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Mahatma Gandhi: As Apostle Of Truth, Non-violence And Tolerance

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is known to the world as Mahatma Gandhi and Father of the Nation through the outstanding contribution to the humanity. Like all great men in the annuls of history, he was a man of paradoxes, contradictions, prejudices, peculiarities but against these human frailties, he was standing as a colossus in the political arena of the 20th century with his infinite goodness, as the seeker of truth, as the follower of non-violence and tolerance and as the harvester of the greatest gift of mankind, love. Gandhiji had sharpened his moral weapon of non-violence against in India and successfully driven them out through his strangest peaceful revolution. For this purpose, he had honed his people through the organized and disciplined campaign of non-violent civil disobedience against the guns, bayonets and lathi sticks of rulers.

It is really strangest revolution for the people of the other countries. How can change the mindset of the enemies through a peaceful, unarmed and passive resistance? William L. Shirer said, “Our time had never seen anyone like him: a charismatic leader who had aroused a whole continent and indeed the consciousness of the world; a shrewd, tough politician, but also a deeply religious man, a Christ like figure in homespun loincloth, who lived humbly in poverty, practised what he preached and who was regarded by tens of millions of his people as a saint.”

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Gandhiji was an orthodox Hindu in his way of living but he had actually followed the moral principle of Christ in his spiritual life. He was the stronger follower of Christ than rulers. He may be the first politician in the world to apply the moral principles of the Gospel of Matthew.

“You have heard that it was said, you shall love your neighbour and hate your enemy. But I say to you, love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you that you may be children of your heavenly Father.” Gandhiji had successfully implemented the moral weapon of unarmed resistance in his freedom struggle. His moral strategy was suited to the Indian masses. Because Indians basic nature is tolerant and non-violent. A sheep cannot behave like a tiger. His democratic unarmed resistance against rule had brought miracle in the history like an anti-biotic to the body of the subcontinent. His strategy and logic was impeccable. He said, “The want us to put the struggle on the plane of machine guns where they have the weapons and we do not. Our only assurance of beating them is putting the struggle on a plane where we have weapons and they have not.”

Gandhiji always spoke very calmly and without any bitterness against the lawless repression of the enemies. had practised many barbarities on the Indians and also imprisoned him without any legal prosecution. He never showed any slightest trace of bitterness against the English men. Jallianwalla Bagh massacre in 1919 had again convinced Gandhiji about the mighty power of and need to prepare his organization and the people of India in line with non-violent disobedience. He said, “It gives you an idea of the atrocities perpetrated on the people of the Punjab. It shows you to what length government is capable of going, and what inhumanities and barbarities it is capable of perpetrating in order to maintain its power.” Gandhiji did not want to pull his people towards the calamity of death. He had passionately loved his country and countrymen.

Gandhiji was very hopeful and had full confidence in solving the socio-economic problems, communal problems between Hindus and Muslims and also the problems of the millions of depressed classes. He strongly believed that truth, tolerance and love could amicably resolve all the internal problems when Indians become the masters of their own land. In a question to William L Shirer, Gandhi said, “All these problems will be fairly easy to settle when we are our own masters. I know there will be difficulties, but I have faith in our ultimate capacity to solve them and not by following your Western models but by evolving along the lines of non-violence and truth, on which our movement is based and which must constitute the bedrock of our future constitution.” Gandhiji’s philosophy was panacea in the independent movement and also could be panacea to post-independent India. But his unexpected assassination had put the whole country into the darkness. Therefore, then Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru in his extempore broadcast on All India Radio announcing the news of Mahatma Gandhi’s assassination on 30 January 1948 in a choked voice with deep grief. “The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere. Our beloved leader … the father of our nation, is no more.”

Mahatma Gandhi was the light, life and truth to the India. His intellectual courage and radiance were always reflected in his words. In 1922, he was convicted under section 124-A of Indian Penal Code with sedition charges. At the time of the prosecution, he was asked to make a statement by the English judge. He proved himself as a true patriot, true prophet of truth and non-violence and true lawyer to defend his country and countrymen and accepting the sedition charges obediently and made strongest statement in the court. His statement had reflected the intellectual radiance of Mahatma Gandhi and also reflected his truthful understanding and courageous expression. “The law itself in this country has been used to serve the foreign exploiter. My unbiased examination of the Punjab Martial Law cases has led me to believe that at least ninety-five per cent convictions were wholly bad. My experience of political cases in India leads me to the conclusion that in nine out of every ten the condemned men were totally innocent. Their crime consisted in the love of their country. In ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, justice has been denied to Indians as against Europeans in the courts of India. This is not an exaggerated picture. It is the experience of almost every Indian who has had anything to do with such cases. In my own opinion, the administration of law is thus prostituted consciously or unconsciously for the benefit of the exploiter… Section 124-A, under which I am happily charged, is perhaps the prince among the political sections of the Indian Penal Code designed to suppress the liberty of the citizen. Affection cannot be manufactured or regulated by law. If one has no affection for a person or system, one should be free to give the fullest expression to his disaffection, so long as he does not contemplate, promote, or incite to violence. But the section under which I am charged is one under which mere promotion of disaffection is a crime. I have studied some of the cases under it, and I know that some of the most loved of India’s patriots have been convicted under it. I consider it a privilege, therefore, to be charged under that section. I have endeavoured to give in their briefest outline the reasons for my disaffection. I have no personal ill-will against any single administrator, much less can I have any disaffection toward the King’s persons. But I hold it to be a virtue to be disaffected toward a government which in its totality has done more harm to India than any previous system.”

Gandhi’s integrity, nobility and overall greatness had reflected in his arguments in the court. He was not fighting against the English men in individual level but he was fiercely fighting against imperialism. He was absolutely fighting against system but he was loving the English persons in system.

Gandhiji’s genius was noticed by the people in the 45th annual convention of the Indian National Congress at Karachi in 1931. While drafting the resolution for the congress in collaboration with Mahatma Gandhi, Nehru had seen in Gandhi a political genius at his best. Karachi congress had witnessed his marvellous spirit of leadership and magnificent control over the masses. He was the chief architect of the resolution for the convention in which he had earmarked the concept of the future constitution of the independent India. The congress adopted this resolution on fundamental rights and economic policy. This resolution on fundamental rights passed by the Karachi session of congress had many socialistic provisions. The resolution was the product of heart to heart talk between the Gandhi and Nehru. Karachi resolution had definitely influenced the Constituent Assembly in drawing up the Indian Constitution. It was envisaged the spirit of the independent India’s constitution. He was not only the father of the nation but also he was really the father of the Indian Constitution.

Gandhiji in his continuous meetings with other leaders of the minorities and depressed classes pleaded before them to submerge their differences and unitedly demand the freedom from. As the staunch follower of tolerance, he strongly believed that the internal differences could be settled either by an impartial tribunal or by a special convention of Indian leaders elected by their constituencies. He made his last appeal to the infighting countrymen.

“It is absurd for us to quarrel among ourselves before we know what we are going to get from government. If we knew definitely that we were going to get what we want, then we would hesitate fifty times before we threw it away in a sinful wrangle. The communal solution can be the crown of the national constitution, not its foundation, if only because our differences are hardened by reason of foreign domination. I have no shadow of doubt that the iceberg of communal differences would melt under the warmth of the sun of freedom.”

Lord Mountbatten offered liberation package with a dividing idea. Gandhiji warned him, “You’ll have to divide my body before you divide India.” The ageing leader in his 78 age felt severe isolation politically and emotionally. His close aides like Patel and Nehru also proved more practical in their approach and renounced their master. With this isolated situation Gandhiji said, “I find myself alone, even Patel and Nehru think I’m wrong…They wonder if I have not deteriorated with age, May be they are right and I alone am floundering in darkness.”

At the stroke of midnight on August 14, 1947, when Prime Minister, Nehru from the Red Fort proclaimed India’s independence and the whole nation was in great celebration, Gandhi slept in a slum in Calcutta. He was silent in the next day and spent most of his time in prayer. He made no public statement. It was a great tragedy in his life and also in the life of this nation. He was disheartened, saddened and humiliated by his own people. He had lived, worked and taught the people for non-violence, truth, tolerance and love. He had seen in his period the failure his principles and failed to take root among his own countrymen.

William L. Shirer recorded this tragedy, “He was utterly crushed by the terrible bloodshed that swept India, just as self-government was won, provoked this time not by but by the savage quarrels of his fellow Indians. Fleeing by the millions across the new boundaries, the Muslims from India, the Hindus from Pakistan, a half million of them had been slain in cold blood before they could reach safely. Desperately and with heavy heart, and at the risk of his life, Gandhiji had gone among them, into the blood socked streets of Calcutta and the lanes of smaller towns and villages, littered with corpses and the debris of burning buildings, and beseeched them to stop the slaughter. He had fasted twice to induce the Hindus and the Muslims to make peace. But, except for temporary truces that were quickly broken, too little avail. All his lifelong teaching and practice of non-violence, which had been so successful in the struggle against, had come to nought. The realization that it had failed to keep his fellow Indians from flying at one another’s throats the moment they were free from shattered him.” For 78 year old Gandhi, it was a great shock and bewilderment to his philosophy of non-violence, truth, tolerance and love.

Gandhiji was betrayed by his own countrymen and he was assassinated by his own religious man. His assassin had successfully silenced Gandhi physically with three bullets. But bullets cannot destroy his truth, non-violence and tolerance. His spirit of principles will shine for centuries to come. It was illumined the life of great men like Nelson Mandela in South Africa and Martin Luther King in United States of America and peace loving millions of the world. Gandhiji’s martyrdom itself is caused to resurrect his principles and shine all over the world in eternity. Thus, his position as an apostle of truth, non-violence and tolerance in the political arena of 20th century is in its zenith.

Works Cited

  • Copley, Antony, Gandhi against the Tide, 1987, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.
  • Kapoor, Virender, Leadership the Gandhi Way, 2014, Rupa & Co, New Delhi.
  • Kasturi, Bhashyam, Walking Alone Gandhi and India’s Partition, 2007, Vision Books, New Delhi.
  • Rao, U.R., Prabhu, R.K., The Mind of Mahatma Gandhi, 1967, Navajivan Trust, Ahmadabad.
  • Shirer, William L., Gandhi A Memoir, 1993, Rupa & Co, New Delhi.

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English for Children and Students

mahatma gandhi and non violence essay 800 words

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English: Mahatma Gandhi was an influential political leader in India who is best known for leading the country’s nonviolent resistance movement against British colonialism. After studying law in England, Gandhi returned to India and became a prominent leader of the Indian National Congress. He advocated for India’s independence from British rule and promoted a philosophy of non-violent resistance. Gandhi was arrested numerous times by the British authorities, but he continued to lead protests and campaigns against British rule. In 1947, India finally achieved independence, and Gandhi played a key role in the country’s transition to democracy. He was assassinated in 1948 by a Hindu extremist.

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Below, we have provided simple essays on Mahatma Gandhi , a person who would always live in the heart of the Indian people. Every kid and child of India knows him by the name of Bapu, or Father of the Nation. Using the following Mahatma Gandhi essay, you can help your kids, and school-going children perform better in school during any competition or exam.

Long and Short Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English

Below are short and long essays on Mahatma Gandhi in English for your information and knowledge.

The essays have been written in simple yet effective English so that you can quickly grasp and present the information whenever needed.

After going through these Mahatma Gandhi essays, you will learn about the life and ideals of Mahatma Gandhi, the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi, what role he played in the freedom struggle, and why is he the most respected leader in the world over; how his birthday is celebrated, etc.

The information given in the essays will be helpful in speech giving, essay writing, or speech-providing competition on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti.

Also Read: Independence Day Speech for Students

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 1 (100 words)

Mahatma Gandhi is famous in India as “Bapu” or “Rastrapita.” His full name of him is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was a great freedom fighter who led India as a leader of nationalism against British rule. He was born on the 2 nd of October in 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, India.

He died on the 30 th of January in 1948. M.K. Gandhi was assassinated by the Hindu activist Nathuram Godse, who was hanged later as a punishment by the government of India. Rabindranath Tagore has given him another name, “Martyr of the Nation,” since 1948.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 2 (150 words)

Mahatma Gandhi is called Mahatma because of his great works and greatness throughout his life. He was a great freedom fighter and non-violent activist who always followed non-violence throughout his life while leading India to independence from British rule.

He was born on the 2 nd of October 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat, India. He was just 18 years old while studying law in England. Later he went to the British colony of South Africa to practice his law, where he got differentiated from the light skin people because of being a dark skin person. That’s why he decided to become a political activist to make some positive changes in such unfair laws.

Later he returned to India and started a powerful and non-violent movement to make India an independent country. He was the one who led the Salt March (Namak Satyagrah or Salt Satyagrah or Dandi March) in 1930. He inspired many Indians to work against British rule for their independence.

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Mahatma Gandhi Essay 3 (200 words)

Mahatma Gandhi was an outstanding personality in India who still inspires the people in the country and abroad through his legacy of greatness, idealness, and dignified life. Bapu was born in a Hindu family in Porbandar, Gujarat, India, on the 2 nd of October in 1869. The 2 nd of October was the great day for India when Bapu took birth. He paid an incredible and unforgettable role in the independence of India from British rule. The full name of the Bapu is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He went to England for his law study just after passing his matriculation examination. Later he returned to India as a lawyer in 1890.

After he arrived in India, he started helping Indian people facing various problems from British rule. He started a Satyagraha movement against the British government to help Indians. Other significant movements initiated by the Bapu for the independence of India are the Non-cooperation movement in 1920, the Civil Dis the obedience movement in 1930, and the Quit India movement in 1942. All the movements had shaken the British rule in India and inspired many everyday Indian citizens to fight for freedom.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 4 (250 words)

Bapu, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was born 1869 on the 2 nd of October at Porbander in Gujarat, India. Mahatma Gandhi was a great Indian who led India in the independence movement against British rule. He completed his schooling in India and went to England for further study of law. He returned to India as a lawyer and started practicing law. He started helping the people of India who were humiliated and insulted by British rule.

He started the non-violence independence movement to fight against the injustice of Britishers. He was insulted many times but continued his non-violent struggle for the Independence of India. After his return to India, he joined Indian National Congress as a member. He was the great leader of the Indian independence movement who struggled a lot for the freedom of India. As a member of the Indian National Congress, he started independence movements like Non-Cooperation, Civil Disobedience, and later Quit India Movement, which became successful a day and helped India get freedom.

As a great freedom fighter, he got arrested and sent to jail many times, but he continued fighting against British rule for the justice of Indians. He was a great believer in non-violence and unity of people of all religions, which he followed through his struggle for independence. After many battles with many Indians, he finally became successful in making India an independent country on the 15 th of August in 1947. Later he was assassinated in 1948 on the 30 th of January by Nathuram Godse, a Hindu activist.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 5 (300 words)

Mahatma Gandhi was a great freedom fighter who spent his whole life in a struggle for the independence of India. He was born in an Indian Hindu family on the 2 nd of October in 1869 in Porbander, Gujarat. He lived his whole as a leader of the Indian people. His whole life story is a great inspiration for us. He is called the Bapu or Rashtrapita as he spent his life fighting against British rule for our freedom of us. While fighting with Britishers, he took the help of his great weapons like non-violence and Satyagraha movements to achieve independence. He was arrested and sent to jail many times but never discouraged himself and continued fighting for national freedom.

He is the birth father of our nation who used all his power to make us free from British rule. He understood the power of unity in people (from different castes, religions, communities, races, ages, or gender), which he used throughout his independence movement. Finally, he forced Britishers to quit India forever through his mass movements on the 15 th of August in 1947. Since 1947, India’s 15th of August has been celebrated as Independence Day th of August has been celebrated as Independence Day in India.

He could not continue his life after the independence of India in 1947 as he was assassinated by one of the Hindu activists, Nathuram Godse, in 1948 on the 30 th of January. He was a great personality who served his whole life till death for the motherland. He enlightened our life with the true light of freedom from British rule. He proved that everything is possible with the non-violence and unity of people. Even after dying many years ago, he is still alive in the heart of every Indian as a “Father of the Nation and Bapu.”

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 6 (400 words)

Mahatma Gandhi is well known as the “Father of the Nation or Bapu” because of his most significant contributions toward our country’s independence. He was the one who believed in the non-violence and unity of the people and brought spirituality to Indian politics. He worked hard the remove the untouchability in the Indian society , upliftment of the backward classes in India, raised his voice to develop villages for social development, and inspired Indian people to use swadeshi goods and other social issues. He brought familiar people in front to participate in the national movement and encouraged them to fight for their actual freedom.

He was one of the persons who converted people’s dream of independence into truth day through his noble ideals and supreme sacrifices. He is remembered for his wondrous works and primary virtues such as non-violence, truth, love, and fraternity. He was not born as excellent, but he made himself great through his hard struggles and work. The life of King Harischandra highly influenced him from the play titled Raja Harischandra. After schooling, he completed his law degree in England and began his career as a lawyer. He faced many difficulties in his life but continued walking as a great leader.

He started many mass movements like the Non-cooperation movement in 1920, the civil disobedience movement in 1930, and finally the Quit India Movement in 1942, throughout the way to independence of India. After many struggles and work, the British Government finally granted independence to India. He was a straightforward person who worked to remove the color barrier and caste barrier. He also worked hard to remove the untouchability in the Indian society and named untouchables as “Harijan” means the people of God.

He was a great social reformer and Indian freedom fighter who died a day after completing his aim of life. He inspired Indian people for the manual labour and said that arrange all the resource ownself for living a simple life and becoming self-dependent. He started weaving cotton clothes through the use of Charakha in order to avoid the use of videshi goods and promote the use of Swadeshi goods among Indians.

He was a strong supporter of the agriculture and motivated people to do agriculture works. He was a spiritual man who brought spirituality to the Indian politics. He died in 1948 on 30 th of January and his body was cremated at Raj Ghat, New Delhi. 30 th of January is celebrated every year as the Martyr Day in India in order to pay homage to him.

Essay on Non-violence of Mahatma Gandhi – Essay 7 (800 Words)

Introduction

Non-violence or ‘ahimsa’ is a practice of not hurting anyone intentionally or unintentionally. It is the practice professed by great saints like Gautam Buddha and Mahaveer. Mahatma Gandhi was one of the pioneer personalities to practice non-violence. He used non-violence as a weapon to fight the armed forces of the British Empire and helped us to get independence without lifting a single weapon.

Role of Non-violence in Indian Freedom Struggle

The role of non-violence in the Indian freedom struggle became prominent after the involvement of Mahatma Gandhi. There were many violent freedom struggles going on concurrently in the country and the importance of these cannot be neglected either. There were many sacrifices made by our freedom fighters battling against the British rule. But non-violence was a protest which was done in a very peaceful manner and was a great way to demand for the complete independence. Mahatma Gandhi used non-violence in every movement against British rule. The most important non-violence movements of Mahatma Gandhi which helped to shake the foundation of the British government are as follows.

  • Champaran and Kheda Agitations

In 1917 the farmers of Champaran were forced by the Britishers to grow indigo and again sell them at very cheap fixed prices. Mahatma Gandhi organized a non-violent protest against this practice and Britishers were forced to accept the demand of the farmers.

Kheda village was hit by floods in 1918 and created a major famine in the region. The Britishers were not ready to provide any concessions or relief in the taxes. Gandhiji organized a non-cooperation movement and led peaceful protests against the British administration for many months. Ultimately the administration was forced to provide relief in taxes and temporarily suspended the collection of revenue.

  • Non-cooperation Movement

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the harsh British policies lead to the Non-cooperation movement in 1920. It was the non-violence protest against the British rule. Gandhiji believed that the main reason of the Britishers flourishing in India is the support they are getting from Indians. He pleaded to boycott the use of British products and promoted the use of ‘Swadeshi’ products. Indians denied working for the Britishers and withdrew themselves from the British schools, civil services, government jobs etc. People started resigning from the prominent posts which highly affected the British administration. The Non-Cooperation movement shook the foundation of the British rule and all these without a single use of any weapon. The power of non-violence was more evident in the non-cooperation movement.

  • Salt Satyagrah or Salt March

Salt March or the ‘Namak Satyagrah’ was the non-violence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi against the salt monopoly of the Britishers. Britishers imposed a heavy taxation on the salt produce which affected the local salt production. Gandhiji started the 26 days non-violence march to Dandi village, Gujarat protesting against the salt monopoly of the British government. The Dandi march was started on 12 th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and ended on 06 th April 1930 at Dandi, breaking the salt laws of the British government and starting the local production of salt. The Salt March was a non violent movement which got the international attention and which helped to concrete the foundation of Independent India.

  • Quit India Movement

After the successful movement of the Salt March, the foundation of British government shook completely. Quit India Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 th August 1942 which demanded the Britishers to quit India. It was the time of World War II when Britain was already in war with Germany and the Quit India Movement acted as a fuel in the fire. There was a mass non-violent civil disobedience launched across the country and Indians also demanded their separation from World War II. The effect of Quit India Movement was so intense that British government agreed to provide complete independence to India once the war gets over. The Quit India Movement was a final nail in the coffin of the British rule in India.

These movements led by Mahatma Gandhi were completely Non-violent and did not use any weapon. The power of truth and non-violence were the weapons used to fight the British rule. The effect of non-violence was so intense that it gained the immediate attention of the international community towards the Indian independence struggle. It helped to reveal the harsh policies and acts of the British rule to the international audience.

Mahatma Gandhi always believed that weapons are not the only answer for any problem; in fact they created more problems than they solved. It is a tool which spreads hatred, fear and anger. Non-violence is one of the best methods by which we can fight with much powerful enemies, without holding a single weapon. Apart from the independence struggle; there are many incidents of modern times which exhibited the importance of non-violence and how it helped in bringing changes in the society and all that without spilling a single drop of blood. Hope the day is not very far when there will be no violence and every conflict and dispute will be solved through peaceful dialogues without harming anyone and shedding blood and this would be a greatest tribute to Mahatma Gandhi.

Long Essay on Mahatma Gandhi – Essay 8 (1100 Words)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi aka ‘Mahatma Gandhi’ was one of the great sons of Indian soil who rose to become a great soul and gave major contribution in the great Indian freedom struggle against the British rule in India. He was a man of ideologies and a man with great patience and courage. His non-violence movements involved peaceful protests and non-cooperation with the British rule. These movements had a long term effects on the Britishers and it also helped India to grab the eye balls of global leaders and attracted the attention on the international platforms.

Family and Life of Mahatma Gandhi

  • Birth and Childhood

Mahatma Gandhi was born as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi on 02 nd October, 1869 at Porbandar (which is in the current state of Gujarat). His father Karamchand Gandhi was working as the Chief Minister (diwan) of Porbandar at that time. His mother Putlibai was a very devotional and generous lady. Young Gandhi was a reflection of his mother and inherited high values, ethics and the feeling of sacrifice from her.

  • Marriage and Education

Mohandas was married to Kasturba Makanji at a very young age of 13. In 1888, they were blessed with a baby boy and after which he sailed to London for higher studies. In 1893, he went to South Africa to continue his practice of law where he faced strong racial discrimination by the Britishers. The major incident which completely changed the young Gandhi was when he was forcibly removed from the first class compartment of a train due to his race and color.

  • Civil Rights Movement in Africa

After the discrimination and embracement faced by Gandhi due to his race and color, he vowed to fight and challenge the racial discrimination of immigrants in South Africa. He formed Natal Indian Congress in 1894 and started fighting against racial discrimination. He fought for the civil rights of the immigrants in South Africa and spent around 21 years there.

  • Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Freedom Struggle

Gandhi returned to India in 1915 and joined Indian National Congress and started to raise voice against the British rule in India and demanded the complete independence or ‘Purn Swaraj’ for India. He started many non-violent movements and protests against Britishers and was also imprisoned various times in his long quest of freedom. His campaigns were completely non-violent without the involvement of any force or weapons. His ideology of ‘ahimsa’ meaning not to injure anyone was highly appreciated and was also followed by many great personalities around the globe.

Why was Gandhi called Mahatma?

‘Mahatma’ is a Sanskrit word which means ‘great soul’. It is said that it was Rabindranth Tagore who first used ‘Mahatma’ for Gandhi. It was because of the great thoughts and ideologies of Gandhi which made people honour him by calling ‘Mahatma Gandhi’. The great feeling of sacrifice, love and help he showed throughout his life was a matter of great respect for each citizen of India.

Mahatma Gandhi showed a lifelong compassion towards the people affected with leprosy. He used to nurse the wounds of people with leprosy and take proper care of them. In the times when people used to ignore and discriminate people with leprosy, the humanitarian compassion of Gandhi towards them made him a person with great feelings and a person with great soul justifying himself as Mahatma.

Mahatma Gandhi’s contribution on various social issues could never be ignored. His campaign against untouchability during his imprisonment in the Yerwada Jail where he went on fast against the age old evil of untouchability in the society had highly helped the upliftment of the community in the modern era. Apart from this, he also advocated the importance of education, cleanliness, health and equality in the society. All these qualities made him a man with great soul and justify his journey from Gandhi to Mahatma.

What are Gandhi’s accomplishments?

Mahatma Gandhi was a man with mission who not only fought for the country’s independence but also gave his valuable contribution in uprooting various evils of the society. The accomplishments of Mahatma Gandhi is summarized below:

  • Fought against Racial Discrimination in South Africa

The racial discrimination in South Africa shocked Mahatma Gandhi and he vowed to fight against it. He challenged the law which denied the voting rights of the people not belonging to the European region. He continued to fight for the civil rights of the immigrants in South Africa and became a prominent face of a civil right activist.

  • Face of the Indian Freedom Struggle

Mahatma Gandhi was the liberal face of independence struggle. He challenged the British rule in India through his peaceful and non-violent protests. The Champaran Satyagrah, Civil Disobedience Movement, Salt March, Quit India Movement etc are just the few non-violent movements led by him which shook the foundation of the Britishers in India and grabbed the attention of the global audience to the Indian freedom struggle.

  • Uprooting the Evils of Society

Gandhi Ji also worked on uprooting various social evils in the society which prevailed at that time. He launched many campaigns to provide equal rights to the untouchables and improve their status in the society. He also worked on the women empowerment, education and opposed child marriage which had a long term effect on the Indian society.

What was Gandhi famous for?

Mahatma Gandhi was one of the great personalities of India. He was a man with simplicity and great ideologies. His non-violent way to fight a much powerful enemy without the use of a weapon or shedding a single drop of blood surprised the whole world. His patience, courage and disciplined life made him popular and attracted people from every corners of the world.

He was the man who majorly contributed in the independence of India from the British rule. He devoted his whole life for the country and its people. He was the face of the Indian leadership on international platform. He was the man with ethics, values and discipline which inspires the young generation around the globe even in the modern era.

Gandhi Ji was also famous for his strict discipline. He always professed the importance of self discipline in life. He believed that it helps to achieve bigger goals and the graces of ahimsa could only be achieved through hard discipline.

These qualities of the great leader made him famous not only in India but also across the world and inspired global personalities like Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King.

Mahatma Gandhi helped India to fulfill her dream of achieving ‘Purna Swaraj’ or complete independence and gave the country a global recognition. Though he left this world on 30 th January, 1948, but his ideologies and thoughts still prevail in the minds of his followers and act as a guiding light to lead their lives. He proved that everything is possible in the world if you have a strong will, courage and determination.

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Who is Mahatma Gandhi?

Mahatma Gandhi was an influential political leader in India who is best known for leading the country's non-violent resistance movement against British colonialism.

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Mahatma Gandhi was a man with mission who not only fought for the country’s independence but also gave his valuable contribution in uprooting various evils of the society.

When is Gandhi Jayanti?

The birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti. It is on 2nd October.

Who was Kasturba?

Kasturba was Gandhi's wife. He was married to Kasturba at a very young age of 13.

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ARTICLES : Peace, Nonviolence, Conflict Resolution

Read articles written by very well-known personalities and eminent authors about their views on gandhi, gandhi's works, gandhian philosophy of peace, nonviolence and conflict resolution..

  • Articles on Gandhi
  • TABLE OF CONTENTS
  • Peace, Nonviolence, Conflict Resolution : Gandhi's Philosophy of Nonviolence

Gandhi Meditating

Peace, Nonviolence, Conflict Resolution

  • Nonviolence and Multilateral Diplomacy
  • Ahimsa: Its Theory and Practice in Gandhism
  • Non-violent Resistance and Satyagraha as Alternatives to War - The Nazi Case
  • Thanatos, Terror and Tolerance: An Analysis of Terror Management Theory and a Possible Contribution by Gandhi
  • Yoga as a Tool in Peace Education
  • Forgiveness and Conflict Resolution

Gandhi's Philosophy of Nonviolence

  • Global Nonviolence Network
  • Violence And Its Dimensions
  • Youth, Nonviolence And Gandhi
  • Nonviolent Action: Some Dilemmas
  • The Meaning of Nonviolence
  • India And The Anglo-Boer War
  • Gandhi's Vision of Peace
  • Gandhi's Greatest Weapon
  • Conflict Resolution: The Gandhian Approach
  • Kingian Nonviolence : A Practical Application in Policing
  • Pilgrimage To Nonviolence
  • Peace Paradigms: Five Approaches To Peace
  • Interpersonal Conflict
  • Moral Equivalent of War As A Conflict Resolution
  • Conflict, Violence And Education
  • The Emerging Role of NGOs in Conflict Resolution
  • Role of Academics in Conflict Resolution
  • The Role of Civil Society in Conflict Resolution
  • Martin Luther King's Nonviolent Struggle And Its Relevance To Asia
  • Terrorism: Counter Violence is Not the Answer
  • Gandhi's Vision and Technique of Conflict Resolution
  • Three Case Studies of Nonviolence
  • How Nonviolence Works
  • The Courage of Nonviolence
  • Conflict Resolution and Peace Possibilities in the Gandhian Perspective
  • An Approach To Conflict Resolution
  • Non-violence: Neither A Beginning Nor An End
  • Peacemaking According To Rev. Dr.Martin Luther King Jr.
  • The Truth About Truth Force
  • The Development of A Culture of Peace Through Elementary Schools in Canada
  • Gandhi, Christianity And Ahimsa
  • Issues In Culture of Peace And Non-violence
  • Solution of Violence Through Love
  • Developing A Culture of Peace And Non-Violence Through Education
  • Nonviolence And Western Sociological And Political Thought
  • Gandhi After 9/11: Terrorism, Violence And The Other
  • Conflict Resolution & Peace: A Gandhian Perspective
  • A Gandhian Approach To International Security
  • Address To the Nation: Mahatma Gandhi Writes on 26 January 2009
  • Truth & Non-violence: Gandhiji's Tenets for Passive Resistance
  • The Experiments of Gandhi: Nonviolence in the Nuclear Age
  • Terrorism And Gandhian Non-violence
  • Reborn in Riyadh
  • Satyagraha As A Peaceful Method of Conflict Resolution
  • Non-violence : A Force for Radical Change
  • Peace Approach : From Gandhi to Galtung and Beyond
  • Gandhian Approach to Peace and Non-violence
  • Locating Education for Peace in Gandhian Thought

Further Reading

(Complete Book available online)

  • Conflict Resolution And Gandhian Ethics - By Thomas Weber
  • A Contemporary Interpretation of Ahimsa
  • The Tradition of Nonviolence and its Underlying Forces
  • A Study of the Meanings of Nonviolence
  • Notes on the Theory of Nonviolence
  • Nonviolence as a Positive Concept
  • Experimentation in Nonviolence: The Next Phase
  • The Best Solver of Conflicts
  • War and What Price Freedom
  • A Coordinated Approach to Disarmament
  • A Disarmament Adequate to Our Times
  • The Impact of Gandhi on the U.S. Peace Movement
  • The Grass-roots of World Peace
  • Is There a Nonviolent Road to a Peaceful World?
  • Nuclear Explosions and World Peace
  • Aspects of Nonviolence in American Culture
  • The Gandhian Way and Nuclear War
  • A Nonviolent International Authority

Extrernal Links

  • Gandhi, The Jews And Palestine A Collection of Articles, Speeches, Letters and Interviews Compiled by: E. S. Reddy
With Gandhi, the notion of nonviolence attained a special status. He not only theorized on it, he adopted nonviolence as a philosophy and an ideal way of life. He made us understand that the philosophy of nonviolence is not a weapon of the weak; it is a weapon, which can be tried by all.

Nonviolence was not Gandhi's invention. He is however called the father of nonviolence because according to Mark Shepard, "He raised nonviolent action to a level never before achieved." 1 Krishna Kripalani again asserts "Gandhi was the first in Human history to extend the principle of nonviolence from the individual to social and political plane." 2 While scholars were talking about an idea without a name or a movement, Gandhi is the person who came up with the name and brought together different related ideas under one concept: Satyagraha. Gandhi's View of Violence / Nonviolence Gandhi saw violence pejoratively and also identified two formsof violence; Passive and Physical, as we saw earlier. The practice of passive violence is a daily affair, consciously and unconsciously. It is again the fuel that ignites the fire of physical violence. Gandhi understands violence from its Sanskrit root, "himsa", meaning injury. In the midst of hyper violence, Gandhi teaches that the one who possess nonviolence is blessed. Blessed is the man who can perceive the law of ahimsa (nonviolence) in the midst of the raging fire of himsa all around him. We bow in reverence to such a man by his example. The more adverse the circumstances around him, the intenser grows his longing for deliverance from the bondage of flesh which is a vehicle of himsa... 3 Gandhi objects to violence because it perpetuates hatred. When it appears to do 'good', the good is only temporary and cannot do any good in the long run. A true nonviolence activist accepts violence on himself without inflicting it on another. This is heroism, and will be discussed in another section. When Gandhi says that in the course of fighting for human rights, one should accept violence and self-suffering, he does not applaud cowardice. Cowardice for him is "the greatest violence, certainly, far greater than bloodshed and the like that generally go under the name of violence." 4 For Gandhi, perpetrators of violence (whom he referred to as criminals), are products of social disintegration. Gandhi feels that violence is not a natural tendency of humans. It is a learned experience. There is need for a perfect weapon to combat violence and this is nonviolence.Gandhi understood nonviolence from its Sanskrit root "Ahimsa". Ahimsa is just translated to mean nonviolence in English, but it implies more than just avoidance of physical violence. Ahimsa implies total nonviolence, no physical violence, and no passive violence. Gandhi translates Ahimsa as love. This is explained by Arun Gandhi in an interview thus; "He (Gandhi) said ahimsa means love. Because if you have love towards somebody, and you respect that person, then you are not going to do any harm to that person." 5 For Gandhi, nonviolence is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than any weapon of mass destruction. It is superior to brute force. It is a living force of power and no one has been or will ever be able to measure its limits or it's extend.Gandhi's nonviolence is the search for truth. Truth is the most fundamental aspect in Gandhi's Philosophy of nonviolence. His whole life has been "experiments of truth". It was in this course of his pursuit of truth that Gandhi discovered nonviolence, which he further explained in his Autobiography thus "Ahimsa is the basis of the search for truth. I am realizing that this search is vain, unless it is founded on ahimsa as the basis." 6 Truth and nonviolence are as old as the hills.For nonviolence to be strong and effective, it must begin with the mind, without which it will be nonviolence of the weak and cowardly. A coward is a person who lacks courage when facing a dangerous and unpleasant situation and tries to avoid it. A man cannot practice ahimsa and at the same time be a coward. True nonviolence is dissociated from fear. Gandhi feels that possession of arms is not only cowardice but also lack of fearlessness or courage. Gandhi stressed this when he says; "I can imagine a fully armed man to be at heart a coward. Possession of arms implies an element of fear, if not cowardice but true nonviolence is impossibility without the possession of unadulterated fearlessness." 7 In the face of violence and injustice, Gandhi considers violent resistance preferable to cowardly submission. There is hope that a violent man may someday be nonviolent, but there is no room for a coward to develop fearlessness. As the world's pioneer in nonviolent theory and practice, Gandhi unequivocally stated that nonviolence contained a universal applicability. In his letter to Daniel Oliver in Hammana Lebanon on the 11th of 1937 Gandhi used these words: " I have no message to give except this that there is no deliverance for any people on this earth or for all the people of this earth except through truth and nonviolence in every walk of life without any exceptions." 8 In this passage, Gandhi promises "deliverance" through nonviolence for oppressed peoples without exception. Speaking primarily with regards to nonviolence as a libratory philosophy in this passage, Gandhi emphasizes the power of nonviolence to emancipate spiritually and physically. It is a science and of its own can lead one to pure democracy. Satyagraha, the Centre of Gandhi's Contribution to the Philosophy of Nonviolence It will be good here to examine what Stanley E. Jones calls "the centre of Gandhi's contribution to the world". All else is marginal compared to it. Satyagraha is the quintessence of Gandhism. Through it, Gandhi introduced a new spirit to the world. It is the greatest of all Gandhi's contribution to the world. What is Satyagraha? Satyagraha (pronounced sat-YAH-graha) is a compound of two Sanskrit nouns satya, meaning truth (from 'sat'- 'being' with a suffix 'ya'), and agraha, meaning, "firm grasping" (a noun made from the agra, which has its root 'grah'- 'seize', 'grasp', with the verbal prefix 'a' – 'to' 'towards). Thus Satyagraha literally means devotion to truth, remaining firm on the truth and resisting untruth actively but nonviolently. Since the only way for Gandhi getting to the truth is by nonviolence (love), it follows that Satyagraha implies an unwavering search for the truth using nonviolence. Satyagraha according to Michael Nagler literally means 'clinging to truth,' and that was exactly how Gandhi understood it: "clinging to the truth that we are all one under the skin, that there is no such thing as a 'win/lose' confrontation because all our important interests are really the same, that consciously or not every single person wants unity and peace with every other" 9 Put succinctly, Satyagraha means 'truth force' , 'soul force' or as Martin Luther Jr would call it 'love in action.' Satyagraha has often been defined as the philosophy of nonviolent resistance most famously employed by Mahatma Gandhi, in forcing an end to the British domination. Gene Sharp did not hesitate to define Satyagraha simply as "Gandhian Nonviolence." 10 Today as Nagler would say, when we use the word Satyagraha we sometimes mean that general principle, the fact that love is stronger than hate (and we can learn to use it to overcome hate), and sometimes we mean more specifically active resistance by a repressed group; sometimes, even more specifically, we apply the term to a given movement like Salt Satyagraha etc. It is worthwhile looking at the way Gandhi uses Satyagraha. Gandhi View of Satyagraha Satyagraha was not a preconceived plan for Gandhi. Event in his life culminating in his "Bramacharya vow", 11 prepared him for it. He therefore underlined: Events were so shaping themselves in Johannesburg as to make this self-purification on my part a preliminary as it were to Satyagraha. I can now see that all the principal events of my life, culminating in the vow of Bramacharya were secretly preparing me for it. 12 Satyagraha is a moral weapon and the stress is on soul force over physical force. It aims at winning the enemy through love and patient suffering. It aims at winning over an unjust law, not at crushing, punishing, or taking revenge against the authority, but to convert and heal it. Though it started as a struggle for political rights, Satyagraha became in the long run a struggle for individual salvation, which could be achieved through love and self-sacrifice. Satyagraha is meant to overcome all methods of violence. Gandhi explained in a letter to Lord Hunter that Satyagraha is a movement based entirely upon truth. It replaces every form of violence, direct and indirect, veiled and unveiled and whether in thought, word or deed. Satyagraha is for the strong in spirit. A doubter or a timid person cannot do it. Satyagraha teaches the art of living well as well as dying. It is love and unshakeable firmness that comes from it. Its training is meant for all, irrespective of age and sex. The most important training is mental not physical. It has some basic precepts treated below. The Basic Precepts of Satyagraha There are three basic precepts essential to Satyagraha: Truth, Nonviolence and self-suffering. These are called the pillars of Satyagraha. Failure to grasp them is a handicap to the understanding of Gandhi's non –violence. These three fundamentals correspond to Sanskrit terms: Sat/Satya – Truth implying openness, honesty and fairness Ahimsa/Nonviolence – refusal to inflict injury upon others. Tapasya – willingness to self-sacrifice. These fundamental concepts are elaborated below. 1.Satya/Truth: Satyagraha as stated before literally means truth force. Truth is relative. Man is not capable of knowing the absolute truth. Satyagraha implies working steadily towards a discovery of the absolute truth and converting the opponent into a trend in the working process. What a person sees as truth may just as clearly be untrue for another. Gandhi made his life a numerous experiments with truth. In holding to the truth, he claims to be making a ceaseless effort to find it. Gandhi's conception of truth is deeply rooted in Hinduism. The emphasis of Satya-truth is paramount in the writings of the Indian philosophers. "Satyannasti Parodharmati (Satyan Nasti Paro Dharma Ti) – there is no religion or duty greater than truth", holds a prominent place in Hinduism. Reaching pure and absolute truth is attaining moksha. Gandhi holds that truth is God, and maintains that it is an integral part of Satyagraha. He explains it thus: The world rests upon the bedrock of satya or truth; asatya meaning untruth also means "nonexistent" and satya or truth, means that which is of untruth does not so much exist. Its victory is out of the question. And truth being "that which is" can never be destroyed. This is the doctrine of Satyagraha in a nutshell. 13 2.Ahimsa: In Gandhi's Satyagraha, truth is inseparable from Ahimsa. Ahimsa expresses as ancient Hindu, Jain and Buddhist ethical precept. The negative prefix 'a' plus himsa meaning injury make up the world normally translated 'nonviolence'. The term Ahimsa appears in Hindu teachings as early as the Chandoya Upanishad. The Jain Religion constitutes Ahimsa as the first vow. It is a cardinal virtue in Buddhism. Despite its being rooted in these Religions, the special contribution of Gandhi was: To make the concept of Ahimsa meaningful in the social and political spheres by moulding tools for nonviolent action to use as a positive force in the search for social and political truths. Gandhi formed Ahimsa into the active social technique, which was to challenge political authorities and religious orthodoxy. 14 It is worth noting that this 'active social technique which was to challenge political authorities', used by Gandhi is none other than Satyagraha. Truly enough, the Indian milieu was already infused with notions of Ahimsa. Nevertheless, Gandhi acknowledged that it was an essential part of his experiments with the truth whose technique of action he called Satyagraha. At the root of Satya and Ahimsa is love. While making discourses on the Bhagavad-Gita, an author says: Truth, peace, righteousness and nonviolence, Satya, Shanti, Dharma and Ahimsa, do not exist separately. They are all essentially dependent on love. When love enters the thoughts it becomes truth. When it manifests itself in the form of action it becomes truth. When Love manifests itself in the form of action it becomes Dharma or righteousness. When your feelings become saturated with love you become peace itself. The very meaning of the word peace is love. When you fill your understanding with love it is Ahimsa. Practicing love is Dharma, thinking of love is Satya, feeling love is Shanti, and understanding love is Ahimsa. For all these values it is love which flows as the undercurrent. 15 3.;Tapasya (Self-Suffering); it remains a truism that the classical yogic laws of self-restraint and self-discipline are familiar elements in Indian culture. Self-suffering in Satyagraha is a test of love. It is detected first of all towards the much persuasion of one whom is undertaken. Gandhi distinguished self-suffering from cowardice. Gandhi's choice of self-suffering does not mean that he valued life low. It is rather a sign of voluntary help and it is noble and morally enriching. He himself says; It is not because I value life lo I can countenance with joy Thousands voluntary losing their lives for Satyagraha, but because I know that it results in the long run in the least loss of life, and what is more, it ennobles those who lose their lives and morally enriches the world for their sacrifice. 16 Satyagraha is at its best when preached and practiced by those who would use arms but decided instead to invite suffering upon them. It is not easy for a western mind or nonoriental philosopher to understand this issue of self-suffering. In fact, in Satyagraha, the element of self-suffering is perhaps the least acceptable to a western mind. Yet such sacrifice may well provide the ultimate means of realizing that characteristic so eminent in Christian religion and western moral philosophy: The dignity of the individual. The three elements: Satya, Ahimsa, Tapasya must move together for the success of any Satyagraha campaign. It follows that Ahimsa – which implies love, leads in turn to social service. Truth leads to an ethical humanism. Self-suffering not for its own sake, but for the demonstration of sincerity flowing from refusal to injure the opponent while at the same time holding to the truth, implies sacrifice and preparation for sacrifice even to death. Satyagraha in Action For Satyagraha to be valid, it has to be tested. When the principles are applied to specific political and social action, the tools of civil disobedience, noncooperation, nonviolent strike, and constructive action are cherished. South Africa and India were 'laboratories' where Gandhi tested his new technique. Satyagraha was a necessary weapon for Gandhi to work in South Africa and India. Louis Fischer attests that: "Gandhi could never have achieved what he did in South Africa and India but for a weapon peculiarly his own. It was unprecedented indeed; it was so unique he could not find a name for it until he finally hit upon Satyagraha." 17 South Africa is the acclaimed birthplace of Satyagraha. Here Satyagraha was employed to fight for the civil rights of Indians in South Africa. In India, Gandhi applied Satyagraha in his socio-political milieu and carried out several acts of civil disobedience culminating in the Salt March. Another wonderful way of seeing Satyagraha in action is through the fasting of Mahatma Gandhi. Fasting was part and parcel of his philosophy of truth and nonviolence. Mahatma Gandhi was an activist – a moral and spiritual activist. And fasting was "one of his strategies of activism, in many ways his most powerful." 18 Qualities of a Satyagrahi (Nonviolence Activist) Gandhi was quite aware that there was need to train people who could carry on with his Satyagraha campaigns. He trained them in his "Satyagraha Ashrams". Here are some of the basic qualities of expected of a Satyagrahi. A Satyagraha should have a living faith in God for he is his only Rock. One must believe in truth and nonviolence as one's creed and therefore have faith in the inherent goodness of human nature. One must live a chaste life and be ready and willing for the sake of one's cause to give up his life and his possessions. One must be free from the use any intoxicant, in order that his reason may be undivided and his mind constant. One must carry out with a willing heart all the rules of discipline as may be laid down from time to time. One should carry out the jail rules unless they are especially dense to hurt his self-respect. A satyagrahi must accept to suffer in order to correct a situation. In a nutshell, Satyagraha is itself a movement intended to fight social and promote ethical values. It is a whole philosophy of nonviolence. It is undertaken only after all the other peaceful means have proven ineffective. At its heart is nonviolence. An attempt is made to convert, persuade or win over the opponent. It involves applying the forces of both reason and conscience simultaneously, while holding aloft the indisputable truth of his/her position. The Satyagrahi also engages in acts of voluntary suffering. Any violence inflicted by the opponent is accepted without retaliation. The opponent can only become morally bankrupt if violence continues to be inflicted indefinitely. Several methods can be applied in a Satyagraha campaign. Stephen Murphy gives primacy to "noncooperation and fasting". Bertrand Russell has this to say about Gandhi's method: The essence of this method which he (Gandhi) gradually brought to greater and greater perfection consisted in refusal to do things, which the authorities wished to have done, while abstaining from any positive action of an aggressive sort.... The method always had in Gandhi's mind a religious aspect... As a rule, this method depended upon moral force for its success. 19 Murphy and Russell do not accept Gandhi's doctrine totally. Michael Nagler insists that they ignore Constructive Programme, which Gandhi considered paramount. A better understanding of Gandhi's nonviolence will be seen in the next chapter.

  • M. SHEPARD, Mahatma Gandhi and his Myths, Civil Disobedience, Nonviolence and Satyagraha in the Real World, Los Angeles,
  • Shepard Publications, 2002, http://www.markshep.com/nonviolence/books/myths.html
  • M. K. GANDHI, All Men Are Brothers, Autobiographical Reflections, Krishna Kripalani (ed.), New York; The Continuum Publishing Company, 1990, vii.
  • M. K. GANDHI, Young India, 22-11-1928, The Collected Works of Mahatma Gandhi, Vol. xxxviii, Ahmedabad; Navajivan Trust, 1970, 69.
  • M. K. GANDHI, Young India, 20-12-1928, in ibidem, 247.
  • The New Zion’s Herald, July/August 2001, vol. 175, issue 4, 17.
  • M. K. GANDHI, An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments With truth, Ahmedabad; Navajivan Trust, 2003, 254.
  • NIRMAL KUMAR BOSE, Selections from Gandhi, Ahmedabad; Navajivan Trust, 1948,154.
  • Mahatma Gandhi, Judith M. Brown, The Essential Writings, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2008, 20. Also in Pyarelal Papers, EWMG, 60.
  • Michael N. Nagler, Hope or Terror? Minneapolis, METTA Center for Nonviolence Education, 2009, p. 7.
  • T. WEBER and R. J. Burrowes, Nonviolence, An Introduction, http://www.nonviolenceinternational.net/seasia
  • Bramacharya Simply means Celibacy, Chastity.
  • M. K. GANDHI, An Autobiography, 292.
  • S. E. JONES, Gandhi, Portrayal of a Friend, Nashville, Abingdon Press, 1948, 82.
  • J. V. BONDURANT, Conquest of Violence, The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict. Los Angeles; University of California Press, 1965, 112.
  • BHAGAVAN SRI SATHYA SAI BABA, Discourses on the Bhagavad-Gita, Andhra Pradesh; Sri Sathya Sai Books and Publications Trust, 1988, 51-52.
  • M. K. GANDHI, Nonviolence in Peace and War,(2nd ed.) Ahmedadad, Navijivan Trust, 1944, 49.
  • L. FISCHER. Gandhi; His life and Message For the World, New York Mentor Books, 1954, 35.
  • S. E. JONES, Gandhi, Portrayal of a Friend, 108.
  • B. RUSSELL, Mahatma Gandhi, Boston, Atlantic Monthly, December 1952, 23.
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mahatma gandhi and non violence essay 800 words

On Gandhi and Nonviolence as a Spiritual Virtue

But it did illuminate his divine duty.

The more he took to violence, the more he receded from Truth.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi described “ahimsa,” nonviolence or more accurately love, as the “supreme duty.” This essay seeks to understand the necessity of nonviolence in Gandhi’s life and thought.

Toward the end of his life, Gandhi was asked by a friend to resume writing his autobiography and write a “treatise on the science of ahimsa.” What the friend wanted were accounts of Gandhi’s striving for truth and his quest for nonviolence, and since these were the two most significant forces that moved Gandhi, the friend wanted Gandhi’s exposition on the practice of truth and love and his philosophical understanding of both. Gandhi was not averse to writing about himself or his quest. He had written—moved by what he called Antaryami , the dweller within, his autobiography, An Autobiography or the Story of My Experiments with Truth . Even in February 1946 when this exchange occurred he was not philosophically opposed to writing about the self. However, he left the possibility of the actual act of writing to the will of God.

On the request for the treatise on the “science of ahimsa” he was categorical in his refusal. His unwillingness stemmed from two different grounds: one of inability and the other of impossibility.

He argued that as a person whose domain of work was action, it was beyond his powers to do so. “To write a treatise on the science of ahimsa is beyond my powers. I am not built for academic writings. Action is my domain, and what I understand, according to my lights, to be my duty, and what comes my way, I do. All my action is actuated by the spirit of service.” He suggested that anyone who had the capacity to systematize ahimsa into a science should do so, but added a proviso “if it lends itself to such treatment.” Gandhi went on to argue that a cohesive account of even his own striving for nonviolence, his numerous experiments with ahimsa both within the realms of the spiritual and the political, the personal and the collective, could be attempted only after his death, as anything done before that would be necessarily incomplete.

Gandhi was prescient. He was to conduct the most vital and most moving experiment with ahimsa after this and he was to experience the deepest doubts about both the nature of nonviolence and its efficacy after this. With the violence in large parts of the Indian subcontinent from 1946 onward, Gandhi began to think deeply about the commitment of people and political parties to collective nonviolence. In December 1946 Gandhi made the riot-ravaged village of Sreerampore his home and then began a barefoot march through the villages of East Bengal.

This was not the impossibility that he alluded to. He believed that just as it was impossible for a human being to get a full grasp of truth (and of truth as God), it was equally impossible for humans to get a vision of ahimsa that was complete. He said: “If at all, it could only be written after my death. And even so let me give the warning that it would fail to give a complete exposition of ahimsa. No man has been able to describe God fully. The same hold true of ahimsa.”

Gandhi believed that just as it was given to him only to strive to have a glimpse of truth, he could only endeavor to soak his being in ahimsa and translate it in action.

It is important for us to understand as to why it was a necessity of life for Gandhi to strive for nonviolence. This striving is captured by the epigram with which this essay begins. Violence takes us away from ourselves; it makes us forget our humanity, our vocation, and our limits, and for Gandhi such amnesia can only lead to destruction of self and others. The following section seeks to explain the complex set of arguments and practices through which Gandhi elucidated the relationship between nonviolence and self—recognition and freedom. For Gandhi freedom—both collective and personal—is predicated upon an incessant search to know oneself. This self-recognition, Gandhi believed, eluded all those who were practitioners and votaries of violence.

Gandhi described violence as “brute force” ( sharir bal or top bal , in Gujarati) and nonviolence as “soul force” ( atma bal or daya bal , in Gujarati). The distance between the two, between the beastly and the human, is marked by nonviolence. The idea of brute force locates violence in the body and the instruments that the body can command to cause injury or to inflict death. It connotes pure instrumentality. By locating violence within the realm of the beastly, Gandhi clearly points out the absence of the conscience, of the normative. He wrote: “Nonviolence is the law of our species as violence is the law of the brute. The spirit lies dormant in the brute and he knows no law but that of physical might. The dignity of man requires obedience to a higher law—to the strength of the spirit.” The term “soul force” is indicative of the working of the conscience, of the human ability to discern the path of rectitude and act upon this judgment. In a speech given before the members of the Gandhi Seva Sangh in 1938, he brought this distinction sharply into focus: “Physical strength is called brute force. We are born with such strength. But we are born as human beings in order that we may realize God who dwells within our hearts. This is the basic distinction between us and the beasts . . . .

Along with the human form, we also have human power—that is the power of nonviolence. We can have an insight into the mystery of the soul force. In that consists our humanity.” Gandhi clearly indicates two aspects: One, that nonviolence is a unique human capacity; it is because we are capable of restrain, of nonaggression, of ahimsa that we are human. Two, to be human is to fulfill the human vocation, which is to realize the God—Truth as God—who dwells in our hearts. This was Gandhi’s principle quest. In his autobiography, Gandhi clarified the nature of his pursuit. He wrote: “What I want to achieve—what I have been striving and pining to achieve these thirty years—is self-realization, to see God face-to-face, to attain moksha. I live and move and have my being in pursuit of this goal.”

He worshipped Satya Narayan , God as Truth. He did not ever claim that he had indeed found Him, or seen Him face-to-face. But Gandhi was seeking this absolute truth and was “prepared to sacrifice the things dearest to me in pursuit of this quest.” Although Gandhi never claimed to have seen God face-to-face, he could imagine that state: “One who has realized God is freed from sin forever. He has no desire to be fulfilled. Not even in his thoughts will he suffer from faults, imperfections, or impurities. Whatever he does will be perfect because he does nothing himself but the God within him does everything. He is completely merged in Him.”

This state was for Gandhi the state of perfect self-realization, of perfect self-knowledge. It was a moment of revelation, a moment when the self was revealed to him. Although he believed that such perfect knowledge may elude him so long as he was imprisoned in the mortal body, he did make an extraordinary claim. This was his claim to hear what he described as a “small, still voice” or the “inner voice.” He used various terms such as “the voice of God,” “of conscience,” “the inner voice,” “the voice of Truth” or “the small, still voice.” He made this claim often and declared that he was powerless before the irresistible voice, that his conduct was guided by his voice. The nature of this inner voice and Gandhi’s need and ability to listen to the voice becomes apparent when we examine his invocation of it.

The first time he invoked the authority of this inner voice in India was at a public meeting in Ahmedabad, where he suddenly declared his resolve to fast. The day was February 15, 1918. Twenty-two days prior to this date, Gandhi had been leading the strike of the workers at the textiles mills of Ahmedabad. The mill workers had taken a pledge to strike until their demands were met. They appeared to be going back on their pledge. Gandhi was groping, not being able to see clearly the way forward. He described his sudden resolve thus: “One morning—it was at a mill hands’ meeting—while I was groping and unable to see my way clearly, the light came to me. Unbidden and all by themselves the words came to my lips: ‘unless the strikers rally,’ I declared to the meeting, ‘and continue to strike till a settlement is reached or till they leave the mills altogether, I will not touch any food.’”

He was to repeatedly speak of the inner voice in similar metaphors: of darkness that enveloped him, his groping, churning, wanting to find a way forward and the moment of light, of knowledge when the voice spoke to him. Gandhi sought the guidance of his inner voice not only in the spiritual realm, a realm that was incommunicable and known only to him and his maker, but also in the political realm. He called off the noncooperation movement against the British in February 1922 in response to the prompting of his inner voice. His famous Dandi March also came to him through the voice speaking from within. Gandhi’s search for a moral and spiritual basis for political action was anchored in his claim that one could and ought to be guided by the voice of truth speaking from within. This made his politics deeply spiritual. Gandhi expanded the scope of the inner voice to include the political realm. Gandhi’s ideas of civilization and swaraj were rooted in this possibility of knowing oneself.

In 1909, Gandhi wrote his most important philosophical work, the Hind Swaraj . Gandhi argued in the Hind Swaraj that modern Western civilization in fact decivilized it and characterized it as a blackage or satanic civilization. Gandhi argued that civilization in the modern sense had no place for either religion or morality. He wrote: “Its true test lies in the fact that people living under it make bodily welfare the object of life.” By making bodily welfare the object of life, modern civilization had shifted the locus of judgment outside the human being. It had made not right conduct but objects the measure of human worth. In so doing, it had closed the possibility of knowing oneself.

True civilization, on the other hand, was rooted in this very possibility. He wrote: “Civilization is that mode of conduct which points out to man the path of duty. Performance of duty and observance of morality are convertible terms. To observe morality is to attain mastery over our mind and passions. So doing, we know ourselves.” This act of knowing oneself is not only the basis of spiritual life but also of political life. He defined swaraj thus: “It is swaraj when we learn to rule ourselves.” This act of ruling oneself meant the control of mind and passions, of observance of morality, and of knowing the right and true path. Gandhi’s idea and practice of satyagraha with its invocation of the soul force is based on this. Satyagraha requires not only the purity of means and ends but also the purity of the practitioner. Satyagraha in the final instance is based on the recognition of one’s own conscience, on one’s ability to listen to one’s inner voice and submit to it.

Gandhi knew that his invocation of the inner voice was beyond comprehension and beyond his capacity to explain. He asked: “After all, does one express, can one express, all one’s thoughts to others?” Many tried to dissuade him from the  fast in submission to the inner voice. Not all were convinced of his claim to hear the inner voice. It was argued that what he heard was not the voice of God but was a hallucination, that Gandhi was deluding himself and that his imagination had become overheated by long years of living within the cramped prison walls.

Gandhi remained steadfast and refuted the charge of self-delusion or hallucination. He said that “not the unanimous verdict of the whole world against me could shake me from the belief that what I heard was the true Voice of God.” He argued that his claim was beyond both proof and reason. The only proof he could probably provide was the fact that he had survived the fiery ordeal. It was a moment that he had been preparing himself for. He felt that his submission to God as Truth was so complete, at least in that particular instance of fasting, that he had no autonomy left. All his acts were prompted by the inner voice. It was a moment of perfect surrender. Such a moment of total submission transcends reason. He wrote in a letter: “Of course, for me personally it transcends reason, because I feel it to be a clear will from God. My position is that there is nothing just now that I am doing of my own accord. He guides me from moment to moment.”

This extraordinary confession of perfect surrender perturbed many. The source of this discomfort is clear. Gandhi’s claim to hear the inner voice was neither unique nor exclusive. The validity and legitimacy of such a claim was recognized in the spiritual realm. The idea of perfect surrender was integral to and consistent with the ideals of religious life. Although Gandhi never made the claim of having seen God face-to-face, having attained self-realization, the inner voice was for him the voice of God. He said: “The inner voice is the voice of the Lord.” But it was not a voice that came from a force outside of him. Gandhi made a distinction between an outer force and a power beyond us. A power beyond us has its locus within us. It is superior to us, not subject to our command or willful action, but it is still located within us. He explained the nature of this power.

“Beyond us” means a “power that is beyond our ego.”

According to Gandhi, one acquires the capacity to hear this voice when the “ego is reduced to zero.” Reducing the ego to zero for Gandhi meant an act of total surrender to Satya Narayan , God as Truth . This surrender required the subjugation of human will, of individual autonomy. It is when a person loses autonomy that conscience emerges. Conscience is an act of obedience, not willfulness. He said: “Willfulness is not conscience. . . . Conscience is the ripe fruit of strictest discipline Conscience can reside only in a delicately tuned breast.” He knew what a person with conscience could be like. “A conscientious man hesitates to assert himself, he is always humble, never boisterous, always compromising, always ready to listen, ever willing, even anxious to admit mistakes.” A person without this tender breast delicately tuned to the working of the conscience cannot hear the inner voice or, more dangerously, may in fact hear the voice of the ego. This capacity did not belong to everyone as a natural gift or a right available in equal measure. What one required was a cultivated capacity to discern the inner voice as distinct from the voice of the ego, as “one cannot always recognize whether it is the voice of Rama or Ravana.”

What was this ever-wakefulness that allowed him to hear the call of truth as distinct from voice of untruth? How does one acquire the fitness to wait upon God? He had likened this preparation to an attempt to empty the sea with a drain as small as the point of a blade of grass. Yet it had to be as natural as life itself. He created a regimen of spiritual discipline that enabled him to search himself through and through. As part of his spiritual training, he formulated what he called the Ekadash Vrata , Eleven Vows or Observances. The ashram, or a community of co-religionists, was constituted by their abiding faith in these vrata and by their act of prayer. Prayer was the very core of Gandhi’s life. Medieval devotional poetry sung by Pandit Narayan Moreshwar Khare moved him. He drew sustenance from Mira and Charlie Andrews’s rendition of “When I survey the wondrous cross,” while young Olive Doke healed him with “Lead Kindly Light.” He recited the Gita every day. What was this intense need for prayer? What allowed him to claim that he was not a man of learning but a man of prayer? He knew that mere repetition of the Ramanama was futile if it did not stir his soul. A prayer for him had to be a clear response to the hunger of the soul. What was the hunger that moved his being?

His was a passionate cry of the soul hungering for union with the divine. He saw his communion with God as that of a master and a slave in perpetual bondage; prayer was the expression of the intense yearning to merge in the Master. Prayer was the expression of the definitive and conscious longing of the soul; it was his act of waiting upon Him for guidance. His want was to feel the utterly pure presence of the divine within. Only a heart purified and cleansed by prayer could be filled with the presence of God, where life became one long continuous prayer, an act of worship. Prayer was for him the final reliance upon God to the exclusion of all else. He knew that only when a person lives constantly in the sight of God, when he or she regards each thought with God as witness and its Master, could one feel Rama dwelling in the heart at every moment. Such a prayer could only be offered in the spirit of non-attachment, anasakti .

Moreover, when the God that he sought to realize is truth, prayer though externalized was in essence directed inward. Because truth is not merely that which we are expected to speak. It is that which alone is, it is that of which all things are made, it is that which subsists by its own power, which alone is eternal. Gandhi’s intense yearning was that such truth should illuminate his heart. Prayer was a plea, a preparation, a cleansing that enabled him to hear his inner voice. The Ekadash Vrata allowed for this waiting upon God. The act of waiting meant to perform one’s actions in a desireless or detached manner. The Gita describes this state as a state of sthitpragnya , literally the one whose intellect is secure. The state of sthitpragnya was for Gandhi not only a philosophical ideal but a personal aspiration.

The Gita describes this state as a condition of sthitpragnya . A sthitpragnya is one who puts away “all the cravings that arise in the mind and finds comfort for himself only from the atman”; and one “whose sense are reined in on all sides from their objects” so that the mind is “untroubled in sorrows and longeth not  for joys, who is free from passion, fear and wrath;” who knows attachment nowhere; only such a brahmachari can be in the world “moving among sense objects with the sense weaned from likes and dislikes and brought under the control of the atman.” This detachment or self-effacement allowed Gandhi to dwell closer to Him. It made possible an act of surrender and allowed him to claim: “I have been a willing slave to this most exacting master for more than half a century. His voice has been increasingly audible as years have rolled by. He has never forsaken me even in my darkest hour. He has saved me often against myself and left me not a vestige of independence. The greater the surrender to Him, the greater has been my joy.” What he craved was this absence of independence, the lack of autonomy, because that would finally allow him to see God face-to-face. He knew that he had not attained this state and perhaps would never attain it so long as his body remained as “no one can be called a mukta while he is alive.”

In this we have an understanding of Gandhi’s experiment and his quest. His quest is to know himself, to attain moksha that is to see God (Truth) face-to-face. In order to fulfill his quest, he must be an ashramite, a satyagrahi, and a seeker after swaraj. Swaraj had deep resonance during India’s struggle for freedom, and it continues to have both political and philosophical salience. Swaraj is composed of two terms “swa” (self) and “raj” (rule). Swaraj is thus self-rule; Gandhi used it in two very different ways: self-rule and rule over the self. He added two other practices to this search. One was fasting, the other brahmacharya.

Brahmacharya quite often is used in a limited sense of chastity or celibacy (including celibacy within marriage). Gandhi initially began with this sense, but as he thought deeper and struggled with a state devoid of sexual desire, he began to understand the root meaning of the term. “Brahma” is truth and “charya” is conduct. In the root sense, conduct that leads one to truth is brahmacharya. Fasting in its original sense is not mortification of the flesh but Upvas , to dwell closer to Him. Upvas is widely used to denote various acts of fasting. In the root sense, it is to dwell closer to God, wherein one of the modes of being close to God is fasting. In this sense, there could be no fast without a prayer and indeed no prayer without a fast. Such a fast was both penance and self-purification.

The ultimate practice of self-purification is the practice of brahmacharya. For Gandhi the realization of truth and self- gratification appears a contradiction in terms. From this emanate not only brahmacharya but also three other observances: control of the palate; aparigraha, or nonacquisition; and asteya, or nonstealing. The idea of nonacquisition has a place in all ascetic traditions of the world. Gandhi gave the term a profound ecological sense. It is only by nonacquisition that the earth could produce for the needs of all. Gandhi extended the meaning of the term “asteya.” He argued that to possess in excess of what one needs is an act of theft. He further argued that anyone who eats without performing bodily labor also commits an act of theft. Such bodily labor had to be performed in the service of others, which he termed as sacrificial labor.

This was his understanding of the biblical injunction of living by the “sweat of one’s brow.”

Brahmacharya, described as a mahavrata, a difficult observance or a great endeavor, came to Gandhi as a necessary observance at a time when he had organized an ambulance corps during the Zulu rebellion in South Africa. He realized that service of the community was not possible without the observance of brahmacharya. In 1906, at the age of 37, Gandhi took the vow of brahmacharya.

He had begun experimenting with food and diet as a student in England. It was much later that he was to comprehend the relationship between brahmacharya and the control of the palate.

These observances and strivings of self-purification were not without a purpose. He was later to feel that they were secretly preparing him for satyagraha. It would take him several decades, but through his observances, his experiments, Gandhi developed insights into the interrelatedness of truth, ahimsa, and brahmacharya. He came to regard the practice of brahmacharya in thought, word, and deed as essential for the search for truth and the practice of ahimsa. Gandhi, by making the observance of brahmacharya essential for truth and ahimsa, made it central to the practice of satyagraha and the quest for swaraj. Satyagraha involves the recognition of truth and the steadfast adherence to it; it requires self-sacrifice or self-suffering and use of pure, and that is nonviolent means by a person who is cleansed through self-purification. Satyagraha and swaraj are both modes of self-recognition.

This understanding allowed Gandhi to expand the conception of brahmacharya itself. He began with a popular and restricted notion in the sense of chastity and celibacy, including celibacy in marriage. He expanded this notion to mean observance in thought, word, and deed. However, it is only when he began to recognize the deeper and fundamental relationship that brahmacharya shared with satyagraha, ahimsa, and swaraj that Gandhi could go to the root of the term “brahmacharya.” Charya or conduct adopted in search of Brahma, that truth is brahmacharya. In this sense brahmacharya is not denial or control over one sense, but it is an attempt to bring all senses in harmony with one another. Brahmacharya so conceived and practiced becomes that mode of conduct that leads to truth, knowledge, and hence moksha. Thus, the ability to hear the inner voice, a voice that is “perfect knowledge or realization of truth,” is an experiment in brahmacharya.

Gandhi was acutely and painfully aware of the fact that “it is impossible for us to realize perfect truth so long as we are imprisoned in this mortal frame.” If perfect truth was an unattainable quest, so was the attainment of perfect brahmacharya. What was given to us, Gandhi argued, was to perfect the means to truth or brahmacharya. The means for him was the practice of ahimsa or love. Gandhi asserted that ahimsa be regarded as the means to be within our grasp. This places nonviolence in a different category. Nonviolence is for Gandhi attainable and hence it becomes the duty of those seeking truth to practice nonviolence.

It is the capacity to hear the inner voice that for Gandhi reveals the distance he has traversed in his quest. Each invocation of the inner voice indicated to him his submission to God. This listening required proximity with oneself. This proximity could be attained through the practice of ahimsa. Violence on the other hand increased the distance in this quest for self-realization. Violence is to be abjured for this reason. Gandhi clearly stated this aspect of violence: “the more he took to violence, the more he receded from truth.” Ahimsa is a necessity and a supreme duty for Gandhi in this sense. It made possible the realization of God, if not face-to-face, then through the mediation of the small, still voice speaking from within and pointing out to him the path of duty.

_____________________________________

The Power of Nonviolent Resistance by M. K. Gandhi

From  The Power of Nonviolent Resistance   by M. K.  Gandhi , edited by Tridip Suhrud. Published by Penguin Classics, an imprint of Penguin Publishing Group, a division of Penguin Random House, LLC. Introduction and selection copyright © 2019 by Tridip Suhrud.

Tridip Suhrud

Tridip Suhrud

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In Search of Gandhi: Essays and Reflections

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Twenty Eight Gandhi and Non-violence

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This chapter talks of Mahatma Gandhi’s principle of non-violence. It explains that though Gandhi was the greatest exponent of the doctrine of ahimsa or non-violence in modern times, he was not its author because ahimsa has been part of the Indian religious tradition for centuries. However, he was able to transform what had been an individual ethic into a tool of social and political action. The chapter provides examples of non-violent struggles over the past two decades, and acknowledges that Gandhi’s ideas and methods are still appreciated by only a small enlightened minority in the world.

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MAHATMA GANDHI’S PHILOSOPHY ON NON-VIOLENCE

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This paper demonstrates that the political theory of Mahatma Gandhi provides us a novel way to understand and arbitrate the conflict among moral projects. Gandhi offers us a vision of political action that insists on the viability of the search for truth and the implicit possibility of adjudicating among competing claims to truth. His vision also presents a more complex and realistic understanding, than some other contemporary pluralists, of political philosophy and of political life itself. In an increasingly multicultural world, political theory is presented with perhaps it’s most vigorous challenge yet. As radically different moral projects confront one another, the problem of competing claims of truth arising from particular views of the human good remains crucial for political philosophy and political action. Recent events have demonstrated that the problem is far from being solved and that its implications are more far-reaching than the domestic politics of industrialized nations. As the problem of violence has also become coterminous with issues of pluralism, many have advocated the banishing of truth claims from politics altogether. Political theorists have struggled to confront this problem through a variety of conceptual lenses. Debates pertaining to the politics of multiculturalism, tolerance, or recognition have all been concerned with the question of pluralism as one of the most urgent facts of political life, in need of both theoretical and practical illumination.

Related Papers

International Journal of Gandhi Studies

Farah Godrej

mahatma gandhi and non violence essay 800 words

SMART M O V E S J O U R N A L IJELLH

The present paper discusses the philosophy of ‘nonviolence’ (ahimsa) of Mahatma Gandhi, which he devised as a weapon to fight the brute forces of violence and hatred, hailing it as the only way to peace. Gandhi based his philosophy of nonviolence on the principle of love for all and hatred for none. He thought violence as an act caused to a person directly or indirectly, denying him his legitimate rights in the society by force, injury or deception. Gandhi’s nonviolence means avoiding violent means to achieve one’s end, howsoever, lofty it might be, as he firmly believed that the use of violence, even if in the name of achieving a justifiable end was not good, as it would bring more violence. He firmly adhered to the philosophy of Gita that preaches to follow the rightful path, remaining oblivious of its outcome. Gandhi used nonviolence in both his personal and political life and used it first in South Africa effectively and back home he applied it in India against the British with far more astounding success, as it proved supremely useful and efficacious in liberating the country from the British servitude. However, he never tried to use it as a political tactic to embarrass the opponent or to take undue

Routledge:London

Prof. (Dr.) Sanjeev Kumar

‘Mahatma Gandhi has made a lasting contribution to political philosophy and this requires that succeeding generations of scholars interpret that contribution in ways that meet the needs of the changing times and intellectual trends. Gandhi and the Contemporary World meets this requirement very admirably: it presents Gandhi in a critical, lively and timely fashion. Enjoy this excellent addition to Gandhi literature’. Anthony J. Parel, Professor Emeritus of Political Science, University of Calgary, Canada ‘This riveting collection of essays included in the volume throws valuable light on Mahatma Gandhi’s activist political philosophy and on some of its legacies today.Comprehensively discussed and examined are his ideas of truth and non-violence in their bearing on his conception of satyagraha and on his approach to the postcolonial Indian nation’. Thomas Pantham, former Professor at M S University of Baroda, Baroda, India

The volume examines diverse facets of Gandhi’s holistic view of human life – social, economic and political – for the creation of a just society. Bringing together expert analyses and reflections, the chapters here emphasise the philosophical and practical urgency of Gandhi’s thought and action. They explore the significance of his concepts of truth and nonviolence to address moral, spiritual and ethical issues, growing intolerance, conflict and violence, poverty and hunger, and environmental crisis for the present world. The volume serves as a platform for constructive dialogue for academics, researchers, policymakers and students to re-imagine Gandhi and his moral and political principles. It will be of great interest to those in philosophy, political studies, Gandhi studies, history, cultural studies, peace studies and sociology.

American Political Science Review

Karuna Mantena

Although Gandhi is often taken to be an exemplary moral idealist in politics, this article seeks to demonstrate that Gandhian nonviolence is premised on a form of political realism, specifically a contextual, consequentialist, and moral-psychological analysis of a political world understood to be marked by inherent tendencies toward conflict, domination, and violence. By treating nonviolence as the essential analog and correlative response to a realist theory of politics, one can better register the novelty of satyagraha(nonviolent action) as a practical orientation in politics as opposed to a moral proposition, ethical stance, or standard of judgment. The singularity of satyagraha lays in its self-limiting character as a form of political action that seeks to constrain the negative consequences of politics while working toward progressive social and political reform. Gandhian nonviolence thereby points toward a transformational realism that need not begin and end in conservatism, moral equivocation, or pure instrumentalism.

International Review of Sociology

Tadd Fernée

This essay re-examines the democratic Enlightenment as a multi-dimensional, heterogeneous, non-Eurocentric and living heritage. Gandhi's political contribution to the Enlightenment heritage is assessed in terms of values, epistemology and practice. Practically, this concerns the French Revolutionary heritage as a paradigm of political action, and Gandhian innovations in terms of mass movements based on the philosophy and practice of non-violence. The essay contends that Gandhi, far from merely an heir to the Enlightenment tradition, also radically challenged, expanded and transformed it. This transformation belongs to a broader re-evaluation of Enlightenment in terms of growth over final ends, held in common with thinkers such as John Dewey. The article critiques predominant arguments that Gandhi was an ‘anti-modern’, whether in a heroic ‘post-modern’ posture or as an enemy of ‘scientific modernity’. It argues for a more sociologically nuanced and historically grounded view of Gandhi in the historical comparative perspective of modern independence struggles, civil society formation and nation-making.

International Journal on World Peace

Saskia L E Van Goelst Meijer

Conflicting global narratives on good or right living, based on conflicting truth-claims, can and often do lead to violence. We need not look far to find examples in contemporary religious, ethnic or ideological conflicts that confirm this. Yet, one of the central elements in the practice of nonviolence is that of satya, a Sanskrit term best translated as ‘truth’. In this paper I will address this paradox by arguing that satya points to a very specific conception of truth. By examining satya in the lives and work of both Mohandas Gandhi and Václav Havel, I will explore this notion as a practice of complexity handling. I explore this theme from the background of humanistic studies, a multi-disciplinary academic discipline that critically explores issues of (existential) meaning and humanization, or personal and social aspects of ‘good living’. In a globalising world in which people are confronted with conflicting global narratives on good living in an ever-increasing manner, and have no choice but to position themselves somewhere in this multiplicity of narratives, developing skills of handling complexity are crucial. I will argue in this paper that the theory and practice of nonviolence holds clues for how to do this. I use the term nonviolence here not only to point to the absence of violence in solving problems, but as a coherent set of ideas and practices that provide a framework for understanding (social) reality.

Dwaipayan Sen

Political and social movements in South Africa, the United States of America, Germany, Myanmar, India, and elsewhere, have drawn inspiration from the non-violent political techniques advocated by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi during his leadership of the anti-colonial struggle for Indian freedom from British colonial rule. This course charts a global history of Gandhi's thought about non-violence and its expression in civil disobedience and resistance movements both in India and the world. Organized in three modules, the first situates Gandhi through consideration of the diverse sources of his own historical and ideological formation; the second examines the historical contexts and practices through which non-violence acquired meaning for him and considers important critiques; the third explores the various afterlives of Gandhian politics in movements throughout the world. We will examine autobiography and biography, Gandhi's collected works, various types of primary source, political, social, and intellectual history, and audiovisual materials. In addition to widely disseminated narratives of Gandhi as a symbol of non-violence, the course will closely attend to the deep contradictions concerning race, caste, gender, and class that characterized his thought and action. By unsettling conventional accounts of his significance, we will grapple with the problem of how to make sense of his troubled legacy.

Spicer Adventist University Research Articles Journal

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  • Mahatma Gandhi Essay

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Important Essay on Mahatma Gandhi for Students in English

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, often called the 'Father of the Nation' , was a leader who fought for India's freedom from British rule. He believed in non-violence. Every year on October 2nd, Mahatma Gandhi's birthday is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti to honor his efforts in freeing India.

English Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

Rabindranath Tagore was the first to call Gandhiji 'Mahatma,' which means 'Great Soul' in Sanskrit. His wise ideas and beliefs led people to respect and call him 'Mahatma Gandhi.' His dedication to the country and efforts to turn his ideas into reality make Indians around the world very proud of him .

According to Mahatma Gandhi’s biography, he was born on October 2, 1869 , in Porbandar, a coastal town in the present-day Indian state of Gujarat. He grew up in a Hindu family and ate basic vegetarian meals. His dad, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi, was an important leader in Porbandar State. In South Africa, he was the first to lead a peaceful protest movement, setting him apart from other demonstrators. Mahatma Gandhi also introduced the idea of Satyagraha, a nonviolent approach to opposing unfairness. He devoted 20 years of his life to battling discrimination in South Africa.

His idea of 'Ahimsa,' which means not hurting anyone, was widely admired and followed by many influential people worldwide. He became an indomitable figure who couldn't be defeated in any situation. Mahatma Gandhi initiated the 'Khadi Movement' to encourage the use of fabrics like khadi or jute. This movement was a crucial part of the larger 'Non-co-operation Movement,' which advocated for Indian goods and discouraged foreign ones. Gandhi strongly supported agriculture and encouraged people to engage in farming. He inspired Indians to embrace manual labor and emphasized self-reliance, urging them to provide for their needs and lead simple lives. He began weaving cotton clothes using the Charkha to reduce dependence on foreign goods and promote Swadeshi products among Indians.

During the fight for India's freedom, Gandhiji faced imprisonment several times along with his followers, but his main goal was always the freedom of his motherland. Even when he was in prison, he never chose the path of violence.

Mahatma Gandhi made significant contributions to various social issues. His efforts against 'untouchability' while he was in Yerwada Jail, where he went on a hunger strike against this ancient social evil, greatly helped uplift the oppressed community in modern times. He also emphasized the importance of education, cleanliness, health, and equality in society.

These qualities defined him as a person with a great soul and justified his transformation from Gandhi to Mahatma. He led many freedom movements, including the "Quit India Movement," which was highly successful. His death was a huge loss to the forces of peace and democracy, leaving a significant void in the nation's life.

Gopal Krishna Gokhale, a prominent Indian nationalist leader, significantly influenced Mahatma Gandhi's political ideology and leadership approach. Gandhi considered him his political teacher.

Mahatma Gandhi played a crucial role in India's fight for freedom from British rule. His life was dedicated to serving his country and its people, and he became an international symbol of Indian leadership. Even today, he continues to inspire and motivate young people worldwide with his values and principles.

Gandhi Ji was known for his strong sense of discipline. He emphasized the importance of self-discipline in achieving significant goals, a principle he applied in promoting his philosophy of Ahimsa (non-violence). Through his own life, he demonstrated that rigorous discipline can lead to the realization of any objective, provided we remain committed and dedicated. These qualities established him as a revered and respected leader whose influence extends far beyond his lifetime. His ideals continue to resonate not only in India but also around the world.

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FAQs on Mahatma Gandhi Essay

1. What were the different movements that Gandhi started in order to bring Independence to India?

In order to bring freedom, Gandhi started the Satyagraha movement in 1919, the non-cooperation movement in 1921, and Civil Disobedience movement in 1930 and Quit India movement in 1942.

2. Who killed Mahatma Gandhi?

A young man named Nathuram Godse killed Mahatma Gandhi when he was going to attend an evening prayer meeting.

3. Why is Gandhi known as the ‘Father of the Nation’?

Mahatma Gandhi is known as the ‘Father of the Nation’ because he laid the true foundation of independent India with his noble ideals and supreme sacrifice.

4. How do we commemorate Mahatma Gandhi’s contribution for our Nation?

His birthday on 2 nd October is celebrated as a National Holiday across the nation in order to commemorate his great contributions and sacrifices for the country’s independence.

5. What are the things we should learn from Mahatma Gandhi? 

There are various things one can learn from Gandhiji. The principles that he followed and preached his entire generation and for generations to come are commendable. He believed in ‘Ahimsa’ and taught people how any war in the world can be won through non-violence. To simply state one can learn the following principles from Gandhiji - 

Nonviolence, 

Respect for elders,

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi – Contributions and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi

500+ words essay on mahatma gandhi.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi – Mahatma Gandhi was a great patriotic Indian, if not the greatest. He was a man of an unbelievably great personality. He certainly does not need anyone like me praising him. Furthermore, his efforts for Indian independence are unparalleled. Most noteworthy, there would have been a significant delay in independence without him. Consequently, the British because of his pressure left India in 1947. In this essay on Mahatma Gandhi, we will see his contribution and legacy.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

Contributions of Mahatma Gandhi

First of all, Mahatma Gandhi was a notable public figure. His role in social and political reform was instrumental. Above all, he rid the society of these social evils. Hence, many oppressed people felt great relief because of his efforts. Gandhi became a famous international figure because of these efforts. Furthermore, he became the topic of discussion in many international media outlets.

Mahatma Gandhi made significant contributions to environmental sustainability. Most noteworthy, he said that each person should consume according to his needs. The main question that he raised was “How much should a person consume?”. Gandhi certainly put forward this question.

Furthermore, this model of sustainability by Gandhi holds huge relevance in current India. This is because currently, India has a very high population . There has been the promotion of renewable energy and small-scale irrigation systems. This was due to Gandhiji’s campaigns against excessive industrial development.

Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence is probably his most important contribution. This philosophy of non-violence is known as Ahimsa. Most noteworthy, Gandhiji’s aim was to seek independence without violence. He decided to quit the Non-cooperation movement after the Chauri-Chaura incident . This was due to the violence at the Chauri Chaura incident. Consequently, many became upset at this decision. However, Gandhi was relentless in his philosophy of Ahimsa.

Secularism is yet another contribution of Gandhi. His belief was that no religion should have a monopoly on the truth. Mahatma Gandhi certainly encouraged friendship between different religions.

Get the huge list of more than 500 Essay Topics and Ideas

Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi has influenced many international leaders around the world. His struggle certainly became an inspiration for leaders. Such leaders are Martin Luther King Jr., James Beve, and James Lawson. Furthermore, Gandhi influenced Nelson Mandela for his freedom struggle. Also, Lanza del Vasto came to India to live with Gandhi.

mahatma gandhi and non violence essay 800 words

The awards given to Mahatma Gandhi are too many to discuss. Probably only a few nations remain which have not awarded Mahatma Gandhi.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi was one of the greatest political icons ever. Most noteworthy, Indians revere by describing him as the “father of the nation”. His name will certainly remain immortal for all generations.

Essay Topics on Famous Leaders

  • Mahatma Gandhi
  • APJ Abdul Kalam
  • Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Swami Vivekananda
  • Mother Teresa
  • Rabindranath Tagore
  • Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
  • Subhash Chandra Bose
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • Martin Luther King

FAQs on Mahatma Gandhi

Q.1 Why Mahatma Gandhi decided to stop Non-cooperation movement?

A.1 Mahatma Gandhi decided to stop the Non-cooperation movement. This was due to the infamous Chauri-Chaura incident. There was significant violence at this incident. Furthermore, Gandhiji was strictly against any kind of violence.

Q.2 Name any two leaders influenced by Mahatma Gandhi?

A.2 Two leaders influenced by Mahatma Gandhi are Martin Luther King Jr and Nelson Mandela.

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Essay on mahatma gandhi: biography of mahatma gandhi | 800+ words.

mahatma gandhi and non violence essay 800 words

Mahatma Gandhi, one of the most influential figures of the 20th century, is widely regarded as the Father of the Nation in India. He was a freedom fighter, political leader, and spiritual teacher who dedicated his life to nonviolent resistance and social justice. In this essay on Mahatma Gandhi biography in English, we will explore his life, legacy, and achievements. From his humble beginnings in Porbandar, Gujarat, to his leadership in India's independence movement, Gandhi's teachings and philosophy have had a profound impact on social and political movements around the world. This essay will delve into his life's work and highlight the enduring legacy of this remarkable individual.

In this article, we have shared 800+ words essay on mahatama gandhi, including all the birth, childhood, marriage and education of Mahatma Gandhi.

Essay On Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is also known as Mahatma Gandhi is considered to be the father of this country. In the fight for independence against British rule, he was the leader of the nationalist movement. He was an Indian lawyer, political ethicist, anti-colonial nationalist, writer, and a kind-hearted person.

Birth and Childhood

Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2, the year 1869 in a place named Porbandar, Gujrat in northwest India. He was born in a Hindu Modh family. His father Karamchand Gandhi was a political figure and also the chief minister of Porbandar. His mother named Putlibai Gandhi was the fourth wife of his father, previous wives died during childbirth. Gandhi was born in a vaishya family that's why from an early age of life he learned a lot of things such as non-injury to living beings, tolerance and vegetarianism.

In May 1883, he was 13 years old when he got married to a girl named Kasturba Makhanji, who was also 13 years old, this marriage was arranged by their parents. They together had four sons, Harilal (1888), Manilal (1892), Ramdas (1897), Devdas (1900).

In this essay on Mahatma Gandhi, let's know about Mahatma Gandhi's education Porbandar did not have enough chance of education, all the children in school used to write in dust with their fingers. However, he was lucky that his father became the chief minister of another city named Rajkot. He was average in education. At the age of 13, he lost a year at school due to marriage. He was not a shining student in the classroom or playground, but he always obeyed the given order by elders.

That's why like other kids he did not go through all the teenage life. He wanted to eat meat but never did because of their parent's beliefs. In the year of 1887, Gandhi passed the matriculation examination from the University of Bombay and joined a college in Bhavnagar named Samaldas College. It was clear for him by then that if he has to maintain his family tradition and become a high office working person in the state of Gujarat, he would have to become a barrister.

At the age of 18, he was offered to continue his studies in London and he was not very happy at Samaldas College so he accepted the offer and sailed to London in September 1888. After reaching London, He was having difficulty understanding the culture and understanding the English language. Some days after arrival he joined a Law college named Inner Temple which was one of the four London law colleges.

The transformation of changing life from a city to India studying in a college in England was not easy for him but he took his study very seriously and started to brush up his English and Latin. His vegetarianism became a very problematic subject for him as everyone around him as eating meat and he started to feel embarrassed.

Some of his new friends in London said some of the things like not eating meat will make him weak physically and mentally. But eventually, he found a vegetarian restaurant and a book that helped him understand the reason to become a vegetarian. From childhood, he wanted to eat meat himself but never did because of his parents but now in London, he was convinced that he finally embraced vegetarianism and never again thought of eating meat.

After some time he became an active member of the society called London vegetarian society and started to attend all the conferences and journals. In England not only Gandhi met Food faddists but also met some men and women who had vast knowledge about Bhagavad-Gita, Bible, Mahabharata, etc. From them, he learned a lot about Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity and many others.

Many people he met were rebels not supporting the Victorian establishment from these people Gandhi slowly absorbed politics, personality, and more importantly ideas. He passed his study from England and became a Barrister but there was some painful news was waiting for him back at home in India. In January 1891 Gandhi's mother died while Gandhi was still in London.

He came back to India in July 1891 and started to begin the legal career but he lost his very first case in India. He soon realized that the legal profession was heavily overcrowded and he changed his path. He then was offered to be a teacher in Bombay high school but he turned it down and returned to Rajkot. With the dream of living a good life, he started to draft petitions for litigants which soon ended with the dissatisfaction of a local British officer.

Fortunately in the year 1893, he got an offer to go to Natal, South Africa and work there in an Indian firm for 1 year as it was a contract basis.

Civil Right Movement in Africa

South Africa was waiting with a lot of challenges and opportunities for him. From there he started to grow a new leaf. In South Africa 2 of his four sons were born. He had to face many difficulties there too. Once he as advocating for his client and he had to flee from the court because he was so nervous, he wasn't able to talk properly. But the bigger problem was waiting for him, as he had to face racial discrimination in South Africa.

In the journey from Durban to Pretoria, he faced a lot from, being asked to take off the turban in a court to travel on a car footboard to make room for European passenger but he refused. He was beaten by a taxi driver and thrown out of a first-class compartment but these instances made him strong and gave him the strength to fight for justice.

He started to educate others about their rights and duties. When he learned about a bill to deprive Indians of the right to vote, it was that time when others begged him to take up the fight on behalf of them. Eventually at the age of 25 in July 1894 he became a proficient political campaigner.

He drafted petitions and got them signed by hundreds of compatriots. He was not able to stop the bill but succeeded in drawing the attention of the public in Natal, England, and India. He then built many societies in Durban. He planted the seed, spirit of solidarity in the Indian community.

Very well known newspapers of that time such as The Times of London and The Statesman and Englishman of Calcutta were writing about him from this his success could be measured. He began to wear white Indian dhoti in this time-period which later became his trademark. He started a non-violent protest against tax also known as "Satyagraha" where he led a march with more than 2000 people and later he was arrested and for nine-month he was in prison.

His contribution to India's Freedom struggle and Achievements

Back in India, in the year of 1919, the British started to arrest and imprison anyone they suspect of sedition that's when Gandhi stood up and started non-violent disobedience. Gandhi's goal about Indian's independence got cleared after a tragic incident when more than 20000 protesters were getting open fired by the British army in the city of Amritsar.

400 people were killed and 1000 injured. He started the mass boycotts of British goods and institutions and told everyone to stop working for the British. In 1992 he was again got arrested and got a 6-year prison sentence. In 1930 he started the salt march and a very well known campaign of walking 390km to the Arabian Sea shores.

The salt act protesters around 60,000 including Gandhi were imprisoned. At the time of World War II, Gandhi started his campaign if Quit India to banish British rule from the country, he was again arrested and sent to prison with many other well-known leaders of Indian Congress. He met King George V on behalf of the Indian National Congress, but there was not that much progress.

After the End of the war, Britain's government was changed and this time progress was made they were willing to discuss independence for India but a tragic event followed by it partition of the country into India and Pakistan. In 1947 India gained independence. In the year of 1948, a Hindu extremist killed Gandhi. In this essay on Mahatma Gandhi, learn about the contributions made by Mahatma Gandhi!

What he was famous for?

He was known for his silent protest, disobedience campaign in India, Satyagraha, and passive resistance. His death made India mourn for 13 days, His birthday 2nd October is celebrated as a national holiday in India.

Why he was called Mahatma?

The title Mahatma means "great- soul". It is a title that was given to him by Rabindranath Tagore but he thinks he is not worthy of this title so he never accepted it.

Books dedicated to him or written by him

He was a writer from an early age, he liked writing books and there are many books written by him. Some of the most famous of them is Autobiography of Gandhi, The Essential Gandhi, Hind Swaraj and other writings, the words of Gandhi, Satyagraha in South Africa, and many more.

Many writers have written about Mahatma Gandhi some of them are Great Soul by Joseph Lelyveld, Gandhi Before India by Ramachandra Guha, The Good Boatman by Rajmohan Gandhi, Gandhi: Prisoner of hope by Judith M. Brown, etc.

While writing an essay on mahatma gandhi you can include books dedicated to him or his autobiographies.

Mahatma Gandhi Struggled very much from his early life but regardless of all the suffering, he made his way. And he is a very important part of our history of independence. We hope we have covered all the detail in this essay on Mahatma Gandhi for you to write a perfect essay!

Short Essay On Mahatma Gandhi Biography In English 

Mahatma Gandhi, also known as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was a prominent Indian leader who played a pivotal role in India's struggle for independence. This essay on Mahatma Gandhi biography in English will explore his life, legacy, and achievements.

Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat. After studying law in London, he moved to South Africa, where he fought against discrimination faced by the Indian community. His experiences in South Africa would later shape his philosophy of nonviolent resistance or Satyagraha.

Returning to India in 1915, Gandhi became a prominent leader in India's independence movement. He advocated for nonviolent resistance and civil disobedience against British colonial rule. His leadership and vision played a crucial role in India's eventual independence in 1947.

Gandhi's teachings have had a profound impact on social and political movements around the world. His message of nonviolent resistance has inspired many leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela. He was a spiritual leader who believed in the power of love and compassion to bring about social change.

In addition to his political achievements, Gandhi was also an advocate for social justice and equality. He fought against caste discrimination, championed the rights of women, and promoted communal harmony.

In conclusion, Mahatma Gandhi was a remarkable individual whose life and teachings continue to inspire people around the world. His philosophy of nonviolent resistance, his leadership in India's independence movement, and his advocacy for social justice and equality make him a true hero of our time. This essay on Mahatma Gandhi biography in English is a testament to his enduring legacy.

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi 1000+ Words

Mahatma Gandhi, also known as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was a transformative figure in the history of India and the world. He is widely regarded as the father of the Indian independence movement and a pioneer of nonviolent resistance. Gandhi’s life and philosophy left an indelible mark on the fight for civil rights, freedom, and social justice. In this essay, we will explore the profound impact of Mahatma Gandhi’s life and principles, emphasizing his role in India’s struggle for independence, his advocacy for nonviolence, and his enduring legacy.

India’s Struggle for Independence

One of the most significant aspects of Mahatma Gandhi’s legacy is his pivotal role in India’s struggle for independence from British colonial rule. Born in 1869 in Porbandar, India, Gandhi grew up witnessing the injustices of colonialism. He became a lawyer but later chose to devote his life to the fight for Indian independence. Gandhi’s leadership in various movements, such as the Non-Cooperation Movement and the Salt March, captured the imagination of millions of Indians and galvanized them to demand self-rule. His commitment to nonviolence and civil disobedience inspired a mass mobilization that eventually led to India gaining independence on August 15, 1947.

Advocacy for Nonviolence

Perhaps Gandhi’s most enduring legacy is his unwavering commitment to nonviolence as a means of achieving social and political change. He coined the term “Satyagraha,” which means “truth force” or “soul force,” to describe his philosophy of nonviolent resistance. Gandhi firmly believed that nonviolence was not only a moral choice but also a practical and effective strategy for social and political transformation.

Gandhi’s advocacy for nonviolence was instrumental in shaping the course of history. His methods of peaceful protest and civil disobedience not only led to India’s independence but also inspired civil rights movements around the world. Prominent leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. in the United States and Nelson Mandela in South Africa drew inspiration from Gandhi’s approach to nonviolent resistance.

Social Justice and Equality

In addition to his fight for independence, Mahatma Gandhi was a staunch advocate for social justice and equality. He believed that true independence could only be achieved by addressing the deep-seated social issues that plagued India, such as caste discrimination and economic disparities. Gandhi’s vision of an independent India was one that upheld the principles of justice, equality, and inclusivity.

Gandhi’s efforts to combat caste discrimination and promote the rights of the Dalits (formerly known as untouchables) were particularly noteworthy. He undertook hunger strikes and protests to raise awareness about the injustices faced by the marginalized sections of society. His commitment to social justice remains an inspiration for activists fighting against discrimination and inequality to this day.

Simplicity and Self-Sufficiency

Mahatma Gandhi’s personal life exemplified his dedication to simplicity and self-sufficiency. He firmly believed that embracing a modest and frugal lifestyle was pivotal in comprehending the plight of the underprivileged and marginalized. Consequently, Gandhi adopted plain, self-made attire and resided in a communal ashram.

His philosophy of self-sufficiency extended to the economic sphere as well. He advocated for the revitalization of village industries and the promotion of small-scale, cottage industries to empower rural communities. Gandhi’s vision of economic self-sufficiency aimed to reduce dependency on imported goods and promote local craftsmanship and self-reliance.

Legacy and Global Influence

Mahatma Gandhi’s influence transcends India’s borders. His philosophy of nonviolence and dedication to social justice have made a lasting impact worldwide. Furthermore, the principles of nonviolent resistance he championed continue to serve as a wellspring of inspiration for global movements advocating civil rights, peace, and justice

Martin Luther King Jr., who played a pivotal role in the American civil rights movement, credited Gandhi’s philosophy as a major influence on his own activism. Similarly, Nelson Mandela’s struggle against apartheid in South Africa was deeply rooted in the principles of nonviolence and reconciliation championed by Gandhi.

Conclusion of Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi’s life and principles have had a profound and lasting impact on the world. His leadership during India’s fight for independence, combined with his unwavering commitment to nonviolence, advocacy for social justice, and dedication to equality, as well as his personal philosophy of simplicity and self-sufficiency, collectively contribute to his lasting legacy.

Gandhi’s legacy serves as a beacon of hope and a source of inspiration for those who seek to bring about positive change in the face of oppression and injustice. His life and teachings serve as a reminder that, even in the face of immense challenges, the principles of nonviolence and the pursuit of justice hold the potential for profound societal transformations. Mahatma Gandhi’s enduring legacy stands as a testament to the indomitable power of the human spirit.

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Mahatma Gandhi: What One Should Know Essay

The book, The Essential Gandhi, covers essential things about Mahatma Gandhi that one should know. It contains quotes from the writings of Gandhi that talks about his life, work and his convictions.

The author presents Gandhi’s stand on issues like spirituality, suffering, poverty, politics, non-violence, and civic disobedience among others. Gandhi’s biographer, Luis Fischer, did this by collecting pierces of Gandhi’s work with some explanatory head notes on each of these works.

The book shows Gandhi from his early life and talks about him in two parts: first, as the man; second, as the Mahatma himself. Gandhi married his wife at an early age of thirteen years and went to Britain to study law. When he finished and went back to India, Gandhi did poorly in his work as a lawyer.

A group of Indian Muslims hired him to serve as a lawyer of their community in South Africa. It is here that Gandhi started undergoing transformation. The author says that “Gandhi was a self made man and the transformation began in South Africa … His was a remarkable case of second birth in one lifetime” (Gandhi, pg. 32).

Gandhi went through various forms of prejudice, harassment and beating but he held onto what he was convinced of as right. He also expressed his concerns and made known to people what he knew was right. He witnessed and experienced instances of racism and prejudice in his place of work, travel and even in his residency.

While in South Africa, he learnt that the Indian merchants did not practice justice in their business deals. Gandhi believed that this was not true. He called a meeting of all Indians in the city of Pretoria on arrival where he presented his first public speech. In reaction to the beliefs and actions of the merchants, Gandhi said, “I strongly contested this position in my speech and awakened the merchants to a sense of duty” (Gandhi, pg. 33).

The book also shows that Gandhi had compassion and determination. When a mob attacked him, he did not sue them, even though he had all the right to do so. He had compassion on this mob and was determined to let them learn their wrongs.

Gandhi stated that he was sorry due to the Mob’s ignorance and narrowness. He argued that he was sure these people were convinced that what they were doing was right and he had “no reason therefore to be angry with them” (Gandhi, pg. 44).

The book also addresses the issue of non-violence. Gandhi was a man of anger and he learnt, through biter experience, that trying to solve issues through violence out of anger was not good and sometimes could not bear fruit. He said that, “anger controlled can be transmuted into a power which can move the world” (Gandhi, pg. xii). Gandhi believed that it was not possible to change the convictions of a person by use of violence.

He learnt this through his wife who resisted his constant verbal and physical abuses to force her to do what was against her convictions. Through this knowledge, he suggested that people could not force governments to change their policies through violence and power politics.

This conviction also helped him to lead the people of India to resist the rule of the British by use of non-violence means. Through his message of nonviolence, Gandhi advised all people to embrace truth and oneness and seek this truth in other ways apart from violence.

Together with nonviolence, courage and truth were important political principles of Gandhi. He called these principles Satyagraba. He learnt and practiced these principles throughout his life.

When he came back to India, Gandhi applied these principles and led other Indians in applying them to exert civil disobedience against the British and thus gain their independence. According to him, national independence alone was not enough to give a person peace and prosperity.

The Essential Gandhi also brings out the issue of religion and shows how Gandhi viewed its various forms. He did not despise any religion. He gave a deep discussion of many forms of religion and their defects. His view on religion helped him try to unite the Indian people who were being divided along religious lines.

This book also addresses other issues and ideas, which Gandhi not only believed but advocated for and encouraged people to embrace. The author argues that Gandhi believed that untouchability was evil against humanity. Even though this was the case, his view on humanity made him to live together with those the society considered as untouchables.

He also argues that Gandhi’s claim of British citizenship shows that his move towards forming a movement to lead India to independence was not out of sheer patriotism. He valued humanity and considered it his responsibility to protect both camps of the British and the Indians.

He said, “I felt that if I demanded rights as a British citizen, it was also my duty, as such, to participate in the defense of the British Empire” (Gandhi). Thus, what drove Gandhi to seek freedom for the Indians was not the desire for political supremacy or patriotism, but it was for humanity.

Works Cited

Gandhi, Mahatma. The Essential Gandhi: An Anthology of His Writings on His Life, Work, and Ideas. New York: Random House Inc., 2002. Print.

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Essay on Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle

Students are often asked to write an essay on Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

Let’s take a look…

100 Words Essay on Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle

The birth of a leader.

Mahatma Gandhi was born in India in 1869. He studied law in England before returning to India. He later moved to South Africa, where he first used nonviolent resistance.

Gandhi’s Philosophy

Gandhi believed in ‘Satyagraha’, or truth-force. He thought peaceful protests were the best way to resist unfair laws. This was a new idea in the fight for freedom.

Gandhi and India’s Freedom Struggle

Gandhi returned to India in 1915. He led the Indian National Congress, guiding India towards independence. He organized nonviolent protests against British rule.

Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi

Gandhi’s nonviolent methods inspired many, and India gained independence in 1947. His ideas continue to influence people worldwide.

250 Words Essay on Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle

Introduction.

Mahatma Gandhi, fondly referred to as the ‘Father of the Nation,’ played an instrumental role in India’s struggle for independence. He employed non-violent civil disobedience methods, setting a unique paradigm for freedom struggles worldwide.

Non-Violent Approach

Gandhi’s primary weapon in the struggle was non-violence or ‘Ahimsa.’ His philosophy was grounded in the belief that moral superiority could not be achieved through violent means. This approach resonated with the masses and enabled widespread participation, thereby intensifying the struggle against the British Raj.

Mass Mobilization

Gandhi’s leadership was marked by his ability to mobilize the masses. His simple lifestyle and empathetic nature helped him connect with the common people. He initiated campaigns like the Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, and Quit India Movement, which saw mass participation unprecedented in the history of the Indian freedom struggle.

Championing Swaraj

Gandhi’s concept of ‘Swaraj’ or self-rule was not just political independence but also economic and social self-reliance. He advocated for the boycott of British goods and promoted indigenous industries, enhancing India’s economic independence and providing a blueprint for post-colonial economic development.

Mahatma Gandhi’s role in India’s freedom struggle was transformative. His non-violent approach, ability to mobilize the masses, and vision for Swaraj were instrumental in shaping the course of India’s freedom struggle. His philosophies have left an indelible mark on India’s ethos and continue to inspire movements for civil rights and freedom across the globe.

500 Words Essay on Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, famously known as Mahatma Gandhi, played a pivotal role in the Indian freedom struggle against British rule. His unique approach of ‘Satyagraha’ (insistence on truth) and ‘Ahimsa’ (non-violence) left an indelible mark on the world and significantly contributed to India’s independence.

Advent of Satyagraha

Gandhi’s principle of Satyagraha was a revolutionary method in the fight for freedom. It was a non-violent resistance against the oppressor, where the oppressed demonstrated their moral superiority. The first significant application of Satyagraha was in South Africa, where Gandhi led the Indian community against racial discrimination. This laid the foundation for his future endeavors in India.

Non-Cooperation Movement

Returning to India in 1915, Gandhi transformed the Indian National Congress from an elitist party into a mass movement. The Non-Cooperation Movement (1920-1922) was the first large-scale initiative against British rule under his leadership. Gandhi called for a complete boycott of British goods and services, which included schools, courts, and government services. The movement stirred the nation, uniting Indians across regions, religions, and classes. Despite its abrupt end due to the Chauri Chaura incident, the movement marked the beginning of a nationwide struggle for freedom.

Civil Disobedience Movement

The Civil Disobedience Movement, initiated with the Dandi March in 1930, was another milestone in India’s struggle for freedom. Gandhi and his followers marched about 240 miles from Sabarmati Ashram to the coastal village of Dandi, where they made salt, defying the British salt laws. This act was a symbolic defiance of the British monopoly and a peaceful protest against their oppressive regime.

Quit India Movement

In 1942, Gandhi launched the Quit India Movement, demanding an end to British rule in India. His call for ‘Do or Die’ resonated with the masses, leading to widespread protests across the country. The movement was a significant blow to the British, shaking the foundations of their rule in India.

Gandhi’s Philosophy and Its Impact

Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence and truth was not merely a strategy for the freedom struggle, but a way of life. His principles of simplicity, self-reliance, and communal harmony continue to inspire millions around the world. His innovative methods of civil resistance have influenced numerous freedom struggles globally, including the civil rights movement in the U.S. led by Martin Luther King Jr.

Mahatma Gandhi’s role in the Indian freedom struggle was monumental. His non-violent resistance against British rule united the diverse Indian population and instilled in them a sense of national pride. His principles and methods, though criticized by some, proved to be effective in achieving India’s independence. Gandhi’s legacy continues to influence and inspire movements for civil rights and social change worldwide, making him a global icon for peace and justice.

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Mahatma Gandhi Essay

Below we have provided very simple written essay on Mahatma Gandhi, a person who would always live in the heart of Indian people. Every kid and children of the India know him by the name of Bapu or Father of the Nation. Using following Mahatma Gandhi essay, you can help your kids and school going children to perform better in their school during any competition or exam.

Long and Short Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English

We have provided below short and long essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English for your information and knowledge.

The essays have been written in simple yet effective English so that you can easily grasp the information and present it whenever needed.

After going through these Mahatma Gandhi essay you will know about the life and ideals of Mahatma Gandhi; teachings of Mahatma Gandhi; what role did he played in the freedom struggle; why is he the most respected leader the world over; how his birthday is celebrated etc.

The information given in the essays will be useful in speech giving, essay writing or speech giving competition on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 1 (100 words)

Mahatma Gandhi is very famous in India as “Bapu” or “Rastrapita”. The full name of him is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was a great freedom fighter who led India as a leader of the nationalism against British rule. He was born on 2 nd of October in 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, India.

He died on 30 th of January in 1948. M.K. Gandhi was assassinated by the Hindu activist, Nathuram Godse, who was hanged later as a punishment by the government of India. He has been given another name by the Rabindranath Tagore as “Martyr of the Nation” since 1948.

Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 2 (150 words)

Mahatma Gandhi is called as Mahatma because of his great works and greatness all through the life. He was a great freedom fighter and non-violent activist who always followed non-violence all though his life while leading India for the independence from British rule.

He was born on 2 nd of October in 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat, India. He was just 18 years old while studying law in the England. Later he went to British colony of South Africa to practice his law where he got differentiated from the light skin people because of being a dark skin person. That’s why he decided to became a political activist in order to do so some positive changes in such unfair laws.

Later he returned to India and started a powerful and non-violent movement to make India an independent country. He is the one who led the Salt March (Namak Satyagrah or Salt Satyagrah or Dandi March) in 1930. He inspired lots of Indians to work against British rule for their own independence.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 3 (200 words)

Mahatma Gandhi was a great and outstanding personality of the India who is still inspiring the people in the country as well as abroad through his legacy of greatness, idealness and noble life. Bapu was born in the Porbandar, Gujarat, India in a Hindu family on 2 nd of October in 1869. 2 nd of October was the great day for India when Bapu took birth. He paid his great and unforgettable role for the independence of India from the British rule. The full name of the Bapu is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He went to England for his law study just after passing his matriculation examination. Later he returned to India in as a lawyer in 1890.

After his arrival to India, he started helping Indian people facing various problems from the British rule. He started a Satyagraha movement against the British rule to help Indians. Other big movements started by the Bapu for the independence of India are Non-cooperation movement in the year 1920, Civil Disobedience movement in the year 1930 and Quit India movement in the year 1942. All the movements had shaken the British rule in India and inspired lots of common Indian citizens to fight for the freedom.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 4 (250 words)

Bapu, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was born in 1869 on 2 nd of October at Porbander in Gujarat, India. Mahatma Gandhi was a great Indian who led India with independence movement against British rule. He completed his schooling in India and went to England for further study of law. He returned to India as a lawyer and started practicing law. He started helping people of India who were humiliated and insulted by the British rule.

He started non-violence independence movement to fight against the injustice of Britishers. He got insulted many times but he continued his non-violent struggle for the Independence of India. After his return to India he joined Indian National Congress as a member. He was the great leader of the India independence movement who struggled a lot for the freedom of India. As a member of the Indian National Congress he started independence movements like Non-Cooperation, Civil Disobedience and later Quit India Movement which became successful a day and help India in getting freedom.

As a great freedom fighter, he got arrested and sent to jail many times but he continued fighting against British rule for the justice of Indians. He was a great believer in non-violence and unity of people of all religions which he followed all through his struggle for independence. After his lots of struggles with many Indians, finally he became successful in making India an independent country on 15 th of August in 1947. Later he was assassinated in 1948 on 30 th of January by the Nathuram Godse, a Hindu activist.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 5 (300 words)

Mahatma Gandhi was a great freedom fighter who spent his whole life in struggle for the independence of India. He was born in the Indian Hindu family on 2 nd of October in 1869 in the Porbander, Gujarat. He lived his whole as a leader of the Indian people. His whole life story is a great inspiration for us. He is called as the Bapu or Rashtrapita as he spent his life in fighting against British rule for the freedom of us. While fighting with Britishers he took help of his great weapons like non-violence and Satyagraha movements to achieve freedom. Many times he got arrested and sent to the jail but he never discourages himself and continued fighting for national freedom.

He is the real father of our nation who really used his all power to make us free from the British rule. He truly understood the power of unity in people (from different castes, religions, community, race, age or gender) which he used all through his independence movement. Finally he forced Britishers to quit India forever through his mass movements on 15 th of August in 1947. Since 1947, the 15 th of August is celebrated every year as the Independence Day in India.

He could not continue his life after the independence of India in 1947 as he was assassinated by one of the Hindu activists, Nathuram Godse in 1948 on 30 th of January. He was the great personality who served his whole life till death for the motherland. He enlightened our life with the true light of freedom from British rule. He proved that everything is possible with the non-violence and unity of people. Even after getting died many years ago, he is still alive in the heart of every Indian as a “Father of the Nation and Bapu”.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 6 (400 words)

Mahatma Gandhi is well known as the “Father of the Nation or Bapu” because of his greatest contributions towards the independence of our country. He was the one who believed in the non-violence and unity of the people and brought spirituality in the Indian politics. He worked hard for the removal of the untouchability in the Indian society , upliftment of the backward classes in India, raised voice to develop villages for social development, inspired Indian people to use swadeshi goods and other social issues. He brought common people in front to participate in the national movement and inspired them to fight for their true freedom.

He was one of the persons who converted people’s dream of independence into truth a day through his noble ideals and supreme sacrifices. He is still remembered between us for his great works and major virtues such as non-violence, truth, love and fraternity. He was not born as great but he made himself great through his hard struggles and works. He was highly influenced by the life of the King Harischandra from the play titled as Raja Harischandra. After his schooling, he completed his law degree from England and began his career as a lawyer. He faced many difficulties in his life but continued walking as a great leader.

He started many mass movements like Non-cooperation movement in 1920, civil disobedience movement in 1930 and finally the Quit India Movement in 1942 all through the way of independence of India. After lots of struggles and works, independence of India was granted finally by the British Government. He was a very simple person who worked to remove the colour barrier and caste barrier. He also worked hard for removing the untouchability in the Indian society and named untouchables as “Harijan” means the people of God.

He was a great social reformer and Indian freedom fighter who died a day after completing his aim of life. He inspired Indian people for the manual labour and said that arrange all the resource ownself for living a simple life and becoming self-dependent. He started weaving cotton clothes through the use of Charakha in order to avoid the use of videshi goods and promote the use of Swadeshi goods among Indians.

He was a strong supporter of the agriculture and motivated people to do agriculture works. He was a spiritual man who brought spirituality to the Indian politics. He died in 1948 on 30 th of January and his body was cremated at Raj Ghat, New Delhi. 30 th of January is celebrated every year as the Martyr Day in India in order to pay homage to him.

Essay on Non-violence of Mahatma Gandhi – Essay 7 (800 Words)

Introduction

Non-violence or ‘ahimsa’ is a practice of not hurting anyone intentionally or unintentionally. It is the practice professed by great saints like Gautam Buddha and Mahaveer. Mahatma Gandhi was one of the pioneer personalities to practice non-violence. He used non-violence as a weapon to fight the armed forces of the British Empire and helped us to get independence without lifting a single weapon.

Role of Non-violence in Indian Freedom Struggle   

The role of non-violence in the Indian freedom struggle became prominent after the involvement of Mahatma Gandhi. There were many violent freedom struggles going on concurrently in the country and the importance of these cannot be neglected either. There were many sacrifices made by our freedom fighters battling against the British rule. But non-violence was a protest which was done in a very peaceful manner and was a great way to demand for the complete independence. Mahatma Gandhi used non-violence in every movement against British rule. The most important non-violence movements of Mahatma Gandhi which helped to shake the foundation of the British government are as follows.

  • Champaran and Kheda Agitations

In 1917 the farmers of Champaran were forced by the Britishers to grow indigo and again sell them at very cheap fixed prices. Mahatma Gandhi organized a non-violent protest against this practice and Britishers were forced to accept the demand of the farmers.

Kheda village was hit by floods in 1918 and created a major famine in the region. The Britishers were not ready to provide any concessions or relief in the taxes. Gandhiji organized a non-cooperation movement and led peaceful protests against the British administration for many months. Ultimately the administration was forced to provide relief in taxes and temporarily suspended the collection of revenue.

  • Non-cooperation Movement

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the harsh British policies lead to the Non-cooperation movement in 1920. It was the non-violence protest against the British rule. Gandhiji believed that the main reason of the Britishers flourishing in India is the support they are getting from Indians. He pleaded to boycott the use of British products and promoted the use of ‘Swadeshi’ products. Indians denied working for the Britishers and withdrew themselves from the British schools, civil services, government jobs etc. People started resigning from the prominent posts which highly affected the British administration. The Non-Cooperation movement shook the foundation of the British rule and all these without a single use of any weapon. The power of non-violence was more evident in the non-cooperation movement.

  • Salt Satyagrah or Salt March

Salt March or the ‘Namak Satyagrah’ was the non-violence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi against the salt monopoly of the Britishers. Britishers imposed a heavy taxation on the salt produce which affected the local salt production. Gandhiji started the 26 days non-violence march to Dandi village, Gujarat protesting against the salt monopoly of the British government. The Dandi march was started on 12 th March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and ended on 06 th April 1930 at Dandi, breaking the salt laws of the British government and starting the local production of salt. The Salt March was a non violent movement which got the international attention and which helped to concrete the foundation of Independent India.

  • Quit India Movement

After the successful movement of the Salt March, the foundation of British government shook completely. Quit India Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 th August 1942 which demanded the Britishers to quit India. It was the time of World War II when Britain was already in war with Germany and the Quit India Movement acted as a fuel in the fire. There was a mass non-violent civil disobedience launched across the country and Indians also demanded their separation from World War II.  The effect of Quit India Movement was so intense that British government agreed to provide complete independence to India once the war gets over. The Quit India Movement was a final nail in the coffin of the British rule in India.

These movements led by Mahatma Gandhi were completely Non-violent and did not use any weapon. The power of truth and non-violence were the weapons used to fight the British rule. The effect of non-violence was so intense that it gained the immediate attention of the international community towards the Indian independence struggle. It helped to reveal the harsh policies and acts of the British rule to the international audience.

Mahatma Gandhi always believed that weapons are not the only answer for any problem; in fact they created more problems than they solved. It is a tool which spreads hatred, fear and anger. Non-violence is one of the best methods by which we can fight with much powerful enemies, without holding a single weapon. Apart from the independence struggle; there are many incidents of modern times which exhibited the importance of non-violence and how it helped in bringing changes in the society and all that without spilling a single drop of blood. Hope the day is not very far when there will be no violence and every conflict and dispute will be solved through peaceful dialogues without harming anyone and shedding blood and this would be a greatest tribute to Mahatma Gandhi.

Long Essay on Mahatma Gandhi – Essay 8 (1100 Words)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi aka ‘Mahatma Gandhi’ was one of the great sons of Indian soil who rose to become a great soul and gave major contribution in the great Indian freedom struggle against the British rule in India. He was a man of ideologies and a man with great patience and courage. His non-violence movements involved peaceful protests and non-cooperation with the British rule. These movements had a long term effects on the Britishers and it also helped India to grab the eye balls of global leaders and attracted the attention on the international platforms.

Family and Life of Mahatma Gandhi

  • Birth and Childhood

Mahatma Gandhi was born as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi on 02 nd October, 1869 at Porbandar (which is in the current state of Gujarat). His father Karamchand Gandhi was working as the Chief Minister (diwan) of Porbandar at that time. His mother Putlibai was a very devotional and generous lady. Young Gandhi was a reflection of his mother and inherited high values, ethics and the feeling of sacrifice from her.

  • Marriage and Education

Mohandas was married to Kasturba Makanji at a very young age of 13. In 1888, they were blessed with a baby boy and after which he sailed to London for higher studies. In 1893, he went to South Africa to continue his practice of law where he faced strong racial discrimination by the Britishers. The major incident which completely changed the young Gandhi was when he was forcibly removed from the first class compartment of a train due to his race and color.

  • Civil Rights Movement in Africa

After the discrimination and embracement faced by Gandhi due to his race and color, he vowed to fight and challenge the racial discrimination of immigrants in South Africa. He formed Natal Indian Congress in 1894 and started fighting against racial discrimination. He fought for the civil rights of the immigrants in South Africa and spent around 21 years there.

  • Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Freedom Struggle

Gandhi returned to India in 1915 and joined Indian National Congress and started to raise voice against the British rule in India and demanded the complete independence or ‘Purn Swaraj’ for India. He started many non-violent movements and protests against Britishers and was also imprisoned various times in his long quest of freedom. His campaigns were completely non-violent without the involvement of any force or weapons. His ideology of ‘ahimsa’ meaning not to injure anyone was highly appreciated and was also followed by many great personalities around the globe.

Why was Gandhi called Mahatma?

‘Mahatma’ is a Sanskrit word which means ‘great soul’. It is said that it was Rabindranth Tagore who first used ‘Mahatma’ for Gandhi. It was because of the great thoughts and ideologies of Gandhi which made people honour him by calling ‘Mahatma Gandhi’. The great feeling of sacrifice, love and help he showed throughout his life was a matter of great respect for each citizen of India.

Mahatma Gandhi showed a lifelong compassion towards the people affected with leprosy. He used to nurse the wounds of people with leprosy and take proper care of them. In the times when people used to ignore and discriminate people with leprosy, the humanitarian compassion of Gandhi towards them made him a person with great feelings and a person with great soul justifying himself as Mahatma.

Mahatma Gandhi’s contribution on various social issues could never be ignored. His campaign against untouchability during his imprisonment in the Yerwada Jail where he went on fast against the age old evil of untouchability in the society had highly helped the upliftment of the community in the modern era. Apart from this, he also advocated the importance of education, cleanliness, health and equality in the society. All these qualities made him a man with great soul and justify his journey from Gandhi to Mahatma.

What are Gandhi’s accomplishments?

Mahatma Gandhi was a man with mission who not only fought for the country’s independence but also gave his valuable contribution in uprooting various evils of the society. The accomplishments of Mahatma Gandhi is summarized below:

  • Fought against Racial Discrimination in South Africa

The racial discrimination in South Africa shocked Mahatma Gandhi and he vowed to fight against it. He challenged the law which denied the voting rights of the people not belonging to the European region. He continued to fight for the civil rights of the immigrants in South Africa and became a prominent face of a civil right activist.

  • Face of the Indian Freedom Struggle

Mahatma Gandhi was the liberal face of independence struggle. He challenged the British rule in India through his peaceful and non-violent protests. The Champaran Satyagrah, Civil Disobedience Movement, Salt March, Quit India Movement etc are just the few non-violent movements led by him which shook the foundation of the Britishers in India and grabbed the attention of the global audience to the Indian freedom struggle.

  • Uprooting the Evils of Society

Gandhi Ji also worked on uprooting various social evils in the society which prevailed at that time. He launched many campaigns to provide equal rights to the untouchables and improve their status in the society. He also worked on the women empowerment, education and opposed child marriage which had a long term effect on the Indian society.

What was Gandhi famous for?

Mahatma Gandhi was one of the great personalities of India. He was a man with simplicity and great ideologies. His non-violent way to fight a much powerful enemy without the use of a weapon or shedding a single drop of blood surprised the whole world. His patience, courage and disciplined life made him popular and attracted people from every corners of the world.

He was the man who majorly contributed in the independence of India from the British rule. He devoted his whole life for the country and its people. He was the face of the Indian leadership on international platform. He was the man with ethics, values and discipline which inspires the young generation around the globe even in the modern era.

Gandhi Ji was also famous for his strict discipline. He always professed the importance of self discipline in life. He believed that it helps to achieve bigger goals and the graces of ahimsa could only be achieved through hard discipline.

These qualities of the great leader made him famous not only in India but also across the world and inspired global personalities like Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King.

Mahatma Gandhi helped India to fulfill her dream of achieving ‘Purna Swaraj’ or complete independence and gave the country a global recognition. Though he left this world on 30 th January, 1948, but his ideologies and thoughts still prevail in the minds of his followers and act as a guiding light to lead their lives. He proved that everything is possible in the world if you have a strong will, courage and determination.

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi for Students in English [500+ Words]

December 10, 2020 by Sandeep

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi:  The entire life of Mahatma Gandhi belonged to truthiness, vegetarianism, simplicity, non-violence, and faith in god. During his life, he had been an inspiration to many national and international leaders. He trusted in truth and never took the assistance of fakeness or lie to accomplish their tasks. In India, a public holiday is declared on 2nd October ( Gandhi Jayanti ) to honour him. Also, to mark his sacrifice for his nation, his image has engraved on the Indian currency notes. Below we have provided Mahatma Gandhi Essay in English, written in easy and simple words for class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 school students.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English

Mahatma Gandhi was a man of power, honesty, sacrifices, and simplicity. He was a patriotic personality. His life was unbelievable. He never liked others’ appreciation. His efforts to protect India are unparalleled. Only with his efforts, the British left India in 1947. Mohandas Gandhi is another name of Mahatma Gandhi. Even he is also famous as ‘Father of Nation.’ He was born on 2nd October in the year 1869 in the state of Porbandar, Gujarat. He was the youngest among the three sons of Karamchand Gandhi.

Karamchand Gandhi and Putlibai Gandhi were his parents. His mother was the fourth wife of his father, Karamchand Gandhi. His father became the prime minister of states like Rajkot, Vankaner, and Porbandar. His parents have three sons. When Mahatma Gandhi became 13 in age, he got married to Kasturba Makhanji. After his marriage, he completed his education. Then, he went to London to pursue a degree in law. After this, he practiced as a lawyer. He also started to read the scriptures of Bhagavad Gita that had an immense influence on his life.

During his childhood, he was massively influenced by the tales of Harischandra and Shravana that taught him about the significance of affection and truth. Moreover, his parents raise him as a vegetarian; however, during his stay in London, he started eating meat. Once Gandhiji came back to India after finishing his study in law, he started finding a job as a lawyer. He had to do a lot of struggle to find the right job. Lastly, he got an invitation from South Africa by a wealthy merchant to work as a lawyer. That proposal was a turning point in his life.

During his job in South Africa, he witnessed racial discrimination. Once he faced several humiliations, he decided to raise his voice. Then, he became an activist to find cases in favor of Indians. At that time, he also established the Natal Indian Congress in 1894. Besides, he was also influenced by Satyagraha, which means the devotion of truth. Even, he started non-violent protests in 1906. Also, he stood for civil rights in favor of South Africa. Movements started by Mahatma Gandhi in favour of India are

Mahatma Gandhi Essay

Khilafat Movement: This movement was run from 1919-1924. It was a revolt by the nationalists and the Indian Muslims. This movement was started to pressure the British Government to preserve the authority of the Ottoman Sultan as the Islamic Caliph. The leadership of this movement comprised Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, who had been newspaper editors in Delhi in those days. Maulana Mahmud ul-Hasan, Abdul Kalam Azad, Maulana Abdul Bari were also some of the leaders of this movement. During this movement, Mahatma Gandhi even got the support of the Muslims to fight against the British to make Indian independence. This movement was crucial as it reflected Hindu-Muslim cooperation. Finally, in the year 1921, this movement was suppressed by the British Government.

Non-cooperation Movement: To provide the Indian a self-government, Mahatma Gandhi took a step where he organized a non-cooperation movement from 1920-1922. This non-violent movement was also known as Swaraj. The commencement of this non-cooperation movement was the outcry over the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre in the year 1919. In Jallianwalla Bagh (in Amritsar, Punjab), the British government had killed hundreds of Indians who were gathered for peaceful assembly in a lawn. The complete garden becomes a ground of cruel massacre. General Dyer, who was responsible for that act, was not taken to task. Being a part of this movement, Indians boycott the Indian government and also refuses to pay taxes.

Salt Satyagraha: When the British government in India started levying excess taxes or excise duty on salt, then the Mahatma Gandhi began to historic Salt Satyagraha to break this law. For this, Gandhi Ji marched to the coastal village of Dandi to break the salt law. During his march, he used to visit different communities to teach about the need for social reforms. This march was last long for 24 days. After viewing this, the British government arrested the people from Indian National Congress who were involved in this march. When the government got pressurized for the arrests as of several outbreaks of civil disobedience, then they released the arrested leaders.

Quit India Movement: Bharat Chodo Andolan is another name of the Quit India Movement that was launched on 8th August 1942 by the All India Congress Committee. As the name suggests, this movement was started to end up the British rule from India. Mahatma Gandhi started this movement at Gowalia Tank Maidan, where he taught the Indians to “Do or Die.” Even those leaders who got arrested during this movement which took a step back. The protest was a mix of violent and non-violent demonstrations. The fact is, the British did not want to leave India in pressure or with this movement. Before leaving, they wanted the war only. Finally, in 1945, the British revealed that they would send a planned withdrawal from the country.

Mahatma Gandhi was not in favor of dividing India. But he was agreed to keep harmony. Moreover, Gandhiji initiated his fast to make sure of the harmony between the two countries. Besides, Pakistan was granted with payment according to the Partition Council agreement. On 30th January 1948, with the bullets of Nathuram Godse, Mahatma Gandhi succumbed. Nathuram Godse was from the group of Hindu radicals who trusted that India became weakened as of the partition payment made to Pakistan.

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi [100, 150, 200, 300, 500 Words]

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English: In this article, you are going to read short and long essays on Mahatma Gandhi in English (100, 150, 200-250, 300, and 500 words). This article will be also helpful for you If you are looking for a speech on Mahatma Gandhi or Paragraph on Mahatma Gandhi in English. We’ve written this article for students of all classes (nursery to class 12). So, let’s get started.

Table of Contents

Short Essay on Mahatma Gandhi 100 Words

Mahatma Gandhi was one of the greatest leaders of our country. He was born in Porbandar, India, on October 2, 1869. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Dewan and his mother Putlibai was a pious lady. Gandhiji went to England to become a barrister. In 1893 he went to South Africa and worked for the rights of our people.

He returned to India in 1915 and joined the freedom struggle. He started many political movements like Non-cooperation movement, Salt Satyagraha, Quit India Movement to fight against the British. Gandhiji worked for the ending of the caste system and the establishment of Hindu-Muslim unity. He was killed by Nathuram Godse On January 30, 1948.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English

Mahatma Gandhi Essay in English 150 Words

Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader. His full name was Mohandas and Gandhi. He was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar. His father was a Diwan. He was an average student. He went to England and returned as a barrister.

In South Africa, Gandhiji saw the bad condition of the Indians. There he raised his voice against it and organised a movement.

In India, he started the non-cooperation and Satyagraha movements to fight against the British Government. He went to jail many times. He wanted Hindu-Muslim unity. In 1947, he got freedom for us.

Gandhiji was a great social reformer. He worked for Dalits and lower-class people. He lived a very simple life. He wanted peace. He believed in Ahimsa.

On January 30, 1948, he was shot dead. We call him ‘Bapu’ out of love and respect. He is the Father of the Nation.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay in English

Also Read: 10 Lines on Mahatma Gandhi

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi 200-250 Words

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi was an Indian lawyer, freedom activist, and politician. Gandhiji was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar, Gujarat. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Chief Minister (diwan) of Porbandar state. His mother Putlibai was a religious woman.

He went to England to study law at the age of 18 years. After his return to India, he started a practice as a lawyer in the Bombay High Court. He went to South Africa and started practicing law. There he protested against the injustice and harsh treatment of the white people towards the native Africans and Indians.

He returned to India in 1915 and started to take interest in politics. Mahatma Gandhi used the ideals of truth and non-violence as weapons to fight against British colonial rule. He worked for the upliftment of Harijans. He fought against untouchability and worked for Hindu-Muslim unity.

Through his freedom movements like Non-cooperation movement, Khilafat movement, and civil disobedience movement he fought for freedom against the British imperialists. 1942, he launched the Quit India movement to end the British rule. At last, India got freedom in 1947 at his initiative.

People affectionately call him ‘Bapu’ and the ‘Father of the Nation’. He was shot dead in 1948 by the Hindu fanatic Nathuram Godse.  Gandhiji’s life is a true inspiration for all of us.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi Essay in English 300 Words

Mahatma Gandhi was born at Porbandar in Gujarat on 2nd October, 1869. His father was the Diwan of the State. His name was Karam Chand Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi’s full name was Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi. His mother’s name was Putali Bai. Mahatma Gandhi went to school first at Porbandar then at Rajkot. Even as a child, Mahatma never told a lie. He passed his Matric examination at the age of 18.

Mohan Das was married to Kasturba at the age of thirteen. Mahatma Gandhi was sent to England to study law and became a Barrister. He lived a very simple life even in England. After getting his law degree, he returned to India.

Mr. Gandhi started his law practice. He went to South Africa in the course of a law suit. He saw the condition of the Indians living there. They were treated very badly by the white men. They were not allowed to travel in 1st class on the trains, also not allowed to enter certain localities, clubs, and so on. Once when Gandhiji was travelling in the 1st class compartment of the train, he was beaten and thrown out of the train. Then Mahatma decided to unite all Indians and started the Non-violence and Satyagrah Movement. In no time, the Movement picked up.

Mahatma Gandhi returned to India and joined Indian National Congress. He started the Non-violence, Non-cooperation Movements here also. He travelled all over India, especially the rural India to see the conditions of the poor.

Mahatma Gandhi started Satyagrah Movement to oppose the Rowlatt Act and there was the shoot-out at Jalian-Wala-Bagh. The Act was drawn after many people were killed. He then started the Salt Satyagraha and Quit India Movements. And finally, Gandhiji won freedom for us. India became free on 15th August, 1947. He is called as “Father of the Nation”. Unfortunately, Gandhiji was shot on 30 January 1948 by a Hindu extremist Nathuram Godse.

Also Read: Gandhi Jayanti Speech 10 Lines

Mahatma Gandhi Essay in English 500 Words

Introduction:.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, popularly known as Mahatma Gandhi was a politician, social activist, writer, and leader of the Indian national movement. He is a figure known all over the world. His name is a household word in India, rather, in all the world round. His creed of non-violence has placed him on the same par with Buddha, Sri Chaitanya, and Jesus Christ.

Family & Education:

Mahatma Gandhi was born in the small town of Porbandar in the Kathiwad state on October 2, 1869. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the prime minister of Rajkot State and his mother Putlibai was a pious lady. Her influence shaped the future life of Mahatma Gandhi.

He was sent to school at a very early age, but he was not a very bright student. After his Matriculation Examination, he went to England to study law and returned home as a barrister. He began to practice law in Bombay but he was not very successful.

Life in South Africa:

In 1893 Gandhiji went to South Africa in connection with a case. He found his own countrymen treated with contempt by the whites. Gandhiji started satyagraha against this color hated. It was a non-violent protest, yet hundreds were beaten up and thousands were sent to jail. But Gandhiji did not buzz an inch from his faith in truth and non-violence and at last, he succeeded in his mission. He was awarded the title of Mahatma.

Fight for India’s Independence:

In 1915 Gandhiji came back to India after twenty long years in South Africa. He joined the Indian National congress and championed the cause of India’s freedom movement. He asked people to unite for the cause of freedom. He used the weapons of truth and non-violence to fight against the mighty British.

The horrible massacre at Jalianwalabag in Punjab touched him and he resolved to face the brute force of the British Government with moral force. In 1920 he launched the Non-cooperation movement to oppose British rule in India.

He led the famous Dandi March on 12th March 1930. This march was meant to break the salt law. And as a result of this, the British rule in India had already started shaking and he had to go to London for a Round Table Conference in 1931. But this Conference proved abortive and the country was about to give a death blow to the foreign rule.

In 1942 Gandhiji launched his final bout for freedom. He started the ‘Quit India’ movement. At last, the British Government had to quit India in 1947, and India was declared a free country on August 15, 1947.

Social Works:

Mahatma Gandhi was a social activist who fought against the evils of society. He found the Satyagraha Ashram on the banks of the Sabarmati river in Gujarat. He preached against untouchability and worked for Hindu-Muslim unity. He fought tirelessly for the rights of Harijans.

Conclusion:

Mahatma Gandhi, the father of the nation was a generous, god-loving, and peace-loving person. But unfortunately, he was assassinated by Nathuram Godse on 30th January 1948 at the age of 78. To commemorate Gandhiji’s birth anniversary Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated every year on October 2. Gandhiji’s teachings and ideologies will continue to enlighten and encourage us in the future.

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500+ Words Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English

Mahatma Gandhi was one of the most important freedom fighters who played a major role in India’s freedom struggle. His ideologies of ahimsa and satyagraha brought the Mighty British Empire on its keens, ultimately making India an independent country. His efforts to make India an independent and self-reliant country earned him the title of ‘The Father of Nation’. Every year, we celebrate his birthday on 2nd October as Gandhi Jayanti, where we recall his ideas of ahimsa, women empowerment, satyagraha, etc.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi is a popular academic topic, assigned to students. To score better marks in an essay on Mahatma Gandhi, you must cover all dimensions of his life; his early life, profession, ideals, national movements, etc. On this page, we will provide you with an essay on Mahatma Gandhi in 500 words.

Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in 500 Words

‘Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat. His real name was ‘Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. At 18, Gandhi sailed from Bombay to London, where he attended the University College, London. Gandhi also had the intention of becoming a Barrister, so he enrolled at the Inns of Court School of Law in Inner Temple. In London, Gandhi joined a public speaking group to enhance his communication and English speaking skills.

Civil Rights in South Africa

At the age of 22, Gandhi completed his law degree and left for India. The next year, a Muslim merchant in Katiawar contacted Gandhi, to solve a legal problem in their sipping business in Johannesburg, South Africa. Gandhi spent 23 years of his life in South Africa, where he initially protected the interest of the Muslim merchant and then against skin color discrimination.

Gandhi was not allowed to sit with the European passengers, and if he resisted, he was beaten, kicked into a gutter, and thrown off a running train. Gandhi found this very humiliating and could not understand how people felt honoured by such inhuman practices. In South Africa, Gandhi fought for the voting rights of the Indians and Africans. He helped establish a political organization, the Natal Indian Congress. He prepared a legal brief in 1895 to seek voting rights for Indians. To gain the support of Africans, Gandhi, along with his colleagues, helped the Africans as nurses by opposing racism.

It was in South Africa where Gandhi established his newspaper, named Indian Opinion to share his ideas with the African Indian Community. In 1910, In 1910, he established an idealistic community named Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg. It was these developments which helped the black South Africans to gain voting rights and Mahatma Gandhi was declared a National Hero.’

Return to India

‘On 9th January 1915, Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa. Before his arrival, he already become a nationalist figure. Upon his arrival in India, Gandhi took a nationwide tour, where he witnessed chaos and disorder everywhere. He declared Gopa Krishna Gokhale as his Political Guru.

Mahatma Gandhi started his nationalist moments with the Champaran Satyagraha in 1917, the Kheda Satyagraha and the Ahmedabad Mill Strike in 1918. Then came the Khilafat Movement, where he tried to unite the Hindus and Muslims.

Gandhi, in his book ‘Hind Swaraj’, wrote that the British rule in India was the result of Indian cooperation. He said that if the Indian masses refused to co-operate, the British rule would come to an end and India would become a free and independent nation. Therefore, he launched the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1920. After this movement, India was sentenced to 6 years of imprisonment.

Other important movements by Gandhiji were the Civil Disobedience and the Quit India Movement. Gandhi believed in religious pluralism. It was his and his fellow India’s undying efforts which led to India’s independence on 15th August 1947.’

‘Gandhiji’s ideas of nonviolence, peaceful satyagraha, self-reliance, simple living and religious tolerance earned him fame not only in India but from other countries also. His ideals inspired the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 60s. His ideals have inspired the whole world to live in peace.’

10 Lines on Mahatma Gandhi

Here are 10 lines on Mahatma Gandhi. Students can add them to their essays on Mahatma Gandhi or similar writing topics.

1. Mahatma Gandhi’s birth anniversary is annually celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti on 2nd October.

2. Mahatma Gandhi was an important Indian freedom fighter.

3. He promoted the principle of nonviolence, or ‘ahimsa,’ as a powerful force for change.

4. Gandhi’s philosophy of ‘satyagraha’ emphasized the transformative power of truth and moral courage.

5. Mahatma Gandhi was a lawyer by profession.

6. Gandhi believed in economic self-reliance, encouraging the use of local products and cottage industries.

7. His life reflected a commitment to simple living and a rejection of materialism.

8. Religious tolerance was a core value for Gandhi, who championed the unity of all faiths.

9. Gandhi favoured the decentralization of political and economic power for community empowerment.

10. Gandhiji believed that education can help in character building and moral development.

10 Popular Quotes to Add in Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

Here are 10 popular quotes by Mahatma Gandhi.

1. ‘Be the change that you wish to see in the world.’

2. ‘The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.’

3. ‘You must be the change you want to see in the world.’

4. ‘An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.’

5. ‘The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.’

6. ‘Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.’

7. ‘Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.’

8. ‘First, they ignore you, then they laugh at you, then they fight you, then you win.’

9. ‘Freedom is not worth having if it does not include the freedom to make mistakes.’

10. ‘The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated.’

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Essay on Mahatma Gandhi- FAQs

What is the short essay on mahatma gandhi.

‘Mahatma Gandhi was born on 2nd October 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat. His real name was ‘Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was one of the most influencial figure of the 20th century and his contributions made India an independent country. Mahatma Gandhi was known for his ideals and peaceful philosophies, such as non-violence, religious tolerance, self-reliant, etc. He led various nationalised movements, like the Champaran Satyagraha, Non Cooperation Movement, Civil Disoobedience and Quit India Movements.

What are some popular quotes by Mahatma Gandhi?

Some of the popular quotes by Gandhiji are: ‘Be the change that you wish to see in the world.’ ‘The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.’ ‘You must be the change you want to see in the world.’ ‘An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.’ ‘The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is the attribute of the strong.’ ‘Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.’

What do you know about Mahatma Gandhi’s 10 important points?

Gandhiji was a peace lover. He believed in religious tolerance. He wanted to unite all religions and castes of India. He was a lawyer by profession. His efforts led to India’s independence. Gandhi believed in economic self-reliance, encouraging the use of local products and cottage industries. His life reflected a commitment to simple living and a rejection of materialism. Religious tolerance was a core value for Gandhi, who championed the unity of all faiths.

What are the names of books written by Mahatma Gandhi?

Some of the books written by Mahatma Gandhi are: The Story of My Experiments With Truth, Hind Swaraj or Indian Home, The Words of Gandhi, India of My Dreams, etc.

When did Mahatma Gandhi arrive in India from South Africa?

Mahatma Gandhi arrived in India from South Africa on 9th January 1915. 9th January is also celebrated as Pravasi Bharatiya Diwas every year.

This was all about an essay on Mahatma Gandhi. We hope this essay was able to cover all the dimensions of the given topic. For more information on such informative essay topics, visit GeekforGeeks.

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Mahatma Gandhi Essay

Long and short essay on mahatma gandhi in english for children and students.

mahatma gandhi and non violence essay 800 words

Below we have provided very simple written essay on Mahatma Gandhi, a person who would always live in the heart of Indian people. Every kid and children of the India know him by the name of Bapu or Father of the Nation. Using following Mahatma Gandhi essay, you can help your kids and school going children to perform better in their school during any competition or exam.

Long and Short Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English

Mahatma gandhi essay 1 (100 words).

Mahatma Gandhi is very famous in India as “Bapu” or “Rastrapita”. The full name of him is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was a great freedom fighter who led India as a leader of the nationalism against British rule. He was born on 2 nd  of October in 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, India. He died on 30 th  of January in 1948. M.K. Gandhi was assassinated by the Hindu activist, Nathuram Godse, who was hanged later as a punishment by the government of India. He has been given another name by the Rabindranath Tagore as “Martyr of the Nation” since 1948.

Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 2 (150 words)

Mahatma Gandhi is called as Mahatma because of his great works and greatness all through the life. He was a great freedom fighter and non-violent activist who always followed non-violence all though his life while leading India for the independence from British rule. He was born on 2 nd  of October in 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat, India. He was just 18 years old while studying law in the England. Later he went to British colony of South Africa to practice his law where he got differentiated from the light skin people because of being a dark skin person. That’s why he decided to became a political activist in order to do so some positive changes in such unfair laws.

Later he returned to India and started a powerful and non-violent movement to make India an independent country. He is the one who led the Salt March (Namak Satyagrah or Salt Satyagrah or Dandi March) in 1930. He inspired lots of Indians to work against British rule for their own independence.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 3 (200 words)

Mahatma Gandhi was a great and outstanding personality of the India who is still inspiring the people in the country as well as abroad through his legacy of greatness, idealness and noble life. Bapu was born in the Porbandar, Gujarat, India in a Hindu family on 2 nd  of October in 1869. 2 nd  of October was the great day for India when Bapu took birth. He paid his great and unforgettable role for the independence of India from the British rule. The full name of the Bapu is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He went to England for his law study just after passing his matriculation examination. Later he returned to India in as a lawyer in 1890.

After his arrival to India, he started helping Indian people facing various problems from the British rule. He started a Satyagraha movement against the British rule to help Indians. Other big movements started by the Bapu for the independence of India are Non-cooperation movement in the year 1920, Civil Disobedience movement in the year 1930 and Quit India movement in the year 1942. All the movements had shaken the British rule in India and inspired lots of common Indian citizens to fight for the freedom.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 4 (250 words)

Bapu, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, was born in 1869 on 2 nd  of October at Porbander in Gujarat, India. Mahatma Gandhi was a great Indian who led India with independence movement against British rule. He completed his schooling in India and went to England for further study of law. He returned to India as a lawyer and started practicing law. He started helping people of India who were humiliated and insulted by the British rule.

He started non-violence independence movement to fight against the injustice of Britishers. He got insulted many times but he continued his non-violent struggle for the Independence of India. After his return to India he joined Indian National Congress as a member. He was the great leader of the India independence movement who struggled a lot for the freedom of India. As a member of the Indian National Congress he started independence movements like Non-Cooperation, Civil Disobedience and later Quit India Movement which became successful a day and help India in getting freedom.

As a great freedom fighter, he got arrested and sent to jail many times but he continued fighting against British rule for the justice of Indians. He was a great believer in non-violence and unity of people of all religions which he followed all through his struggle for independence. After his lots of struggles with many Indians, finally he became successful in making India an independent country on 15 th  of August in 1947. Later he was assassinated in 1948 on 30 th  of January by the Nathuram Godse, a Hindu activist.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 5 (300 words)

Mahatma Gandhi was a great freedom fighter who spent his whole life in struggle for the independence of India. He was born in the Indian Hindu family on 2 nd  of October in 1869 in the Porbander, Gujarat. He lived his whole as a leader of the Indian people. His whole life story is a great inspiration for us. He is called as the Bapu or Rashtrapita as he spent his life in fighting against British rule for the freedom of us. While fighting with Britishers he took help of his great weapons like non-violence and Satyagraha movements to achieve freedom. Many times he got arrested and sent to the jail but he never discourages himself and continued fighting for national freedom.

He is the real father of our nation who really used his all power to make us free from the British rule. He truly understood the power of unity in people (from different castes, religions, community, race, age or gender) which he used all through his independence movement. Finally he forced Britishers to quit India forever through his mass movements on 15 th  of August in 1947. Since 1947, the 15 th  of August is celebrated every year as the Independence Day in India.

He could not continue his life after the independence of India in 1947 as he was assassinated by one of the Hindu activists, Nathuram Godse in 1948 on 30 th  of January. He was the great personality who served his whole life till death for the motherland. He enlightened our life with the true light of freedom from British rule. He proved that everything is possible with the non-violence and unity of people. Even after getting died many years ago, he is still alive in the heart of every Indian as a “Father of the Nation and Bapu”.

Mahatma Gandhi Essay 6 (400 words)

Mahatma Gandhi is well known as the “Father of the Nation or Bapu” because of his greatest contributions towards the independence of our country. He was the one who believed in the non-violence and unity of the people and brought spirituality in the Indian politics. He worked hard for the removal of the untouchability in the Indian society, upliftment of the backward classes in India, raised voice to develop villages for social development, inspired Indian people to use swadeshi goods and other social issues. He brought common people in front to participate in the national movement and inspired them to fight for their true freedom.

He was one of the persons who converted people’s dream of independence into truth a day through his noble ideals and supreme sacrifices. He is still remembered between us for his great works and major virtues such as non-violence, truth, love and fraternity. He was not born as great but he made himself great through his hard struggles and works. He was highly influenced by the life of the King Harischandra from the play titled as Raja Harischandra. After his schooling, he completed his law degree from England and began his career as a lawyer. He faced many difficulties in his life but continued walking as a great leader.

He started many mass movements like Non-cooperation movement in 1920, civil disobedience movement in 1930 and finally the Quit India Movement in 1942 all through the way of independence of India. After lots of struggles and works, independence of India was granted finally by the British Government. He was a very simple person who worked to remove the colour barrier and caste barrier. He also worked hard for removing the untouchability in the Indian society and named untouchables as “Harijan” means the people of God.

He was a great social reformer and Indian freedom fighter who died a day after completing his aim of life. He inspired Indian people for the manual labour and said that arrange all the resource ownself for living a simple life and becoming self-dependent. He started weaving cotton clothes through the use of Charakha in order to avoid the use of videshi goods and promote the use of Swadeshi goods among Indians. He was a strong supporter of the agriculture and motivated people to do agriculture works. He was a spiritual man who brought spirituality to the Indian politics. He died in 1948 on 30 th  of January and his body was cremated at Raj Ghat, New Delhi. 30 th  of January is celebrated every year as the Martyr Day in India in order to pay homage to him.

Essay on Non-violence of Mahatma Gandhi – Essay 7 (800 Words)

Introduction

Non-violence or ‘ahimsa’ is a practice of not hurting anyone intentionally or unintentionally. It is the practice professed by great saints like Gautam Buddha and Mahaveer. Mahatma Gandhi was one of the pioneer personalities to practice non-violence. He used non-violence as a weapon to fight the armed forces of the British Empire and helped us to get independence without lifting a single weapon.

Role of Non-violence in Indian Freedom Struggle   

The role of non-violence in the Indian freedom struggle became prominent after the involvement of Mahatma Gandhi. There were many violent freedom struggles going on concurrently in the country and the importance of these cannot be neglected either. There were many sacrifices made by our freedom fighters battling against the British rule. But non-violence was a protest which was done in a very peaceful manner and was a great way to demand for the complete independence. Mahatma Gandhi used non-violence in every movement against British rule. The most important non-violence movements of Mahatma Gandhi which helped to shake the foundation of the British government are as follows.

  • Champaran and Kheda Agitations

In 1917 the farmers of Champaran were forced by the Britishers to grow indigo and again sell them at very cheap fixed prices. Mahatma Gandhi organized a non-violent protest against this practice and Britishers were forced to accept the demand of the farmers.

Kheda village was hit by floods in 1918 and created a major famine in the region. The Britishers were not ready to provide any concessions or relief in the taxes. Gandhiji organized a non-cooperation movement and led peaceful protests against the British administration for many months. Ultimately the administration was forced to provide relief in taxes and temporarily suspended the collection of revenue.

  • Non-cooperation Movement

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the harsh British policies lead to the Non-cooperation movement in 1920. It was the non-violence protest against the British rule. Gandhiji believed that the main reason of the Britishers flourishing in India is the support they are getting from Indians. He pleaded to boycott the use of British products and promoted the use of ‘Swadeshi’ products. Indians denied working for the Britishers and withdrew themselves from the British schools, civil services, government jobs etc. People started resigning from the prominent posts which highly affected the British administration. The Non-Cooperation movement shook the foundation of the British rule and all these without a single use of any weapon. The power of non-violence was more evident in the non-cooperation movement.

  • Salt Satyagrah or Salt March

Salt March or the ‘Namak Satyagrah’ was the non-violence movement led by Mahatma Gandhi against the salt monopoly of the Britishers. Britishers imposed a heavy taxation on the salt produce which affected the local salt production. Gandhiji started the 26 days non-violence march to Dandi village, Gujarat protesting against the salt monopoly of the British government. The Dandi march was started on 12 th  March 1930 from Sabarmati Ashram and ended on 06 th  April 1930 at Dandi, breaking the salt laws of the British government and starting the local production of salt. The Salt March was a non violent movement which got the international attention and which helped to concrete the foundation of Independent India.

  • Quit India Movement

After the successful movement of the Salt March, the foundation of British government shook completely. Quit India Movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi on 8 th  August 1942 which demanded the Britishers to quit India. It was the time of World War II when Britain was already in war with Germany and the Quit India Movement acted as a fuel in the fire. There was a mass non-violent civil disobedience launched across the country and Indians also demanded their separation from World War II.  The effect of Quit India Movement was so intense that British government agreed to provide complete independence to India once the war gets over. The Quit India Movement was a final nail in the coffin of the British rule in India.

These movements led by Mahatma Gandhi were completely Non-violent and did not use any weapon. The power of truth and non-violence were the weapons used to fight the British rule. The effect of non-violence was so intense that it gained the immediate attention of the international community towards the Indian independence struggle. It helped to reveal the harsh policies and acts of the British rule to the international audience.

Mahatma Gandhi always believed that weapons are not the only answer for any problem; in fact they created more problems than they solved. It is a tool which spreads hatred, fear and anger. Non-violence is one of the best methods by which we can fight with much powerful enemies, without holding a single weapon. Apart from the independence struggle; there are many incidents of modern times which exhibited the importance of non-violence and how it helped in bringing changes in the society and all that without spilling a single drop of blood. Hope the day is not very far when there will be no violence and every conflict and dispute will be solved through peaceful dialogues without harming anyone and shedding blood and this would be a greatest tribute to Mahatma Gandhi.

Long Essay on Mahatma Gandhi – Essay 8 (1100 Words)

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi aka ‘Mahatma Gandhi’ was one of the great sons of Indian soil who rose to become a great soul and gave major contribution in the great Indian freedom struggle against the British rule in India. He was a man of ideologies and a man with great patience and courage. His non-violence movements involved peaceful protests and non-cooperation with the British rule. These movements had a long term effects on the Britishers and it also helped India to grab the eye balls of global leaders and attracted the attention on the international platforms.

Family and Life of Mahatma Gandhi

  • Birth and Childhood

Mahatma Gandhi was born as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi on 02 nd October, 1869 at Porbandar (which is in the current state of Gujarat). His father Karamchand Gandhi was working as the Chief Minister (diwan) of Porbandar at that time. His mother Putlibai was a very devotional and generous lady. Young Gandhi was a reflection of his mother and inherited high values, ethics and the feeling of sacrifice from her.

  • Marriage and Education

Mohandas was married to Kasturba Makanji at a very young age of 13. In 1888, they were blessed with a baby boy and after which he sailed to London for higher studies. In 1893, he went to South Africa to continue his practice of law where he faced strong racial discrimination by the Britishers. The major incident which completely changed the young Gandhi was when he was forcibly removed from the first class compartment of a train due to his race and color.

  • Civil Rights Movement in Africa

After the discrimination and embracement faced by Gandhi due to his race and color, he vowed to fight and challenge the racial discrimination of immigrants in South Africa. He formed Natal Indian Congress in 1894 and started fighting against racial discrimination. He fought for the civil rights of the immigrants in South Africa and spent around 21 years there.

  • Mahatma Gandhi in the Indian Freedom Struggle

Gandhi returned to India in 1915 and joined Indian National Congress and started to raise voice against the British rule in India and demanded the complete independence or ‘Purn Swaraj’ for India. He started many non-violent movements and protests against Britishers and was also imprisoned various times in his long quest of freedom. His campaigns were completely non-violent without the involvement of any force or weapons. His ideology of ‘ahimsa’ meaning not to injure anyone was highly appreciated and was also followed by many great personalities around the globe.

Why was Gandhi called Mahatma?

‘Mahatma’ is a Sanskrit word which means ‘great soul’. It is said that it was Rabindranth Tagore who first used ‘Mahatma’ for Gandhi. It was because of the great thoughts and ideologies of Gandhi which made people honour him by calling ‘Mahatma Gandhi’. The great feeling of sacrifice, love and help he showed throughout his life was a matter of great respect for each citizen of India.

Mahatma Gandhi showed a lifelong compassion towards the people affected with leprosy. He used to nurse the wounds of people with leprosy and take proper care of them. In the times when people used to ignore and discriminate people with leprosy, the humanitarian compassion of Gandhi towards them made him a person with great feelings and a person with great soul justifying himself as Mahatma.

Mahatma Gandhi’s contribution on various social issues could never be ignored. His campaign against untouchability during his imprisonment in the Yerwada Jail where he went on fast against the age old evil of untouchability in the society had highly helped the upliftment of the community in the modern era. Apart from this, he also advocated the importance of education, cleanliness, health and equality in the society. All these qualities made him a man with great soul and justify his journey from Gandhi to Mahatma.

What are Gandhi’s accomplishments?

Mahatma Gandhi was a man with mission who not only fought for the country’s independence but also gave his valuable contribution in uprooting various evils of the society. The accomplishments of Mahatma Gandhi is summarized below:

  • Fought against Racial Discrimination in South Africa

The racial discrimination in South Africa shocked Mahatma Gandhi and he vowed to fight against it. He challenged the law which denied the voting rights of the people not belonging to the European region. He continued to fight for the civil rights of the immigrants in South Africa and became a prominent face of a civil right activist.

  • Face of the Indian Freedom Struggle

Mahatma Gandhi was the liberal face of independence struggle. He challenged the British rule in India through his peaceful and non-violent protests. The Champaran Satyagrah, Civil Disobedience Movement, Salt March, Quit India Movement etc are just the few non-violent movements led by him which shook the foundation of the Britishers in India and grabbed the attention of the global audience to the Indian freedom struggle.

  • Uprooting the Evils of Society

Gandhi Ji also worked on uprooting various social evils in the society which prevailed at that time. He launched many campaigns to provide equal rights to the untouchables and improve their status in the society. He also worked on the women empowerment, education and opposed child marriage which had a long term effect on the Indian society.

What was Gandhi famous for?

Mahatma Gandhi was one of the great personalities of India. He was a man with simplicity and great ideologies. His non-violent way to fight a much powerful enemy without the use of a weapon or shedding a single drop of blood surprised the whole world. His patience, courage and disciplined life made him popular and attracted people from every corners of the world.

He was the man who majorly contributed in the independence of India from the British rule. He devoted his whole life for the country and its people. He was the face of the Indian leadership on international platform. He was the man with ethics, values and discipline which inspires the young generation around the globe even in the modern era.

Gandhi Ji was also famous for his strict discipline. He always professed the importance of self discipline in life. He believed that it helps to achieve bigger goals and the graces of ahimsa could only be achieved through hard discipline.

These qualities of the great leader made him famous not only in India but also across the world and inspired global personalities like Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther King.

Mahatma Gandhi helped India to fulfill her dream of achieving ‘Purna Swaraj’ or complete independence and gave the country a global recognition. Though he left this world on 30 th  January, 1948, but his ideologies and thoughts still prevail in the minds of his followers and act as a guiding light to lead their lives. He proved that everything is possible in the world if you have a strong will, courage and determination.

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  1. Creation of MAHATMA GANDHI by the British Government

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  3. 20 lines on Mahatma Gandhi in english|Mahatma Gandhi 20 lines in english|Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

  4. Mahatma gandhi non violence Movement BY Shantanu dev

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  6. Mahatma Gandhi: Remembering His Legacy

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  1. 10 Inspiring Quotes by Mahatma Gandhi, Essay on Non-violence in 800

    1. Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony. 2. The weak can never forgive. Forgiveness is an attribute of the strong. 3. A coward is incapable of exhibiting love; it is the prerogative of the brave. 4. Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever. 5.

  2. Mahatma Gandhi: As Apostle Of Truth, Non-violence And Tolerance: Essay

    A sheep cannot behave like a tiger. His democratic unarmed resistance against rule had brought miracle in the history like an anti-biotic to the body of the subcontinent. His strategy and logic was impeccable. He said, "The want us to put the struggle on the plane of machine guns where they have the weapons and we do not.

  3. Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English for Children and Students

    Mahatma Gandhi Essay 1 (100 words) Mahatma Gandhi is famous in India as "Bapu" or "Rastrapita." His full name of him is Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was a great freedom fighter who led India as a leader of nationalism against British rule. He was born on the 2 nd of October in 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat, India.

  4. Gandhi's Philosophy of Nonviolence

    In the midst of hyper violence, Gandhi teaches that the one who possess nonviolence is blessed. Blessed is the man who can perceive the law of ahimsa (nonviolence) in the midst of the raging fire of himsa all around him. We bow in reverence to such a man by his example.

  5. Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

    Essay on Mahatma Gandhi - 200, 400, 600 Words. Born on October 2, 1869, in Porbandar, Gujarat, Mahatma Gandhi was a proponent of non-violence and truth, earning him the title of a truth messenger. Coming from a well-to-do family, he was known by his full name, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Although he was a reserved and diligent student, he ...

  6. On Gandhi and Nonviolence as a Spiritual Virtue ‹ Literary Hub

    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi described "ahimsa," nonviolence or more accurately love, as the "supreme duty.". This essay seeks to understand the necessity of nonviolence in Gandhi's life and thought. Toward the end of his life, Gandhi was asked by a friend to resume writing his autobiography and write a "treatise on the science of ...

  7. Unravelling the Myth of Gandhian Non-violence: Why Did Gandhi Connect

    Gandhi's initial uses of the terms of ahiṃsā and "non-violence". This section shows when, where, and how the words ahiṃsā and "non-violence" appeared in Gandhi's writings in the three languages; that is to say, Gujarati, Hindi, and English. According to GA, SGV, and CWMG, except ten references in Hind Svarāj written in 1909, the word ahiṃsā (or its adjective form ahiṃsak ...

  8. Gandhi and Non-violence

    Abstract. This chapter talks of Mahatma Gandhi's principle of non-violence. It explains that though Gandhi was the greatest exponent of the doctrine of ahimsa or non-violence in modern times, he was not its author because ahimsa has been part of the Indian religious tradition for centuries. However, he was able to transform what had been an individual ethic into a tool of social and ...

  9. Mahatma Gandhi

    Mahatma Gandhi - Nonviolence, Resistance, India: Gandhi was not the man to nurse a grudge. On the outbreak of the South African (Boer) War in 1899, he argued that the Indians, who claimed the full rights of citizenship in the British crown colony of Natal, were in duty bound to defend it. He raised an ambulance corps of 1,100 volunteers, out of whom 300 were free Indians and the rest ...

  10. MAHATMA GANDHI'S PHILOSOPHY ON NON-VIOLENCE

    The present paper discusses the philosophy of 'nonviolence' (ahimsa) of Mahatma Gandhi, which he devised as a weapon to fight the brute forces of violence and hatred, hailing it as the only way to peace. Gandhi based his philosophy of nonviolence on the principle of love for all and hatred for none.

  11. Mahatma Gandhi Essay for Students in English

    Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, often called the 'Father of the Nation', was a leader who fought for India's freedom from British rule.He believed in non-violence. Every year on October 2nd, Mahatma Gandhi's birthday is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti to honor his efforts in freeing India.. English Essay on Mahatma Gandhi. Rabindranath Tagore was the first to call Gandhiji 'Mahatma,' which means ...

  12. Essay on Mahatma Gandhi

    Mahatma Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence is probably his most important contribution. This philosophy of non-violence is known as Ahimsa. Most noteworthy, Gandhiji's aim was to seek independence without violence. He decided to quit the Non-cooperation movement after the Chauri-Chaura incident.

  13. Mahatma Gandhi Freedom of Speech: the Non-Violent Way to Fight

    Get 3-Essay Package After different accusations and charges that he had faced in his life, it did not change his ideology; to act in a non-violent way. He embedded in his mind that you cannot achieve peace if we will let ourselves associate into something violently.

  14. Mahatma Gandhi Nonviolence Essay

    Mahatma Gandhi Nonviolence Essay. 610 Words3 Pages. Mohandas Gandhi is one of the greatest nonviolent activists ever. Gandhi came up with the word ahimsa, which meant nonviolence. He also introduced to the world the word satyagraha, which meant peaceful civil disobedience. In 1930 Gandhi and a group of followers began a march of more than 200 ...

  15. Essay On Mahatma Gandhi: Biography Of Mahatma Gandhi

    Essay On Mahatma Gandhi. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi is also known as Mahatma Gandhi is considered to be the father of this country. In the fight for independence against British rule, he was the leader of the nationalist movement. He was an Indian lawyer, political ethicist, anti-colonial nationalist, writer, and a kind-hearted person.

  16. Essay on Mahatma Gandhi 1000+ Words

    In this essay, we will explore the profound impact of Mahatma Gandhi's life and principles, emphasizing his role in India's struggle for independence, his advocacy for nonviolence, and his enduring legacy. India's Struggle for Independence

  17. Mahatma Gandhi: What One Should Know

    We will write a custom essay on your topic. The author presents Gandhi's stand on issues like spirituality, suffering, poverty, politics, non-violence, and civic disobedience among others. Gandhi's biographer, Luis Fischer, did this by collecting pierces of Gandhi's work with some explanatory head notes on each of these works.

  18. Essay on Role of Mahatma Gandhi in Freedom Struggle

    Non-Violent Approach Gandhi's primary weapon in the struggle was non-violence or 'Ahimsa.' His philosophy was grounded in the belief that moral superiority could not be achieved through violent means. This approach resonated with the masses and enabled widespread participation, thereby intensifying the struggle against the British Raj.

  19. Mahatma Gandhi Essay

    Essay on Non-violence of Mahatma Gandhi - Essay 7 (800 Words) Introduction. Non-violence or 'ahimsa' is a practice of not hurting anyone intentionally or unintentionally. It is the practice professed by great saints like Gautam Buddha and Mahaveer. Mahatma Gandhi was one of the pioneer personalities to practice non-violence.

  20. Essay on Mahatma Gandhi for Students in English [500+ Words]

    Mahatma Gandhi was a man of power, honesty, sacrifices, and simplicity. He was a patriotic personality. His life was unbelievable. He never liked others' appreciation. His efforts to protect India are unparalleled. Only with his efforts, the British left India in 1947. Mohandas Gandhi is another name of Mahatma Gandhi.

  21. Essay on Mahatma Gandhi [100, 150, 200, 300, 500 Words]

    Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English: In this article, you are going to read short and long essays on Mahatma Gandhi in English (100, 150, 200-250, 300, and 500 words). This article will be also helpful for you If you are looking for a speech on Mahatma Gandhi or Paragraph on Mahatma Gandhi in English.

  22. 500+ Words Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English

    Here are 10 popular quotes by Mahatma Gandhi. 1. 'Be the change that you wish to see in the world.'. 2. 'The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.'. 3. 'You must be the change you want to see in the world.'. 4. 'An eye for an eye only ends up making the whole world blind.'.

  23. Long and Short Essay on Mahatma Gandhi in English for Children and Students

    Essay on Non-violence of Mahatma Gandhi - Essay 7 (800 Words) Introduction. Non-violence or 'ahimsa' is a practice of not hurting anyone intentionally or unintentionally. It is the practice professed by great saints like Gautam Buddha and Mahaveer. Mahatma Gandhi was one of the pioneer personalities to practice non-violence.