights from it.

2. Multiple visualization options

If you look for report templates on Google, you might run into multiple posts about written ones. This is not a surprise, as written reports have been the norm for decades. That being said, a modern approach to reporting has developed in the past years where visuals have taken over text. The value of visuals lies in the fact that they make the information easier to understand, especially for users who have no technical knowledge. But most importantly, they make the information easier to explore by telling a compelling story. For that reason, the tool you choose to invest in should provide you with multiple visualization options to have the flexibility to tell your data story in the most successful way possible.

3. Customization

While pre-made templates are fundamental to generating agile reports, being able to customize them to meet your needs is also of utmost importance. At RIB Software, we offer our users the possibility to customize their construction reports to fit their most important KPIs, as well as their logo, business colors, and font. This is an especially valuable feature for external reports that must be shown to clients or other relevant stakeholders, giving your reports a more professional look. Customization can also help from an internal perspective to provide employees who are uncomfortable with data with a familiar environment to work in.

4. Real-time insights

In the fast-paced world we live in today, having static reports is not enough. Businesses need to have real-time access to the latest developments in their data to spot any issues or opportunities as soon as they occur and act on them to ensure their resources are spent smartly and their strategies are running as expected. Doing so will allow for agile and efficient decision-making, giving the company a huge competitive advantage.

5. Sharing capabilities

Communication and collaboration are the basis of a successful reporting process. Today, team members and departments need to be connected to ensure everyone is on the right path to achieve general company goals. That is why the tool you invest in should offer flexible sharing capabilities to ensure every user can access the reports. For instance, we offer our users the possibility to share reports through automated emails or password-protected URLs with viewing or editing rights depending on what data the specific user can see and manipulate. A great way to keep everyone connected and boost collaboration.

As we’ve seen throughout our journey, businesses use different report formats for diverse purposes in their everyday activities. Whether you’re talking about types of reports in research, types of reports in management, or anything in between, these dynamic tools will get you where you need to be (and beyond).

In this post, we covered the top 14 most common ones and explored key examples of how different report types are changing the way businesses are leveraging their most critical insights for internal efficiency and, ultimately, external success.

With modern tools and solutions, reporting doesn’t have to be a tedious task. Anyone in your organization can rely on data for their decision-making process without needing technical skills. Rather, you want to keep your team connected or show progress to investors or clients. There is a report type for the job. To keep your mind fresh, here are the top 14 types of data reports covered in this post:

  • Informational reports
  • Analytical reports
  • Operational reports
  • Product reports
  • Industry reports
  • Department reports
  • Progress reports
  • Internal reports
  • External reports
  • Vertical and lateral reports
  • Strategic reports
  • Research reports
  • Project reports
  • Statutory reports

At RIB Software , we provide multiple solutions to make construction companies’ lives easier. Our construction data analytics software, RIB BI+, offers powerful business intelligence and reporting capabilities to help businesses in the building sector manage their data and make data-driven decisions to boost the quality of their projects. If you are ready to benefit from automated, interactive analytics, get a demo of RIB BI+ today!


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Juneteenth: What to know about the historical celebration that's now a federal holiday

On june 19, 1865 slaves in galveston, texas were given the news that they were freed by president abraham lincoln. now, the day is a holiday that celebrates the "second independence day" in america..

Three years after it was made a federal holiday , Juneteenth 2024 marks a day of celebration as well as education.

The federal holiday known as “Second Independence Day,” marks the day the last African American slaves were notified that they had been freed from their masters, the National Museum of African American History and Culture said.

Dr. Tim Goler, a professor of urban affairs and sociology courses and director of research for the Center for African American Public Policy at Norfolk State University, told USA TODAY that Juneteenth or "Freedom Day" is a day that shows the "beauty of our culture" that everyone should participate in.

The origins of Juneteenth date back to June 19, 1865 – more than two years after President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation - when the Union Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger arrived in Galveston, Texas, and announced the end of the Civil War and the emancipation of enslaved African Americans, Goler said.

“This delay and the enforcement of the emancipation in Texas was due to a lack of enforcement until this general arrived," Goler said. "Then Juneteenth thus became this kind of powerful symbol of freedom and the long struggle for civil rights."

The Juneteenth National Independence Day A ct was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate in June 2021. The bill was signed by President Joe Biden on June 17, 2021, which officially made the day a federal holiday.

Here's what you need to know about Juneteenth.

An African American holiday: Predating Juneteenth was nearly lost to history. It's back.

Black History, Juneteenth becoming more cemented in fabric of US

Although Juneteenth is now becoming a part of the conversation regarding Black History, there was a time when Black History was not widely discussed within the educational system, especially for historians, said Dr. Alan Singer, a professor of teaching, learning and technology at Hofstra University who writes about the history of slavery and racism.

“I didn't learn it (until) I was an adult, really (in the) 1990s, when as a teacher, I started studying more, so I (could) incorporate it into my lessons,” he said. “I went to City College in the 1960s and they had first introduced a course called ‘American Negro History’ and that was the first time I had learned about any of these things. I took the course because I became a political activist while at City College and I needed to know more about the African American civil rights struggles.”

Singer also adds that he attended high school during the Civil Rights Movement and was never taught about Black History. To change that, he decided to educate himself more to properly teach his students.

“I just felt a heavy responsibility as a teacher to really present a much more accurate picture of the history of the United States,” he said.

Goler adds that Juneteenth has been recognized for years within the Black community and history. Now, the day has become more publicly known.

"In recent years, Juneteenth has gained a much wider recognition. It's only been since 2021 that it became that designated as a federal holiday," he said. "Many Black people and Black communities around the country have celebrated Juneteenth. It's just becoming much more wider and much more visible now."

Commercialization of Juneteenth

Since Juneteenth has been declared a federal holiday, many retailers have unveiled Juneteenth attire through clothing, footwear, hats and other merchandise.

"The question is, 'who benefits from the commercialization of Juneteenth?' I’d definitely like to see more African American (and) more Black businesses benefit," Goler said. "The trend of commercialization, we risk the overshadowing of the historical context, and the ongoing struggle for racial equality that Juneteenth represents."

Singer hopes that companies that are selling Juneteenth products are also advocating for more inclusivity.

“What I'm arguing is that what we need to do is to use a day like Juneteenth as a launching pad to build a more just society,” he said. “It should not just be about the past, it has to be about the future.”

Goler hopes that the holiday will bring everyone together but also educate them about this important day in Black History.

"I think as we observe Juneteenth, it's important to focus on the education, reflection, the community engagement aspect and really ensure that the day remains of a pungent reminder of our continued and enduring fight for freedom and justice," he said.

Ahjané Forbes is a reporter on the National Trending Team at USA TODAY. Ahjané covers breaking news, car recalls, crime, health, lottery and public policy stories. Email her at  [email protected] . Follow her on  Instagram ,  Threads  and  X (Twitter) .

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FACT SHEET: President   Biden Announces New Actions to Keep Families   Together

Since his first day in office, President Biden has called on Congress to secure our border and address our broken immigration system. As Congressional Republicans have continued to put partisan politics ahead of national security – twice voting against the toughest and fairest set of reforms in decades – the President and his Administration have taken actions to secure the border, including:

  • Implementing executive actions to bar migrants who cross our Southern border unlawfully from receiving asylum when encounters are high;
  • Deploying record numbers of law enforcement personnel, infrastructure, and technology to the Southern border;
  • Seizing record amounts of fentanyl at our ports of entry;
  • Revoking the visas of CEOs and government officials outside the U.S. who profit from migrants coming to the U.S. unlawfully; and
  • Expanding efforts to dismantle human smuggling networks and prosecuting individuals who violate immigration laws.

President Biden believes that securing the border is essential. He also believes in expanding lawful pathways and keeping families together, and that immigrants who have been in the United States for decades, paying taxes and contributing to their communities, are part of the social fabric of our country. The Day One immigration reform plan that the President sent to Congress reflects both the need for a secure border and protections for the long-term undocumented. While Congress has failed to act on these reforms, the Biden-Harris Administration has worked to strengthen our lawful immigration system. In addition to vigorously defending the DACA (Deferred Action for Childhood arrivals) policy, the Administration has extended Affordable Care Act coverage to DACA recipients and streamlined, expanded, and instituted new reunification programs so that families can stay together while they complete the immigration process.  Still, there is more that we can do to bring peace of mind and stability to Americans living in mixed-status families as well as young people educated in this country, including Dreamers. That is why today, President Biden announced new actions for people who have been here many years to keep American families together and allow more young people to contribute to our economy.   Keeping American Families Together

  • Today, President Biden is announcing that the Department of Homeland Security will take action to ensure that U.S. citizens with noncitizen spouses and children can keep their families together.
  • This new process will help certain noncitizen spouses and children apply for lawful permanent residence – status that they are already eligible for – without leaving the country.
  • These actions will promote family unity and strengthen our economy, providing a significant benefit to the country and helping U.S. citizens and their noncitizen family members stay together.
  • In order to be eligible, noncitizens must – as of June 17, 2024 – have resided in the United States for 10 or more years and be legally married to a U.S. citizen, while satisfying all applicable legal requirements. On average, those who are eligible for this process have resided in the U.S. for 23 years.
  • Those who are approved after DHS’s case-by-case assessment of their application will be afforded a three-year period to apply for permanent residency. They will be allowed to remain with their families in the United States and be eligible for work authorization for up to three years. This will apply to all married couples who are eligible.  
  • This action will protect approximately half a million spouses of U.S. citizens, and approximately 50,000 noncitizen children under the age of 21 whose parent is married to a U.S. citizen.

Easing the Visa Process for U.S. College Graduates, Including Dreamers

  • President Obama and then-Vice President Biden established the DACA policy to allow young people who were brought here as children to come out of the shadows and contribute to our country in significant ways. Twelve years later, DACA recipients who started as high school and college students are now building successful careers and establishing families of their own.
  • Today’s announcement will allow individuals, including DACA recipients and other Dreamers, who have earned a degree at an accredited U.S. institution of higher education in the United States, and who have received an offer of employment from a U.S. employer in a field related to their degree, to more quickly receive work visas.
  • Recognizing that it is in our national interest to ensure that individuals who are educated in the U.S. are able to use their skills and education to benefit our country, the Administration is taking action to facilitate the employment visa process for those who have graduated from college and have a high-skilled job offer, including DACA recipients and other Dreamers. 

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Virginia Education, School Reports, Teachers Monthly School Reports, Dec. 1869–Jan. 1870, Part 3

About the project.

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, often referred to as the Freedmen’s Bureau, was established on March 3, 1865. The duties of the Freedmen’s Bureau included supervision of all affairs relating to refugees, freedmen, and the custody of abandoned lands and property. These documents come from the Records of the Superintendent of Education for Virginia, Series 4: School Reports. 

Additional resources are available on the Freedmen's Bureau Instructions Page . Please help us transcribe these records to learn more about the lives of formerly enslaved men and women in Virginia during the Reconstruction Era.

Monthly school reports of teachers, November 1865 and January 1866–June 1871, are arranged chronologically and were prepared on forms devised in the Office of the Superintendent of Education. The forms contain statistical data furnished by individual teachers concerning the number of pupils enrolled; attendance; subjects taught in day, night, and Sabbath schools; and the amount of tuition paid by students. Some forms also contain more lengthy narrative remarks by teachers. Some of the reports apparently pertain to non–Bureau schools. Filmed directly after the school reports is a bound register containing the names of teachers to whom forms and envelopes were sent, May 1869–June 1870; the names are arranged alphabetically by name of county.

About Project Difficulty

Level 1 - beginner.

Content: all typed Language: English Format: letters, diaries, flyers, pamphlets, and one-page documents Subject Area Expertise/Special Skills: none required

Content: mostly typed, handwritten in print, or otherwise very clearly written/readable Language: English Format: memorabilia, advertisements, image captions, telegrams, diaries, letters, notes Subject Area Expertise/Special Skills: none required


Content: typed and handwritten materials in cursive or print Language: English Format: newspaper clippings, scrapbooks, letters/diaries/notes that may include annotations or margin notes Subject Area Expertise/Special Skills: experience reading cursive writing may be useful

Content: handwritten materials, primarily in cursive or somewhat difficult to read (predominantly from the 19th and 20th centuries) , audio recordings that are relatively easy to hear/decipher, and scientific materials Language: English and/or other languages that use Roman script but may require the use of diacritics (French, Spanish, German, Italian, etc.) Format: audio recordings, letters, diaries, notes and other written materials, projects with templated fields and special instructions Subject Area Expertise/Special Skills: some knowledge of non-English Roman-character/script languages and diacritics may be useful, as well as experience reading cursive handwriting. A general knowledge or familiarity with scientific terminology.

Level 5 - ADVANCED

Content: handwritten materials in cursive (from the 19th century or earlier) or in a non-Roman script language, audio recordings that are difficult to hear or are not in English, specialty materials/projects such as numismatics projects and the Project Phaedra notebooks Language: foreign languages that use non-Roman characters (Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Greek/Cyrillic, Native American and Indigenous languages, etc.) and English Format: audio recordings, columned data/tables, manuscripts, letters, diaries, notes, currency sheets, coins Subject Area Expertise/Special Skills: knowledge of a specific language and access to a keyboard with the characters in that language may be required for certain projects. Experience reading cursive handwriting and familiarity with 19th century (or prior) handwriting and conventions/abbreviations may be useful, as well as knowledge of scientific terminology, astrophysics data, or linguistics.

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